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Engineers in Society

NCB40102

TOPIC 4
Commitment to Safety

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Definitions

– freedom from danger, risks & injury


– the condition of being protected from or
unlikely to cause from danger, risks &
injury

 Health - defined as the state of physical well being of a worker


or an employee
 Hazard - is anything with the potential to cause harm or
damage
i. Chemical Hazard iv. Ergonomics Hazard
ii. Physical Hazard v. Psychological Hazard
iii. Biological Hazard

 Security - protection of employees


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and organizational facilities
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Definitions

 Occupational Safety – the protection of people from


physical injury
 Occupational Health – the protection of the bodies and
minds of people from illness

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Definitions…

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Definitions…

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Importance of
Safety & Health

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Importance of
Safety & Health
 Decrease staff turnover & maintain work harmony
 Having a safe & conducive working place
 Reduce cost of injuries & illness, medical & hospitalization cost
 Minimal property & equipment damage / lost
 Fewer stoppage / production delays, higher output, better
quality of product / services
 Minimizes penalties through compliance with the laws &
regulations
 Avoid / reduce times, liability suit & penalty from authorities
 Avoid tarnishing & damaging organizational image
 Avoid excessive investigations & waste of precious time
 Reduce risk premiums
 Secure investors confidence & investment
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Occupational
Safety & Health

 Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) is defined by World


Health Organization (WHO) as:

i. The promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of


physical, mental and the social well being of workers in all
occupations.
ii. The prevention of worker departures from health
deterioration caused by their employment
iii. The protection of workers in the employment from risks
resulting factors adverse to their health.
iv. The placing and maintenance of the worker in an
occupational environment adopted to his physiological and
psychological ability, and to summarize.
v. The adaptation of work to man and each man to work.

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Occupational
Safety & Health

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Benefits of
Effective OSH
 Reduce injuries & illnesses
 Improve morale & productivity
 Reduce workers’ compensation costs
 Show good faith efforts

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Benefits of
Effective OSH

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Indicators of
Performance OSH

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Safety
Commitment

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Safety
Commitment

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Safety Management
System

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OSHA
Project Execution

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Safety Policy
Statement

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Safety Policy

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Poor Working
Conditions…
 Have the potential to affect a worker's health and safety.
 Unhealthy or unsafe working conditions are not limited to factories —
they can be found anywhere, whether the workplace is indoors or
outdoors.
 Many workers, such as agricultural workers or miners, the workplace is
“outdoors” and can pose many health and safety hazards.
 Affect the environment workers live in, since the working and living
environments are the same for many workers. This means that
occupational hazards can have harmful effects on workers, their families,
and other people in the community, as well as on the physical
environment around the workplace.
 Overall, efforts in occupational health and safety must aim to prevent
industrial accidents and diseases, and at the same time recognize the
connection between worker health and safety, the workplace, and the
environment outside the workplace. 20 2/28/2018
Accidents are
Costly!
Sometimes just can’t afford to have accidents…

i. Bhopal Chemical Accident


• 40 tons Methyl Isocynate escape
• Immediate cause : 500L leakage
• Erupts and release fumes
• 3000 died : respiratory failure
• 500,000 suffer aftermath
• USD470mil spent

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Accidents are
Costly!
ii. Piper Alpha Disaster
• World’s most famous oil rig disaster in
North Sea 1988
• 167 out of 229 people died
• initial explosion followed by a fierce fire
which, in turn, triggered off a further
series of explosions
• “Jump and try or fry and die.”
• Flames could be seen 100km away
• Cause of death 109 out of 137 recovered
bodies inhalation of smoke & fire. Few
died of burns.

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Accidents are
Costly!
iii. Flixborough, England, June 1974
• Company: Flixborough Works of Nypro Ltd.
• Product: cyclohexane – highly flammable
• 6 reactors in series, total capacity 120 tons.
• Fire and explosion – over than 10 days
• 28 people died & 36 others were injured.
• 53 civilians were reported injury
• Damage: entire plant, 1821 nearby houses &
167 shops and factories.

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Accidents are
Costly!
iv. Chernobyl, April 26, 1986
 Runaway Reaction Leading to
 01:23:48 1st thermal explosion
 01:23:55 2nd explosion
 Direct Casualties
 31 employees and firefighters died
 134 emergency workers suffered
from acute radiation sickness
 Indirect Casualties
 By the year 2000 there were 1800
case of thyroid cancer in children
and adolescent
 High number of suicide and violent
death among Firemen, policemen,
and other recovery workers
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Accidents are
iv. Chernobyl, April 26, 1986 Costly!

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Accidents are
Costly!
Bright Sparklers, Sg. Buloh, May 1991
• Fireworks factory located at Sungai Buloh,
• installation of the firework factory on
agricultural land.
• importing the raw materials without an
authorization or license,
• storing of the explosive materials without
license, and exporting the fireworks products
without license.
• operating the factory without manufacturing
license.
• The factory was located in an agriculture area
about 30ft away from a residential area
• The fireworks’ raw materials and the finished
products were stored at the factory
• The fireworks were assembled by hand and
tested in the factory 26 2/28/2018
Costs of Occupational
Injury/Disease
 How much does an
occupational disease or
accident cost?
 Direct Cost
 Indirect Cost
 What is the aftermath
disaster and future of victims

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Costs of Occupational
Injury/Disease
Unseen costs
can sink the
ship! Direct -
Insured Costs
average to close a claim = ?

Indirect - Uninsured, hidden Costs - Out of


pocket
estimated average = ?

1. Human Tragedy
Unknown Costs - 28 2. Morale 2/28/2018

3. Reputation
Costs of Occupational
Injury/Disease

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Costs of Occupational
Injury/Disease

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Accidents are
Costly!

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Accidents are
Costly!

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Accidents are
Costly!

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Accidents are
Costly!

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Accidents are
Costly!

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Accidents are
Costly!

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Costs of Occupational
Injury/Disease
 Work-related accidents or diseases are very costly and can have many
serious direct and indirect effects on the lives of workers and their
families. For workers some of the direct costs of an injury or illness are:

i. the pain and suffering of the injury or illness;


ii. the loss of income;
iii. the possible loss of a job;
iv. health-care costs.

 It has been estimated that the indirect costs of an accident or illness can
be four to ten times greater than the direct costs, or even more. An
occupational illness or accident can have so many indirect costs to
workers that it is often difficult to measure them. One of the most
obvious indirect costs is the human suffering caused to workers'
families, which cannot be compensated with money.
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Costs of Occupational
Injury/Disease
The costs to employers of occupational accidents or illnesses are also
estimated to be enormous. For a small business, the cost of even one
accident can be a financial disaster. For employers, some of the direct
costs are:
i. payment for work not performed;
ii. medical and compensation payments;
iii. repair or replacement of damaged machinery and equipment;
iv. reduction or a temporary halt in production;
v. Increased training expenses and administration costs;
vi. possible reduction in the quality of work;
vii. negative effect on morale in other workers.

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Costs of Occupational
Injury/Disease

i. Some of the indirect costs for employers are:


ii. the injured/ill worker has to be replaced.
iii. a new worker has to be trained and given time to adjust.
iv. it takes time before the new worker is producing at the rate of the
original worker.
v. time must be devoted to obligatory investigations, to the writing
of reports and filling out of forms;
vi. accidents often arouse the concern of fellow workers and
influence labour relations in a negative way.
vii. poor health and safety conditions in the workplace can also result
in poor public relations.
viii. Overall, the costs of most work-related accidents or illnesses to
workers and their families and to employers are very high.

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Occupational
Safety & Health Risk

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Occupational
Safety & Health Risk
The Human Factors
Accident Causation Inappropriate
 A person misjudged the
activities
Theory degree of Risk in a given task
and then performed the task
on that misjudgment

Inappropriate
Overload
response/
 Natural ability incompatibility
 Stress
 Physical condition  A person detected a
 Unclear instructions 41 hazardous condition but
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took no corrective action
Managing Occupational
Safety & Health Risk

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Managing Occupational
Safety & Health Risk

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Akta Keselamatan & Kesihatan Pekerjaan 1994
- Akta 514 -
(OSHA 1994)

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OSHA 1994
The objects of this Act are:-
a) To secure the safety, health and welfare of persons at work
against risks to safety or health arising out the activities of
persons at work.
b) To protect persons at a place of work other than persons at
work against risks to safety or health arising out the activities
of persons at work
c) To promote an occupational environment for persons at work
which is adapted to their physiological and psychological
needs
d) To provide the means whereby the associated occupational
safety and health legislations may be progressively replaced by
a system of regulations and approved industry codes of
practice operating in combination with the provisions of this
Act designed to maintain or improve
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the standards of safety2/28/2018
and health.
Industries Under
OSHA
Apply throughout Malaysia to the industries as follows:
» Manufacturing;
» Mining and Quarrying;
» Construction;
» Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing;
» Utilities such as Electricity, Gas, Water and Sanitary Services;
» Transport, Storage and Communication;
» Wholesale and Retail Trades;
» Hotels and Restaurants;
» Finance, Insurance, Real Estate and Business Services
» Public Services and Statutory Authorities
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Exception of
OSHA
» Not applicable to work on board ships governed by the
Merchant Shipping Ordinance 1952, the Merchant Shipping
Ordinance 1960 of Sabah and Sarawak
» Not applicable to armed forces
» This Law is in addition to previous law pertaining to
occupational safety and health. If there is any conflict, this
Law shall supersede the previous law.

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OSHA 1994

PART IV

Sec. 15. General duties of employers and self-employed persons to


their employees

Section 15 is one of the most important sections in the Act. It states


the general duties of employers and self employed persons to
their employees.

(1) It shall be the duty of every employer and every self-employed


person to ensure, so far as is practicable, the safety, health and
welfare at work 48of all his employees. 2/28/2018
PART IV OSHA 1994
15. General duties of employers and self-employed persons to their employees

(2) Without prejudice to the generality of subsection (1), the matters to which the duty extends
include in particular—
a) the provision and maintenance of plant and systems of work that are, so far as is
practicable, safe and without risks to health;
b) the making of arrangements for ensuring, so far as is practicable, safety and absence of
risks to health in connection with the use or operation, handling, storage and transport of
plant and substances;
c) the provision of such information, instruction, training and supervision as is necessary to
ensure, so far as is practicable, the safety and health at work of his employees;
d) so far as is practicable, as regards any place of work under the control of the employer
or self-employed person, the maintenance of it in a condition that is safe and without risks
to health and the provision and maintenance of the means of access to and egress from it
that are safe and without such risks;
e) the provision and maintenance of a working environment for his employees that is, so
far as is practicable, safe, without risks to health,
49 and adequate as regards facilities for
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their welfare at work.
OSHA 1994

PART IV
16. Duty to formulate safety and health policy

Except in such cases as may be prescribed, it shall be the duty of


every employer and every self-employed person to prepare and as
often as may be appropriate revise a written statement of his
general policy with respect to the safety and health at work of his
employees and the organization and arrangements for the time
being in force for carrying out that policy, and to bring the
statement and any revision of it to the notice of all of his employees.

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OSHA 1994

PART IV
17. General duties of employers and self-employed persons to
persons other than their employees

(1) It shall be the duty of every employer and every self-employed


person to conduct his undertaking in such a manner as to ensure, so
far as is practicable, that he and other
persons, not being his employees, who may be affected thereby are
not thereby exposed to risks to their safety or health.

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OSHA 1994

19. Penalty for an offence under section 15, 16, 17 or 18

A person who contravenes the provisions of section 15, 16, 17 or


18 shall be guilty of an offence and shall, on conviction, be liable
to a fine not exceeding fifty thousand ringgit or to
imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years or to both.

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OSHA 1994
PART VI
General Duties of Employees
Part VI provides general duties of employees at work.

24. General duties of employees at work


This section provides for general duties of employees at work.
These duties bear criminal sanction for non-compliance and
therefore an employee who fails to comply with it may be
prosecuted.
(1) It shall be the duty of every employee while at work—
(a) to take reasonable care for the safety and health of himself and of
other persons who may be affected 53
by his acts or omissions at work;
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OSHA 1994
PART VI
General Duties of Employees
Part VI provides general duties of employees at work.

24. General duties of employees at work


(b) to co-operate with his employer or any other person in the
discharge of any duty or requirement imposed on the employer or
that other person by this Act or any regulation made thereunder;
(c) to wear or use at all times any protective equipment or clothing
provided by the employer for the purpose of preventing risks to his
safety and health; and
(d) to comply with any instruction or measure on occupational safety
and health instituted by his employer or any other person by or
under this Act or any regulation54made thereunder. 2/28/2018
OSHA 1994

PART VI
General Duties of Employees
Part VI provides general duties of employees at work.

24. General duties of employees at work


(b) to co-operate with his employer or any other person in the
discharge of any duty or requirement imposed on the employer or
that other person by this Act or any regulation made thereunder;
(c) to wear or use at all times any protective equipment or clothing
provided by the employer for the purpose of preventing risks to his
safety and health; and
(d) to comply with any instruction or measure on occupational safety
and health instituted by his employer or any other person by or
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under this Act or any regulation made thereunder.
OSHA 1994

PART VII
Safety and Health Organizations
30. Establishment of safety and health committee at place of work
(1) Every employer shall establish a safety and health committee at the
place of work in accordance with this section if—
(a) there are forty or more persons employed at the place of work;
or
(b) the Director General directs the establishment of such a
committee at the place of work.

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OSHA 1994
PART VII
Safety and Health organisations
30. Establishment of safety and health committee at place of work
(2) The composition of a safety and health committee established under
subsection (1), the election or appointment of persons to the committee, the
powers of the members of the committee and any other matter relating to the
establishment or procedure of the committee shall be as prescribed.
(3) Every employer shall consult a safety and health committee with a view to
the making and maintenance of arrangements which will enable him and his
employees to co-operate effectively in promoting and developing measures to
ensure the safety and health at the place of work of the employees, and in
checking the effectiveness of such measures.
(4) A person who contravenes the provisions of this section shall be guilty of an
offence and shall, on conviction, be liable to a fine not exceeding five thousand
ringgit or to imprisonment for a term57not exceeding six months or to both. 2/28/2018
OSHA 1994

PART VII
Safety and Health organisations
31. Functions of safety and health committee
The safety and health committee established at a place of work pursuant
to section 30—
(a) shall keep under review the measures taken to ensure the safety and
health of persons at the place of work;
(b) shall investigate any matter at the place of work—
(i) which a member of the committee or a person employed thereat
considers is not safe or is a risk to health; and
(ii) which has been brought to the attention of the employer;
(c) shall attempt to resolve any matter referred to in paragraph (b) and,
if it is unable to do so, shall request the Director General to
undertake an inspection of the 58
place of work for that purpose; 2/28/2018
and
(d) shall have such other functions as may be prescribed.
Impact of OSHA
to Organization
• Potential reduction in the number of accidents
• Potential reduction in downtime and associated costs
• Demonstration of legal and regulatory compliance
• Demonstration to stakeholders of your commitment to health and
safety
• Demonstration of an innovative and forward thinking approach
• Increased access to new customers and business partners
• Better management of health and safety risks, now and in the
Future
• Potential reduced public liability insurance costs

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