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DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

A Project Proposal

Presented to

Engr. Joshua Rodriguez

Instructor

Civil Engineering Department

FEU Institute of Technology

ANALYSIS OF TRAFFIC CONGESTION DETERRENTS AT RECTO AVENUE TO LEGARDA


STREET:
Arguments of Efficiency and Road Safety

In partial fulfilment for the course

Transportation Engineering

1st term 2018-2019

Cruz, Christian
Dela Cruz, Christian
Fabi, Kloyd
Magundayao, Jannah Clarisse
2018
TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT ii

CHAPTER I 1
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1
ACTUAL AND GOOGLE FOOTAGES OF THE INTERSECTION 2
RELATED STUDIES/ARTICLES FROM RECENT AND PREVIOUS YEARS
RELEVANT TO CURRENT STUDY 3
Driver Behaviours 3
Road/Environment 5
Vehicle Technology 6
CHAPTER II 7
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 7
CHAPTER III 9
PROPOSED SOLUTIONS 9
Data Gathered 9
Effective green time computations 10
Critical Lane Group Computation 11
Computation for new Cycle time 11
Computation for new green time 12
New effective traffic time signals 12
CHAPTER IV 13
METHODOLOGY 13
CHAPTER V 14
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 14
CHAPTER VI 15
RECOMMENDATIONS 15

REFERENCES 16
ABOUT THE AUTHORS 16
ACKNOWLEDGMENT 16

i
ABSTRACT: Transportation system is one of the factors that greatly contribute in the economic growth of
every country. Transportation system must vary alongside with economy, hand in hand, to sustain the
constant growth progress. Therefore, the need for development and improvement must rigorously be done
overtime. This study focuses on analysing the traffic congestion deterrents at Recto Avenue to Legarda
Street in Manila including propose solutions on various complications notice by the surveyor and or
researchers. The main purpose of this study is to give solutions to the advancement of the performance of
road intersection with accordance to improvements of contributing traffic control system like traffic
signals, roads, pedestrian and such. The researcher’s goal is to synchronize and collaborate the factors of
the road system which includes the driver, the road/environment and vehicle together with suggested
improvements of traffic control system that currently taking effect in the said area.

Keywords: Traffic Signal, Queuing, Pedestrian, Timing, Traffic Control System

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ANALYSIS OF TRAFFIC CONGESTION DETERRENTS AT RECTO AVENUE TO LEGARDA STREET:
ARGUMENTS OF EFFICIENCY AND ROAD SAFETY

CHAPTER I: BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

A. The study made by the researcher limited to roads of Recto Avenue and Legarda Street
intersection will utilize the concepts of highway engineering that includes handling of planning
and operations of highways, roads and other facilities related to traffic control systems and such.
The study will also utilize the notion of analysing traffic volumes and capacity, safety and
maximizing the uses of the system that includes road/environment, vehicles, and drivers.

The researchers also consider the use of concepts of transportation management that deals with
the challenges in transportation system in analysing the main source of the problem specifically in
behavior, for drivers, technological and safety for vehicles and road/environment, respectively.

Source: Google Map

The focus of the study mainly occurs in the intersection and is limited to roads arriving before
the said intersection from Recto Avenue and Legarda Street, Legarda to C1 Road.

The intersection traffic control system is being governed by traffic signals, overpass, in-road
pedestrians, and traffic enforcers. There are also road signs mainly warning and direction signs.
The intersection is being utilized by PUV’s such as jeeps, taxis, buses and private vehicles from
large to small scales. But per actual observation, most of the vehicles occupying the use of the
intersection are mainly PUV’s and small scale private vehicles for the reason it is around different
universities and business establishments.

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ANALYSIS OF TRAFFIC CONGESTION DETERRENTS AT RECTO AVENUE TO LEGARDA STREET:
ARGUMENTS OF EFFICIENCY AND ROAD SAFETY

ACTUAL AND GOOGLE FOOTAGES OF THE INTERSECTION

Actual Photo #1

Actual Photo #2

Photo from G-map #1:

Actual Photo #3

Photo from G-map #2

Actual Photo #1: The picture shows the place where vehicles came from before it reaches the
intersection. This is the limit of the group study, it is recommended by the researchers for other
group to study the system latter to present study. Behaviour of pedestrian and other users of the
road can be observed on the area. Non-motor cycles run in pedestrian lane and pedestrian also
affects the flow movement of vehicles approaching the intersection.

Actual Photo #2: Intersection part wherein great queue of vehicle happens. Vehicles from actual
photo 1 and photo 2 are connected. The main road is comprise of internal roads that make it more
congested and move slower than any other lane.

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ANALYSIS OF TRAFFIC CONGESTION DETERRENTS AT RECTO AVENUE TO LEGARDA STREET:
ARGUMENTS OF EFFICIENCY AND ROAD SAFETY

Actual Photo #3: Photo only shows the intersection. The intersection is well design to
accommodate large amount of vehicles including large scales vehicles. Therefore, intersection
design is not contributing to the factor of queuing vehicles in different lanes.

Photo from G-map #1: C-1 road/ Recto Avenue, from actual observation, some PUV’s passing
the lane loads and unloads on prohibited area that greatly contributes to the flow of movement of
vehicles. It affects the whole system as it blocks the way and decelerates the following cars that
will also pass the road. It also decreases the capacity of the road as it stops the cars that may
arrive or can pass within the time limit. Non-working traffic lights were also observed in between
photo from G-map #1 and #2.

Photo from G-map #2: Photo from Google map is not far from actual observation, queuing has
also been observed. Queuing in the part of this road is considerable because of the red time that
holds the said lane. Severe queuing in this area also occurs during rush hours.

These are the areas of consideration taken by the researchers to study and given suggested
solutions for advancement, development and improvement of traffic flows within the area.
Problems that has been observed and identified would be clearly discussed on the latter part of the
study.

The researchers also utilized the concept of signalized intersection analysis which deals with the
computation of effective signal timing and cycle length adjustments for existing traffic signals.

B. RELATED STUDIES/ARTICLES FROM RECENT AND PREVIOUS YEARS


RELEVANT TO CURRENT STUDY.

Previous studies about the following are taken into consideration by the researchers:

1. Driver Behaviours
2. Road/ Environment
3. Vehicle Technology

Driver Behaviours

In 2012, CNN’s travel website named the Philippines as one of the world’s third worst city for
driving. CNN cited bad habits that have been observed on drivers’ behaviour.

These are listed as follows:

 Using horns too often. Filipino’s blow the cars horn not for emergency purposes but
simply when get irritated. It doesn’t clear the traffic congestion or nearly affect the
car movement but decreases the comfort of other drivers.

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ANALYSIS OF TRAFFIC CONGESTION DETERRENTS AT RECTO AVENUE TO LEGARDA STREET:
ARGUMENTS OF EFFICIENCY AND ROAD SAFETY

 Texting while driving. Doing something


while driving puts the driver himself and
the passengers in danger. Drivers must
focus on the road while on the wheels.

 Beating the red light. This is one of the


reasons for collision, Filipino’s usually
in Manila use to beat the red light when
there is no enforcer around.

 Changing lanes too often.


Some drivers simply can’t make up their
minds about what lane to take while
others simply want to take advantage of
any lane that appears to be moving faster. Photo Source: UNTV News and Rescue

 Tailgating. Filipino’s mostly never wanted to give way others.

 Not using seatbelts. Safety of drivers is at risk. Traffic or rather running at a low
speed is not a reason not to fasten the seatbelt.

 Using of hazard lights to park anywhere. Drivers in Philippines usually do this just
to justify parking on non-parking areas.

 Unloading passengers anywhere. Another one of the cultural habits that has to go is
the “para” mentality, where drivers simply drop off their passengers anywhere they
like.

 Bribing a traffic enforcer. This type of undisciplined behavior only thrives because
some drivers find it to be the easiest way to get out of trouble.

 Blocking an intersection. At a crossing, drivers still go even if they already know that
they won’t make it through. This kind of behavior only worsens traffic conditions.

 Unnecessarily putting the headlights on high beams. Doing this blinds’ both drivers
in front of you and the ones on the opposite lane. It only takes one glaring light to
actually cause an accident.

From this article, there are so many factors already on drivers. Although not all drivers are
undisciplined, most of the drivers are. These bad habits of drivers must be change to lessen
accidents and also to improve the synchronization of three factors of the transportation system.

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ANALYSIS OF TRAFFIC CONGESTION DETERRENTS AT RECTO AVENUE TO LEGARDA STREET:
ARGUMENTS OF EFFICIENCY AND ROAD SAFETY

Another, case study was conducted about how drivers react when there are traffic lights with
timer and when there is none. During the said study, it has been observed that drivers act
differently when there is timer. During red light, there is not much difference but they act before
the red light traffic ends. The initial reaction of the driver is much faster unlike in no timer traffic
lights; drivers tend to look around at the environment rather than focusing on the signal light.
Therefore, it somehow affects or decrease the lost time. Unfortunately, before the yellow time
ends, the driver tends to accelerates to make it through the other line that raises the concern about
the safety of the users and the road environment. On the green light, drivers rush and abruptly
accelerate just to cross the intersection. Although flaws on drivers have been observed, the
implication of the said study about how drivers react when the signal has a timer is that, it brings
comfort to the driver as they know when to accelerate, slow down and stop. On the other hand, no
timer signal lights gives somehow confusions on the part of the driver because of the unclear
notion whether to cross or not on yellow time or even accelerates at green time. Though on the
positive side, no timer signal lights give drivers cautions to move carefully than in traffic lights
with timer.

Road/Environment

Researchers also take road


improvements and pedestrians into
consideration because it affects the
movement and sometimes congest the
traffic roadways. One of the study and
project of the government is road
widening. The project began to take
place in early 2013.
Photo Source: Top gear
This project has been opposed and has been petition by many to stop because this project by
some means destroy or ruin the preservation of the environment such as tress and other animal
habitats. In cities, many people are also affected especially private properties. Concerned
environmental and historical groups in Bataan, Ilocos, Cebu, Pampanga, have all been very vocal
in their opposition to the road-widening plans. Solutions have been offered, which mostly include
not flattening everything in sight.

Danger in road widening also gives great negative impact on climate change. Recently, typhoons
and other calamities give so much destruction on environment because the eco-system today is
not balanced. Landslide also occurs more often today rather than the previous years. Road
widening for the purpose of economic growth development is not bad but when done without the
knowing and considering negative effects is dangerous.

Road widening may or may not solve traffic congestion. It can be of benefit when manage well
and well done accordingly for some time but the effects that it will give to the environment will
not be visible until something really bad happens. Therefore, road widening is the least on the
factors that will consider by the researchers.

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ANALYSIS OF TRAFFIC CONGESTION DETERRENTS AT RECTO AVENUE TO LEGARDA STREET:
ARGUMENTS OF EFFICIENCY AND ROAD SAFETY

About pedestrians, there are also studies about the road safety issue concerning the protection and
safety of the pedestrians. The article indicates that pedestrian and drivers are in dilemma whether
who to blame when collision happens or accident occurs. There are many reasons listed by the
author on which both side perspectives are being considered. Drivers complain about how
pedestrian acts when crossing the street on how relaxed the pedestrians are and like there were no
vehicles running on the road that can hit or injure them. Also, drivers also emphasizes those
pedestrians who cross the street that is prohibited, jay-walking, running on road shoulders and
crossing the street under the influence of alcohol. On the other hand, pedestrians complains about
reckless drivers who acts like the king of the road, speeding over pedestrian and school zone
areas, and ignoring pedestrians as well. But the main and critical point of the study was how
pedestrian people ignore the flyover/overpass that was made to avoid accidents and interferences
on the traffic management system. Pedestrians are peevish that flyovers are dirty and requires too
much work to cross but the main point is, the pedestrian lanes must be use often and for safety
purposes to avoid unnecessary bad happenings.

Vehicle Technology

The Land Transportation Franchising and


Regulatory Board (LTFRB) – Total Phase-out
Project of PUV’s that planned originally to
finish on March 2019 has been postponed.

This project aims to change those PUV’s with


more than 15 years old to facilitate the
transportation system well and also to give
comfort to passengers. But this project has a lot
to consider especially on how will the drivers
pay the newly modelled PUV’s and how will the
government support them in payment process.
The government lacks on financial support and
sustaining plans in order to accomplish the said
project. Photo Source: Rappler

Photo Source: Rappler

Photo Source: Rappler

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ANALYSIS OF TRAFFIC CONGESTION DETERRENTS AT RECTO AVENUE TO LEGARDA STREET:
ARGUMENTS OF EFFICIENCY AND ROAD SAFETY

In addition to vehicle technology studies, the bill about no garage, no car policy suggested by
Senator Gatchalian is being undertaken or in the process of hearing in the senate. Senate bill no.
201 which is also known as the “Proof of Parking Space Act” will help the problem about traffic
congestions. The purpose of the said bill was to clear the street side obstructions on main and
minor roads that has been made parking lot by those car owners that do not have enough parking
space in their specific areas.

The bill aims to emphasize responsibility of which the car owner must possess. Individuals and
business firms will only be allowed to purchase a car after submission of affidavit confirming
they have a lease of parking space for the car. The Land Transportation Office is also asked to do
a frequent inspection on major and minor roads for implementation of the said bill for strict
compliance and also to penalize those who refuse to comply with the law.

The researchers strongly agree on the proposal of the said bill because it can decrease the number
of vehicles that runs around the city and also, it clears the obstructions made by the cars parked
on major and minor roads making it accessible for those who are in a hurry. It can save a lot of
resources especially time.

CHAPTER II: STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

A. From the actual observation of researchers, it has been found out that severe traffic queuing
occurs during rush hour specifically in Recto Avenue road to Mendiola Street, Legarda Street to
the other side and also from Legarda going C-1. Most common user of these roads is private
vehicles and PUV’s such as jeeps, buses, tricycles, etc. Defective traffic lights have also been
observed. The most noticeable problems are driver and pedestrian misconduct. Pedestrians
crossing the street on a green light, vehicles stopping on top of pedestrian lanes, motorcycles
forcing themselves in front of the lanes, cars parked on the side of a busy street, and public utility
vehicles loading and unloading passengers in the middle of the road. On the other hand,
additional queued vehicles in Legarda Street are also caused by internal roads (local roads) within
the area.

Source: Google Earth

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ANALYSIS OF TRAFFIC CONGESTION DETERRENTS AT RECTO AVENUE TO LEGARDA STREET:
ARGUMENTS OF EFFICIENCY AND ROAD SAFETY

• Recto Avenue

Recto Avenue – congestions has been observed during rush hour


Source: Google Map

• Legarda Street

Legarda Street – where severe queuing occurs


Source: Google Map

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ANALYSIS OF TRAFFIC CONGESTION DETERRENTS AT RECTO AVENUE TO LEGARDA STREET:
ARGUMENTS OF EFFICIENCY AND ROAD SAFETY

 Legarda Street (Before Intersection)

Legarda Street (Before Intersection) – This is where large volume of vehicle,


private and PUV’s, come from and queued in the block of the intersection.
Source: Google Map

B. The main causes that affect the traffic flow that has been observed are misplaced pedestrian
lanes, PUV’s, foot-travellers, time reaction and inattentiveness of the drivers. Improper
placement of pedestrian lanes causes the deceleration of on-going vehicles which interrupts
the traffic flows and ruined the circulation plot of the system. Time reaction and
inattentiveness of the drivers and pedestrians can also contributes great impacts on movement
of traffic scheme; a second late response can add queues after the red light approach.

CHAPTER III: PROPOSED SOLUTION

A. The researchers firstly take the time of the traffic signals in consideration since it is one of the
major contributing factors that affect the movement specifically the queuing in each lane. The
concept of signalized intersection analysis of transportation management has been applied.
The following computations are as follows to determine if there is a need for adjustments for
the total cycle time:

Data Gathered: G: 37.15 s


(μ): 320 veh/hr G: 98.43 s WB
(λ): 132 veh/hr Y: 3 s
Y: 3 s NB SB
R: 79.32 s
R: 142.54 s
EB
50
(μ): 1632 veh/hr
(λ): 1392 veh/hr

96 128
(μ): 996 veh/hr
(λ): 736 veh/hr
498

96
G: 76.46 s
R: 100.775 s
448
979

498
653

817. 448
G: 98.34 s
(μ): 1168 veh/hr Y: 3 s
Pedestrian Signal
(λ): 1112 veh/hr R: 178.28 s

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ANALYSIS OF TRAFFIC CONGESTION DETERRENTS AT RECTO AVENUE TO LEGARDA STREET:
ARGUMENTS OF EFFICIENCY AND ROAD SAFETY

From data gathered, the researchers tried to find out if the time from the start of effective green
time until queue clearance in seconds is greater than effective green time in seconds (tc > g).

Sample Computation:

λ: Arrival
μ: Departure

λ rate = 736 v/h x 1h / 3600s


(1)
= 0.204 veh/s

μ rate = 996 v/h x 1h / 3600s


(2)
= 0.277 veh/s

tc = (0.204)(79.32)/(0.277-0.204)
= 221.6613 > g (3)

North Bound

λ – 736 veh/hr λ rate – 0.204 veh/s (arrival)


μ – 996 veh/hr μ rate – 0.277 veh/s (departure)

Conclusion: 221.6693 > g

South bound

λ – 1632 veh/hr λ rate – 0.387 veh/s (arrival)


μ – 1392 veh/hr μ rate – 0.453 veh/s (departure)

Conclusion: 590.879 s > g

East bound

λ – 132 veh/hr λ rate – 0.037 veh/s (arrival)


μ – 320 veh/hr μ rate – 0.089 veh/s (departure)

Conclusion: 101.423s > g

West Bound

λ – 1112 veh/hr λ rate – 0.309 veh/s (arrival)


μ – 1168 veh/hr μ rate – 0.324 veh/s (departure)

Conclusion: 3431.89s > g

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ANALYSIS OF TRAFFIC CONGESTION DETERRENTS AT RECTO AVENUE TO LEGARDA STREET:
ARGUMENTS OF EFFICIENCY AND ROAD SAFETY

After the researchers determine that tc > g, therefore, the sum of the critical lane group (Yc) must
also be computed. The computations are as follows:

Computation per phase:

NB L: 448 veh/hr
Phase 1: 448 / 996 = 0.450 (4)

NB T / R: 548 veh/hr
548 / 996 = 0.550
Phase 2: (5)
SB T / R: 1632 veh/hr
1632 / 1632 = 1

WB L/T/R: 329 veh/hr


Phase 3: 1168 / 1168 = 1 (6)

L/T/R: 320 veh/hr


Phase 4: 320 / 320 = 1 (7)

Yc = 1+1+1+0.45+0.7
Sum of Critical Lanes: (8)
Yc = 3.450

After computing for Yc, researchers adjusted the cycle length by 10 seconds. Computations are as
follows:

Cnew – New cycle length


Cold – Old cycle length
Xi – V/C ratio for the lane group

Cnew = Cold + 10 s
= 217.823 + 10 (9)
Cnew = 227.823 s

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ANALYSIS OF TRAFFIC CONGESTION DETERRENTS AT RECTO AVENUE TO LEGARDA STREET:
ARGUMENTS OF EFFICIENCY AND ROAD SAFETY

When Yc = 3.450
Solving for Xi: 227.823 = 12(Xi) / Xi – 3450 (10)
Xi = 3.642

After computing for V/C ratio for the lane group (Xi), the computations of the
allocation of the green time are as follows:

C = (L)(Xi) /Xi – Yc
C – Cycle length new
L – Total lost time

G1 = 9450 (227.823 / 3642)


New “g” time for Phase 1: (11)
=28.149 or 28 s

G2 = T(227.823 / 3642)
New “g” time for Phase 2: (12)
=62.554 or 62.5 s

G3 = T(227.823 / 3642)
New “g” time for Phase 3: (13)
=62.554 or 62.5 s

G4 = T(277.823 / 3642)
New “g” time for Phase 4: (14)
=62.554 or 62.5 s

Effective “g” (Summation of g per phase 215.5 s + Lost time (12 s)


=227.5 s (15)
+Lost time):

Last step did by the researchers was to adjust the red time from the computed effective green
time, new cycle length, and constant yellow time. The table is shown below:

New Effective Traffic Signal


Phase Cycle Length Green Time Yellow Time Red Time Lost Time
1 227.5 28 3 184.5 12
2 227.5 62.5 3 150 12
3 227.5 62.5 3 150 12
4 227.5 62.5 3 150 12

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ANALYSIS OF TRAFFIC CONGESTION DETERRENTS AT RECTO AVENUE TO LEGARDA STREET:
ARGUMENTS OF EFFICIENCY AND ROAD SAFETY

The proposed solution by the researchers


was to adjust the signal timing since it has
been out-dated over the past years. As the
research goes along it has been also
concluded that even the traffic signal time or
the cycle length changes overtime. The main
cause of the problem was the congestion and
saturation of the road/environment with large
amount of vehicles that comprises of small
to big scales. The growing population also
affects the transportation as they count as or
added to congestions of pedestrians. Along
with the adjustments of timing for signals, it
must also be ensure that all traffic lights are
working, enforces strictly implements traffic
rules and also drivers must also comply
properly with the law to avoid conflicts,
accidents and to save time.
Photo from: freeenglishlesson.com
To even more secure the improvement of the said intersection, it is highly recommended by the
researchers to move the pedestrian along Legarda Street, road before it reaches C-1. The
pedestrian along with internal roads that connects directly in the main road prominently affects
the movement and queuing of vehicles from the said area.

CHAPTER IV: METHODOLOGY

A. After having proposed solution from proven


computations for the need of adjustments of
traffic signals timing and overall cycle length,
the following steps listed below are the process
to consider to eliminate or to lessen traffic
congestions and queuing on the said area:

1. Fixing all non-working traffic lights.


Fixing or replacing non-working traffics Photo from: Wordpress

lights plays a great part. For it orients the road users whether to pass, slow down or stop.
It also helps the movement synchronization within the transportation system factors.

2. Resetting the traffic lights. Resetting the traffic lights must be done through weekends or
when the use of the said intersection is at minimum to avoid nuisance and inconvenience
on great part of travellers, pedestrians and other road users. It must be done by
professionals to avoid conflicts and for faster work.

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ANALYSIS OF TRAFFIC CONGESTION DETERRENTS AT RECTO AVENUE TO LEGARDA STREET:
ARGUMENTS OF EFFICIENCY AND ROAD SAFETY

3. Moving ineffective pedestrian lanes. Pedestrian lanes and crossings are badly needed on
the said area because it is a busy road, therefore just closing the pedestrian in Legarda
Street would not be a solution but rather moving the pedestrian through a proper place is
highly recommended.

4. Strict enforcers must be assigned. Strict enforcers with back-ups are highly
recommended. These enforcers will strictly implement traffic rules and regulations and
penalized those drivers who refuse to comply. Not only drivers of PUV’s and private
vehicles but also those who uses the intersection inappropriately like non-motor cycles
who are not permitted to pass or access the main roads.

5. Observation. It is highly recommended by the scholars to measure the effectiveness of


the newly implemented cycle length for it to have some adjustments if the said change
doesn’t affect the movement or make the current problem worst.

6. Proper Maintenance. Proper maintenance must also be done regularly on traffic


management system. Like simple cleaning and checking on traffic lights and signals, road
clean ups and maintenance, and car or vehicle maintenance to avoid accidents and for
other safety purposes.

7. Contingency Plans. If however something happens in the system, contingency plans must
be prepared to avoid public complaints and disturbances on both sides.

CHAPTER V: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

A. The proposal made by the researchers


would significantly affect the life of the
students, business man and other road uses
as it aims to provide synchronization on the
three major factors that contributes to the
traffic movement of the said area. The goal
of the study was to maximize the use of all
resources given that includes time, money
and energy as well as the economic growth.

If everything would fall into plan, high level


of queuing happening in the intersection
would be lessen, it would also give comfort
somehow on the part of the drivers, time on
travels can be minimized, and safety would
Photo from: Accepted Blog
be present.

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ANALYSIS OF TRAFFIC CONGESTION DETERRENTS AT RECTO AVENUE TO LEGARDA STREET:
ARGUMENTS OF EFFICIENCY AND ROAD SAFETY

The researchers also wants to give emphasize the bills and the projects done by the government to
help the transportation system here in the Philippines more reliable and functional. The bill aims
to eliminate those obstruction on road shoulders that is preventing the road users maximize the
used. The bill also wants the people to be responsible on the decisions they made especially when
they are affecting others. The bill will also give way the travellers to have route options if the
inner or internal roads are free from blockage and other preventive stuffs that hinder the vehicles
from passing.

The road widening project is the least to consider for it affects the nature today destructively. The
effects of the project has not been given any considerations beforehand that’s why the effect of
calamities are all over and many lives has been put into danger.

On the other hand, we can see that the government also want to help the community through
vehicle technology and advancement. The government wants to change the vehicles although
they are unsuccessful in sustaining the main plan. But the objective is clearly visible and that is to
ensure the safety of every passengers and commuters that are great in numbers and mostly
occupying the roads.

Traffic queuing happening in the Philippines are getting worst therefore, the need for action on
the part of the government, road/environment, drivers, pedestrians and who mainly uses the
service of traffic system must be responsible enough to slow the effects or at least lessen a little
the conflicts on traffic system.

CHAPTER VI: RECOMMENDATIONS

A. The researchers recommend to those who will conduct the same study to tackle the vicinities on
the latter part of the intersection wherein the scope of this study has not been able cover. This is
for the reason of broadening the knowledge, conclusions, and other solutions to existing problem
that may solve or somehow improve the existing traffic management system within the area. To
help people understand, and make them move to play their part and make them responsible for
their act that affects the flow and movement of the traffic system. And if somehow the current
researches omitted necessary information that is crucial on decision making and planning for
implementation of solutions to existing difficulties present in the said area.

B. Current study can be improved by significant study that will be conducted in the near future
within the range of vicinity that abundantly contributes to the movement of traffic flows in the
said area. Also, the study not limiting to behaviours of primary users of the road, strict
implementation of existing law that focuses mainly on traffic management system, and
disciplinary acts that can be of use for proper and safe traffic system.

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ANALYSIS OF TRAFFIC CONGESTION DETERRENTS AT RECTO AVENUE TO LEGARDA STREET:
ARGUMENTS OF EFFICIENCY AND ROAD SAFETY

REFERENCES:

Carmudi PH. (2014). The 10 worst driving habits of Filipino drivers. Retrieved
from https://www.carmudi.com.ph/journal/ten-bad-driving-habits-of-filipino-drivers/

Krizel. (2014). 13 Filipino driving habits that drive everyone crazy. Retrieved
from https://www.wheninmanila.com/13-filipino-driving-habits-that-drive-everyone-crazy/

Felicio, G., Grepo, L., Reyes, V., Yupingkun, L. (2015) Traffic light displays and driver behaviors:A case
study. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S235197891500880X

Tribdino, R., (2016, October 4) ROAD SAFETY ISSUE NO. 5: Protecting the Filipino pedestrian.
Retrieved from http://verafiles.org/articles/road-safety-issue-no-5-protecting-filipino-pedestrian?

Subido, E.M. (2018, June 25). Goodbye, old roads. Retrieved


from https://www.topgear.com.ph/features/feature-articles/goodbye-old-roads-a00040-a114-20180625

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ABOUT THE AUTHORS

The authors of the study are currently enrolled at FEU- Institute of technology fulfilling the course of
Transportation Management with bachelors program of civil engineering. The authors of the study can be
contacted at FEU- Tech P. Paredes, Sampaloc, Manila, 1008 Metro Manila or reach through the following
email addresses: delacruzchristiandc@gmail.com, cruzchristian@yahoo.com, kloydralkfabi@gmail.com,
jannahmagundayao@gmail.com, vargasfran@gmail.com.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The researchers would like to thank God for giving us enough strength, courage and knowledge for the
fulfilment of this project. We couldn’t have done this without him.

The researchers would also like to thank families and friends for their support as we go along with the
study and proper guidance in times of need. For financing the needs and moral supports.

Lastly, the authors of this proposal would like to express deepest gratitude to Engr. Rodriguez for the
knowledge and experiences he have shared that greatly helps the researchers in accomplishing the study.

To God be the Glory!

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