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# In general, the term calculus (from the Latin calculus = pebble, used to count as an aid to

calculate) 1 refers to the result corresponding to the calculation action. Calculate, for its
part, perform, perform, perform operations for the result of an action, conceive, know the
consequences that can be derived from previously known data. However, the most
common use of the term "calculus" is the logical-mathematical one. From this perspective,
the calculation consists of a mechanical procedure, or algorithm, by which we can know
the consequences that derive from previously known data as formalized and symbolized.
Calculation as reasoning and logical-mathematical calculus
Example of application of an algebraic calculation to the resolution of a problem, according to the
interpretation of a physical theory
The expression of the algebraic calculation {\ displaystyle y = xt} {\ displaystyle y = xt}, indicates the
syntactic relationships that exist between three variables that have no meaning at all.
But if we interpret {\ displaystyle y} and space, {\ displaystyle x} x as velocity and {\ displaystyle t} t as
time, this equation modelises a physical theory that establishes that the space traveled by a mobile with
constant velocity is directly proportional to the speed with which it moves and the time its movement
lasts.
At the same time, according to this theory, it serves to solve the problem of calculating how many
kilometers a car has traveled from Madrid to Barcelona at a constant speed of 60 km / h during 4 hours
of travel.
240 kilometers traveled = 60 km / h x 4 h
The two meanings of the calculation (the general and the restricted) defined above are intimately
linked. The calculation is a natural and primordial activity in man, which begins at the same moment in
which he begins to relate some things with others in a thought or discourse. The natural logical
calculation as reasoning is the first elementary calculation of the human being. The calculation in a
logical-mathematical sense appears when you become aware of this ability to reason and try to
formalize.

## Therefore, we can distinguish two types of operations:

Operations oriented towards the achievement of an end, such as foresee, program, guess, estimate,
prevent, prevent, project, configure, etc. which in each case include a series of complex activities and
skills, both thinking and behaving. As a whole, these activities take the form of an argument or reasons
that justify a practical or cognitive purpose.
Formal operations as an algorithm that applies either directly to the known data or to the symbolic
schemes of the logical-mathematical interpretation of said data; The possible conclusions, inferences or
deductions of said algorithm are the result of the application of strictly established rules in advance.
Result that is:
Conclusion of a reasoning process.
Result directly applicable to the initial data (problem solving).
Model of relationships previously established as scientific and significant theory regarding certain
realities (Creation of scientific models).

## Of antiquity Reconstruction of a Roman abacus. A modern abacus The term "calculus"

comes from the Latin calculus, a small stone that gets into the shoe and causes
discomfort. Precisely such little stones strung on strips constituted the Roman abacus that,
together with the Chinese suanpan, constitute the first calculating machines in the sense
of counting. The background of the calculation procedure, as an algorithm, is found in
those used by the Greek geometers, Eudoxus in particular, in the sense of arriving by
approximation of smaller and smaller remains, to a measure of curved figures; as well as
Diophantus precursor of algebra. It is considered that Archimedes was one of the greatest
mathematicians of antiquity and, in general, of the whole history.2 3 He used the
exhaustive method to calculate the area under the arc of a parabola with the sum of an
infinite series, and gave an extremely accurate approximation of the number Pi.4 He also
defined the spiral that bears his name, formulas for the volumes of the surfaces of
revolution and an ingenious system for expressing very long numbers. The consideration
of the calculation as a form of abstract reasoning applied in all areas of knowledge is due
to Aristotle, who in his logical writings was the first to formalize and symbolize the types of
categorical reasoning (syllogisms). This work would be completed later by the Stoics, the
Megáricos, the Scholastic. The current algorithms of arithmetic calculation, used
universally, are the result of a long historical process. Of vital importance are the
contributions of Muhammad ibn al-Juarismi in the ninth century; In the thirteenth century,
Fibonacci introduced in Europe the representation of the Arabic numerals of the decimal
system. The 0, already known in India, was introduced and the ten-digit decimal system
with place value is finally constructed. The ancient writing of numbers in Babylon, in Egypt,
in Greece or in Rome, made a mechanical calculation procedure very difficult.6 The
decimal system was very important for the development of the accounting of the
merchants of the Late Middle Ages, at the beginning of capitalism. The concept of function
by tables was already practiced in ancient times but acquired special importance at the
University of Oxford in the 14th century.7 The idea of a language or algorithm capable of
determining all truths, including those of faith, appears in the attempt of Raimundo Lulio in
his Ars Magna

Renaissance The system we use today was introduced by Luca Pacioli in 1494, which was
created and developed to respond to the need for accounting in the business of the
Renaissance bourgeoisie. The development of algebra (with the introduction of a system
of symbols on the one hand, and the resolution of problems by means of equations) came
from the hand of the great mathematicians of the Renaissance era such as Tartaglia,
Stevin, Cardano or Vieta and was essential for the approach and solution of the most
diverse problems that arose at the time, which resulted in the great discoveries that made
possible the scientific progress that would emerge in the seventeenth century.10
Seventeenth and eighteenth centuries Page of the article by Leibniz "Explication de
l'Arithmétique Binaire", 1703/1705. In the seventeenth century the calculus was
enormously developed, with the most prominent authors being Descartes, 11 Pascal12
and, finally, Leibniz and Newton13 with the infinitesimal calculus that in many cases has
simply received, by absorption, the name of calculus. The concept of formal calculation in
the sense of regulated algorithm for the development of a reasoning and its application to
the world of reality14 acquires an importance and enormous development responding to a
need to establish mathematical relationships between various measures, essential for the
progress of the physical science that, due to this, is taken as a new model of Science
against traditional philosophical speculation, for the rigor and security offered by
mathematical calculation. It thus changes the traditional meaning of Physics as a
philosophy of nature and takes the sense of science that studies material bodies, as
materials. From then on, the calculation system itself allows us to establish models about
physical reality, whose experimental verification15 implies the confirmation of the theory as
a system. It is the moment of the consolidation of the so-called scientific method whose
best exponent is at that time the Theory of Universal Gravitation and the laws of Newton's
Mechanics.16