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el término cálculo (del latín calculus = piedrecita, usado para contar o como ayuda al calcular)1 hace referencia al resultado correspondiente a la acción de calcular. Calcular, por su parte, consiste en realizar las operaciones necesarias para prever el resultado de una acción previamente concebida, o conocer las consecuencias que se pueden derivar de unos datos previamente conocidos.

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calculate) 1 refers to the result corresponding to the calculation action. Calculate, for its

part, perform, perform, perform operations for the result of an action, conceive, know the

consequences that can be derived from previously known data. However, the most

common use of the term "calculus" is the logical-mathematical one. From this perspective,

the calculation consists of a mechanical procedure, or algorithm, by which we can know

the consequences that derive from previously known data as formalized and symbolized.

Calculation as reasoning and logical-mathematical calculus

Example of application of an algebraic calculation to the resolution of a problem, according to the

interpretation of a physical theory

The expression of the algebraic calculation {\ displaystyle y = xt} {\ displaystyle y = xt}, indicates the

syntactic relationships that exist between three variables that have no meaning at all.

But if we interpret {\ displaystyle y} and space, {\ displaystyle x} x as velocity and {\ displaystyle t} t as

time, this equation modelises a physical theory that establishes that the space traveled by a mobile with

constant velocity is directly proportional to the speed with which it moves and the time its movement

lasts.

At the same time, according to this theory, it serves to solve the problem of calculating how many

kilometers a car has traveled from Madrid to Barcelona at a constant speed of 60 km / h during 4 hours

of travel.

240 kilometers traveled = 60 km / h x 4 h

The two meanings of the calculation (the general and the restricted) defined above are intimately

linked. The calculation is a natural and primordial activity in man, which begins at the same moment in

which he begins to relate some things with others in a thought or discourse. The natural logical

calculation as reasoning is the first elementary calculation of the human being. The calculation in a

logical-mathematical sense appears when you become aware of this ability to reason and try to

formalize.

Operations oriented towards the achievement of an end, such as foresee, program, guess, estimate,

prevent, prevent, project, configure, etc. which in each case include a series of complex activities and

skills, both thinking and behaving. As a whole, these activities take the form of an argument or reasons

that justify a practical or cognitive purpose.

Formal operations as an algorithm that applies either directly to the known data or to the symbolic

schemes of the logical-mathematical interpretation of said data; The possible conclusions, inferences or

deductions of said algorithm are the result of the application of strictly established rules in advance.

Result that is:

Conclusion of a reasoning process.

Result directly applicable to the initial data (problem solving).

Model of relationships previously established as scientific and significant theory regarding certain

realities (Creation of scientific models).

comes from the Latin calculus, a small stone that gets into the shoe and causes

discomfort. Precisely such little stones strung on strips constituted the Roman abacus that,

together with the Chinese suanpan, constitute the first calculating machines in the sense

of counting. The background of the calculation procedure, as an algorithm, is found in

those used by the Greek geometers, Eudoxus in particular, in the sense of arriving by

approximation of smaller and smaller remains, to a measure of curved figures; as well as

Diophantus precursor of algebra. It is considered that Archimedes was one of the greatest

mathematicians of antiquity and, in general, of the whole history.2 3 He used the

exhaustive method to calculate the area under the arc of a parabola with the sum of an

infinite series, and gave an extremely accurate approximation of the number Pi.4 He also

defined the spiral that bears his name, formulas for the volumes of the surfaces of

revolution and an ingenious system for expressing very long numbers. The consideration

of the calculation as a form of abstract reasoning applied in all areas of knowledge is due

to Aristotle, who in his logical writings was the first to formalize and symbolize the types of

categorical reasoning (syllogisms). This work would be completed later by the Stoics, the

Megáricos, the Scholastic. The current algorithms of arithmetic calculation, used

universally, are the result of a long historical process. Of vital importance are the

contributions of Muhammad ibn al-Juarismi in the ninth century; In the thirteenth century,

Fibonacci introduced in Europe the representation of the Arabic numerals of the decimal

system. The 0, already known in India, was introduced and the ten-digit decimal system

with place value is finally constructed. The ancient writing of numbers in Babylon, in Egypt,

in Greece or in Rome, made a mechanical calculation procedure very difficult.6 The

decimal system was very important for the development of the accounting of the

merchants of the Late Middle Ages, at the beginning of capitalism. The concept of function

by tables was already practiced in ancient times but acquired special importance at the

University of Oxford in the 14th century.7 The idea of a language or algorithm capable of

determining all truths, including those of faith, appears in the attempt of Raimundo Lulio in

his Ars Magna

Renaissance The system we use today was introduced by Luca Pacioli in 1494, which was

created and developed to respond to the need for accounting in the business of the

Renaissance bourgeoisie. The development of algebra (with the introduction of a system

of symbols on the one hand, and the resolution of problems by means of equations) came

from the hand of the great mathematicians of the Renaissance era such as Tartaglia,

Stevin, Cardano or Vieta and was essential for the approach and solution of the most

diverse problems that arose at the time, which resulted in the great discoveries that made

possible the scientific progress that would emerge in the seventeenth century.10

Seventeenth and eighteenth centuries Page of the article by Leibniz "Explication de

l'Arithmétique Binaire", 1703/1705. In the seventeenth century the calculus was

enormously developed, with the most prominent authors being Descartes, 11 Pascal12

and, finally, Leibniz and Newton13 with the infinitesimal calculus that in many cases has

simply received, by absorption, the name of calculus. The concept of formal calculation in

the sense of regulated algorithm for the development of a reasoning and its application to

the world of reality14 acquires an importance and enormous development responding to a

need to establish mathematical relationships between various measures, essential for the

progress of the physical science that, due to this, is taken as a new model of Science

against traditional philosophical speculation, for the rigor and security offered by

mathematical calculation. It thus changes the traditional meaning of Physics as a

philosophy of nature and takes the sense of science that studies material bodies, as

materials. From then on, the calculation system itself allows us to establish models about

physical reality, whose experimental verification15 implies the confirmation of the theory as

a system. It is the moment of the consolidation of the so-called scientific method whose

best exponent is at that time the Theory of Universal Gravitation and the laws of Newton's

Mechanics.16

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