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CANPA stands for Constant Angle Non-Precision Approach.

The idea of CANPA is


to fly a constant angle approach even if a glide slope or visual slope indicator such
as a VASI or PAPI is unavailable. CANPA involves making a stabilized constant
angle descent rather than a quick descent to the MDA followed by flying level at the
MDA until the runway environment is in sight.

CANPA has the following advantages as compared to the traditional step- down approaches:

1. (i) The technique enhances safe approach operations by the utilization of


simplified standard operating procedures;
2. (ii) Approach technique reduces pilot workload and enhances situational
awareness;
3. (iii) Approach profile affords greater obstacle clearance along the final
approach course;
4. (iv) Approach technique is similar to ILS technique, including the missed
approach and the associated go-around maneuver;
5. (v) Approach technique offers procedural integration with VNAV approaches;
6. (vi) Aircraft attitude when on a constant angle descent path facilitates
acquisition of visual cues;
7. (vii) The constant angle descent profile flown in a stabilized manner is the
safest approach technique for all types of approaches;
8. (viii) Approach profile is fuel efficient; and
9. (ix) Approach profile affords reduced noise levels.

Definition of CDFA. (Continuous Descent Final Approach )

10. A technique, consistent with stabilized approach procedures, for flying the final
approach segment of a non-precision instrument approach procedure as a
continuous descent, without level-off, from an altitude/height at or above the final
approach fix altitude/height to a point approximately 15 m (50 ft) above the landing
runway threshold or the point where the flare manoeuvre should begin for the type of
aircraft flown.
11. 2.5 Advantages of CDFA.
12. CDFA offers the following advantages:
(a) increased safety by employing the concepts of stabilized approach criteria and
procedure standardization.
(b) improved pilot situational awareness and reduced pilot workload.
(c) improved fuel efficiency by minimizing the low-altitude level flight time.
(d) reduced noise level by minimizing the level flight time at high thrust settings.
(e) procedural similarities to APV and precision approach operations.
(f) reduced probability of infringement on required obstacle clearance during the final
approach segment.

DURING A CLIMB AT A CONSTANT


MACH NUMBER
CAS and TAS decrease due compressibility, temperature and reduced LSS.

Viva questions
1. 2 aircrafts same mach , diff level. Which faster.

2. Area navigation (RNAV) - A navigation method that allows aircraft to operate on any desired flight path
within the coverage of ground- or space-based navigation aids, or within the limits of the capability of self-
contained aids, or a combination of both methods.

3. Global navigation satellite system (GNSS) - A generic term used by the International Civil Aviation
Organization (ICAO) to define any global position, speed, and time determination system that includes one or
more main satellite constellations, such as GPS and the global navigation satellite system (GLONASS),
aircraft receivers and several integrity monitoring systems, including aircraft-based augmentation systems
(ABAS), satellite-based augmentation systems (SBAS), such as the wide area measurements to determine the
position, speed, and time in any part of the world.

4. Mixed navigation environment. An environment where different navigation specifications may be applied
within the same airspace (e.g. RNP 10 routes and RNP 4 routes in the same airspace) or where operations
using conventional navigation are allowed in the same airspace with RNAV or RNP applications

5. Navigation specifications - Set of aircraft and flight crew requirements needed to support performance-
based navigation operations in a defined airspace. There are two kinds of navigation specifications:

(a) Required Navigation Performance (RNP) Specification Area navigation


specification that includes the performance control and alerting
requirement, designated by the prefix RNP; e n

(b) Area Navigation (RNAV) Specification - Area navigation specification that does not include the
performance control and alerting requirement, designated by the prefix RNAV; e.g., RNAV 5, RNAV 2, RNAV
1.
7. Navigation system error (NSE) - The difference between the true position and the estimated position.
8. Path definition error (PDE) - The difference between the defined path and the desired path at a given place
and time.
Fly-by way-point - A way-point which requires turn anticipation to allow tangential interception of the next
segment of a route or procedure. Fly over way-point - A way-point at which a turn is initiated in order to join
the next segment of a route or procedure.
9. ADVANTAGES OF PBN Perf based nav. a) Reduces the need to maintain sensor-specific routes and
procedures, and their associated costs b) Avoids the need for development of sensor-specific operations with
each new evolution of navigation systems, which would be cost prohibitive. c) Allows more efficient use of
airspace (route placement, fuel efficiency, noise abatement, traffic management).. d) Facilitates the
operational approval process for operators by providing a limited set of navigation specifications intended for
global use. e) Clarifies the way in which RNAV systems are to be used.
REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS No person shall operate Indian registered aircraft in airspace designated for
RNAV operations unless: (i) Aircraft is equipped with a RNAV system able to support the desired navigation
specifications. (ii) RNAV system and aircraft operations are compliant with the PBN CAR and are authorized
by DGCA for the operation. (iii) The Operations Specifications contained in the Operating Permit of operator
are endorsed by DGCA to conduct RNAV operations. Note: The navigation specification details the flight crew
and aircraft requirements needed to support the navigation application. This specification includes the level
of navigation performance, Functional capabilities and operational considerations required for the RNAV
system. RNAV vs. RNP While both RNAV and RNP operations are described in terms of navigation
performance (e.g. accuracy), RNP operations can be identified by the capability of the on-board navigation
system to monitor in real time the achieved navigation performance and to alert the operating crew when the
specified minimum performance appropriate to a particular operation could not be met. This additional
functionality provided by RNP allows the flight crew to intervene and to take appropriate mitigating action
(e.g. a goround), thereby allowing RNP operations to provide an additional level of safety and capability over
RNAV operations.
AREA NAVIGATION Area navigation (RNAV) is a term applied to navigation between any two selected points
on the earth’s surface without the requirement of flying over ground based Radio Aids. RNAV has been
around since the 1960s and the earliest avionics used triangulation measurements from ground-based
navigation aids to compute an RNAV flight path between waypoints. A number of self-contained navigation
systems which are independent of any ground based navigation systems have also been developed, including
LORAN C, GPS, Glonass, Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) and Inertial Reference Systems (IRS). RNAV
systems in use in commercial aviation today involve the use of IRS positioning updated by reference to
ground-based radio navigation aids (DME and VOR) or GPS. When updating by reference to ground-based
aids is limited due availability or over remote areas, area navigation is managed using a Flight Management
System, using IRS position updated by GNSS. However, as there are many and varied area navigation systems
in use throughout the world, PBN provides a number of navigation specifications to accommodate a range of
RNAV and RNP performance levels
10.
What airspaces are there in India?
D,E,F,G
11.
12 How many satellites are required for RAIM?
Receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM) is a technology developed to assess the integrity
of global positioning system (GPS) signals in a GPS receiver system. It is of special importance in safety-
criticalGPS applications, such as in aviation or marine navigation.
Because RAIM operates autonomously, that is without the assistance of external signals, it requires
redundant pseudorange measurements. To obtain a 3D position solution, at least four measurements are
required. To detect a fault, at least 5 measurements are required, and to isolate and exclude a fault, at least
six measurements are required, however often more measurements are needed depending on the satellite
geometry. Typically there are seven to 12 satellites in view.
12 What is RVSM - what are the requirements for an aircraft to enter rvsm airspace?
Reduce vertical separation minimum
2 ADR +2 DMC
1 TRANSPONDER. 1 auto pilot, 1 FCU, 2 PFD , 1 FWC AND 1 SERVISABLE TCAS
Wx . Turbulence expected should not be more than moderate.
Advantages of rvsm airspace.
2. What are ILS components
The components of ILS : Localiser, Glide Path, Outer Marker, Middle Marker and Approach Lighting System..
Freq range of loc and glide

14. -pitot static tube. It's a device that measures dynamic pressure.
What is it used for?
Airspeed ,alt, alt trend/ vsi and Mach no.
-explain static pressure
Diff types of errors. Blocked static/ pitot. Inherent errors eg density error affecting asi ,alt.
Compressibility error, hysteresis error which is caused by mech properties of aneroid capsule.
Position errors
Blocked pitot level flt falls indication. Climb will increase speed desend will dec spd.
Blocked static will make ac to underread during clb .

-TAT>OAT, why?
-explain density error
-mach meter errors
-INS setting/faliures
-Radio altimeter errors
-TCAS TA,RA range
-what is a VOLMET?
-night effect
-sidereal day
-VOR errors
-VOR tracking problem
-VOR-DME co-location criteria
-Glide Slope coverage range
-what is P RNAV
-speed to be maintained when in a DME arc
-grid mora (colours on the chart)
-RL on a Mercator: RL is a line that is cutting all the meridians at an equal angle.
-Vref speed categories
-converting climb gradient to RoC (the examiner was looking for a rule of thumb formula)
15 TCAS
16 .
1) what is cp
2)what is pnr
3)factors affecting cp and pnr
4)approach plates brief gaya airports approach and questins on the approach plate
5)what is coffins corner
6)what happens to TAS AND MACH NO AS U CLIMB IN THE SAME CAS
7)WHAT IS MACH CRIT SPEED
8)what is canpa
9)what is derived decision altitude
10)what is ils and its components
11)give a brief description on mercator,polar stereographic and lamberts charts
12)what is navigation
13)what is RNP
14)diff between ins and irs
15)how will u align a ins
16)what input errors will the ins system will accept
17)what is rnav
17. Questions
1) Jeppesson
(a) show on the approach plate the "symbol" for RVR transmissometer.
(b) how many RVR's are usually present along a runway?
(c) What is MEHT? (i believe it's Minimum Eye height over Threshold)
(d) what is OCA?

2) Radio Aids and Navigation


a) explain carrier wave? can a carrier wave carry information?
b) explain Side bands?. If carrier wave is 500 hz, what are the value of the side
bands?
c) What do you know about NAT? (North Atlantic routes)
d) Explain how FMS plots it's position?
e) does FMS use great circle or rhumbline tracks?
f) ETOPS? What ETOPS req.s are 777's rated to? (ans they were looking for is 240)
g) difference between INS and IRS?
h) ACARS? , CPDLC? , FANS?, ADS-B? (Also the frequency bands they fall in)
i) What interface does crew use to use ACARS ? (fms etc)
j) difference between RNP and RNAV. What is ANP?
k) If an equipment fails, what do you do if you are flying an RNP route? (ans-
advise atcto estabilish clearance)
l) What is Grivation? Where is grids used in navigation?
m) where are lambert's conformal charts used other than in aviation?
n) difference between doppler VOR and VOR?..why is doppler VOR better?
o) simple problems about deviation and variation and relative bearing
p) range of VHF- rx and tx height given
q) cp, pnr formulas
r) what is point of no continuance?
s) what is optical line of sight? (not sure about exact words- basically VHF line of
sight)
t) some question regarding the position of a bear if he travels east south
west north..what's his final position? This takes the cake
u) CANPA? CDFA?
Diff b/w ILS X & ILS Y
RVSM
RNP
ILS
DME
GPWS
INS, IRS, GPS
Working of a Servo Altimeter.
RNP/RNAV
ILS reference point
If the wavelength is 2 cm, what is the frequency?
Primary radar v/s secondary radar.
Working of weather radar.
How is cloud height calculated using weather radar?
Frequency band of SHF.
What is a BFO?
8. what is variation and deviation?
9. RVSM weather obstruction criteria?
10. Difference between RNAV and RNP?
11. Grid Mora, MOCA, MORA?
15. WHAT IS FANS
16. REQUIRED EQUIPMENT FOR RNP5. WHY IS INSTUMENTATION FOR RNO 10 MORE COMPLEX THAN
RNP 5
17 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ADEQUATE AIRPORT AND SUITABLE AIRPORT
18 OCA, MSA, CIRLING MINIMA MORA MOCA GRID MORA
19 HOW DO U NAVIGATE ON N POLE. ANS GRID NAVIGATION

What is PANOPS ON JEPP CHART.


PROCEDURE FOR AIR NAVIGATION SERVICE BASED ON DOC 7777 of iCao doc.

On charts what is the number signify


1 is ils. 3 is vor. 2 rnav app 3 vor
Scale of the chart . 1 inc 5 nm.
Freq range of loc ,gs , and vor, vhf

Maltese cross . Final app fix.

Grey part bet 1 to 5 dme. MINimum

ROD= GS X GLIDE SLOPE X 100/ 60. I in 60 rule

App lights system

Vis Req for ils , cms,

Grey box in ils. SMA SEGMENT MINIMUM ALT.

True N and mag n is variation .


Mag n and compass n is deviation.
Isogonic lines joining places of equal variation .
Isoclinic Lines joining with equal deviation
Aclinic zero Dev
Ogonic zero var

AH alteration heading = track error + closing angle


TE = dist of track/ Dist gone x 60
10 / 100 x60 = 6*
Closing angle = dist of track/ dist to go x 60 = 3*
Correction reqd = 6+3 9*

1. Diff between GPWS n EGPWS. KInd of warning EGPWS gives, how does it work
2. RNP, what exactly is that, RNP 1 better or RNP 10
3. GRID MORA on jepp chart
4. CANPA-Constant angle non precision approach
5. VOR, DVOR(Doppler VOR), NDB, which one would you prefer to use and why
6. Showed Chennai approach plate-Which type of approach is that-VOR
7. RADIO ALT
8. RVSM contingencies
9. ALL types of projections, if you are at equator which type of chart would you
use(projection type)

1. What are ILS components


my answer was (a) glide slope (b) localiser (c) marker beacon and i explained the
positioning, frequency band and few other details which they asked about these 3
components and then they asked about other components !!!! I have no idea what
"other components" should have been told

2. Tied gyro
Here let me know what is the difference between "Degrees of freedom" and "Planes of
freedom" because according to them there is nothing like "degrees" of freedom

q. How many satellites are required for RAIM?


q. What airspaces are there in India? DEFG
q. What is RVSM - what are the requirements for an aircraft to enter rvsm airspace?
q.What is RNP

- compass errors (accel/decel)


- fms and it's interfaces
- irs construction, working, limitations, relation b/w time to align vs latitude

-pitot static instruments


-explain static pressure
-TAT>OAT, why?
-explain density error
-mach meter errors
-INS setting/faliures
-Radio altimeter errors
-TCAS TA,RA range
-what is a VOLMET?
-night effect
-sidereal day
-VOR errors
-VOR tracking problem
-VOR-DME co-location criteria
-Glide Slope coverage range
-what is P RNAV
-speed to be maintained when in a DME arc
-grid mora (colours on the chart)
-RL on a Mercator
-Vref speed categories
-converting climb gradient to RoC (the examiner was looking for a rule of thumb
formula)

1) what is cp
2)what is pnr
3)factors affecting cp and pnr
4)approach plates brief gaya airports approach and questins on the approach plate
5)what is coffins corner
6)what happens to TAS AND MACH NO AS U CLIMB IN THE SAME CAS
7)WHAT IS MACH CRIT SPEED
8)what is canpa
9)what is derived decision altitude
10)what is ils and its components
11)give a brief description on mercator,polar stereographic and lamberts charts
12)what is navigation
13)what is RNP
14)diff between ins and irs
15)how will u align a ins
16)what input errors will the ins system will accept
17)what is rnav

Questions
1) Jeppesson
(a) show on the approach plate the "symbol" for RVR
transmissometer.
(b) how many RVR's are usually present along a runway?
(c) What is MEHT? (i believe it's Minimum Eye height over
Threshold)
(d) what is OCA?

2) Radio Aids and Navigation


a) explain carrier wave? can a carrier wave carry information?
b) explain Side bands?. If carrier wave is 500 hz, what are the value
of the side bands?
c) What do you know about NAT? (North Atlantic routes)
d) Explain how FMS plots it's position?
e) does FMS use great circle or rhumbline tracks?
f) ETOPS? What ETOPS req.s are 777's rated to? (ans they were
looking for is 240)
g) difference between INS and IRS?
h) ACARS? , CPDLC? , FANS?, ADS-B? (Also the frequency bands
they fall in)
i) What interface does crew use to use ACARS ? (fms etc)
j) difference between RNP and RNAV. What is ANP?
k) If an equipment fails, what do you do if you are flying an RNP
route? (ans- advise atc to estabilish clearance)
l) What is Grivation? Where is grids used in navigation?
m) where are lambert's conformal charts used other than in
aviation?
n) difference between doppler VOR and VOR?..why is doppler VOR
better?
o) simple problems about deviation and variation and relative
bearing
p) range of VHF- rx and tx height given
q) cp, pnr formulas
r) what is point of no continuance?
s) what is optical line of sight? (not sure about exact words-
basically VHF line of sight)
t) some question regarding the position of a bear if he travels east
south west north..what's his final position? This takes the cake
u) CANPA? CDFA?

CANPA
Diff b/w ILS X & ILS Y
RVSM
RNP
ILS
DME
GPWS
INS, IRS, GPS

Working of a Servo Altimeter.


RNP/RNAV
ILS reference point
If the wavelength is 2 cm, what is the frequency?
Primary radar v/s secondary radar.
Working of weather radar.
How is cloud height calculated using weather radar?
Frequency band of SHF.
What is a BFO?

1. VEGT chart difference between ILS X and ILS Y?


2. Can you do ILS approach without Glideslope? Ans.-Yes
3. Jeppesen Enroute Chart -- asked me to find a place on the chart and asked some
symbols on the chart
4. where are the standard paralles written on jeppesen enroute chart?
6. what is TODA and TORA?
7. What is the difference between Clearway and stopway?
8. what is variation and deviation?
9. RVSM weather obstruction criteria?
10. Difference between RNAV and RNP?
11. Grid Mora, MOCA, MORA?
Navigation what of parallel of latitude what are thumb lines gc
Dint seem satisfied with answers
Then what is em waves define properly and all
What are vor errors
what is dead space
what is duct propogation

Aircraft category--------Speed Range(kts)

A <91---------------------90/150
B 91/120 ---------------- 120/180
C 121/140----------------160/240
D 141/165----------------185/250
E 166/210----------------185/250

DME Arc - How to calculate the approx distance to touchdown

Approach Chart / STAR / SID


There was a chart that was for some airline / operator specific. Can some one help in
finding out what all are the symbols used for various airlines / operators.

Lots of Mental DR questions gain time / speed reqd

Airspace Classifications- what about SAR in these air spaces- Need help on this

SLOP

Aircraft like A320 have a minimum wheel clearance of 20 feet(from Wheel to


threshold)....1

From pilots eye to wheel is know in the FCOM which is 24ft in A320.....2

MEHT is basically Point 1 + Point 2 which is 45 feet

DME Arc - How to calculate the approx distance to touchdown


Join Date:
If you are on a 15 DME arc on radial 300 and final approach course is
Jul 2010
Location: 090 (along 270 radial) then approx distance to touchdown=length of
Mumbai DME arc + final approach distance = { [ 15 x (300-270) ] / 60 } + 15 =
Age: 28 22.5 nm
Posts: 120
length of arc = (pi * r * theta ) / 180 = r * theta / 60 appox
WR - principle and explain
Secondary Radar
Machmeter, why is it required, explain the functioning.
Compass errors
What is an ADC and how does it work ( inputs, outputs etc)
What is EPR and explain why it is used

its was pretty easy......quite general stuff.....in nav dey might ask u stuff frm
projections, app plates, enroute charts......ETOPS for sure, min fuel reqired for jets, diff
between alternate n suitable aerodrome, don't forget to do performance related topics
sch as C.G position effects on range, wn shud u report ATC ( variation frm filed TAS,
change in ETA at fix etc.).......effect of wt on glide .......a/s req for max glide), type of
projection on enroute chart.....etc

Draw non standard holding pattern for 300 inbound and tell all three entry points.

1. Explain RVSM. Is TCAS mandatory? If you were to fly from Bombay to London how
would you find out which airspaces mandatorily require you to have TCAS?
2. Looking at the Sunrise/Sunset table in the Jepp Manual please get the sunrise time in
Bombay for today? Is this time LMT, UTC, or IST? Please find the IST timing
3. Explain Grid MORA, Symbols - RVSM, FIR boundary, WX frequency, and Airspaces

1. CPDLC !!! (That was the first question).

2. ADS/CPDLC what is the difference.

3. Charts (MEA, MOCA, MORA, Grid MORA)

4. What type of projection ? Where is the standard Parallels ?

5. Lamberts Conical Conformal - Explain in depth.

6. What is conformal ??

7. RVSM & Requirements.

8. ETOPS.

9. Mach Meter - A thorough Explanation.

10. ASI - Explain.


11. Wx Radar failure once airborne will you return ? Monsoon has
been declared. :- Sir, if the Sig Wx Chart has any weather enroute,
it would call for any immediate return, Under what conditions will
you continue esp if its an QTA at the destination. Sir, if I will check
the enroute wx for the total flight time to and back. If no significant
Wx, I will go through my MEL. If my MEL says its an compulsory
requirement then if the aerodrome is Isolated/Non Maintenance
Equipped then I will turn back so that the airline can fix the
equipment or provide an alternate option to the PAX.
(I could see in their reaction that this was my trump card question)

12. Low Visibility Procedures !!! GUYS FOR THE FIRST TIME ON
PPRuNe.. This is being mentioned here. They are definitely asking
LVP nowadays.
After answering their question, they smiled and said, this is not
DGCA but the CAA where you are from .

13. CMV - Calculated Met Visib.

14. Slop.

1st question: what is your strongest topic??


Then followed by: personal details etc & then following:
Lambert properties
Transaverse mercator
Jeppeson chart
Performance questions
CP PNR questions
RVSM

RADIO AIDS
What is background?
What is your stringest topic?
Why should we pass you??
Then following:
DME
ILS
Transponder
INS IRS
GYROS

1) def of wavelength
2) calculate frequency, wavelength is 1.5 KM
3) draw and explain limacon
4) explain ILS
5) major draw back of ILS ( he wanted to here false glide slope interception)
6) can u do ILS approach without Outer marker
7) what should be your height at 3NM on 3deg glide slope
8) explain gyros
9) what is wonder in gyros

Gen. Nav -
2)Whats the shape of the Earth?
3)Whats is Compression?
4)Define Lat & Long verbatim
5)Define GC & Rhumb Line
6)Define Nautical Mile & Convergency
7)Projections - Whats the best?
8)Tell me everything I should know about Lamberts - Construction, Definitions,
Properties etc.
9)Jepp Charts - Definite grilling for about 10 mins on various Intricacies.
10)Whats Orthomorphism?
11)Whats Airway width on land and on water?
12)ETOPS - Quite a lot of questions there.

Radio Aids & Instrumentation -


1)Whats a wave? Whats a Radio Wave? How do I produce a radio wave?
2)A-B wave travels in 5 micro secs. Whats the dist. between A & B?
3)Describe RNAV
4)Define RNP
5)Difference between RNAV 1 & RNP-1?
6)GPS - Tell me everything about it.
7)Detail out the Errors in GPS.
8)What is RAIM?
9)IVSI - Draw and explain everything you know about it. Incl. errors.
10)What is a Gyro?
11)Properties of Gyros
12)What is Wander?
13) Explain Wander, its types, formulae to calc. Drift and Topple.
14) Formulae of Precession
15) Explain various types of Gyros.

1. SLOP
2. ASI errors
3. INS & IRS
4. Type of projection used on Jeppesen charts and where are the std Parallels mentioned
5. RVSM contingency procedures.
6. ETOPS Enroute alternate alternate Dispatch requirements.
7. ETOPS Adequate and Suitable Airfield.
8. Jeppesen Enroute charts & ILS app Charts (Why is the GS crossing Alt mentioned in
briefing?)
9. Grid MORA definition
10. ILS Categories
11. which category of ILS is the DH refered to
12. Can a wrong coordinates be fed in to the INS and will the system accept?
13. What is the MDA/ DA and what are the actions at these points.
14. CANPA & CDFA
15. What is SSB and where is it used
16. selcal HOW DOES IT WORK
17. CPDLC
18. skip distance and that happens in which band
19. Explanation for symbols on charts
20. Identify RVSM way point on
chart.http://images.ibsrv.net/ibsrv/res/sr...lies/sowee.gif

NAV
1. what is true north, magnetic north, compass north. diff b/w them all
2. define latt, long? what is prime meridian ?what is time zone?
3. which is more accurate dme-dme fix or gps fix?
4. explain rvsm. what is it? why is is needed? what are the eqpt reqd? below 290 is 1000
seperation, above 290 also 1000 ft, then why is it reduced, it is same..explain!
5. what is etops, explain in ur own words whatever u know abt it. categories?
6. explain canpa/cdfa in ur own words. how is it diff from normal non prec. approach?
7. define msa. show it in approach chart (he opens a random approach plate in the
jeppesen binder lying in front of him). where is the highest obstacle in this approach
chart?
8. tell me abt mora. which chart is it found on (enroute). what does it mean in terms of
clearance.

RADIO AIDS
1. explain working of ndb. show me with diagrams. name all the errors. explain night
effect error. explain whats happening inside the device at the loop antenna during night
error. within what dist from ndb can night error be ignored?
2. explain ils. what are the antennas used. where are they located on the ground? where
is the dme antenna placed if its ILS/DME installation. explain false glide slope. why does
it happen. how do u avoid it? how will u know when flying ils approach if u r on false
glide slope.
3. explain radar basic theory. types of radar (primary/secondary). example of primary (i
said AWR). explain working and modes of awr. what is the frequency used? why? what
are types of beams used? why? what is gain?

NAV

1. explain 1 in 60 rule, how will u apply it to get cross wind component on finals.
2. what projetion does jeppesen use? how many std parallels? where are they depicted
on the chart?
3. What all types of boundaries are shown on the charts? symbols for these
boundaries?Grid MORA- how is it calculated?
4. RNAV and RNP, definition and diffrence. RVSM contingency procedures. HOW much
difference betn capt and co-pilot altimeter is permitted to continue rvsm? why rvsm?
5. Mass and Balance - what is BOW, its significance? what is MTOW, its significance?
6. whats CANPA? diff betn DA and MDA? whats DDA? why 50 ft is added, why not 60 or
40 ft? is it same for all ac, for lighter ac it should be less?

RADIO AIDS

1. whats duct propogation? which freq band?


2. Night effect of ndb - explain? how much range reduction takes place due to this?
3. INS-principle. Gyros -explain wander
4. SELCAL -explain
5. Auto-pilot principle of operation!!!
6. whats yaw damper?!!!
7. SSB? why is it required?
8. whats amplitude and freq modulation? Give some examples of where is it used?
9. diff betn VOR and DVOR? why is it called doppler? how is freq modulation used in
DVOR?
10. why is machmeter preferred over TAS in high level navigation?
11. what SSR? diff betn mode a, c and s?
12. ASI errors, effect of diff blockages.
General Nav
1) Field limited TOW?
2)Climb limited TOW?
3)What is Climb gradient?
4) If flaps are used how would it affect the TOW?
He then got into enroute charts..Highlighted an area and told me to explain everything i
could see in that area
5)definitions-Mea, Moca, Grid Mora
6)Can Moca be less than Grid Mora? (Yes because Moca is only for the width of the
airway whereas Grid Mora is for the entire Grid)
7)Show RNAV waypoints, compulsory reporting points, flyover waypoints
8)Explain the difference between Lambert Conformal Conical Chart and Mercator
Cylindrical Projection Chart?
9)What is constant of cone? why is it used and what is its significance?
10)In lamberts if scale reduces between std parallels and is least at the parallel of origin
then why do we still use it?
11)You are the captain. You are doing an ETOPS flight. What will be your action if the
weather at the alternate falls below the ETOPS minima?
case 1- You are just about to enter the ETOPS segment
case 2- You are in ETOPS segment
12) What is adequate aerodrome and suitable aerodrome?which is better?why?

Radio Aids and instruments


1)How is IRS different from INS?
2)What is ring l@ser gyro? Draw and explain.
3)What are the errors of artificial horizon? Which type of gyro is it
4)Which type of gyro is directional gyro?
5)ASI blockage readings in climb and descent?
6)Altimeter blockage readings in climb and descent?
7)Whats the relation between frequency and wavelength?
8)What happens to speed of light as we go up? (Remains constant)
9)What happens to speed of sound as we go up?
10)Which instrument gets affected because of this?
11)If Mach no is ratio of TAS/LSS then why doesnt it get affected?
12)In LSS=38.94*sq.rt (T in degree kelvin) why is T expressed in degrees kelvin?
13)Which component gets affected more due to low temp at high altitudes static
pressure or dynamic pressure?
14)Explain the working of VOR? its limitations?
15)What is DVOR? how does it remove site error?
16)What is TCAS 2? what indications does it give?
17)What do you tell the ATC when you receive TCAS RA?
18)On what instrument do you get TCAS indications?
19)Tell me another SSR instrument onboard the aircraft? (ans. DME)
20)What are the errors of DME?
21)Which type of propagation does it use? Range given by which formula?
22) Overhead the beacon what range information will DME give?
23)Which instrument gets affected because of skywaves?How does it affect?
24)At night coverage of NDB increases or decreases? till what range? (ans. decreases.
we can use it till 70nm)
25)What is Mcrit?
26)Why is Mach no used after a certain level in climb?
27)Can we determine at what altitude will the coffins corner be by looking at IAS?

1) What is latitude, longitude, rhumb line?


2) What is earth's compression?
3) What is orthomorphism?
4) What is convergency?formula?
5) Tell me everything you know about mercator and lambert
projection? (explain everything construction, properties, shapes of
rhumb line, G.C., scale variation etc)
6) What is transverse and oblique mercator?
7) What is GPS?
8) There was a VOR approach plate, was asked to brief him the
approach.
What is the MSA, FAF?
MSA was 2600', he asked if coming inbound ATC clears you to
descend to 2600' at 26nm would you descend?(I said yes i would
descend as i am coming inbound i will enter the msa shortly. I dont
know if its correct because technically msa clears obstacles uptill
25nm only )
Tell me the missed approach procedure of this approach.
9) He took an enroute chart and asked me to locate a particular
location (jodhpur) in the chart? (ans. locate it by opening the page
where the page nos are written across the location name, eg.
jodhpur pg7c etc they want to see you do this )
And what are the standard parallels of this chart?

Thats it, you can go now

1) What is balanced field length? TODR=ASDR


2) What are the factors affecting TODR?
3) What is the MTOW for your aircraft?
4) For B737-800 and for A330, the TODR will remain the same or it is different?
5) What are the checks u do before entering EEP?
6) Why APU is mandatory? Is it a legal requirement?
7) What it does?
8) what procedure you follow in case of turbulence?
9) When you disconnect the thrust, what happens?
10) Does the MN is maintained? Or it keep changing?
11) why it is important to maintain the MN at a high altitude and not IAS?
12) what happens in case of IAS going up n down? What r ur actions?
13) what is ADC? From where does it gets input from? And where does the output go?
14) explain IRS?
15) MNPS airspace flying what RNP?
16) equipment a required for flying into MNPS airspace?
17) what is MN technic? Do we use in domestic airspace?
18) explain ILS glide path? How it works? explain how the a/c maintain the glide?
19) where is glide path located?
20) your a/c is approved for ht ILS category?
21) state ILS minima? For your a/c?
22) where you'll. find the minima for your a/c?
23) where will you find the ILS minima? Which document you'll look for?
23) what is CAR? How many sections are there?
24) If ILS fails what indication you will get?
25) what projections your enroute chart uses?
26) state important properties of enroute chart?
27) what do you mean by orthomorphic chart?
28) what is the upper limit of Lambert chart?
29) what is back course approach?
30) is your aircraft is approved for B/C?
31) what is special operations?

-errors of NDB,
- most sig error in DME
- diff between CVOR & DVOR
- define RVSM,what are the contingencies
- equipments needed for RVSM
- what is SLOP
- what is etops
- define etops entry point
- what is the diff between RNP1. & RNP 10
- what is improved climb?
- what are the departure segments
- define lda & balanced field length
- effect of take off roll in a sloped rwy.
- height of screen height for wet rwy
- lvto
- diff between IRS & INS
- how is aligning done
- what happens if wrong lat/long are put while aligning
-

1. what cg position is better forward or aft


2. explain abt ALD, LDR.
3. explain convergency angle,
4. explaing rnp, rnav
5. wht is rnp 5
6. what are Q routes (ex mum-del)

2)YOU HAVE A ENGINE FAILURE IN A 737 AFTER THAT U HAVE A RA ON YOUR TCAS
ASKING YOU TO CLIMB, WHAT WILL BE YOUR NEXT ACTION?

I had told them that if aircraft in normal conditions i would have answered the above
question but engine failure dont know sir , so then the answer they gave was U CHANGE
YOUR AIRCRAFT MODE TO TA FROM RA THEN IT ONLY TELLS YOU "TRAFFIC TRAFFIC"
AND FOR THE INTRUDER AIRCRAFT IT NOW KNOWS THAT U R NOT FOLLOWING YOUR
RA ANYMORE AND HIS RA WILL COORDINATE WITH MY AIRCRAFT
ACCORDINGLY...PHEW..

3)HOW DO YOU REDUCE ISO CLUTTER I AN AWR IN A MODERN AIRCRAFT ?


again didnt know much about it except its to do something with the swept gain , anyway
so the answer to this is THERE IS A BUTTON THE PANEL WHICH SAYS GCS GROUND
CLUTTER SUPRRESS.

4)WHAT IS SELCALL?
THIS ONE I BELIEVE MOST OF US HERE CAN ANSWER.

5)WHAT IS ELT406?
EMERGENCY LOCATOR TRANSMITTER BEACON TRANSMITTS ON 406MHZ FREQUNCY
FOR SEARCH AND RESCUE OPERATIONS.

6)WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN EGPWS AND GPWS TELL US ALL THE ALERTS ,
MODES AND WARNINGS ?
THIS IS A DIRECT QUESTION ITS DERE IN GSP AND OXFORD BOOKS ALSO REMEMBER
TO TALK ABOUT MODE 7 WHICH GIVES REACTIVE WINDSHEAR.

7)DO YOU GET A PICTURE ON YOUR AWR RADAR SCREEN OF A WINDSHEAR?


I TOLD THEM WE GET AUDIO AND VISUAL ALERTS BUT NOT SURE OF A PICTURE ON
THE AWR SCREEN.

8)ON GROUND CAN YOU SWITCH ON YOUR TCAS WHILE TAXING AND WHAT DOES IT
GIVE TA OR RA?
I TOLD THEM NOT SURE SIR ABOUT SWITCHING IT ON GROUND , THE ANSWER IS YOU
CAN SWITCH IT ON AND YOU GET ONLY TA.

rvsm.
Mnps
edto vs etops
holding patterns with speed and wind corrections
climb segments
rod calculations
atpl cross country requirement
enroute charts '
taxi charts '

I gave both, but cleared only Nav, there were two people on the panel. I was asked the
following

MNPS: where do they exist, I had read only about NAT MNPS so told them Atlantic
Ocean,but he wasn't satisfied

Difference between RNAV and RNP

In Dubai if we lose RVSM capability and are out of radar coverage how much will we
have to deviate to get out of the airway? I don't know the answer to this one, please let
me know. I said it should be 15nm but he said we will get into another airway.

Going from Bom to Cok out of radar coverage have to deviate 50nm due weather will we
climb or descend?

Can we fly Anoli1A if we do not have gps?

Variation line in Jeppesen

If we have blocked AOA probes what do we do to ADR? A320 question

If we enter a speed lower than green dot in the fmgs will the aircraft decelerate?

On a 3 degree GP what is our height at 4.5 nm

What is the ROD on a 4 degree GP if GS is 120kt? I couldn't get this one either, please
let me know
Guys, can anyone please answer this question for me.
Is Site error in DVOR zero or simply less than site error in CVOR.
If it is zero, how?
Thank you so much.

I was also asked


1. Altimeters
2. VOR
3. MNPS
4. RVSM
5. ADF ERRORS.

1. 3 nm in on 3 deg ILS, what is your height.


2. Established on ILS , G/S goes out, what will you do?
3. Advantages of IRS
4. CP, PNR
5. Difference between RNAV and RNP approaches
6. How does aircraft maintain an RNP 0.5 approach/Track
7. Can IRS be aligned in air? And why?
8. What will you do if you loose IRS data in flight?
9. What is more accurate, DME approach or GPS approach?
10. How does FMS generate aircraft's position?

TPL Radio Aids VIVA Question asked on 17/09/2013 at Delhi 1) which aircraft are you
flying? What radio aids you have in your airplane 2) explain difference between DVOR and
VOR 3) How site error is removed in DVOR? 4) explain Doppler principle 5) how NDB
works explain with diagram 6) how ADF works? Lots of question on loop aerial 7) explain
loop aerial theory with diagram for ADF what's EGPWS? 9) how EGPWS works and can
give u terrain information which is ahead of u 10) explain all modes of EGPWS 11) mode 1
of EGPWS effective upto what height 12) what is GPS and what information you will receive
in GPS signal 13) why you need more than one satellite to know your position explain with
diagram 14) what is ILS and what are the errors of ILS? 15) what is false glide slope? These
were the question asked to me.....some questions which were asked to other pilots 1) what is
TCAS ? 2) if 4-5 aircraft in collision course how many aircraft will get RA? 3) how many
aircraft TCAS can display 4) you are getting wind shear, RA, and GPWS at same time how
and which will you prioritise and why? 5) NDB errors 6) GPS errors

what is a chart projection? what projection used in the en route chart ? what about its scale
and where does the scale hold gud for the chart ? Questions on Jeppesen MORA.....Why
Mora in magenta colour? Standard Parallel .. uses of lambert Variation near mumbai Zigdex
feature RNP /RNAV Full detail of RVSM Absolute ceiling INS/IRS.

Some more ATPL Oral Questions for today GENERAL NAVIGATION 1. Jeppesen enroute
charts: Why is localizer symbol not given at Mumbai airfield? How to find out elevation and
runway length? How to locate a particular chart? 2. RVSM: What is it? Instrumentation
required for it. Why is RVSM not used above FL410? What will you do in case of RVSM
equipment failure? Can ATC ask you to maintain RVSM even when you have a failure? 3.
What is FMC? 4. What is a balanced field? Clearway, stopway? 5. Wet runway, how does V1
change? 6. What is MZFW? Does it include unusable fuel? What is payload? How to
calculate payload from AUW? 7. What is RTOW? RADIO AIDS & INSTRUMENTS 1.
Practical questions on VOR radial and interception. What is QDM and QDR? What does
NDB give you? 2. Principle of ADF, NDB and errors. What is scalloping? How
would you know if an NDB is suffering from scalloping in flight? 3. AWR principle. 4. What
is secondary radar? Examples of secondary radar? Modes of transponders and their
differences? 5. What is difference between GPWS and EGPWS? 6. What is predictive
windshear? Can EGPWS give predicative windshear? What equipment can u use to predict
windshear? 7. What is TCAS? TCAS I vs TCAS II? What are TA and RA? How does TCAS
work? 8. INS/IRS

This is not a mock/guess paper. Every topic Question is given in Oxford and GSP. 1.
Wavelength Frequency relationship. 2. AM FM meaning 3. Advantages of sidebands,
Reduction in used power. 4. Coastal Error,(Bending across coast),Ways to reduce it. 5. Radar
Range Formula 6. Critical Angle(Sky wave),Frequency at night. 7. HF/MF depends on time
of day or season 8. In HF, freq - range relation 9. AWR Mapping , Track ,QTE bearing to
ground feature calculation. 10.RMI /RBI If any Quadrantal effect on them. 11.Erratic
readings(INS) means outside range or not in protected range. 12.VOR/DVOR signal is FM or
AM? Rotates clockwise or anticlockwise. 13. Control Wheel Steering Autopilot(read in
detail) 14.VOR reverse indications.(TO/FROM & Needle) 15.ILS LOC,G/S signals VHF or
UHF. 16.ILS If ac in Blue/Yellow Sector what its meaning

17.ILS Markers(Colour & Audio codes) 18.ILS Max Safe deviation 19.ILS LOC, G/S,
Markers coverage limits.(In Range,azimuth nd vertically) 20.ASDE radar wavelength? 21.
Primary Radar range formula 22.PRF,PW,BW ,Range and resolution relation. 23.Doppler
Radar,benefit Of CW.Min Range? Max Range? 24.Is SSR primary or secondary radar. 25.2d
Nav ,phantom waypoint,Tracking info? 26.Cosecant Squared beam in AWR??Principle ,
Swept Gain and range. 27.Colour Codes for AWR screen 28.Position Error in Doppler.
29.DME priniple/frequency. 30.Long /short term stability inputs in RNAV. 31.TCASII RA or
TA vertical or horizontal? 32.SSR Identification codes Transponder. 33.TCAS voice
commands 34.GPWS/EGPWS inputs 35.GPWS Modes in detail(Alert & Warnings) with
altitude and configuration. 36.Pitot/Static blockage (sideslip)problems in ASI VSI and
Altimeter.Position Error 37.IVSI principle,sensitivity nd errors 38.Machmeter
Principle,Varying TAS,CAS,LSS, Mno with altitude numericals 39.EGT,Thermocouple
principle(in parallel or series) 40.Density and True altitude problems based on QFE QNH
QNE etc 41.Gyro - principle Rigidity nd Precission. 42.Topple Drift Apparent Real wander
numericals 43.Rate of turn Radius of turn AoB numericals 44.IRS/INS principle(no of
acclerometer/gyros) 45.Compass Errors(Accn & Turning),Liquid Swirl, Magnetic Dip.

Please go through every MCQ behind the Oxford Radio Aids nd Instruments
book............................. Good Luck

NAV n Radio both

1.Diff between GPWS n EGPWS. KInd of warning EGPWS gives, how does it work

2.RNP, what exactly is that, RNP 1 better or RNP 10

3.GRID MORA on jepp chart

4.CANPA-Constant angle non precision approach

5.VOR, DVOR(Doppler VOR), NDB, which one would you prefer to use and why
6.RADIO ALT

7.RVSM contingencies

8.ALL types of projections, if you are at equator which type of chart would
youuse(projection type)

9.What are ILS components

10.Gyro

11.What airspaces are there in India?

12.How many satellites are required for RAIM?

13.Diff b/w ILS X & ILS Y

14.Instruments VOR, NDB, DME, INS, IRS, GPS, Working of a Servo Altimeter,TCAS

15.ILS reference point

16.degrees of freedom is plane of freedom

17.TCAS TA,RA range - Forward Range for TCAS 2 = 40 Nm

18.Speed to be maintained in a DME arc = 230 KIAS

19.TODA and TORA / Clearway and stopway

20.Can you do ILS approach without Glideslope? Ans.-Yes

21.What is the required instrumentation for RVSM?

22.If a pilot is unable to maintain RVSM, what is the RT phraseology?

23.What is ETOPS, Different extensions available

24.Questions on runway lighting (from jeppesons)

25.Questions on runway marking (Jeppesons)

26.Radio failure procedure in Radar, Non-Radar and during a SID

27.Requirements for ILS Cat IIIb? What DH and RVR requirement for cat IIIb

28.Is middle marker mandatory for ILS approaches

NO

29.-Marker Locators(NDB co-located with the fan markers)


30.Outer marker – colour of visual lighting, frequency, morse code and distance

31.Wind shear mode in GPWS. What is predictive wind shear

32.If you are navigating using triple INS and if all three fail, how will you navigate.

GPS

33.What is CANPA? How is it useful?

34.Why is 50 feet added to MDA to calculate DDH in a CANPA approach?

35.Why is 50 feet not added to the DH in an ILS approach if the same if done for aCANPA
approach to calculate the DDH? (ILS more accurate and inline with r/wcenter line)

36.What is FANS?

37.What is RNP? Required equipment for RNP-521.Why is the instrumentation for RNP-10
more complex than RNP-5?

38.ETOPS: What is the difference between adequate airport and suitable airport?

39.What is MORA? How is MORA calculated?

40.What is mountainous area?

41.Questions on lighting in TVASI, Pulsating VASI

42.ILS error

43.How do you carry out a CANPA approach if FAF is not published? How is
theFAFcrossing height calculated?

44.How is the height of cloud base calculated using weather radar?

45.Frequency of operation, working of weather radar?

46.In NDB chart for Runway 07 chennai, visibility minima for cat c and cat d aircraftis
published as 3400 and 5000 m respectively. If

prevailing visibility is3400 m, canthe approach be carried out for a cat b category aircraft?

47.VOR interception angles while going outbound and inbound to a station

48.Working of GPS35.Questions on WAAS and LAAS36.Questions on type of FMSaboard


the aircraft you fly

49.How do you navigate to the north pole(the answer examiners are looking for
isgridnavigation)
50.In Chennai, what is the direction of the runway slope? (the whole idea issupposedly to
check if you are familiar with the aerodrome you operate out of)

51.Why is circle to land operations not allowed south of RWY 27 in Mumbai?

52.If the wavelength is 2 cm, what is the frequency?

53.Primary radar v/s secondary radar.

54.Working of weather radar.

55.How is cloud height calculated using weather radar?

56.Frequency band of SHF.

57.What is a BFO?

58.Construction of various Instrument like ASI, IVSI, Mack Meter, etc

59.Fail Passive and Fail Operational App.

60.Difference between tcas i and tcas ii. What type is on you’re a/c. also what versionof
TCAS used TCAS 7.0?

61.What is TAU in terms of TCAS(The estimated time in wich a intruder aircraft becomes a
thread is called TAU.There is a different TAU value for TA as there is for RA because the
RA range issmaller)TauTCAS primarily uses time-to-go to CPA rather than distance to
determine when aTA or an RA should be issued. The time to CPA is called the range tau and
the timeto co-altitude is called the vertical tau. Tau is an approximation of the time,
inseconds, to CPA or to the aircraft being at the same altitude. CPA (Closest Point of
Approach)

62.What is TAWS, FANS?

63.They ask me on B777 where is the EGT sensor located…. As in have u ever physically
seen it ???? of course they were Airbus guys asking wrong question!!!

64.How does GPS give positions information?

65.Difference between Predicted Wind shear (PWS) and Reactive Wind shear whichone is
given by weather radar and which one by EGPWS?

66. What is the difference between RNAV 1 and RNP1?

67 In en-route charts, why some airports doesnt have localiser symbol, even though airport
has ILS facility.Ans: 2 . The localiser symbol is only printed for facilities which are used for
enroute navigation.

68 Who issued the MOCA which is depicted on enroute chart ( jeppesen or state authority, ?
how can we find out this? )Ans: The MOCA is issued by the state authority.
.

Also question about Minimum Navigation performance specification

1. ILS full description 2. Vor 3. Modulation...am n fm 4. Asked to calculate frequency n


range 5. Gyros...its properties...types of gyro 6. Asi principle n workin 7. Types of speed...cas
ras eas tas 8. Wats tas n how to calculate groundspeed 9. Gps and dgps 10. Wats
geostationary orbit 11. Wats gagan 12. Accelerometers

1- Difference between RNAV and RNP, what are Q routes 2-Long Range Navigation
Systems in B787 3-Surface, Sky and Ground Waves 4-Layers of Ionosphere and why do they
shift diurnally 5-Duct Propagation 6-ILS sensitive and critical area 7-Changes in TCAS voice
callouts >("Adjust vertical Speed" changed to "Level Off") 8-Working of IRS

* NDB and VOR , polar diagram , GPS and DGPS , RNAV , ANP , PBN , RNP . Radio
waves , and why particular frequency is use for particular nav

NAV n Radio both

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Diff between GPWS n EGPWS. KInd of warning EGPWS gives, how does it work RNP,
what exactly is that, RNP 1 better or RNP 10
GRID MORA on jepp chart
CANPA-Constant angle non precision approach

VOR, DVOR(Doppler VOR), NDB, which one would you prefer to use and why RADIO
ALT
RVSM contingencies
ALL types of projections, if you are at equator which type of chart would you use(projection
type)

9.

10. Gyro
11. What airspaces are there in India?
12. How many satellites are required for RAIM?
13. Diff b/w ILS X & ILS Y
14. Instruments VOR, NDB, DME, INS, IRS, GPS, Working of a Servo Altimeter,

TCAS

15. ILS reference point


16. degrees of freedom is plane of freedom
17. TCAS TA,RA range - Forward Range for TCAS 2 = 40 Nm
18. Speed to be maintained in a DME arc = 230 KIAS
19. TODA and TORA / Clearway and stopway
20. Can you do ILS approach without Glideslope? Ans.-Yes
21. What is the required instrumentation for RVSM?
22. If a pilot is unable to maintain RVSM, what is the RT phraseology?
23. What is ETOPS, Different extensions available
24. Questions on runway lighting (from jeppesons)
25. Questions on runway marking (Jeppesons)
26. Radio failure procedure in Radar, Non-Radar and during a SID
27. Requirements for ILS Cat IIIb? What DH and RVR requirement for cat IIIb
28. Is middle marker mandatory for ILS approaches NO
29. -Marker Locators(NDB co-located with the fan markers)
30. Outer marker – colour of visual lighting, frequency, morse code and distance
31. Wind shear mode in GPWS. What is predictive wind shear
32. If you are navigating using triple INS and if all three fail, how will you navigate.

GPS

33. What is CANPA? How is it useful?


34. Why is 50 feet added to MDA to calculate DDH in a CANPA approach?
35. Why is 50 feet not added to the DH in an ILS approach if the same if done for a

CANPA approach to calculate the DDH? (ILS more accurate and inline with r/w

center line)

36. What is FANS?


37. What is RNP? Required equipment for RNP-521.Why is the instrumentation for

RNP-10 more complex than RNP-5?

What are ILS components

38. ETOPS: What is the difference between adequate airport and suitable airport?
39. What is MORA? How is MORA calculated?
40. What is mountainous area?
41. Questions on lighting in TVASI, Pulsating VASI
42. ILS error
43. How do you carry out a CANPA approach if FAF is not published? How is theFAF

crossing height calculated?

44. How is the height of cloud base calculated using weather radar?
45. Frequency of operation, working of weather radar?
46. In NDB chart for Runway 07 chennai, visibility minima for cat c and cat d aircraft

is published as 3400 and 5000 m respectively. If prevailing visibility is3400 m, can

the approach be carried out for a cat b category aircraft?

47. VOR interception angles while going outbound and inbound to a station
48. Working of GPS35.Questions on WAAS and LAAS36.Questions on type of FMS

aboard the aircraft you fly


49. How do you navigate to the north pole(the answer examiners are looking for isgrid

navigation)

50. In Chennai, what is the direction of the runway slope? (the whole idea is

supposedly to check if you are familiar with the aerodrome you operate out of)

51. Why is circle to land operations not allowed south of RWY 27 in Mumbai?
52. If the wavelength is 2 cm, what is the frequency?
53. Primary radar v/s secondary radar.
54. Working of weather radar.
55. How is cloud height calculated using weather radar?
56. Frequency band of SHF.
57. What is a BFO?
58. Construction of various Instrument like ASI, IVSI, Mack Meter, etc
59. Fail Passive and Fail Operational App.
60. Difference between tcas i and tcas ii. What type is on you’re a/c. also what version

of TCAS used TCAS 7.0?

61. What is TAU in terms of TCAS

(The estimated time in wich a intruder aircraft becomes a thread is called TAU. There
is a different TAU value for TA as there is for RA because the RA range is smaller)
Tau

TCAS primarily uses time-to-go to CPA rather than distance to determine when a TA
or an RA should be issued. The time to CPA is called the range tau and the time to co-
altitude is called the vertical tau. Tau is an approximation of the time, in seconds, to
CPA or to the aircraft being at the same altitude. CPA (Closest Point of Approach)

62. What is TAWS, FANS?


63. They ask me on B777 where is the EGT sensor located.... As in have u ever

physically seen it ???? of course they were Airbus guys asking wrong question!!!

64. How does GPS give positions information?


65. Difference between Predicted Wind shear (PWS) and Reactive Wind shear which

one is given by weather radar and which one by EGPWS?

66.

Future Air Navigation System

The Future Air Navigation System (FANS) is an avionics system which provides direct data
link communication between the pilot and the Air Traffic Controller. The communications
include air traffic control clearances, pilot requests and position reporting
FANS-1 and 2 by Boieing FANS-A and B by Airbus FANS-1/A common

The ILS Has Five Components


Part 1 the Localizer

The localizer at departure end of runway provides lateral references. Frequencies are 108.l by odd tenths to 111.9. It is
identified by "I" (..) as first of four letters. Fan width varies from 3 to 6 degrees and may not be aligned with the runway. It is
useable within 35 degrees of course. An LDA’s range of tolerance is identical to that of the ILS’s but is more likely to be in
the 6 degree range. It is 4 times more sensitive than VORs. One degree of localizer fan sensitivity is only 25' at one mile.
Back course should not be used for navigation unless authorized. An ADF (simplified directional facility) is fixed at either 6
or 12 degrees, whichever is best at the site.

Part 2 the Glide Slope

The glide slope is abeam 1000' marker of runway and provides threshold crossing height (TCH). It is not useable if crossing
threshold below 50'. The course width of the glide slope is 1.4 degrees. Useable course distance is 10 nautical miles.

On the glide slope approach will give a touchdown at 1000' markers. UHF frequencies at 330 paired with localizer. Same
angle as VASI. The reason for a glide slope interception altitude is because of higher "false slopes". May have DME but
more often not. (see Reno). No levelling off at decision height (DH). Reverse sensing on back course standard VOR but not
on HSI.

The glide slope angle is usually 3 degrees. You can determine the descent rate of the 3 degree slope by using the charts in
Jeppesen or a rule of thumb based on your ground speed. The thumb rule is good for practice. Multiply your ground speed
by 5 and add 50. (90 kts x 5 + 50 = 500 (Should be 485)

Part 3 Outer marker

You cannot fly an ILS if the outer marker is out and no other authorized definition/substitution for the fix exists. AIM 1010
and FAR 91.175(k) The outer marker is five miles from runway. It is the Blue light. Interception of ILS glide slope may be
before, at or after OM. ILS final approach fix often is different from localizer only approach. Timing of localizer approach is
always from OM as the non-precision FAF. Put this altitude into your need to know approach checklist. ILS Outer Marker
(OM) is fan-shaped across ILS localizer course about 4 1/2 miles from approach end of runway.

In the United States, the outer marker has often been combined with an NDB to make a Locator Outer Marker (LOM). Some
ILS approaches have no navigation aid at all situated at the final approach fix, but use other means, such as VOR radial
intersections, distance measuring equipment (DME), GPS, or radar fixes, to identify the position.

Part 4 the Middle marker (amber)

A point on the ILS glide slope Final altimeter check. MM should be part of briefing. The middle marker is 1/2 (3500 feet)
mile from runway at decision height which is typically 200' AGL above TDZ. MM inoperative does not change minimums
as of 1993. Check the marker crossing altitude as an altimeter check. The middle marker is not a required component for full
ILS minimums nor the localizer. The Inner Marker (IM) is fan shaped across ILS localizer course about 1/2 mile from
approach end of runway. On a back-course the marker, if used, is white. The traditional inner marker is becoming obsolete.
Removal of the inner marker does not affect minimums.

Up until the 1970s there were still LF/MF four course radio ranges in use known as radio range, Adcock range, standard
radio range, A/N range and L/MF range. The range uses a 200-425 kilocycle (Hertz) signal to provide course guidance
through the ADF. These ranges are still in use worldwide. Older aircraft will have an "Airway Marker Beacon" light along
with Outer and Inner marker lights which transmit on 75 megacycles (Hertz) to provide definite position information.

Marker Beacons

Fan Marker:
100 watts power with 3000 cps (cycle per second) tone emitted in a fan shape three miles wide and 12 miles across an
airway.

Dumbbell Marker
Same as fan marker but narrow middle is only 1-1/2 miles wide. Z Marker (Station Locator Marker)

Located at radio range site and identifies centre of range. (cone of silence).

Part 5 Approach Lighting System (ALS)

(See AIM for variations)


MALSR and SSALR have runway alignment lights (R means runway) MALS and SSALS do NOT have runway alignment
lights

Approach Lights

Approach lights define the runway threshold. With approach lights an NDB can have minimums of 3/4-mile with 250’
height above touchdown (HAT). Approach lights do not affect DA or MDA just visibility. Any loss of approach lighting will
increase visibility minimums from 1/4 to 1/2-mile.

(ODALS) Omni-directional approach light system gives 1/4 mile credit.


(MALS) Medium intensity approach light system of 1400’ likewise.
(SALS) Simplified approach light system 1200’+ light-bar likewise.
(SSALR/MASR) Simplified short approach light system, sequenced flashing lights and medium approach light system

from 1400’ to 2400’ NDB gets 1/4 mile credit while other non-precision get 1/2 mile.
(ALSF-1) Highest standard of non-precision approach lighting with sequenced flashers (‘the rabbit’) extending to 3000’

gives 1/2-mile credit. Has red termination bar. 5-levels of brightness. RAILS (ALSF-1) Like ALSF-1 but has red side row
bars and low/high modes.