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MARINE TERMINAL DESIGN PRACTICES

GANGWAYS FOR SHIP / SHORE ACCESS Section Page


EXXON XXXI-N 1 of 17
ENGINEERING Date
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CONTENTS
Section Page

SCOPE ............................................................................................................................................................ 3

REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................................ 3

INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................. 3

TYPES OF SHORE BASED GANGWAYS ..................................................................................................... 3


MOBILE GANGWAY SYSTEMS............................................................................................................. 3
Conventional ........................................................................................................................................ 3
Platform Mounted................................................................................................................................. 3
Carriage Mounted ................................................................................................................................ 3
STATIONARY GANGWAY SYSTEMS ................................................................................................... 3
Column Mounted.................................................................................................................................. 3
Tower Mounted .................................................................................................................................... 4
Shore Accommodation Ladder............................................................................................................. 4

SELECTION OF A GANGWAY SYSTEM..................................................................................................... 12


GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS............................................................................................................ 12
DESIGN OPERATING ENVELOPE ...................................................................................................... 12

DESIGN CRITERIA....................................................................................................................................... 15
GENERAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS ................................................................................................ 15
LOAD CONDITIONS............................................................................................................................. 15
Self-Weight Load................................................................................................................................ 15
Live Load ........................................................................................................................................... 15
Wind Load.......................................................................................................................................... 15
Earthquake Load................................................................................................................................ 16
MATERIALS.......................................................................................................................................... 16

MANEUVERING AND CONTROL SYSTEMS .............................................................................................. 16

ELECTRICAL ISOLATION ........................................................................................................................... 17

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TABLES
Table 1 Types Of Gangway Systems ........................................................................................... 4
Table 2 Types of Gangway Loads.............................................................................................. 15

FIGURES
Figure 1 Conventional Gangway ................................................................................................... 5
Figure 2 Platform Mounted Mobile Gangway................................................................................. 6
Figure 3 Carriage Mounted Mobile Gangway With Track Parallel To Pier Face............................ 7
Figure 4 Carriage Mounted Mobile Gangway With Track Perpendicular To Pier Face.................. 8
Figure 5 Side-Mounted, Shore Accommodation Ladder................................................................ 9
Figure 6 Front-Mounted Shore Accommodation Ladder................................................................ 9
Figure 7 Column Mounted Gangway ........................................................................................... 10
Figure 8 Tower Mounted Gangway.............................................................................................. 11
Figure 9 Basic Gangway Operating Envelope ............................................................................. 13
Figure 10 Design Operating Envelope Data .................................................................................. 14

Revision Memo
12/99 Original Issue of Design Practice XXXI-N

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GANGWAYS FOR SHIP / SHORE ACCESS Section Page
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SCOPE
This design practice covers shore based gangway systems for use at conventional marine piers and sea islands to allow
personnel to safely and efficiently pass between moored vessels and shore side facilities. Procedures are provided for
calculating the required operating envelope for gangways serving various sized vessels and discusses the necessary
requirements that should be included in a gangway Design Basis Memorandum or Design Specification. This design practice
does not cover detailed gangway design, fabrication, or installation.

REFERENCES
EE.10TT.78, Shore Based Gangway Systems, June, 1978
International Safety Guide for Oil Tankers & Terminals (ISGOTT), 4th Ed., 1996

INTRODUCTION
Marine terminal operations require that shore personnel periodically board vessels at their terminal. For example, after the
vessel first moors, the berth operator or another appropriate shore representative boards the vessel to complete a ship/shore
safety checklist and to conduct a pre-cargo transfer conference. While the vessel is at the berth, shore personnel will periodically
board the vessel to recheck certain items on the ship/shore safety checklist. Shore personnel also are typically involved in
measuring and sampling the vessel's cargo tanks at certain times in the cargo transfer procedure.
Either a ship mounted or shore based gangway can be used to provide a means for personnel to pass between a moored ship
and the deck of a conventional pier or sea island. Every ship will have some form of gangway. Larger vessels, normally those
above 10,000 dwt, will have a permanently mounted, power operated gangway. Smaller vessels and barges may only carry a
manual gangway.
However, ship gangway systems can be operationally limited due to design, damage, equipment malfunction, or space limitations
on the berth deck to land the gangway. In addition, local tidal conditions or the overall pier layout may restrict the use of the
ship's gangway. For these reasons, new Exxon terminals should include a shore-based gangway as part of the design basis.

TYPES OF SHORE BASED GANGWAYS


Shore gangway systems can generally fall into one of two categories depending on how the onshore end of the gangway is fixed
to the berth: "mobile systems" and "stationary gangway systems". Brief descriptions of each type of system are given below.

MOBILE GANGWAY SYSTEMS

Conventional
The simplest type of gangway system, consisting of a fixed length walkway with handrails and wheels or a roller on the shore end
with wheels or gunwale clips at the ship end. Moved about manually or with the assistance of a shore crane.

Platform Mounted
A gangway attached to a tower that is mounted on a platform supported by wheels. The wheels of the platform may be powered,
or the structure may be pulled about the pier deck by a small, motorized vehicle. The gangway is normally controlled by a
hydraulic piston between the tower and the underside of the gangway.

Carriage Mounted
Consists of a conventional type gangway with the shore end attached to a carriage, which moves on tracks either parallel or
perpendicular to the pier face. Normally positioned with the assistance of a shore crane.

STATIONARY GANGWAY SYSTEMS

Column Mounted
The most versatile type of gangway system, consisting of a telescopic gangway with it onshore end connected to the top of a
column fixed to the pier deck. Column mounted gangways are usually provided with self-leveling steps which allow safe access
for gangway inclinations up to 50 - 55 degrees.

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TYPES OF SHORE BASED GANGWAYS (Cont)

Tower Mounted
The most sophisticated and expensive type of gangway system, consisting of a fixed length or telescopic gangway connected to
a carriage mounted on vertical tracks secured to the face of a tower. The gangway can be raised or lowered to any stage (floor)
of the tower to minimize the gangway angle with the vessel deck.

Shore Accommodation Ladder


Basically a ship's accommodation ladder permanently mounted on the pier deck. Provides a good solution for providing access
to small vessel decks that are always below the pier deck elevation. The gangway is raised and lowered by its own motorized
derrick. This system is unique in that the ship end does not actually sit on the vessel deck. Rather it is held alongside the vessel
at the proper elevation by the gangway derrick. The operator must be periodically reposition the gangway as the vessel changes
draft or the tide changes the vessel deck elevation relative to the pier deck.
Table 1 lists the various types of gangway systems, the range of vessel sizes they can typical accommodate, and their
advantages and disadvantages. A more detailed description of each type of gangway system can be found in ER&E Report,
EE.10TT.78, Shore Based Gangway Systems, June 1978.

TABLE 1
TYPES OF GANGWAY SYSTEMS

TYPICAL RANGE OF
TYPE ILLUSTRATION ADVANTAGE DISADVANTAGE
SHIP SIZE(1)
Conventional (Mobile Figure 1 0.5 kdwt - 1 kdwt Low cost, easy Long lengths required for
System) 1 kdwt - 5 kdwt maneuverability, and vessels with high freeboard
5 kdwt - 20 kdwt Minimal Maintenance relative to pier deck.
20 kdwt -50 kdwt Not practical when vessel
deck below pier deck
Platform Mounted Figure 2 10 kdwt - 50 kdwt Easily positioned to avoid Requires very large pier deck
(Mobile System) 50 kdwt - 100 kdwt vessel deck obstructions if area for operation and
sufficient pier space stowage
available to maneuver
gangway
Carriage Mounted with Figure 3 10 kdwt - 50 kdwt Easily positioned to avoid May interfere with cargo
Track Parallel to Pier 50 kdwt - 100 kdwt vessel deck obstructions transfer equipment
Face (Mobile System)
Carriage Mounted with Figure 4 10 kdwt - 50 kdwt No pier deck space required Allowable slew motions may
Track Perpendicular to 50 kdwt - 100 kdwt for operation and stowage be limited when vessel deck
Pier Face, Attached to below pier deck
Side of Pier (Mobile
system)
Shore Accommodation Figure 5 0.5 kdwt - 1 kdwt Simple to operate, quickly Limited to small vessels with
Ladder (Stationary 1 kdwt - 5 kdwt positioned, and avoids decks below the pier deck.
System) obstructions on vessel deck Must be periodically
repositioned
Column Mounted Figure 6 10 kdwt - 50 kdwt Simple to operate, quickly Relatively high foundation
(Stationary System) 50 kdwt - 100 kdwt positioned, and easy to loads, personnel must always
100 kdwt - 500 kdwt avoid obstructions on climb to top of column, even
vessel deck when vessel deck elevation is
below pier deck
Tower Mounted Figure 7 100 kdwt - 500 kdwt Simple to operate, quickly High cost.
(Stationary System) positioned, and easy to Most maintenance intensive
avoid obstructions on option
vessel deck.
Gangway inclinations can
be kept to a minimum by
raising or lowing carriage on
tower
Note: (1) Different size or length of gangway required for each ship range

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TYPES OF SHORE BASED GANGWAYS (Cont)

FIGURE 1
CONVENTIONAL GANGWAY

Handrails

Rollers/
Wheels
Gunwale
Clips Or
Onshore End Offshore End Rollers/ Wheels

ELEVATION

Steps Or Walkway

PLAN
DP31Nf01

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TYPES OF SHORE BASED GANGWAYS (Cont)

FIGURE 2
PLATFORM MOUNTED MOBILE GANGWAY

Hydraulic Slewing Mechanism Control Unit

Stairway

Hydraulic Luffing Ram

Fixed-Length Gangway

Bulwark Ladder
DP31Nf02

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TYPES OF SHORE BASED GANGWAYS (Cont)

FIGURE 3
CARRIAGE MOUNTED MOBILE GANGWAY WITH TRACK PARALLEL TO PIER FACE

Fore & Aft Travel of Carriage-Gangway Unit

Carriage
Pier
Track Deck
Pier
Pier Deck
Face

Fender Fender

Ship High and Fender


Fixed-Length Gangway Low Deck Levels

Ship Railing SIDE

Ship Deck Bulwark Ladder

FRONT

Access Ladder

Tracks

Pier Face
Fender Fender

Ship
Deck
PLAN DP31Nf03

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TYPES OF SHORE BASED GANGWAYS (Cont)

FIGURE 4
CARRIAGE MOUNTED MOBILE GANGWAY WITH TRACK PERPENDICULAR TO PIER FACE

Shore Crane

Bulwark Ladder

Fixed-Length Gangway Max. Ship Deck Level

Pier

Access Ship Side


Pier Stairway
Breasting
Line Side Ship
Railing

Ship Track
Railing Ship Deck
Pier Side Carriage
Min. Ship Deck Level
Carriage
Ship
Fender
Fender Deflection Drift
Fender

PLAN
SIDE
DP31Nf04

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TYPES OF SHORE BASED GANGWAYS (Cont)

FIGURE 5
SIDE-MOUNTED, SHORE ACCOMMODATION LADDER

FIGURE 6
FRONT-MOUNTED SHORE ACCOMMODATION LADDER

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TYPES OF SHORE BASED GANGWAYS (Cont)

FIGURE 7
COLUMN MOUNTED GANGWAY

Max. Ship
Deck Level

Telescopic Gangway

Access Stairway

Pier Deck

Fixed Column

Min. Ship
Deck Level
DP31Nf07 Fender

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TYPES OF SHORE BASED GANGWAYS (Cont)

FIGURE 8
TOWER MOUNTED GANGWAY

Crane
Ship Side
Fire Fighting
Equipment
Ship Railing

Carriage
Gangway Control Unit

Max. Ship
Deck Level Vertical
Tracks Tower Stairway

Fixed-Length or Telescopic
Gangway Gangway Control
Unit

Breasting
Line Turntable
Ship Deck

Pier Deck

Tower Fixed Fender


To Pier Deck
Bulwark Ladder

Ship
Railing
Min. Ship
PLAN
Pier
Deck Level

Fender
Drift Off
SIDE DP31NF08

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SELECTION OF A GANGWAY SYSTEM

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
Because of the wide variety of gangways available, and the specialty nature of gangway design, it is normal practice to prepare a
gangway "Duty Specification" and allow a number of vendors to propose the design that they believe will best meet the facility
needs. For a new facility for 10 kdwt vessels and larger, the column mounted gangway will often end up being the system of
choice. Experience has shown that this type of gangway is highly reliable, can easily accommodate a large operating envelope,
and can be used with a wide variety of vessel types and sizes.
Ship/shore access for smaller vessels can be more complex, sometimes requiring that two separate gangways be provided, one
for use when the vessel deck is below the pier deck, and one for use when the vessel deck is above the pier deck. In this case, a
conventional gangway may be specified for use when the vessel deck is at or above the pier deck, and a shore accommodation
type gangway installed for use when the vessel deck is below the pier deck. For locations where there is negligible tidal range
(an infrequent occurrence), a small column mounted gangway can be used for vessels less than 10 kdwt.
When selecting a gangway for existing facilities, the space available and the load carrying capacity of the pier deck are the most
significant factors effecting the choice of gangway. Detailed drawings of the pier should be provided to the vendor illustrating the
open areas on the pier for locating a shore-based gangway. A vendor may be able to use existing structures and equipment on
the pier deck, such as a hose tower or shore crane, in the gangway design. The dimensions, locations on the pier, and design
load capacities of such structures and equipment should be given to the vendor. The use of existing structures or equipment
may lower the total investment cost for a gangway. However, checks must be made to insure that the existing structures or
equipment have adequate capacity for the additional loads imposed by the gangway.

DESIGN OPERATING ENVELOPE


The operating envelope of a gangway significantly influences the type and design of gangway that might be proposed by a
vendor. A shore-based gangway operating envelope is defined as that volume in space within which the ship's end of the
gangway must be able to operate. At all positions within the envelope, the gangway must clear the ship's rail. The operating
envelope takes into consideration the maximum and minimum freeboard of the maximum and minimum sized ship (based on tidal
variations and changes in ship draft), as well as a safety allowance for ship surge along the pier face and drift away from the pier.
A basic gangway operating envelope is shown in Figure 9. The specific information that defines the operating envelope is shown
in Figure 10. If a shore accommodation ladder, as shown in Figure 5, is used, only the upper and lower bounds of the envelope
need be considered, as this type of gangway does not actually cross over the ship's rail.

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SELECTION OF A GANGWAY SYSTEM (Cont)

FIGURE 9
BASIC GANGWAY OPERATING ENVELOPE

Working Envelope

C
L Drift
Envelope

Plan
View

C
L

Surge
Allowance

Gangway

Elevation
View

Drift
Envelope

Berth

Working Envelope DP31Nf09

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SELECTION OF A GANGWAY SYSTEM (Cont)

FIGURE 10
DESIGN OPERATING ENVELOPE DATA

Largest Ship's
Main Deck

Shore Gangway 5

6 7

Operating
Envelope 2

Smallest Ship's
Main Deck

Beth Platform

4 3

1
H.H.W.

L.L.W.

1. Height of Plaform Deck Above low Water (LLW)


2. Maximum Height of Vessel Deck (Largest Vessel) above High High Water (HHW)
3. Minimum Height of Vessel Deck (Smallest Vessel) above Low Low Water (LLW)
4. Fender Depth (Vessel Standoff from Berth Face)
5. Height of Ship's Rail
6. Gangway Operating Allowance
7. Gangway Drift Allowance DP31Nf10

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SELECTION OF A GANGWAY SYSTEM (Cont)


The height of the berth platform deck above low, low water, fender depth, and water level elevations should be readily available
from the berth elevation drawings or can be requested directly from the operating affiliate. The height of the ship's rail is normally
taken as 1.2 meters and is not normally a function of ship size. Gangway drift allowance is normally taken as 3 m (10 ft) in all
directions (off the berth and both forward and aft surge along the berth).
The gangway operating allowance is dependent on the size of the vessel and can vary significantly from one vessel size to
another. It is important to discuss this variable with the operating affiliate and the operating affiliate's marine depart. If
international ships are to use the berth, discussions should also be held with Standard Marine Services, Ltd., Exxon's Marine Skill
Center in Southampton, U.K. For U.S.A. terminals, discussions should be held with SeaRiver Maritime, Inc., Exxon's U.S. based
shipping company.

DESIGN CRITERIA

GENERAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS


Gangways must provide safe footing at all operating inclinations. Generally, gangways should not be used at angles of
inclination greater than 35 degrees. At sites that require a greater angle of inclination than 35 degrees, a powered gangway with
"self-leveling steps" should be provided.
All gangways should meet the following general design criteria:
a. Minimum walkway width of 2 ft (0.6 m) for gangways less than 13 ft (4 m) in length and 3.2 ft (1 m) width for longer
gangways
b. Continuous handrail height of 3.9 ft (1.2 m), including the "step-down" from the gangway walkway to the vessel deck (if
provided)
c. Store behind deflected fender face
d. Designed for a specified operating envelope

LOAD CONDITIONS
There are four load sources that must be considered in the design of a marine gangway as listed in Table 2. The basis for the
selection of these loads must be developed during the design basis memorandum or design specification preparation phase of a
project.

TABLE 2 - TYPES OF GANGWAY LOADS

TYPE OF LOAD ABBREVIATION


Self-Weight Load DL
Live Load LL
Wind Load WL
Earthquake Load EL

Self-Weight Load
Self-Weight Load is the gravity loading acting on the mass of the individual components and members that make up the complete
gangway.
For gangways to be installed in locations that experience ambient temperatures below freezing, the self weight load should
include a specified ice build up (ice specific gravity = 0.80) of at least I inch (2.5 mm). For arms to be installed in areas of
especially severe cold weather conditions, additional ice build up may be specified after consultation with the operating affiliate or
local project team.

Live Load
Live loading (personnel using the gangway) only applies to the operating load condition. All gangway walkways should be
designed for a minimum operating load of 50 psf (2.4 kN/m2). Handrails should be designed for a load of 25 psf (1.2 kN/m2).

Wind Load
Wind load is the air pressure due to wind acting on the surface of the gangway (including any ice build-up). The wind pressures
should be based on the calculation procedures in IP 4-1-5, Wind Design Loads, and ASCE 7, Minimum Design Loads for
Buildings and Other Structures.

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DESIGN CRITERIA (Cont)


Wind loading is based on the design wind (fastest mile wind speed) which has been established for the site. The magnitude of
the wind pressure also depends on the surface roughness and topography of the site, and the geometric shape and height of the
gangway. A listing of design wind speeds for worldwide locations is provided in Section XXIX-A. These design wind speeds are
applicable only when the gangway is in the stored position.
The selection of the maximum wind speed for the gangway in the operating condition (maneuvering or resting on the ship's deck)
is usually set by the operating affiliate. Often this value is taken as 56 mph (25 m/sec). However, In all cases the operating wind
speed should be higher than the mooring system wind limit to insure the safety of shore personnel who may need to board the
vessel to disconnect loading arms or hoses in high wind conditions.
The velocity exposure coefficient, Kz used in ASCE 7 takes into account changes in wind speed with height above ground and
with the nature of the surroundings (types of terrain). The wind speed varies with height because of ground friction, and the
amount of friction varies with ground roughness. Marine terminal facilities are generally considered to be located in areas having
surface roughness characteristic similar to one of two ASCE 7 Exposure categories:
1. Exposure D – Flat, unobstructed areas directly exposed to wind flowing over large bodies of water (greater than 1
mile wide); and extending inland 1500 ft (457 m) from the shoreline.
2. Exposure C – Flat, open terrain with scattered obstructions having heights generally less than 30 ft (9 m).
The majority of marine terminals are located in Exposure D terrain. Exposure C should only be used for those sites that are
surrounded on all sides by the appropriate terrain conditions such as a river terminal located some considerable distance inland
from the sea.
A wind pressure, height variation formula must be included in the gangway design specification to allow the manufacturer to
calculate the wind pressure at various elevation of the gangway. Depending on the exposure category selected, one of the
following equations should be specified:
Exposure D PZ = P33 (0.696) (Z)2/10 ≥ 0.86 P33

Exposure C PZ = P33 (0.369) (Z)2/7 ≥ 0.8 P33


where: PZ = wind pressure at Z ft above lowest low water, psf (Pa)
Z = height above lowest low water, ft (m)

Earthquake Load
Earthquake Load is the load generated due to rapid horizontal motions of the gangway structure base of the due to ground
movement in an earthquake. The magnitude of earthquake for which the gangway must be designed is described in terms of a
Seismic Coefficient. Offsites Design Practice XXIX-J, Seismic Design should be consulted to determine the appropriate
Seismic Coefficient to specify in the marine loading arm design specification

MATERIALS
Gangways may be constructed in steel, aluminum, or a combination of steel and aluminum. Usual practice is to construct
manual gangways entirely from aluminum. Aluminum manual gangways designed for small vessels are often light enough to be
handled by one or two men. Manual gangways constructed in steel are acceptable, but are usually too heavy to be moved by
hand, and therefore often require a crane to maneuver them onto or off of a vessel.
Powered gangway support structures are usually constructed in steel, with the walkway from the support structure to the ship
constructed in aluminum to minimize the gravity loading applied to the support structure and the size of the hydraulic control
system required to maneuver the walkway to and from the vessel. Where steel and aluminum is used in combination, special
care must be taken at the interface of the two materials to avoid the potential for "galvanic" corrosion.

MANEUVERING AND CONTROL SYSTEMS


Powered gangways may be maneuvered by a variety of means. Both column mounted gangways and tower mounted gangways
are classified as stationary systems. Only the actual walkway to the ship is maneuvered. The walkway of a column mounted
gangway is normally maneuvered with large diameter hydraulic pistons. The walkway of a tower mounted gangway uses a
system of winches and lifting cables. The winches are often electrically driven, but may be hydraulic or air driven.
Mobile gangway systems, such as a platform mounted gangway, normally have less sophisticated maneuvering and control
systems. A typical platform mounted gangway is moved about the berth deck by a small, motorized vehicle such as a "fort lift"
truck. Alternatively, platform mounted gangways have been provided with electrically driven wheels.

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MANEUVERING AND CONTROL SYSTEMS (Cont)


Control systems for powered gangways may be either electro-hydraulic or totally hydraulic. Electro-hydraulic systems are more
expensive but provide more reliability and less maintenance. Typically, selection of powered gangway operating systems is left
to the vendor to propose as part of the bid documentation.
Powered gangways should provide for control of all motions of the gangway (luffing, slewing, telescoping, and transversing). To
provide an adequate factor of safety, the hydraulic components of the gangway maneuvering and control system should be sized
taking into account accelerative loads and 110% of the operating design wind load.

ELECTRICAL ISOLATION
The underside of aluminum gangways should be protected with a hard plastic or wooden strip to prevent the gangway from
becoming an electrical path between the ship and shore. If wheels are fitted at one end of the gangway, they should be made of
a non-conductive material such as hard rubber.
Aluminum is an excellent conductor of electricity. It is important to prevent an electrical path through the gangway to avoid
potential sparking when setting or removing the gangway from the ship. An electrical connection between the ship and the shore
can also cause a large drain on the terminal's cathodic protection system. Electrical isolation, including the design of gangways
to avoid creating an electrical path between the ship and shore, is discussed in more detail in Section XXXI-J, Ship-To-Shore
Electrical Isolation.
In addition to the above, aluminum equipment dragged or rubbed across rusty steel may leave a smear. If a dropped steel
object, such as a tool for example, strikes this smear, an incendive spark can be generated.

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