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INTERMEDIATE MUSIC

CURRICULUM AND TEACHING


GUIDE
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The Department of Education gratefully acknowledges the contribution of the two Intermediate
Music Working Groups (St. John's and Gander). Members are as follows:

Ki Adams, Chairperson
Education Consultant - Music
Department of Education
St. John's, Newfoundland

Sharmini Arulanadam
Music Specialist
Persalvic Central High
Avalon North Integrated School Board
Victoria, Newfoundland

Barbara Barter
Music Specialist
St. John Central High
Burgeo Integrated School Board
Burgeo, Newfoundland

Sheila Brown
Music Program Coordinator
Nova Consolidated School Board
Gander, Newfoundland

Leslie K. Cross
Music Specialist
Bishop's College
Avalon Consolidated School Board
St. John's, Newfoundland

Jim Duff
Music Coordinator
St. John's R.C. School Board
St. John's, Newfoundland

Carol E. Harris
Education Consultant - Music
Department of Education
St. John's, Newfoundland
Beverly Jones
Music Specialist
Grand Falls Academy
Exploits Valley Integrated School Board
Grand Falls, Newfoundland

Suzanne Pals
Music Specialist
Jane Collins Academy
Nova Consolidated School Board
Dover, Newfoundland

Douglas Vaughan
Music Specialist
Holy Trinity High School
St. John's R.C. School Board
Torbay, Newfoundland

Rhonda Wicks
Music Program Coordinator
Avalon Consolidated School Board
St. John's, Newfoundland

Dwight Winsor
Music Specialist
Windsor Elementary
Pentecostal Assemblies School Board
Windsor, Newfoundland

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

Philosophy for Intermediate Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Aims and General Objectives (Musical and Non-Musical) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Music and the Development of the Adolescent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

General Approaches to Music Education at the Intermediate Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Review of Objectives K-6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Specific Objectives for Intermediate Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Basic Music Skills Chart 7-9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

Lesson Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Instructional Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Rhythmic Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Melodic Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Melodic Dictation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Sightsinging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Sound Before Symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Creative Skills: Improvisation and Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Improvising the Blues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Listening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Nine Ways to Introduce New Songs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Thirty Ways to Practice a Song . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Part Singing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Folk Song Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Using Resonator Bells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
The Late Beginner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Computer-based Technology

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Performance Strands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Intermediate Instrumental Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Intermediate Choral Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Recorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Recorder Consort . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Guitar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151

Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

Appendices

Exploratory Units
Music in My Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A1
History of the Orchestra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B1
History of Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C1
Afro-American Music: The Development of Jazz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D1
Newfoundland Folk Songs and Their Role in Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E1

Black-Line Masters
Newfoundland Folksongs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F1
Canons and Rounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G1

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PHILOSOPHY FOR INTERMEDIATE MUSIC
Music is an artistic expression of the human experience; it is a manifestation of the human spirit.
Music appeals directly to our feelings, demanding a personal response, and helps us discover
dimensions of beauty. Music assists students in responding sensitively to their environment and
develops an awareness of their cultural background. It is this contribution to student growth in
aesthetic sensitivity that makes music, and other fine arts, an essential part of the intermediate
curriculum. As well, the study of music helps to develop specific areas of student cognition and,
through movement and performance, psychomotor skills.

The intermediate music program is based on the developmental level of adolescents, as


expressed in social, physical, emotional, cognitive, and moral characteristics. It is designed for every
student. Its purpose is to develop the whole child by using intellect, imagination, and sensitivity in
experiencing and interpreting music of Newfoundland, Canada, and other countries, as well as the
art music of the world. Each student has abilities and skills, sensitivities and imaginative powers
and, therefore, should experience success in responding to and creating music. Success in music
literacy, as in other subjects, is the direct result of a well-sequenced program which builds upon
previous skills and knowledge.

Music belongs to everyone. It is the responsibility of educators to develop each student's


potential through direct contact with the elements of music. Music is unique in that it may be
experienced only as an aural art. The focal point of musical experience is music itself, as it is heard
and performed.

AIMS
1. To develop aesthetic sensitivity in students through activities which provide direct contact with
the elements of music.

2. To provide meaningful and challenging musical experiences for students, regardless of the
students' perceived talent or level of musical development.

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GENERAL OBJECTIVES

Musical

At the intermediate level, the music program will provide opportunities for students to:

1. explore the elements of rhythm, melody, harmony and form; and the expressive controls of
texture, timbre, dynamics, tempo, and articulation, through a variety of activities.

2. develop an understanding of the elements of music.

3. derive how the elements and expressive controls are combined in various styles of music.

4. apply understanding of music's elements by responding to directed listening, improvisation, and


composition.

5. use musical skills for the purpose of self-expression.

6. develop powers of critical judgement.

7. develop an understanding of the process of aesthetic judgement which includes both objective
and subjective evaluation.

Non-Musical

Through direct involvement with musical activities, students will have the opportunity to:

1. develop greater awareness of one's own emotions and the emotional response of others.

2. enhance self-esteem through one's own musical expression.

3. develop a tolerance towards the expression of others.

4. develop greater concentration and memory skills.

5. develop skills of physical coordination.

6. develop an awareness of one's culture and the culture of others.

7. develop the ability to cooperate and work with others in group activities/ performance.

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MUSIC AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE
ADOLESCENT

Music for Aesthetic Education

The major goal of a music program should be to awaken and develop aesthetic sensitivity in
students through direct contact with the very elements of music. The semantic meaning of "aesthetic
sensitivity" is response to that which displays or contains beauty. A deeper understanding of the
aesthetic experience may be gained from these characteristics:

The aesthetic experience is valued, not for its practical benefits alone, but for the insight,
satisfaction and enjoyment it provides. For example, to listen to music in an elevator or
shopping mall is not to engage in an aesthetic act.

Both intellect (perception) and emotion (response) are involved in the aesthetic experience.

As the experience is personal, it varies in degree and intensity according to the individual's
perception and inclination.

The awareness of the aesthetic experience may not be immediate. The individual must put forth
effort. This is where the challenge lies for educators in the aesthetics.

Aesthetic experiences are not the prerogative of any age group, educational level or social/ethnic
class.

In music, we teach for aesthetic sensitivity by helping students become aware of the aesthetic
properties, the elements of music. These elements are rhythm, melody, harmony, form, and the
expressive controls of timbre, dynamics, and tempo. Rather than explain by lecture, the teacher must
ask questions such as:

Does the melody move by step, skip or repeated notes?


Are any lines of this song the same? Why?
Do you think we should play this softly? Loudly? Why?
Which tempo (speed) do you prefer? Why?
How can we perform this piece to express the mood of the poetry? Why?
Students' answers should then be further explored; e.g., What would happen if all melody notes
moved by step?

Teachers should be constantly aware of a cycle of learning which includes perception, reaction,
analysis (valuing) and which leads to a new and enhanced perception.

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Implications for Teaching Based on the Characteristics of Early Adolescents

Music, and the other fine arts, make an essential contribution to a child-centred program, such
as that advocated by the Department of Education's Junior High School Reorganization Committee
Report. The characteristics and needs of early adolescents, as outlined in the Report, give clear
directions for course development. The characteristics find particular relevance in the content and
method of an effective music program.

Physical
The well-planned music lesson includes a variety of activities. Listening and categorizing lead
to perception and its expression in active participation (movement, a performed phrase, the written
symbol).

Rapid and varied physical changes can be skilfully accommodated in the music class. This
accommodation is both physical, as in the division of tasks among students, and emotional, as in the
acceptance of each individual's contribution.

The study and performance of music focuses on physical awareness. Is our posture and
breathing suitable for singing/playing? Have we remembered to warm-up sufficiently? Which
calisthenic exercises will we use today? How are our fine motor skills progressing? Is our playing
improving?

An important physical characteristic of adolescent boys is voice maturation. The most successful
approach to the changing voice is to treat it as a fascinating physiological development which needs
to be studied and recorded on an individual basis. The male voice is to be used, both in its treble
range, which often lasts until age 15, and as a developing tenor/baritone. The attitudes of young men
toward music are much more positive when the vocal phenomenon is treated as a natural step to
maturity.

Cognitive
The music program recognizes, and utilizes, the gradual move of students toward formal
capabilities but it is solidly based on concrete operations. Students must "experience" the music
itself (by clapping, singing, moving, indicating the theme or instruments when listening, etc.) in
order to form perceptions. There is also a strong emphasis on the precognition skills of directed
listening and on musical memory. The latter is based on the analysis and performance of like and
unlike patterns (form).

Improvising and creating are essential components of the music program at all levels. The
distinction between the two lies in the degree of restriction or rules imposed in the process. A simple
rhythmic question and answer between teacher and student involves improvisation. Creativity is
called for when the student sets his/her own guidelines (such as the number of measures, ABA form,
meter) and then designs and performs the pattern. Both processes require structure and prior
learning. On the other hand, free movement to music is, as the name implies, not a creative act. It
is an exploratory act which may later lead to creativity.

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The K - VI music program contains many concepts, the realization of which requires a host of
student skills. The intermediate program consolidates and enriches students' learning. This does not
mean that music studies, between the ages 12-15, should be approached on a "take it or leave it"
basis. To the contrary, the intermediate level experience can be viewed through the arts. These are
the years to review and consolidate concepts while applying skills and knowledge to a growing
number of musical forms.

Emotional
Music studies should lead to emotional control as students discuss and respond to emotional
demands. Mood in music is treated both objectively and subjectively. What means does the
composer use to express the mood of this selection? How would I alter this line in order to express
more tension?

Each well-crafted musical phrase creates and releases tension. The cycle found in an excellent
short story (statement, tension, climax, and denouement) is repeated constantly in music. Students
use the basic elements of music to express such emotions as tranquillity, excitement, rage,
spirituality.

One of the most important aspects of music in the intermediate grades is the possibility of music
positively affecting an individual's self-esteem. By exercising one's emotions, responses, and skills,
the student is encouraged to respect both his own contributions and those of others. Music is a
medium whereby all students have the opportunity to experience success and self-fulfilment.

Social
We are all familiar with the social maturity of excellent student performing groups. Here
directors and students of widely varying aptitudes and achievements cooperate as a team to attain
the common goal of beautiful music-making.

Less obvious, but equally important social gains are found in the classroom where students
perform rhythms, melodic phrases, and coordination exercises. Little by little, students learn to
value their own contributions and those of others. Music is one area in which group work is the
norm as classes are divided for the performance of beat and rhythm, rounds and canons, analysis and
composition.

Moral
Art is a human activity, having for its purpose the transmission to others of the highest and best
feelings to which men have risen. Leo Tolstoy

Music studies deal with attitudes and choices and the expression of beauty. Students must
discriminate between quality and superficiality, both in the poetry of song and in musical content.
In the music class, as in most classes, the search for values and meaning must be omnipresent. For
the arts, the quest is simplified. It is the very nature of the discipline.

Implications

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At all levels of the music program, the method of teaching must match the developmental
characteristics of the student. This is particularly important during adolescent years when the student
undergoes rapid and dramatic growth. Teachers should make a special effort to adapt the teaching
process to each learner. It is essential that the music class provide a positive experience for students.

The activities of music, appropriate for the intermediate years, include:

Singing
Rhythmic/Choral Speaking
Playing
Moving - tapping, clapping, stepping, coordinating....
Listening
Hand-signing
Notating graphically
Reading
Writing
Deriving
Analyzing
Improvising
Composing
Evaluating

Students must be exposed to an array of tasks from which they can reinforce learning begun at
the primary/elementary levels and develop new skills and greater awareness.

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GENERAL APPROACH TO MUSIC EDUCATION
AT THE INTERMEDIATE LEVEL
The major goal of music in the intermediate grades is to increase the sensitivity of all students
to the power of music as an art. This aesthetic growth is only possible through direct experience
with music as expressed in sound and movement. For this reason, it is important that the theory of
music be presented first as a listening and performing experience and, later, as a written exercise.
Actual music making must have priority at all times, but always within the framework of a planned
and stated learning objective.

The music program at the intermediate level is designed to fulfil two major functions:
to solidify the skills and concepts presented in the primary/elementary curricula.
to enhance students' understanding of basic concepts through more advanced activities.

Activity Approach
Musical learning evolves from musical experience. Lois Choksy

All music instruction must involve experiencing the elements of music in as many different ways
as possible. An activity/hands-on approach is essential. Adolescents can utilize boundless amounts
of energy; the music teacher must find ways to direct this energy in a positive way. A wide variety
of activities and materials is necessary to maintain interest and concentration. The music program
should provide a positive experience for students as they find success through various activities.

Traditionally, music teachers have found it easier to cope with active adolescents and their
potential for variable behaviour by adopting a lecture approach to instruction. This method has done
a great deal of damage by destroying the joy and aesthetic experience of music for many students.
It is imperative that music does not become just another academic discipline but retains its innate
vitality and life through performance. Concepts and skills are drawn from and learned through
performance, they should not be taught in isolation.

Music classes must always involve the making of music, i.e., the experience of music, rather than
the acquisition of facts about music. In all general music classes, performance should be a part of
each lesson. In the second and third levels (grades 8 and 9) when students are choosing music as an
option, it is recommended that participation in a performing group be required of all students enroled
in the general music course.

Singing Approach
The most obvious instrument to use for developing music concepts is the students' own voice.
Concepts learned through singing are internalized in a manner that makes it personal and lasting.
Instruments are useful in reinforcing concepts, but priority should be given to class and individual
singing in each lesson. Students must know from the first day of school that they are expected to

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use their voices to sing. They will be challenged to sing if a worthwhile program is presented in
which they are learning relevant and meaningful musical skills.

Learner-Based Approach
The intermediate program must be learner-based, matching the teaching process to the students'
natural way of learning. Instruction should be dependent on the background and mastery level of
the students. Some students will be able to go beyond the objectives established for a given year
and, in that case, the music teacher should develop such a program. Teachers must be prepared to
adapt their teaching to the needs and learning style of each student.

Concepts and Objectives


Teachers should study carefully the structure of this curriculum and teaching guide. It is not
merely a list of activities, procedures, or a glossary of things to do. The music teacher must clearly
understand the concepts to be derived and the objectives established for each level. Then s/he must
decide which skills and procedures will be used to achieve an understanding of these concepts and
skills.

In the intermediate grades, teaching must focus on guiding the student to learn. The intermediate
grades are the years in which we assess the understanding of musical concepts. It is not enough for
students to know terms and note values without really knowing what they mean or how to perform
them. Mathematical calculations of note values in a theory book little to develop musical literacy
and to encourage meaningful musical experiences.

Planning
Lessons should be planned individually and specifically for each particular class. The teacher
must accept responsibility for developing his/her own program using the procedures and resources
supplied and recommended.

Often the performance level of a student or class is far ahead of the students' understanding level.
It is important to recognize this factor and begin bridging this gap. Students should reinforce
reading/performance skills by actually performing on their own and not merely mimicking without
understanding. What has been learned in the classroom must be transferred and synthesized into the
choral and instrumental performance domain.

The teacher must constantly be aware of the many psychological factors which have a bearing
on the progress of a lesson. It is necessary to be sufficiently knowledgeable and flexible to adapt
the lesson or put it aside until another time when it can fit into the learning sequence.

Aural Approach
The aim of aural training is to develop perception of the pitch (relative and absolute) of single
notes, melodies, intervals, and chords, and the duration of sound and silence in rhythmic patterns.
Aural training also includes the identification of instrumental and vocal timbres, expressive controls,
and compositional forms.
Aural skills involve "inner hearing", i.e., internalized or imagined patterns of sound and silence

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before they are articulated. Inner hearing is necessary for accurate rote and note singing, for good
instrumental playing, and for many classroom activities (echo-clapping, rhythm and solfa canons,
rondos, chains, and rhythmic/melodic dictation). Aural training should be an integral part of each
music activity. It enriches movement, singing, playing, and writing and is indispensable to
improvising and creating.

Selection of Music
In presenting any music to a class, the teacher places an implied value on that music. Students
learn first by imitation and example. If the music offered to them has intrinsic value, if it is from
the heritage of good music, they will learn to value good music.
Lois Choksy (Teaching Music in the Twentieth Century)

The adolescent has developed a need and sensitivity for the best possible instructional material.
Once they have mastered the material and have had a successful experience, the student retains a
value judgement and will ask that the material and/or activity be re-experienced. Our job as music
educators is to lead students to discover new musical awareness and experiences, not to be satisfied
with meeting them at the level of commercial popular music with which they are already familiar.

Exploratory Units
The Exploratory Units are designed to introduce students to some of the facts about music—the
"who, what, when, where, how" of music. They do not constitute the complete program but should
complement the literacy/performance/skill building objectives of the curriculum. It is recommended
that the Exploratory Units be spread over an extended period of time rather than covered in blocks
of time.

Program Requirements
General music is the trunk of a development program of music education, not just at a certain
level, and various specialities (orchestra, chorus, band, recorder consort, etc.) and its branches.
James Mursell

A minimum allocation of three periods per six-day cycle is necessary for general music.
General music includes music history, theory, directed listening and classroom performance, i.e.,
sight-singing and rhythmic/melodic exercises, singing, and experimenting with electronic and
environmental sounds.

Choral and instrumental performance may require additional time. If students come out of other
classes for choir and band, it advantageous to schedule performance classes into irregular or
staggered slots/periods. This practice minimizes time lost from any one other subject area. At the
intermediate level, it is imperative that performance be supplemented by classroom music, i.e., all
performance students should also take general music. The skills and cognitive areas of music,
introduced in the general music class can find meaningful expression through the performance
laboratory setting.

The Department recommends that music be offered to all students in grade 7, fulfilling the

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requirements of two semesters (full year) of music as part of Category C Practical and Fine Arts in
the Junior High School Reorganization Committee Report. This course should not be semesterized,
i.e, taught for one term only with 6 classes per cycle. Music learning involves the sequential
development of skills which enable the student to experience and respond to the elements of music.
The practice of these skills cannot be interrupted by months, or years, without great waste of
teacher/learner effort.

In grades 8 and 9, it is recommended that the music program be developed around a particular
performance category and that the objectives be realized through that particular medium (choral,
band, orchestra, guitar or recorder). These courses will be optional. It is important to note that study
through musical performance must include musical knowledge and understanding as well as skill
development. The courses should not be strictly performance courses in the traditional sense but
serve as vehicles for achieving the stated objectives. The acquisition of performance skills will vary
according to the medium employed and students' background experience.

The intermediate years are viewed as offering the opportunity to provide enrichment to the music
program, enrichment through an application of skills and knowledge in a horizontal plane.
Additional repertoire study will constantly reinforce and review while providing new aesthetic
experiences and awareness. Using basic skills in different situations will solidify the musical
knowledge and understanding and permit students to move beyond the technical and into the
expressive realm of music (aesthetic development).

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CONCEPTS
Musical concepts are broad, generalized statements of important ideas. They are statements of
the ideas that are formed by students as a result of their musical experiences. Simply stated,
concepts are what the student infers. A teacher cannot teach a concept; the teacher can only guide
and pave the way for the inference to take place in the mind of the child. What happens in the
learner's mind is all important. Concepts must express ideas from the learner's aural and musical
experience, not from a theoretical point of view. Skills and experiences lead the student into concept
formation. The "make conscious" step focuses on the student's making this crucial inference.

Skills are the observable behaviours; they are the musical experiences that provide the content
and context for the development of musical concepts. Skills will point to the concept eventually.
Concepts emerge through proper questioning by the teacher and thinking by the student. Concepts
are not observable; however, they can be demonstrated through skills. In older students, concepts
may also be verbalized.

The skill sequence should follow the order of learning for the child: listen, sing, derive, write,
read, create/improvise, listen (analytically, expressively, sensitively). Skill activities should involve
writing, reading, singing, moving to music, improvisation, listening, inner hearing, part singing, and
analyzing form.

GENERAL CONCEPTS

1. Music is patterns of melody, rhythm, harmony, tempo/dynamics, and timbre combined to create
repetition, variation and contrast.

2. We use these patterns to create music and we respond emotionally and intellectually to our
perceptions and interpretations of these patterns of music.

DURATION

Beat Music often has an underlying, recurring beat.

Accent Beats may be accented or unaccented. Accented beats may occur at regular
or irregular intervals.

Rhythm Sounds may be long or short.

Syncopation Rhythmic and melodic accents may or may not coincide with metric accents.

Rests Music moves in time in longer and shorter durations which are often grouped

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together and which are punctuated by silences.

Meter Meter is the organization and measurement of accented and unaccented beats
in groups. These groups may be composed of two beats, three beats, or
multiples or combinations of two's and three's.

Simple and Each beat may be divided into two, three or more subdivisions.
Compound Meter

Polymeter Two or more different rhythms or meters may occur simultaneously.

MELODY

Sound Sounds are produced by vibration which may be regular or irregular. Regular
vibrations have definite pitch.

Contour Successive pitches may move higher or lower or stay the same.

Phrases Successive pitches may be organized in patterns, which may be combined to


create phrases and melodies.

Ostinato A repeated rhythmic, melodic, or harmonic pattern may serve as the


accompaniment to a musical work.

Interval The distance between two musical pitches is an interval. Each interval has a
distinctive sound regardless of which pitch it is built on. Intervals may be
sounded simultaneously or successively.

Scales The pitches of which music is created may be organized in specific ascending
and descending patterns called scales.

Tonal Centre Many melodies tend to establish a feeling of tonal centre or a sense of finality.

HARMONY

Chords Three or more pitches sounding simultaneously constitute a chord.

Triad A given tone together with the 3rd and 5th above it constitutes a specific kind
of chord called a triad.

A triad or other chord may be build on any degree of a scale.

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Additional thirds may be added to triads producing 7th, 9th, 11th, and 13th
chords.

Any tone of a triad or other chord may be raised or lowered chromatically.

Chords may be built on intervals other than the 3rd or may be composed of
clusters or pitches or randomly related pitches.

Inversions Triads may appear in root position or inversions.

Tonality Certain harmonies and harmonic progressions tend to establish a feeling of


tonal centre or tonic.

Cadence Certain chord progressions tend to establish a sense of finality or to punctuate


the flow of the music.

Modulation The tonal centres may change within a given piece of music.

Polytonality Two or more tonal centres may exist simultaneously.

Atonality The feeling of tonal centre may be weak or non-existent.

TEXTURE

Monophony A melodic line may exist without harmonic support.

Homophony A melody line may be supported by a harmonic accompaniment.

Polyphony A piece of music may be created by means of two or more musical lines which
exist simultaneously.

Canon A piece of music may be created by imitation of a melody by succeeding


voices at the same pitch level or at different pitch levels.

FORM

Repetition and Basic structural units such as motives, themes, phrases, periods, and
Contrast sections may recur (intact or modified) to provide unity in music. Contrasting
units may be used to provide variety.

Unifying and contrasting units may be combined in various ways to form


larger structural units.

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Motives Musical works often contain brief groupings of rhythmic or pitch patterns
called motives. These motives may function as identifiable elements in
musical compositions.

Themes Musical works often contain melodies, which may function as identifiable
themes.

Phrases and A melody may be composed of two or more periods (sentences), each
Periods/ of which may be composed of two or more phrases.
Sentences

Sections Musical works often contain identifiable sections, each of which is composed
of two or more periods and which collectively help to define the form of the
work.

Musical compositions may include introductions, codes and various types of


transitional sections.

Form and structure may be discerned at various levels within and between
themes, sections, and movements.

Most traditional musical forms are based on imitation or on repetition and


contrast. Music may also be through-composed, serial, or aleatoric.

Binary/Ternary Many smaller musical works are binary or ternary in form. Binary and ternary
structures are often incorporated in larger forms.

Musical compositions may be categorized not only by form but also on other
bases including medium (e.g., symphony, cantata), number of voices (e.g.,
trio, quartet), compositional technique (e.g., fugue, serial), function (e.g.,
prelude, intermezzo), genre (e.g., opera, mass).

TIMBRE

Tone Colour Sounds may differ in timbre.

Factors Affecting Differences in timbre are attributable to differences in overtone


Timbre structure.

Each sound source produces its own distinctive timbre depending on its size,
shape and material.

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Tone quality is affected by a variety of factors relating to tone production
including, for example, embouchure in playing wind instruments, bowing
technique for playing string instruments, and placement of vowels and
consonants when singing.

Timbre provides an important source of unity and variety in music and serves
as an important function in defining musical form. It may also play an
important role in musical expression.

DYNAMICS

Dynamics Sounds may differ in loudness. Changes in dynamics may occur suddenly or
gradually.

Factors Affecting Dynamics and dynamic potential are affected by the shape, size, and
Dynamics material of the sound source and by the method of tone production.

Use of Dynamics play an important role in musical expression, provide an Dynamics


important source of unity and variety, and help in defining musical form.

TEMPO

Tempo Music may move relatively fast or slow in tempo. Changes in tempo may
occur suddenly or gradually.

Uses of Tempo Tempo plays an important role in musical expression, provides an important
source of unity and variety, and helps in defining musical form.

Summarized from:

Edelstein, Stefan; Lois Choksy; Paul Lehman; Njall Sigurdsson; David Woods. Creating
Curriculum in Music. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1980.

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OBJECTIVES

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REVIEW OF K - 6 OBJECTIVES
The following objectives should be securely realized in students who have had a solid music
program in primary and elementary school. These objectives represent the total sequenced hierarchy
of basic music skills listed in the provincial curriculum guide for primary and elementary levels.
However, it is entirely possible that intermediate students have not internalized all these concepts.
The intermediate music teacher must evaluate the musicianship of all students entering grade 7
during the first month of school and begin working from that point upward in skill and concept
development, regardless of their level of competency. Always begin with the known and work
towards the unknown.

RHYTHM

aurally identify, read, and write the following rhythm patterns in various combinations (simple
and compound duple/triple meters).

conduct 2 3 4 meter.
4 4 4

identify and read an anacrusis.

MELODY

notate, read and improvise m1 r1 d1 t l s f m r d t1 l1 s1 in the keys of F, G, C, D.

read all known songs in absolute note names.

identify and sing intervals of major/minor 2nds, major/minor 3rds, and perfect 5th.

identify and sing major, natural minor, and harmonic minor scales.

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HARMONY

sing do or la as drone accompaniment for song.

identify the accompanying tones (do-so/la-mi) and sing as accompaniment in two-chord songs.

construct triads on do and la and sing as an accompaniment to do- or la-pentatonic songs.

accompany two chord songs by singing the chords I and V (do-so or la-mi), using inversions for
better voice leading.

identify the chord changes in three-chord songs and accompany three chord songs by singing
the roots of I-IV-V (do-fa-so) or i-iv-V (la-re-mi).

FORM

recognize same and different phrases of in songs.

recognize same, similar/different phrases in songs (variation).

recognize the form of a song in any combination of: A, Av, B, Bv, C.

recognize and use D.C. al Fine and D.S. al Fine.

identify rondo, theme and variations.

identify and improvise/compose songs in common song forms for AABA, AABB, ABAC.

MOVEMENT

singing games and play party games (line, circle, double circle).

square dancing (Virginia reel).

short improvised and choreographed motifs expressing known forms.

easy international dances (hora, troika, etc.).

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SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES FOR INTERMEDIATE MUSIC
Specific objectives are listed according to elements rather than by grade levels. In the
intermediate grades, students are led to respond to music's elements at various depths of
understanding. The levels of ability necessary to comprehend a particular rhythm pattern might
include, at different times:

listening and maintaining the beat


echo clapping
reading from sight
writing
improvising variations
composing a melodic line for rhythm

Rhythm patterns may be met, with minor variations, in different settings with distinct tempi,
timbre, and expression.

At the intermediate level, students constantly apply their skills to become ever better musicians.
Music permeates each aspect of their lives. They now begin to understand, by experiencing music's
elements, how music is designed to express a broad spectrum of human emotions.

RHYTHM

keep the beat for simple songs and for recorded music in 2 3 6 meter.
4 4 8

conduct meters of 2 4 3 6.
4 4 4 8

identify aurally, read and write the following rhythm patterns, using rhythm duration syllables,
in 2 3 4.
4 4 4

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identify aurally, read and write the following rhythm patterns, using rhythm duration syllables,
in 6 meter.
8

coordinate beat with rhythms.

coordinate 2 rhythms and expand to 3 and 4 rhythms.

play rhythm games and dances.

perform rhythm chains, rondos, and canons.

perform ostinati using and expand to longer and more difficult ostinati.

improvise 4-beat rhythms and expand to 8-beat rhythms.

write rhythms as dictated, extending the length and variety of patterns.

compose rhythm scores within the guidelines of meter, form, and specified rhythm patterns.

MELODY

sing, by rote, songs of limited range but with rhythmic interest.

sing and read songs of limited range and with basic rhythms. Expand as new notes and rhythms
are mastered.

read, notate and improvise using the following sequence of melodic groupings. Practice the
melodic grouping in all possible patterns.

m r d

s m r d

l s m r d (do pentatonic scale)

l s m r d l1

l s m r d l 1 s1

l s m r d l1 (la pentatonic scale)

d1 l s m r d

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s m r d l1 s1 (so pentatonic scale)

r1 d l s m r (re pentatonic scale)

l s f m r d

m r d t1 l 1 s1

s f m r d t 1 l 1 s1

d1 t l s f m r d (diatonic major scale)

l s f m r d t1 l1 (diatonic minor scale)

l si f m r d t1 l1 (harmonic minor scale)

d1 ta l s f m r d (mixolydian mode)

l s fi m r d t1 l1 (dorian mode)

d di r ri m f fi s si l li t d1 (ascending chromatic scale)

d1 t ta l lo so sa f m ma r ra d (descending chromatic scale)

perform melodic canons, ostinati, chains, rondos.

take melodic dictation of 3 or 4 notes. Extend to 8 beats and then to 16 beats.

sing the scales listed above.

HARMONY

perform partner songs.

sing and play canons and rounds.

sing do-so and la-mi as accompaniments to simple two chord songs.

sing triads on do-so and la-mi as accompaniments to simple two chord songs.

sing roots and build triads on IV and VI as accompaniments in major and minor songs.

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identify and sing the following intervals:
• major/minor 2nds and 3rds
• perfect 4ths and 5ths
• perfect unison and octave

sing in two and three independent parts.

FORM

derive the form in all musical works, beginning with simple exercises and folksongs and
extending to art music and larger forms.

create rhythm and melodic exercises using common song forms.

create forms using classroom sound experiments.

analyze the form of each action song, game or dance.

EXPRESSION

experiment with musical discrimination in the use of various expressive controls:


• dynamics
• tempo
• timbre

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BASIC MUSIC SKILLS CHART (7-9)
The following chart identifies the skills and concepts to be covered in each grade level. It should
be seen as a fluid chart, in that one should not present more material than the students are able to
master and internalize.

If, for example, because of limited background, a grade 7 class is able to master only pentatonic
melodies with quarters, eighths, and sixteenths by the end of the year, one would simply start by
adding new tones and new rhythms to their repertoire the next year. It is very important that
individual students as well as the entire class be very secure in combining rhythms with pitches
before proceeding to new material.

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Grade 7 Grade 8 Grade 9

Rhythm Review the following Add the following All rhythms including
rhythm patterns: rhythm patterns: tied notes

Meters: A ll simp le
and com pou nd d uple
and triple; combined
me ters; asymm etric
meters

Meters: 2 3 4 6 Meters:
4 4 4 8 9 12 5 5 7
8 8 8 4 8

Equivalent rests Equivalent rests

Melody Rev iew all me lodic Add: Add:


groupin gs up to Harmonic minor Chrom atic Scale
diatonic major and Mixolydian Mode Extend me lodic
minor scales Dorian Mode patterns to en com pass
the literature being
used.

Harmony Review: Extend ch ord Extend knowledge of


I-V root acco mp anim ent to "theory" as necessary
accompaniment include II and VI
I-V chord
accompaniment Aurally identify
I-IV-V root cho rds in art m usic
accompaniment
Intervals:
Add: Perfe ct 4th
I-IV-V chord Perfect unison
accompaniment Perfect octave

Intervals:
Major/minor 2nds
Major/minor 3rds
Perfe ct 5th

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Grade 7 Grade 8 Grade 9

Listening Review son g form s, Larger form s: Larger form s:


(Form) sam e/different/ • theme and variation
similar, D.C. al Fine, fugue
D.S. al Fine passa caglia

Larger form s:
• rondo
• min uet an d trio

Improvisation/ Lev els A, B, C, D Continue Continue


Composition (See pp. XXX) development of development of
improvisation and improvisation and
com position sk ills com position sk ills

Movement Singing Games Intern ational Folk Newfoundland


Dances Dances

Folk M usic North American and Intern ational folk Canadian folk songs
Newfo und land Folk songs to accompany (can be integrated
Songs (Sing the Sea) and relate to inter- with social studies)
national folk dances

Explorato ry Units • Mu sic in our Afro-American Jazz Newfo und land Folk
Environment Songs
• Development of
the Orchestra
• Early Notation

Performance Instrumental Instrumental Instrumental


Choral Choral Choral
Guitar Guitar Guitar
Recorder Recorder Recorder

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LESSON PLANNING
It is important that the development of music concepts and skills come from a direct involvement
with music itself, through singing, listening, creating, moving, reading, writing, etc. Concepts,
skills, and attitudes should result from the student's personal musical experiences and not from a
study of isolated facts or activities. Lessons at this level involve a more detailed study of musical
elements than at the elementary level, and a large portion of a lesson may be devoted to a specific
concept and/or skill. However, there still must be sufficient variety in the lesson to accomplish the
following:

student preparation for music learning, both mentally and physically


interest stimulation
creation of an atmosphere which maximizes the opportunity for success.
reinforcement and review

Preparation

Preparation can be achieved through a number of quick activities in the first 5-10 minutes of the
class. Vocalizes, hand-signing, echo clapping, and reading exercises immediately settles the class
and encourages students to concentrate, listen, and practice good posture and breathing. Material
can be incorporated into these activities as preparation for what will follow later in the lesson. For
example, students may echo clap rhythmic patterns which they will later read from a score; students
may sing from hand-signs a melody which they will later read from the staff for the listening lesson;
students may sing a minor scale from the staff which will be sung in a folk song as part of a lesson
on minor scales.

Stimulate Interest

It is important to analyze our musical reasons for introducing a new work. In what way are we
attempting to increase students' awareness of their environment? Are we analyzing form? Are we
listening for timbre, texture, and expressive devices? Teachers who are certain of the value of their
musical objectives are apt to inspire students with similar enthusiasm.

Ensure Success

It is not easy for the music teacher to design tasks which will both challenge and reward students.
The teacher must be familiar with the musical learning of each student, design a series of tasks from
easy to difficult, and present assignments slowly enough so that each student will accomplish each
step in the sequence of the task. As we are working simultaneously with different elements, the

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music teacher has an opportunity to design different levels of accomplishment for students of
varying aptitudes. For example, while most students are exposed to multiple listenings of a phrase
for melodic dictation, gifted students may be asked to add expressive markings to their work or to
devise another melody using the same rhythm.

Reinforcement and Review

Some time should be spent in each lesson to review and reinforce recent musical learnings.
Many of the warm-up and preparation activities at the beginning of the lesson can also reinforce and
review material.

A most rewarding way to end a lesson, and also to review musical learnings, is with the
performance of a well-known canon, song or exercise. In this way students are provided the
opportunity to experience and re-experience, and to accomplish our major goal - the development
of aesthetic sensitivity.

An excellent sample lesson for intermediate students with a music literacy background may be
found in Teaching Music in the Twentieth Century (Choksy, Abramson, Gillespie, Woods), pp. 267-
274.

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