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A. In General
1. Definition
a. Auto Contracts

2. Elements of Contracts
a. Essential
b. Natural
c. Accidental

B. Fundamental Characteristics / Principles of Contracts

1. Consensuality of Contracts
a. Contract of Adhesion

2. Autonomy of Contracts
3. Mutulality of Contracts
a. Acceleration Clause
b. Escalation Clause
4. Obligatory Force of Contracts
5. Relativity of Contracts
a. Privity of Contracts

SPECIAL CONTRACTS: Accessory Contracts

A. Guaranty and Suretyship

1. Definition
2. Nature / Characteristics / Extent
3. Effects of Guaranty
a. Between the Guarantor and the Creditor
b. Between the Guarantor and the Debtor
c. Between Co-Guarantors
4. Modes of Extinguishment
B. Pledge, Mortgage, and Antichresis
1. In General
2. Essential Elements
3. Effects/ Rights & Obligations
4. Extinguishment / Foreclosures

SPECIAL CONTRACTS: Preparatory Contracts ( Business Associations and Relations)

1. In General
2. Kinds, Creation & Existence
3. Obligations of the Agent / Principal
4. Modes of Extinguishment of Agency
1. In General
2. Classes of Partnerships and Partners
3. Creation and Duration
4. Obligations of Partners to one Another
5. Property Rights of a Partner
6. Relations & Dealings with Third Persons
7. Dissolution, Winding Up and Termination
8. Limited Partnership
1. In General
2. Kinds of Trusts
a. Express
b. Implied

C. Classification of Contracts
1. According to Degree of Dependence
a. Preparatory
b. Principal
c. Accessory
2. According to Perfection
a. Consensual
b. Real
c. Formal
3. According to Solemnity or Form
a. Any Form
b. Special Form
4. According to Purpose
a. Transfer of Ownership
b. Conveyance of Use
c. Rendition of Service
5. According to Nature of Obligation Produces
a. Bilateral
b. Unilateral
6. According to Cause
a. Onerous
b. Gratuitous or Lucrative
c. Remuneratory
7. According to Risk
a. Commutative
b. Aleatory
8. According to Name
a. Nominate
b. Innominate
9. According to Subject Matter
a. Thing
b. Right
c. Service
D. Stages of Contracts
1. Negotiation
a. Contract of Option
2. Perfection
3. Performance
4. Consummation
E. Essential Elements of Contracts
1. Consent of the Contracting Parties
a. Cognition Theory
b. Manifestation Theory
2. Object Certain which is the Subject Matter of the Contract
3. Cause of the Obligation
4. Delivery
5. Due Observance of Prescribed Formalities
F. Form of Contracts
1. Any Form
a. Oral
2. Special Form
a. Validity
b. Enforceability
c. Greater Efficacy or Convenience
G. Reformation of Contracts
H. Interpretation of Contracts
I. Kinds of Contracts as to Validity
1. Valid and Binding
2. Valid But Defective
a. Rescissible Contracts
b. Voidable Contracts
c. Unenforeable Contracts
3. Void or Inexistent
F. Sales
1. In General
2. Elements
3. Obligations of Seller / Buyer
4. Remedies
5. Extinguishment of Sale
G. Barter or Exchange
H. Lease
1. In General
2. Elements
3. Obligations of Lessor / Lessee
I. Loan
1. In General
2. Kinds of Loan
a. Commodatum
b. Mutuum
3. Nature/ Characteristics
4. Subject Matter
5. Rights & Obligations of Bailor & Bailee
6. Modes of Extinguishment
J. Deposit
1. In General
2. Kinds of Deposit
a. Judicial
b. Extra-Judicial
i. Voluntary
ii. Necessary
3. Nature / Characteristics
4. Subject Matter
5. Rights & Obligations of Depositor and Depositary
6. Modes of Extinguishment
K. Aleatory Contracts


A. In General
1. Definition
2. Kinds of Obligations as to bases & enforceability
3. Prescription of Actions
4. Elements of Obligations
B. Sources of Civil Obligations
1. Law
2. Contracts
3. Quasi-Contracts
a. Negotiorum Gestio
b. Solutio Indebiti
c. Other Quasi-Contract
4. Acts of omissions punished by law
5. Quasi-Delicts
C. Compliance with Obligations
D. Kinds of Civil Obligations
1. As to perfection & Extinguishment
a. Pure
b. Conditional
c. With a Term or Period
2. As to Plurality of Prestation
a. Conjunctive
b. Alternative
c. Facultative
3. As to Rights & Obligations of Multiple Parties
a. Joint
b. Solidary
c. Disjunctive
4. As to Performance of Prestation
a. Divisible
b. Indivisible
c. Joint Indivisible
d. Solidary Indivisible
5. As to the presence of an accessory undertaking in case of breach
a. With a Penal Clause
b. Distinguish from Liquidated Damages
E. Beach of Obligations
1. Manner of Breach
a. Fraud
b. Negligence
c. Delay
d. Any other manner of Contravention
2. Excuses for Non-performance
a. Fortuitous Event
b. Act of Credito
F. Remedies for Breach of Obligations
1. Extra-Judicial Remedies
a. Expressly granted by Law
b. Stipulated
2. Judicial Remedies
a. Principal remedies
b. Subsidiary Remedies
c. Ancillary Remedies
G. Modes of Extinguishment of Obligations
Other Modes:
1. Payment or Performance
a. Special Forms of Payment
1. Dation in Payment
2. Application of Payments
3. Payment by Cession or Assignment
4. Tender of Payment and Consignation
2. Loss of the Thing Due or Impossibility of Performance
3. Condonation or Remission of the Debt
4. Confusion or Merger of Rights
5. Compensation
a. Legal
b. Conventional
c. Facultative
d. Judicial
6. Novation
a. As to its Nature
1. Subjective or Personal
2. Objective or Real
b. As to its Form
1. Express
2. Implied

A. Law
B. Quasi-Contracts
C. Delicts
D. Quasi-Delicts


A. In General
B. Kinds of Damages
1. Actual or Compensatory
2. Mora;
3. Nominal
4. Temperate or Moderate
5. Liquidated
6. Exemplary or Corrective