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Bengali assume a name (Rohingya) !

iuဟင&ဂ()သမiuင&,

!iuဟင&ဂ()သမiuင&, မသieသ,သ.မ(),အတ1က& လ.အခ1င&5အeရ,ကiu ဘန&,9ပ;ပ<, !iuဟင&ဂ()အမည&9ဖင&5 9မန&မ)?iuင&င@ကiu ဖA5ထuတ&ရန&Cကiu,စ),


eနFကသည&။

၁၄၀၄-ခu eလ,;မiueခတ&၌ မင&,eစ)မ1န& ဘuရင&လက&ထက& ရခiuင&5ဘu ရင&5?iuင&င@eတ)& ကiu ဗမ)ဘuရင&သiမ&,ပiuက&သ9ဖင&5 ရခiuင&ဘuရင& မင&,
eစ)မ1န&သည& ဘဂNလ),eဒသ Pi eဂQလ&eဒ သ သiu ထ1က&e9ပ,တiမ&,eP)င&ခA5ရသည&။

eဂQလ&ကeက)င&, မ1န&စ1) လက&ခ@ခA5သည&။ ဘဂNလ),eဂQလ& ဆ.လ


တန& ဘuရင&၏ အက.အည<9ဖင&5 ရခiuင&ထ<,နန&,ကiu အရယ.ခA5ရသည&။
eအဒ< ၁၄၃၀-တ1င& e9မ)က& ဦ,;မiu တည& ၍ e9မ)က&ဦ,eခတ&ကiu
စတင& တည&eထ)င&ခA5ပQသည&။

e9မ)က&ဦ,eခတ&တ1င& ရခiuင&5 တပ&မeတ)&၌ အ)ရပ& မY စစ& သည&


eတ)&မ(),၊ ဥeရ)ပမY eပ\တ.ဂ<မ(),?Yင&5 ဂ(ပန&တiuပQအမ]eတ)&တမ&,ခA5
သည&ကiueတ1^Piရ သည&။ ယင&, အ)ရပ& မYစစ&သည&eတ)& မ(iu,ဆက&
အမ(),စuမY) သ@တ1A၊ ရမ&,;ဗAက_န&,?Yင&5 e9မ)က&ဦ,;မiu ပတ&ဝန&,က(င&
တ1င& eန ထiuင&FကပQ သည&။ ယင&,တiuကiuရခiuင&တiuက ကမန&ဟu eခ\
eဝ\;ပ<, ရခiuင&9ပည&၌ တiuင&,ရင&,သ), မ(iu,?1ယ& စu အ9ဖစ& အသi အမYတ&
9ပu ထ),ပQသည&။

ယင&,မ.ဆလင& ဘ)သ)ဝင& ကမန&တiuသည& ရခiuင&9ပည& ၌ 9ပဿ


န)ဖ န& တ<,9ခင&,၊ ရခiuင& တiu?Yင&5 ဘ)သ)eရ, အဓiက!uဏ&,၊ လ.မ(iu,eရ,
အဓiက!uဏ&, ဖန&တ<,9ခင&,မ(iu,ကiu လu@,ဝ9ပu လuပ&9ခင&, မ PiဘA၊ ရခiuင&9ပည&နYင&5 ရခiuင& လ.မ(iu, အeပ\ သစd)PiPi9ဖင&5 ရခiuင&တiu?Yင&5 eအ,အတ.
ပ.အမe ;ငiမ&,ခ(မ&, စ1) eန ထiuင& လ)ခA5Fကeသ) လ.မ(iu, တမ(iu,9ဖစ&eသ) eFက)င&5 ရခiuင&9ပည&၌ ဤကA5သiu မ.ဆလင& ဘ)သ)ကiu,က1ယ&
eသ) ရ ခiuင& တiuင&,ရင&, သ), ကမန&လ.မ(iu, Piသည&ကiuပင&သတi9ပu မiFကဖ.,မည& မဟuတ&eပ။

သiueသ)& မiမiကiuမiမi !iuဟင& ဂ() ဟu egက,eFက)&eနသ.မ(),မY) ၁၈၂၅-eန)က&ပiuင&, ရခiuင&ကiu အဂNလiပ&တiu သiမ&,ပiuက&;ပ<,မY ဝင&eရ)က&
လ)eသ) မ.ဆ လင& ဘ)သ) ကiu,က1ယ&သည&5 စစ&တeက)င&,eတ)င&,တန&,eန ဘဂNလ<မ(),သ) 9ဖစ&သည&။ ၁၈၂၅- တ1င& ရခiuင&9ပည& ၌
မ.ဆလင&ဦ,eရ ၃၀,၀၀၀ PiခA5ရ)မY ၁၉၃၀ 9ပည&5တ1င& ၂၁၇၈၀၀-PiခA5ရ) ;ဗiတiသeအစiu,ရက မ.ဆ လင&ဦ,eရ တiu,လ)မ]ကiစdကiu စiu,ရiမ&
လ)eသ)eFက)င&5 အe9ခအeနစu@စမ&,ရန& ၁၉၃၉ ၌စu@စမ&,eရ,eက)&မPင& တခu ဖ1A^စည&,eပ,ခA5သည&။ eက)&မPင&က မ.ဆလင&ဦ,eရ
အတ),အဆ<,မPi တiu,ဝင&လ)မ]ကiu မဟန&mတ), ပQ က eန)င&အခQ၌ လ.မ(iu,eရ, ပဋiပကoမ(), 9ဖစ&?iuင&eFက)င&, အစ<ရင&ခ@ခA5eသ)&လည&,
ဒuတiယ ကမ p)စစ&eFက)င&5 မည&သiuမe မလuပ&?iuင&ခA5eပ။ အစ<ရင&ခ@သည&5 အတiuင&,ပင& ၁၉၄၂-တ1င& ကuလ),-ရခiuင&အဓiက !uဏ&, 9ဖစ& ခA5
eလသည&။

eမ)င&eတ);မiuနယ&Pi ရခiuင&ရ1)အ), လu@, ဖ(က&ဆ<,ခ@ရသည&။ ရခiuင&တခ(iuမY) 9ပည&တ1င&,သiuဝင&;ပ<,၊ တခ(iu မY) အဂNလiပ&ပiuင&နက& ဒiန&န)ဂ(&
ပ.သiuထ1က&e9ပ,ခA5Fကရ သည&။ ၁၉၄၂-ဂ(ပန&မ(),ဝင&လ)eသ)အခQ ရခiuင&မ(),ကiu သတ&9ဖတ&ခA5eသ) ကuလ),အဖ1A^သည& ဘ)သ)eရ,အ
သ1င&e9ပ)င&,က) ဂ(eမယ)တ. အiuလမ)အသင&, ဖ1A^စည&,Fကသည&။ အဖ1A^ဥကq ဌမY) အu@eမ)&မ() (ဘ<eအဘ<အယ&လ&) 9ဖစ&သည&။ အu@eမ)&
မ(), အဖ1A^ သည& အeန)က& ပQကiစdတန&မY eအ)&လန)မ.ဟ)မတ& မ.ဇဟတ&ခန&?Yင&5 eမ)&န)အ<9ဗ)ဟiန&, တiuကiueခ\၍ မ.ဂ() ဟiန&, အဖ1A^ ဖ1A^
စည&,Fကသည&။ ပQကiစdတန&နယ&သiu ရခiuင&9ပည&ထည&5သ1င&,eရ, အစ<စt&ပင&9ဖစ&သည&။
စစ&eရ, အရ 9မန&မ)စစ&တပ&?Yင&5 မယYt&;ပiuင&?iuင&eသ) မ.ဂ()ဟiန&,တiuသည& အ9ခ), တiuင&,ရင&,သ),မ(),နည&,တ. အခ1င&5 အeရ, ရလiu၍
မစdတ)eဂ\ဖ),က !iuဟင&ဂ()ဟ.eသ) လ.မ(iu,သစ&တခuကiu ၁၉၅၀- စက&တင&ဘ)လထuတ& ဂQဒ<,ယန&, သတင&,စ)တ1င& အသက&သ1င&,ခA5
သည&။ သiueသ)& ၁၉၅၁- ဇ1န&လတ1င&က(င&,ပခA5eသ) အလယ& သ@eက()& မ.ဆလင&ည<လ)ခ@ကမ. !iuဟင&ဂ()မဟuတ&ဘA ဗမ) မ.ဆလင&
ကA5သiu ရခiuင&မ.ဆလင& လ.မ(iu, ဟu eခ\eဝ\ ရန& ဆu@,9ဖတ& ခA5Fကသည&။

ရခiuင&တiuက ငQတiuရခiuင&တ1င& မ.ဆလင& ဘ)သ)ဝင& မPiဟu e9ပ)လ)Fကeသ)အခQ !iuဟင&ဂ() ဘက&သiu eဖQက&ထ1က&ရန& ထ1က&eပQက&P)
လ)Fကသည&။ ၁၉၆၀-ပတ&ဝန&,က(င&တ1င& !iuဟင&ဂ() သတင&, စ)၊ ရန&ကuန&တကq သiuလ& !iuဟင&ဂ() eက()င&,သ),အသင&,ထi လ]ပ&P),
လ)ခA5Fကသည&။
၁၃၊ ၅၊ ၈၈ - eနmက eမ)င&eတ);မiuနယ&တ1င& အလ1န& eFက)က&မက&ဖ1ယ&eက)င&,eသ) ကuလ),လ]ပ&P),မ]တခu9ဖစ&ပ1), ခA5 သည&။
ကuလ), ၅၀၀၀၀-ခန&mသည& eမ)င&eတ);မiuကiu အရပ&Pစ&မ(က&?Y)မY ဝiuင&,;ပ<,ဟစ&eအ)&egက,eFက)& မ<,vi သတ&9ဖတ& ရန&ခ(<တက&လ)ခA5
Fကသည&။ လ]ပ&P),မ]မY) ညeနPစ&န)ရ<ခ1AမY eန)က& တeနmန@နက& ၃-န)ရ<ခ1Aအထi Fက)ခA5 သည&။

သ.တiu ဘ)သ)စက),9ဖင&5 ဘuရ),သခင& အလiuက(တiuက&ပ1Aဝင&Fက၊ မင&,တiu တiuင&,9ပည&ငQတiu တiuင&,9ပည& 9ဖစ&ရမည&ဟ.၍ ဟစ&eအ)&Fက


သည&။ ၁၉၄၂ မတiuင&မY<က eမ)င&eတ);မiuနယ&အတ1င&, တည&Pi ခA5eသ) ရခiuင&ရ1)eပQင&, ၁၉၅-ရ1)မY) ၁၉၉၂ တ1င& ၄၆ ရ1)သ) က(န&ပQ
eတ)သည&။ က(န&ရ1)မ(),အ), မ.ဆလင& မ(),က လ.ဦ,eရအသ)စ<,ရမ]9ဖင&5 သiမ&,ပiuက&ခA5FကပQသည&။ ဤသည&မY) !iuဟiန&ဂ() ဆiu
သ.မ(),eပ\eပQက&လ)ပu@ သမiuင&, အက(t&,9ဖစ&သည&။

လက&Piအ9ဖစ&အပ(က&မ(),?Yင&5 တiuက&ဆiuင&၍ eအ)က& ပQ eဆ)င&,ပQ,9ဖင&5 eခ( ပတင&9ပလiuက&ရပQသည&။ လiမ&လည&9ခင&,?Yင&5 ဟန&eဆ)


င&9ခင&,eန)က&က1ယ&မY !iuဟiန&်ဂ() ဟ.eသ)အသ@သည& ၁၉၈၈ လ.ထuအu@-gကမ]?Yင&5 ၁၉၉၀ eရ1,eက)က&ပ1Aeန)က&ပiuင&, eအ)&Cက<,ဟစ&
က(ယ&ထ1က& eပ\လ)မ] ?Yင&5အတ. “!iuဟiန&်ဂ()အမည&ခ@” ဘဂNလ<မ.ဆလင&မ(),၏ စတန&mထ1င&လuပ&ဇ)တ&ခင&,မ]မ(),လည&,Media မ(),မY
တဆင&5 ပလ.ပ(@ထ1က&eပ\လ)ပQသည&၊၊

မiမiတiu၏သမiuင&,မYန&၊ 9ဖစ&ရပ&မYန&မ(),ကiu ဖuန&,က1ယ&၍ သမiuင&,လiမ&၊ 9ဖစ&ရပ&လiမ&မ(), အစ),ထiu,တင&9ပက) “!iuဟiန&်ဂ()” အမည&ကiu


သu@,၍ လ.မ(iu,သစ&ဖန&တ<,eရ,?Yင&5 ?iuင&င@သစ&ထ.eထ)င&eရ,လuပ& ငန&,မ(), စနစ&တက( အက1က&ခ( လuပ&ကiuင&လ)FကပQသည&၊၊ မYတ&မiသ
eလ)က&၊ ၁၉၉၀ eရ1,eက)က&ပ1Aတ1င& !iuဟiန&်ဂ()အမည&သu@,၍ eရ1,eက)က&ပ1Aဝင&ခA5မ] မPiခA5eပ။ ၁၉၈၈ လ.ထu အu@gကမ] တ1င&လည&, !iu
ဟiန&ဂ()အမည& အသu@,မ9ပuခA5Fကeပ၊၊

၁၉၉၁ တ1င& မ.ဆလင& အမ(),အ9ပ), ဘဂႆလ),eဒ5P&သiu ထ1က&e9ပ,ခiuင&,;ပ<, ယင&, ဘဂN လ),eဒ5(ခ(&) Pi ဆင&,ရAသ),မ(),၊ အe9ခမA5
အeနမA5မ(),?Yင&5 ပ.,eပQင&,က) ဗမ)စစ&အစiu,ရ ?Yiပ&စက& ညxင&,ပမ&, မ]eFက)င&5 လ. (၂၀၀,၀၀၀) eက()&ထ1က&e9ပ,ရeFက)င&, စ)ရင&,9ပ
က) !iuဟiန&ဂ() အမည&ကiu ကမ p)eက()& eအ)င& နည&,မ(iu,စu@ လuပ&Cက@ဖန&တ<,လ)Fက ပQသည&။

၁၉၉၀ တ1င& 9မန&မ)?iuင&င@သ), အ9ဖစ& အသiအမYတ&9ပuခ@ထ),ရeသ) မ.ဆလင&မ(),အ), eရ1,eက)က&ပ1Aဝင& ခ1င&59ပuခA5သည&ကiu !iuဟiန&်


ဂ()အမည&9ဖင&5 eရ1,eက)က&ပ1A ဝင&ခA5ရသလiuလiu လiမ& လည& လYည&59ဖ),လ)FကပQသည&။ ဘ)သ)eရ, အစ1န&,eရ)က& တခ(iu၏ ဤကA5သiu
လuပ&Cက@ဖန&တ<,မ]မ(), အစပiuင&, တ1င&eအ)င&9မင& သeယ)င&eယ)င& PiခA5eသ)&လည&, eန)က&ပiuင&,တ1င& တiမ&eက)လ);ပ<9ဖစ&သည&။

အဂNလiပ&အuပ&ခ(uပ&မ] လက&eအ)က&၌ လယ&က.လ<မ(),အ9ဖစ& ရခiuင&9ပည&သiu လ)eရ)က&လuပ&ကiuင&လ)ခQစ၌ စ<,ပ1),eရ,?Yင&5 ဘဝရပ&တ


ည&eရ, ရည&မYန&,ခ(က&သ)PiFကသ9ဖင&5 eဒသခ@ဗuဒyဘ)သ)ဝင& ရခiuင&မ(),က လ.သ),ခ(င&,စ)န)၍ အမYတ&မထင& လက&ခ@ထ),ခA5Fကသ
ည&။ eန)က&ပiuင&, ဘဂNလ),eဒသမY ရခiuင&9ပည&ဘက&သiu ယင&,ဘဂNလ<မ.ဆလင&မ(), မတရ),လiမ&5 ဝင&လ)မ]eFက)င&5 အဂNလiပ&အစiu,ရကiu
ယ&တiuင& စiu,ရiမ&၍ လ.ဦ,eရစ)ရင&, စစ&တမ&,မ(), လuပ&လ)ခA5ရသည&၊၊

ရခiuင&e9မ၌ လ.ဦ,eရ အလu@,အရင&,9ဖင&5 အe9ခခ(eနထiuင&ခ1င&5ရ;ပ<,eန)က& ဘ)သ)eရ,အစ1န&,eရ)က&မ(),?Yင&5 နယ&e9မခ(Azထ1င&eရ, မ.ဆ


လင& eခQင&,eဆ)င&မ(), ?iuင&င@eရ,ဘက&သiu ဦ,တည&လ]ပ&P), လ)ခA5;ပ<, သ.တiuကiu သ.တiu eဒသခ@တiuင&,ရင&,သ),၊ !iuဟiန&ဂ() မ(),9ဖစ&
eFက)င&, လiမ&လည&လYည&59ဖ), တင&9ပလ)FကပQသည&။ စစ&တeက)င&,eဒသမY ယင&,ဘဂNလ<မ.ဆလင&မ(), သည& ယeနm ထက&ထiလ
ည&, ရခiuင&9ပည&ထAနည&,မ(iu,စu@ ခiu,ဝင&eနFက!u@သ)မက 9မန&မ) အ)ဏ)ပiuင&မ(),အ), လ)ဘ& ထiu,၍ ရခiuင&9ပည&၏ စ<,ပ1),eရ, ခ(uပ&ကiuင&ဖiu
Cကiu,စ),eနFကသည&ကiueတ1^Pi ရပQသည&။

အစ ပiuင&, တ1င& 9မန&မ)?iuင&င@Pi အ9ခ), တiuင&,ရင&,သ),မ(),က !iuဟiန&ဂ()အမည&နYင&5 သ.တiu ?iuင&င@eရ, အရ တiuက&ပ1Aဝင&မ]ကiu လက&ခ@ရန&
ရခiuင&တiuအ), ဖiအ),eပ,မ]မ(), PiခA5သည&။ ?iuင&င@တက) NGO မ(),မYလည&, လ{ အခ1င&5အeရ,|eထ)င&5မYeန၍ !iuဟiန&်ဂ()ဆiuသ.မ(),
အ), အသiအမYတ&9ပuမ]မ(), Piလ)သည&သ)မက ရခiuင& တiuအ),လည&, !iuဟiန&ဂ() အမည&နYင&5 ?iuင&င@eရ, အရတiuက&ပ1Aဝင&မ]မ(),ကiu အသi
အမYတ&9ပuက) !iuဟiန&ဂ()ဆiuသ. မ(),?Yင&5 လက&တ1A တiuက& ပ1Aဝင& ရန& နည&,မ(iu,စu@ ဖiအ),eပ,မ]မ(), လuပ&လ)ခA5ပQသည&၊၊
eန)က&ပiuင&, 9မန&မ)?iuင&င@ eဒသခ@ တiuင&,ရင&, သ), မ(), က သ.တiu၏လiမ&လည&9ခင&,?Yင&5 ဟန&eဆ)င&မ]မ(), ကiu သiလ)ရeသ)အခQ !iuဟi
န&ဂ()အမည&နYင&5တက1 သ.တiu ၏ ?iuင& င@eရ,အရ ရပ&တည& တiuက&ပ1Aဝင&မ]မ(), ကiuပQ လu@,ဝ အသi အမYတ&မ9ပu 9ဖစ&လ)Fကသည&၊၊
ယင&,!iuဟiန&ဂ() အမည& ခ@မ(),သည& ရခiuင&9ပည&မY ဘဂNလ),eဒ5P&?iuင&င@သiu ထ1က&e9ပ,9ခင&,၊ ဘဂNလ),eဒ5P&?iuင&င@?Yင&5 ရခiuင&9ပည&မY ထiuင&,?iu
င&င@?Yင&5 မeလ,P),?iuင&င@သiu eလYစ<,ဒuကoသည&ပu@စ@မ(iu,9ဖင&5 အလu@,အရင&,9ဖင&5 ဝင&eရ)က&9ခင&, မ(), 9ပu လuပ& လ(က& ယင&,?iuင&င@
မ(),၌လည&, လ.မ]eရ,?Yင&5 ဘဝရပ&တည&eရ, အပQအဝင& ?iuင&င@eရ,အရ egက,eFက)&တiuက&ပ1A ဝင&မ]မ(), 9ပuလuပ& လ)FကပQသည&။

ယင&,!iuဟiန&ဂ()အမည&ခ@မ(),သည& ယခuအခQတ1င& မeလ,P),?iuင&င@ ၌ eသ)င&,?Yင&5 ခ(<eရ)က& Pieန;ပ<9ဖစ&;ပ<,၊ ထiuင&,?iuင&င@၌လည&, စနစ&


တက( ဝင&eရ)က&ထiu,eဖQက& eန;ပ<9ဖစ&သည&၊၊ ထiuင&, အစiu,ရက ယင&, !iuဟiန&ဂ()အမည&ခ@မ(), ထiu,eဖQက& ဝင&eရ)က&မ]ကiu စနစ&တက(
တ),ဆ<,မ]9ပu လuပ& လ)eသ)အခQယင&,!iuဟiန&ဂ() အeရ,သည& eဒသခ@?iuင&င@မ(), အ), !iuက&ခတ&လ)သ9ဖင&5 eဒသခ@?iuင&င@မ(), သတi
ထ), eဆ)င&ရ1က&လ)Fကသည&ကiu eတ1^Piရသည&။

အ)စ<ယ@ ထiပ&သ<, အစည&,eဝ,၌ပင& ယင&,!iu ဟiန& ဂ()9ပဿ န)သည& န@ပQတ&(၁) eနရ)ရယ.ထ),;ပ<, 9ဖစ&သည&၊၊ ထiuင&,?iuင&င@က
အဘယ&eFက)င&5 ယင&,!iuဟiန&ဂ() ဆiuသ.မ(),အ), ဒuကoသည&စခန&,မ(),ဖ1င&5ခ1င&5 လက&မခ@သနည&,။ အe9ဖမY) Pင&,eနသည&၊၊ ယင&,!iuဟi
န&ဂ() အမည&ကiu သu@,၍ ?iuင&င@eရ,အရ တiuက&ပ1Aဝင&eနသ.မ(),သည& Al-Quada အဖ1A^?Yင&5 ဆက&?1ယ&မ] Pieနသည&။ ထiuင&,?iuင& င@ အFကမ&,
ဘက& လ]ပ&P),eနသ.မ(),?Yင&5 eပQင&,မi;ပ<, ထiuင&,?iuင&င@၏ လu@;ခ@ueရ,ကiuပQ ;ခiမ&,e9ခ)က& လ) မည& ကiu စiu,ရiမ&၍9ဖစ&သည&၊၊

?iuင&င@တက) NGO မ(),?Yင&5 ကuလသမဂ} အဖ1A^အစည&,မ(),က !iuဟiန&ဂ() အမည& ခ@ မ(),အ), “?iuင&င@မA5မ(),” အ9ဖစ& လ.သ), ခ(င&,စ)န)
|eထ)င&5မYeန၍ ယင&,တiu၏ ?iuင&င@eရ,အရတiuက&ပ1Aဝင&မ]မ(), အသiအမYတ&9ပuရန& ရခiuင&တiuအ), ဖiအ),eပ,eနFကသည&ကiu eတ1^Piရသ
ည&၊၊ သiueသ)& ယင&,ဘဂNလ< မ.ဆလင&မ(), အလu@,အရင&,?Yင&5 ဝင&eရ)က&;ပ<, eန)က&ပiuင&,ဘ)သ)eရ, အဓiက!uဏ&,မ(), 9ဖစ&ပ1Q,;ပ<,eန)
က& မiမiတiu၏ ပiuင&ဆiuင&မ]နယ&e9မ၊ အiu,အiမ&မ(), စ1န&mခ1) ထ1က&e9ပ,လ)Fကရeသ) eဒသခ@ ရခiuင&မ(),၏ e~အန)ဂတ& အeရ,ကiu eတ1,ပ.
သည&ကiuက), မeတ1^Piရeသ,eပ၊၊

ယင&,အဓiက!uဏ&,က)လ၌ မ.ဆလင& မ(),၏ သတ&9ဖတ& မ]eFက)င&5 အသက&ဆu@,|@,ခA5ရeသ) ရခiuင&9ပည&သ.မ(),၊ ဗuဒyဘ)သ)ရဟန&,


eတ)&မ(),၊ မ.ဆလင&မ(),၏ မ<,တiuက& ဖ(က& ဆ<,မ]eFက)င&5 9ပ)က(ခA5ရeသ) ရခiuင&ရ1)မ(),၊ ဗuဒyဘ)သ) ဘuန&,Cက<,eက()င&,မ(),၊ ဘ)သ)
eရ, အစ1န&,eရ)က& ယင&,မ.ဆလင&မ(),၏ မuဒiမ&,က(င&5သတ&9ဖတ&9ခင&,ခ@ခA5ရeသ) ရခiuင&သ.မမ(),?Yင&5 မiမi အသက& အiu,အiမ& စည&,စiမ& လu@
;ခ@ueရ, အတ1က& အ;မAတမ&,အထiတ& တလန&m9ဖစ&eနရeသ) ရခiuင&သ.၊ ရခiuင&သ), မ(),၏ အန)ဂတ&အeရ,ကiu eတ1,ပ.စt&,စ),မieသ)
NGO မ(),?Yင&5 ကuလသမဂ}} အဖ1A^အစည&,မ(),ကiu မeတ1^ ဖ.,eသ,eပ၊၊

အကယ&၍ အiမ&န<,ခ(င&,?iuင&င@မ(),၊ NGO မ(), ကuလသမဂ}အဖ1A^အစည&,မ(),က ခ(င&5ခ(iန&မစt&,စ),ဘA !iuဟiန&ဂ()ဆiuသ.မ(),၏ အeရ,ကiu


eဇ)င&,eပ,;ပ<, !iuဟiန&ဂ()အမည&နYင&5 ယင&,တiu၏ ?iuင&င@eရ,အရ ရပ&တည& တiuက&ပ1Aဝင&မ]ကiu လက&ခ@ခA5လeင& မFက)eသ) တeနm၌ eမ)င&
eတ)၊ ဘ.,သ<,eတ)င&?Yင&5 ရeသ5eတ)င& eဒသ အ),လu@, ယင&, !iu ဟiန&ဂ() အမည&ခ@သ.မ(), လက&ထAသiuက(eရ)က&သ1),;ပ<,၊ eဒသခ@ရ
ခiuင&9ပည&သ.မ(), အသတ&ခ@ရမ]၊ ရပ& ရ1) အiu,အiမ& စ1န&mခ1) ထ1က&e9ပ,ရမ]?Yင&5 ရင&ဆiuင&ရမည&။
ယင&,အeရ,သည& ရခiuင&9ပည&တခuလu@,၊ 9မန&မ)9ပည& တစ& ခu လu@,?Yင&5 အiမ&န<,ခ(င&,?iuင&င@ မ(),၏ လu@;ခ@ueရ,ကiuပQ ;ခiမ&,e9ခ)က&လ);ပ<, ယင&,
?iuင&င@၌ eန ထiuင&eနFကeသ) eဒသခ@9ပည&သ.မ(),လည&, ရခiuင&သ),မ(), ကA5သiu eဘ,ဆiu,Cက<,မ(),?Yင&5 ရင&ဆiuင&ရ မည&9ဖစ& ပQeFက)င&,
တင&9ပ လiuက&ပQတယ&။

Ref:eစနသ), (http://arakanfreedomfighters.blogspot.sg/2016/08/blogpost_76.html)

အeန)က&တ2ခ4,မ5ဧည&8သည&မ(), (၁)

“!iuဟင&ဂ()” ဆiuတ)ဟ) လ.မ(iu,တစ&မ(iu, ရAz အမည&မဟuတ&ပQဘ.,၊ !iuဟင&ဂ() လ.မ(iu, ဆiuတ)လA မPiခA5ပQဘ.,၊ ဒQeပမA5 ဘ.,သ<,eတ)င&
eမ)င&eတ)eဒသအတ1င&,မY) ဝင&eရ)က& eနထiuင&လ)တA5 ဘင&ဂQလ<လ.မ(iu, eတ1ဟ) မiမi တiuကiuယ&တiuင&က “!iuဟင&ဂ()”ဆiuတA5လ.မ(iu,
အ9ဖစ&အမည&e9ပ)င&,;ပ<,eနထiuင&ခ(င&တA5 ဆ?• eတ1က ဟiu,eP,ယခင& ကတည&,ကPieနခA5တ)ပQ။ “!iuဟင&ဂ()” ဆiuတA5eဝQဟ)ရ ဟ)ဟiu,
eP,ယခင&ကတည&, ကPieနတA5လ.မ(iu, အမည& မဟuတ&ပA ဘင&ဂQလ<လ.မ(iu,ပည)တတ& အသiuင&,အဝန&,ကတ<ထ1င& ဖန&တ<,လiuက&တA5
eဝQဟ)ရအသစ&တစ&ခu သ)9ဖစ&ပQတယ&။

ရခiuင&9ပည&နယ&က ဘ.,သ<,eတ)င& eမ)င&eတ)eဒသဟ)ဘဂ&လ),eဒ5P&?iuင&င@နAm နယ&နမiတ&ခ(င&,ထiစပ&eနတA5 အတ1က& တစ&ဖက&?iuင&င@


ကeန တ9ဖည&,9ဖည&,စiမ&5 ဝင&အe9ခခ(eနထiuင&;ပ<,လ(င&9မန&ပ(က&9ပ),စ1) eပQက&ဖ1),လ)တA5 ဘင&ဂQလ<လ.မ(iu,eတ1 အမ(),စueနထiuင&ရ)
eဒတစ&ခu9ဖစ&လ)ခA5ပQတယ&။ ဒ<eနm ဒ<အခ(iန&မY)eတ)5 ဘ., သ<,eတ)င& eမ)င&eတ)eဒသလ.ဦ,eရရAz ၉၀ ရ)ခiuင& ?]န&,eက()&ဟ) ဘင&ဂQ
လ<လ.မ(iu,eတ19ဖစ&eန ပQ;ပ<။

ဒQeFက)င&5 ဘ.,သ<,eတ)င&eမ)င&eတ)eဒသဟ) ပထဝ<?iuင&င@eရ,သeဘ)တရ), အရလည&,eက)င&,၊ လ.eနမ] သမiuင&,eFက)င&,


အရလည&,eက)င&,၊ လ.မ]ဆက&ဆ@eရ,နAm စiတ&eနသeဘ)ထ),အရလည&,eက)င&, ထ.,9ခ), မ]eတ1PieနတA5eဒသတစ&ခu9ဖစ&ပQတယ&။

ဒ<eနm အခ(iန&အခQမY)eတ)5 ဘ.,သ<, eတ)င&eမ)င&eတ)eဒသမY) အe9ခစiuက& eနထiuင&လ(က&PiFကတA5 “!iuဟင&ဂ()” အမည& ခ@ ဘင&ဂQလ<


လ.မ(iu,မ(),ဟ) ဘယ&အခ(iန&က တည&,ကဝင&eရ)က&အe9ခခ(eနထiuင&လ)ခA5 Fကတယ&ဆiu တ)ရယ&။ ဘယ&eဒသကeန လ)eရ)က&ခA5
Fကတယ&ဆiuတ)ရယ&။ ဘယ& လiuနည&,လမ&,eတ1နAm eရ)က&Piလ)ခA5Fက တယ&ဆiuတ)ရယ&?iuင&င@သ),အ),လu@,အမYန& အတiuင&,သiPiဖiuလiu
အပ&eနပQ;ပ<။ ဒQမYလည&, သမiuင&,9ဖစ&စt&မ(),အeပ\ မY) အမYန&ကiuသi ;ပ<,ဆu@,9ဖတ&?iuင&FကမY)ပQ။

ဒ<လiuသမiuင&,9ဖစ&စt&အမYန&eတ1ကiu သiPiန),လည&;ပ<, သeဘ)eပQက&?iuင&ဖiuကလည&, eP,eခတ&ရခiuင&9ပည&သ မiuင&,၊ eခတ&eဟ)င&, 9မန&


မ)?iuင&င@eတ)&သမiuင&,eခတ&သစ&9မန&မ)5 ?iuင&င@eရ,သမiuင&,တiuကiueလ5လ)Fကည&5ဖiuလiu ပQ တယ&။

eP,eခတ&ရခiuင&9ပည&သမiuင&,eတ1ရAz အဆiuအရ ရခiuင&9ပည& (သiuမဟuတ&) e9မ)က&ဦ,eခတ&အစပiuင&,မY) မင&,eစ)မ1န& ရခiuင&ထ<,နန&,ကiu9ပန&


လည&ရPiဖiuအတ1က& မ.စလင&ဘuရင& (eဂ\ရ&ဘuရင&)က အက.အည<eပ,ခA5တ)ကiu အeFက)င&,9ပu;ပ<,eတ)5 ((AD-1430)) ကစတင&;ပ<,
ယခu (ဘဂ&လ),eဒP&) eဒသက မ.စလင&ဘ)သ)ဝင&eတ1စ တင&;ပ<, ဝင&eရ)က&လ)eFက)င&,eတ1^ရပQတယ&။

ဒQအ9ပင& ရခiuင&ဘuရင&မ(),က က_န&အ9ဖစ&ဖမ&,ဆ<,eခ\eဆ)င&လ)တA5 မ.စလင&ဘ)သ)ဝင&eတ1 e9မဒ.,အဆက& အ?1ယ& မ.စလင&ဘ)သ)


ဝင&eတ1 ကမန&အဆက&အ?1ယ&eတ1ဆiu;ပ<, မ.စလင&ဘ)သ)ဝင&eတ1 တ9ဖည&,9ဖည&,မ(), လ)တ)eတ1^ရပQတယ&။

ခရစ&?Yစ& (၁၇၈၄)ခu?Yစ&မY) အမရပ.ရ 9ပည&5Pင&ဘiu,eတ)&ဘuရ),က ရခiuင&9ပည&ကiu သiမ&,;ပ<,eန)က&ပiuင&, 9ပည&တ1င&, မ;ငiမ&သက&မ]eတ1


ပuန&ကန&ထgကမ]eတ1ကiu 9မန&မ)ဘuရင& တပ&မeတ)&မY ?Yiမ&နင&,တiuက&ခiuက&အeရ,ယ. မ]မ(),9ဖင&5 ရခiuင&9ပည&ကလ.အမ(),အ9ပ), အAဒ<
တuန&,က အဂNလiပ&ပiuင&နက&9ဖစ&တA5 အe~ဘဂ&လ),eဒသ (ယခu ဘဂ&လ),eဒP&5) ကiu ထ1က&e9ပ,ခiuလ]@^FကပQတယ&။
သueတသ< “eက)လပ&”ရAz အဆiuအရ ရခiuင&9ပည&ကeနm အiန&€ိယပiuင&အe~ဘဂ&လ), eဒသကiuထ1က&e9ပ,သ. (၂) သiန&,ခန&mPi
eFက)င&, မYတ&တမ&,တင&eဖ)&9ပခA5ပQတယ&။ အဂNလiပ&-9မန&မ)ပထမစစ&ပ1Aအ;ပ<,မY) ရခiuင& 9ပည&အuပ& ခ(uပ&eရ,မY‚, “မစdတ)ပQ
တင&” (Paton) eရ,တA5 ရခiuင&9ပည&အeFက)င&,အစ< ရင&ခ@ခA5ပQတယ&။ အAဒ<အစ<ရင&ခ@စ)ကiu ကiu,က), ;ပ<, eဒQက&တ) “ဘန)ဂ(<” ကeဖ)&9ပ
ရ)မY) ရခiuင&9ပည&နယ&တ1င&ဘiu,eတ)&ဘuရ),လက&ထက&က ရခiuင& လ.မ(iu,ဦ,eရ (၆၀၀၀၀) မ.စလင&ဘ)သ)ဝင&ဦ,eရ (၃၀၀၀၀) ဗမ)လ.
မ(iu, ဦ,eရ (၁၀၀၀၀) စuစueပQင&,လ.ဦ,eရ (၁၀၀၀၀၀) PieFက)င&, eရ,သ),ခA5ပQတယ&။

ဒQeFက)င&5 (ခရစ&?Yစ& ၁၈၂၅) ခu?Yစ&ခန&mက ရခiuင&9ပည&နယ&မY) မ.စလင&ဘ)သ)ဝင&ဦ,eရ (၃၀၀၀၀)ခန&mPieနတယ& လiu ယ.ဆ ?iuင&ပQ
တယ&။
ဒQအ9ပင& ကမန&အဆက&အ?1ယ&နAm e9မဒ.,အဆက&အ?1ယ&မ.စလင&ဘ)သ)ဝင& ဦ,eရက သ@တ1Aခ!iuင&မY) (ခရစ&?Yစ& ၁၈၂၅) ခu?Yစ&မY) အuပ&
စu?Yစ&စueပQင&, (၁၅၀၀) ခန&m PiခA5;ပ<, (၁၈၇၂) ခu?Yစ&မY) (၁၅၈၇)ဦ,၊ (၁၉၀၁)ခu?Yစ&မY) (၃၀၀၀) ဦ,နAm (၁၉၁၀) ခu?Yစ&မY) (၃၆၇၆) ဦ,PiခA5
eFက)င&, မYတ&တမ&, မ(),အရ သiPiရပQတယ&။

ခရစ&?Yစ& (၁၈၂၆) ခu?Yစ&မY) ရခiuင& 9ပည&နယ&ကiu 9မန&မ)ဘuရင&လက&ထAကeန ;ဗiတiသeတiuက သiမ&,ယ.သ1),ခA5ပQ တယ&။ ;ဗiတiသeတiu
သiမ&,ယ.ပiuင&ဆiuင&က)စက ရခiuင& 9ပည&နယ&မY) ရခiuင&လ.မ(iu,လ.ဦ,eရအလ1န& တရ)နည&,ပQ,ခA5ပQ တယ&။ အဂNလiပ&လက& eအ)က&အuပ&ခ(u
ပ&eရ,အသင&5အတင&5တည& ;ငiမ&လ)တA5အခQမY)eတ)5 အe~ဘဂ& လ), eဒသကiuထ1က&e9ပ,တiမ&,eP)င&သ1),ခA5FကတA5 ရခiuင&စစ&e9ပ,ဒu
က&ƒသည&eတ1 မiမiတiu ဇ)တiရပ&ရ1)မ(),ကiu 9ပန& လည&ဝင&eရ)က& အe9ခခ(eနထiuင&ခA5FကပQတယ&။ ခရစ&?Yစ& (၁၈၃၁) မY (၁၉၁၁) ခu?Yစ&
အထi စစ&eတ1ဆiuင&မY)တiu, တက&လ)တA5လ.ဦ,eရကiu မစ&„တ)စမတ& (ှာနမအ) က မYတ&တမ&,တင& ခA5ရ)မY) (၁၈၃၂) ခu?Yစ&မY)
(၁၀၈၆၄၅) ဦ,Piရ)မY (၁၉၁၁) ခu?Yစ&မY) (၅၂၉၉၄၃) Piလ)eFက)င&, eတ1^ရပQတယ&။

;ဗiတiသeအစiu,ရလက&ထက&မY) အuပ&ခ(uပ& ရတA5 စရiတ&eတ1က)မieစရန&နAm ၎င&,င&,တiuရAz အက(iu,စ<,ပ1),eရ,အတ1က& အခ1န&အeက)က&


မ(),မ(),ရeအ)င&လiu e9မFသဇ)eက)င&,;ပ<, လက&e9မe9မ)က&မ(),စ1)PiတA5 ရခiuင&9ပည& နယ& မY) လယ&ယ)စiuက&ပ(iu,eရ,လuပ&ငန&,ကiu
အစ1မ&,Piသမeတiu,ခ(Azလuပ&ကiuင&eစ ခA5ပQတယ&။

eတ)င&သ.လယ&သမ),eတ1 e9မလ1တ&e9မ !iuင&,eတ1တiu,ခ(Azလuပ&ကiuင&?iuင&eအ)င&လiuခရစ& (၁၈၃၄) ခu?Yစ&မY) (ရ ခiuင&9ပည&၊ဂရ@Cက<,နည&,


ဥပeဒ)ကiu ထuတ&9ပန&ခA5ပQတယ&။ တဆက&တည&,မY)လA ရခiuင&eဒသမY) (တ@ခQ,မPi၊ ဓ),မPi၊ လ.ဝင&၊ လ.ထ1က&eပ\လစ<)ကiu က(င&5သu@,ခA5;ပ<,
အiန&€ိယအe~ဘဂ&လ),၊ စစ&တeက)င&,eဒသတiuမY ဘဂQလ<ကuလ), လ.မ(iu,မ(), မဒရပ&နယ&မY ဆ.ရiယ)ကuလ),မ(), ရခiuင&eဒသ
အတ1င&,ကiu အတ),အဆ<,မA5စ1) စiတ&တiuင&,က( ဝင&eရ)က&eနထiuင&ခ1င&59ပuခA5ပQ တယ&။ ဒQeFက)င&5 အAဒ<အခ(iန&က)လက ရခiuင&9ပည&နယ&အ
တ1င&,ကiu သ)မန& အ),9ဖင&5 တစ&?Yစ&၊တစ&?Yစ&မY) စစ&တeက)င&,eဒသနAm အe~ဘဂ&လ),eဒသကဘဂQလ<လ.မ(iu, (၄၀၀၀၀) ခန&m စစ&
eတ1ခ!iuင&ကiu ဝင&eရ)က& လ)ခA5FကပQတယ&။ စစ&eတ1ခ!iuင&တစ&ခuလu@,မY) ခရစ& (၁၈၉၁) ခu?Yစ&မY) လ.ဦ,eရ (၄၁၆၃၀၅) ဦ,PiခA5ရ)ကeန
ခရစ&?Yစ& (၁၉၀၁) မY) (၅၂၉၉၄၃) အထi တiu,တက&မ(),9ပ),လ)တ)ဟ) ဘဂ& လ),eဒသကဝင&လ)တA5 ဘဂQလ<လ.မ(iu,eတ1eFက)င&5
ပA9ဖစ&ပQတယ&။

ခရစ&?Yစ& (၁၉၀၁) ခu?Yစ&ကစ;ပ<, ရခiuင&eဒသအသ<,သ<,မY) လ.ဦ,eရ,တiu,ပ1),မ]eတ1 9ဖစ&eပ\ခA5ပQတယ& ။ eမ)င&eတ);မiuနယ&မY) (၂)


ရ)ခiuင&?]န&,အထiတiu,ပ1),;ပ<, လ.ဦ,eရ တiu,ပ1),မ]အမ(),ဆu@,;မiuနယ&9ဖစ&ခA5ပQတယ&။ ;မiueဟ)င&, (e9မ)က&ဦ,);မiuနယ&မY) (၁၆)
ရ)ခiuင&?]န&,၊ မင&,9ပ),;မiuနယ&မY) (၁၄) ရ) ခiuင&?]န&,တiu,ပ1),ခA5ပQ တယ&။ စစ&eတ1;မiuကiu လ.ဦ,eရသန&,eခQင&စ)ရင&,eက)က&ယ.တA5 အခQ
မY)eတ)5 စစ&တeက)င&,သ),eတ1 လ.ဦ,eရ အမ(),အ9ပ),Pieနခ(iန&နAm တiuက&ဆiuင& eနခA5ပQတယ&။

စစ&eတ1;မiuနယ&ရAz အ;မAတမ&, လ.ဦ,eရဟ) (၂၅၀၀၀) ဦ,ထက&မeက()&လ1န& တA5အတ1က& တစ&စတuရန&,မiuင&မY) လ. ဦ,eရ (၂၃၀) PieနခA5
တA5 eမ)င&eတ);မiuနယ&ဟ) စစ&eတ1ခ!iuင&မY) တရ),မဝင& ဝင&eရ)က&eနထiuင&လ)eသ) ဘင&ဂQလ<မ(),eFက)င&5 လ.ဦ,eရ အထ.ထပ&
ဆu@,;မiuနယ&9ဖစ&ခA5ပQတယ&။ eမ)င&eတ);မiuနယ&ရAz နယ&စပ&ကလည&, စစ&တeက)င&,9ဖစ&eန တ)eFက)င&5 eမ)င&eတ);မiuနယ&ရAz လ.ဦ,
eရအမ(),စuက စစ&တeက)င&,သ),eတ1 9ဖစ& တယ&လiu (မစdတ) အ)ရဘ<စမတ&) ကeရ,သ),Pင&, 9ပထ),ခA5ပQတယ&။
မ.စလင&လ.ဦ,eရ,တiu,လ)တA5အeFက)င&, နAm ပတ&သက&;ပ<, (မစdတ)စမတ&)က ““မဟ) eမဒင&မ(),သည& (စစ&eတ1 ခ!iuင&)တ1င& (၁၈၇၂)
ခu?Yစ&က (၅၈၂၅၅) ဦ,PiခA5ရ)မY (၁၉၀၁) ခu?Yစ&တ1င& (၁၇၈၆၄၇) ဦ,အထi တiu,လ)eပသည&။ ၎င&,တiuအနက&eယ)က()&, အမ(),အ9ပ),
မY) အလuပ&ရ)သ<၌ စစ&တ eက)င&,မY ဝင&လ)သ.မ(),9ဖစ&Fကသည&။ အမYန&အတiuင&,e9ပ)ရလeင& ၎င&,တiuသည& ရခiuင&9ပည&သ),မ(),မဟu
တ&Fကeပ။ ဘ.,သ<, eတ)င&;မiuနယ&သည&လည&, စစ&တeက)င&, သ),ဝင&လ)သ.မ(),ကiစd၌ eမ)င&eတ)ထက& မ(),စ1)မeလ()5နည&,
eခ(။ စစ&တeက)င&,မY အသစ& ဝင&လ)သ.မ(),ကiu စစ&eတ1ခ!iuင& ;မiuနယ&တiuင&,လiuလiu၌ eတ1^ရeပလiမ&5မည&””လiu မYတ&တမ&,တင&ထ),ခA5
ပQတယ&။

ဒ<eနရ)မY) အeFက)င&,သင&5လi5ု စစ& eတ1ခ!iuင&အတ1င&,ကiu စစ&တeက)င&,သ), မ.စလင&eတ1အလu@,အရင&,နAm ဝင&eရ)က& လ)?iuင&9ခင&,


အeFက)င&,ရင&,ကiu စiစစ&Fကည&5ရင&အe9ခခ@အခ(က& (၃) ခ(က&PieFက)င&, eတ1^ရမY)9ဖစ& ပQတယ&။
ဒuတiယ အခ(က&ကeတ)5 စ.,အက& တ.,e9မ)င&,ဖ1င&5တA5ကiစdနAm ဆက&?1ယ&eနပQ တယ&။ သမiuင&,ပQeမ)ကo “eဒQက& တ) eက()&သက&”က
9မန&မ)?iuင&င@ စ<,ပ1),eရ, eလ)ကe9ပ)င&,လAမ]၌ အ<ဂ(စ&?iuင&င@စ.,အက& တ.,e9မ)င&,ဖ1င&5;ပ<, သည&5eန)က&ပiuင&, (၁၈၇၁) ခu?Yစ&မYစတင&လ)
သည&ဟuဆiuရ သည&။ လiueက)က&ခ(က&ခ(;ပ<, 9မန&မ)?iuင&င@ ၏အeရ, ပQ အရ)eရ)က&ဆu@,eသ) တiu,တက&မ]သည& ဆန&စပQ,စiuက&ပ(iu,9ခ
င&, လuပ&ငန&,မY) 9ပည&ပeရ)င&, ခ(9ခင&,လuပ&ငန&, တiu9ဖစ&eပသည& ဆန&စပQ,တiu,လ)ရ9ခင&,?Yင&5 9ပည&ပeရ)င&, ခ(မ]တiu,လ)ရ9ခင&,တiuသည&
စ.,အက& တ., e9မ)င&,eဖ)က&လuပ&;ပ<,မYသ) က(ယ&9ပန&တiu, တက&လ)eလသည&”ဟuဆiuခA5ပQတယ&။

ရခiuင&9ပည&နယ&ဟ)လည&, ဆန&စပQ, စiuက&ပ(iu,9ခင&,လuပ&ငန&,ကiuတiu,ခ(AzခA5တA5အတ1က&eFက)င&5 စ<,ပ1),eရ,ဖ1@^;ဖiu,တiu, တက& လ)ခA5ပQတယ&။


eတ)!iuင&,မ(),ကiu ခuတ&တ1င&Pင&,လင&,;ပ<, လယ&ယ)e9မသစ&မ(),ကiu ?Yစ&စt&တiu,ခ(Az လuပ& ကiuင&လ)ခA5FကပQတယ&။ လယ&ယ)လuပ& ငန&,
အတ1က&eတ)!iuင&,ခuတ&တ1င& e9မတ.,၊ ဆည&ဖiu၊ စပQ,ရiတ&သiမ&,စတA5 အလuပ&eတ1အတ1က& အလuပ&Fကမ&,သမ),eတ1အမ(), အ9ပ),လiu
အပ&ခA5တA5 အတ1က&လuပ&ခခ(iuသ)တA5 စစ& တeက)င&,သ), ဘင&ဂQလ<မ(),ကiu ငY),ရမ&,သu@,စ1AခA5FကပQတယ&။ ဒQeFက)င&5လည&,စစ&တeက)
င&,သ), ဘင&ဂQလ< လ.မ(iu,မ(),ဟ) လယ&ယ)လuပ&ငန&,ရ)သ<မY) အလu@,အရင&, နAm ဝင&eရ)က&လ)ခA5FကပQတယ&။ ဝင&eရ)က&လ)တA5
သ.eတ1ထAက တခ(iuတစ&eလသ) 9ပန&သ1),Fက;ပ<, က(န&ခA5တA5 ဘဂQလ<eတ1ကeတ)5 ရခiuင&9ပည&နယ&အတ1င&,မY) အiu, အiမ& အတည&တ
က(နAm eနထiuင&FကပQeတ)5တယ&။ ဒQeFက)င&5 စစ&eတ1ခ!iuင&မY) မ.စလင&ဦ,eရ ?Yစ&စt&တiu,တက& လ)တ)9ဖစ&ပQတယ&။

တတiယအခ(က&ကeတ)5 eဒသခ@တiu ရAz ပ(င&,ရiမ]၊ ဝ<ရiယနည&,မ]တiueFက)င&59ဖစ& ပQတယ&။ က)ယအင&အ),9ဖင&5 လuပ&ရတA5 လယ&ယ)အ


လuပ&Fကမ&,မ(),ဟ) အလ1န&ပင&ပန&,တA5 အလuပ&မ(),9ဖစ&ပQတယ&။ eဒသခ@eတ1က e9မတ.,၊ တ)ဆည&၊ စပQ,ရiတ&စတA5 အလuပ&Fကမ&,eတ1
ကiuတတ&?iuင&သမeeP)င& FကပQတယ&။ ဒQeFက)င&5 လယ&ယ)တiu,ခ(Az လuပ&ဆiuင&သ.eတ1ဟ) လuပ&ခသက&သ)တA5 စစ&တeက)င&,သ), ဘင&
ဂQလ<ကuလ),မ(),ကiu လiuလiuခ(င&ခ(င& ငY),ရမ&, ခiuင&,eစရ)ကPieန မ9ပန&eတ)5ဘA အe9ခခ(eနထiuင&လ)9ခင&,ကလA ရခiuင&eဒသမY) မ.စလ
င&လ.ဦ,eရတiu, လ) ရ9ခင&,ရAz အe9ခခ@အeFက)င&,တစ&ခ(က& 9ဖစ&ခA5ပQတယ&။

အAဒ<လiu စစ&တeက)င&,သ),မ.စလင& မ(),?Yစ&စt&တiu,လ)တA5 အတ1က&eFက)င&5 eဒသခ@ရခiuင&လ.မ(iu,eတ1အ တ1က& eန)င&က)လမY) အ? ‰


ရ)ယ&Cက<,9ဖစ&လ)eစ?iuင&တယ&လiu ;ဗiတiသeအ)ဏ)ပiuင&eတ1သတiထ),မiလ) ပQ တယ&။ ဒQeFက)င&5 (၁၉၃၉) ခu?Yစ&မY) စu@စမ&,eရ,eက)&
မPင&တစ&ခuကiu ဖ1A^စည&,;ပ<, eတ)5 စu@စမ&,ခiuင&,ခA5ပQတယ&။

အAဒ<စu@စမ&,eရ, အဖ1A^ရAz အစ<ရင&ခ@စ)eက)က&?]တ&ခ(က& မ(),ကeတ)5 eအ)က&ပQအတiuင&,9ဖစ&ပQတယ&။

(၁၉၃၉) ခu ?Y စ&တ1 င& 9မန&မ)9ပည& ၊ ;ဗi တi သeအစiu, ရက 9မန&မ)?iu င&င@ သiu eရ)က&Pi လ)eသ) အi န&€ိယတiu င&, ရင&, သ), မ(),?Y င&5
ပတ&သက&၍ စu@စမ&,စစ&eဘ,eရ,eက)&မPင& တစ&ရပ&ဆiuဖ1A^စည&,eပ,သည&။ ယင&,eက)&မPင&တ1င& မင&,Cက<, မစ&„တ)ဂ(iမ&,အက&စ&ကခ@
က ဥက&Š‹အ9ဖစ&eဆ)င&ရ1က&၍ ဦ,တင&ထ1ဋ&?Yင&5 မစ&„တ)အ)ရ&ဒ<ဆiuင&, (ရန&ကuန&တကq သiuလ& ပQeမ)ကo)တiuက အဖ1A^ဝင&မ(),အ9ဖစ&ပQ
ဝင& ခA5Fကသည&။

ထiueက)&မPင&၏ အစ<ရင&ခ@စ) အခန&, (၇)၊ စ)မ(က&?Y) (၄၉)တ1င& (၁၉၃၁) ခu?Yစ& ၌ eက)က&ယ.eသ) သန&meခQင& စ)ရင&,မ(),အရ ရခiuင&
တiuင&,သiuဝင&eရ)က&လ)eသ) အiန&€ိယတiuင&,ရင&,သ),မ(), စ)ရင&,ကiu eအ)က&ပQ အတiuင&,eဖ)&9ပအပ&ပQသည&။
ရခiuင&တiuင&(လ*ဦ(eရ ၁,၀၀၈,၅၃၈ eယ)က&

အiန&/iယတiuင&(ရင&(သ2(ဦ(eရ( ၂၁၇,၈၀၁ eယ)က&

ခ!iuင&အလiuက&ပ(@z?Y@^eနင&Fကeသ) အiန&€ိယ တiuင&,ရင&,သ),ဦ,eရမY)eအ)က&ပQအတiuင&, 9ဖစ&သည&။

(၁) စစ&eတ5ခ6iuင& ၂၁၀,၉၉၀ eယ)က&

(၂) ရခiuင&eတ2င&တန&(eဒသ ၅၀၀ eယ)က&

(၃) eက;2က&<ဖ>ခ6iuင& ၄၃၂၁ eယ)က&

(၄) သ@တ5Aခ6iuင& ၁၉၉၀ eယ)က&

စuစueပCင&( ၂၁၇,၈၀၁ eယ)က&

စစ&eတ1ခ!iuင&မY)လ.ဦ,eရ( ၆၃၇,၅၈၀)eယ)က&PiတA5အနက& (၂၁၀,၉၉၀) eယ)က&ဟ) အiန&€ိယတiuင&,ရင&,သ), ဘင&ဂQလ<မ(), 9ဖစ&


FကပQတယ&။
အAဒ<စ)ရင&,eတ1အရ စစ&eတ1ခ!iuင&မY)eနထiuင&တA5 အiန&€ိယတiuင&,ရင&,သ), ဘင&ဂQလ<မ(),ဟ) ထiuစt&ကရခiuင& တစ&တiuင&,လu@,မY)PiတA5
အiန&€ိယတiuင&,သ), မ(),ရAz ( ၃၀ %) ရ)ခiuင&?]န&,အထiPiခA5ပQတယ&။

ဆ.ရ<ယ)ကuလ),မ(),မY) အiန&€ိယမY) eမ1,ဖ1),ခA5Fက;ပ<, အ),လu@,လiuလiueယ)က(&), မ(),9ဖစ&FကပQတယ&။ စစ&eတ1ခ!iuင&မY) eနထiuင&Fက


တA5 အiန&€ိယတiuင&,ရင&,သ),မ(),အနက& (၈၈) ရ)ခiuင&?]န&,ဟ) စစ&တeက)င&,သ), ဘင&ဂQလ<ကuလ), မ(),9ဖစ&FကပQတယ&။

(၁၉၃၁) ခu?Yစ&သန&,eက)င&စ)ရင&, အရ စစ&eတ1ခ!iuင&မY) ဝင&eရ)က&eနထiuင&တA5 ဘဂQလ<လ.မ(iu, ကuလ),အလuပ& သမ), (၇၁,၃၀၆)


eယ)က&PiတA5အနက& (၆,၉၄၆) eယ)က&ဟ) eအ)က&ပQလuပ&ငန&,မ(),မY) ဝင&eရ)က&လuပ& ကiuင&Fကတ)eတ1^ရပQတယ&။

၁ စiuက&ပ(iu,eရ, ၄,၂၉၄၇ eယ)က&

၂ စ)eရ,စ)ခ(< ၇၄၄ eယ)က&

၃ လက&မ]ပည)သည& ၃,၃၄၇ eယ)က&

၄ က_မ&,က(င&သ.?Yင&5 တဝက&တပ(က&က_မ&,က(င&eသ) အလuပ&သမ), ၁၆,၄၂၆ eယ)က&

၅ ကuန&သည&မ(),?Yင&5 ကuန&သည&မ(),က လuပ&ကiuင&သ.မ(), eယ)က& ၁,၉၉၄ eယ)က&

စuစueပ4င&, ၆၉,၄၆၁ eယ)က&

အထက&ပQစ)ရင&,မ(),အနက& ကuလ), လ.မ(iu, ( ၉၄၄) eယ)က&ဟ) ကiuယ&ပiuင& လယ&ယ)လuပ&ကiuင&သ. မ(),9ဖစ& တ)eတ1^ရတA5အတ1က&


အe9ခခ(ဝင&eရ)က&eနထiuင&တA5 ဘင&ဂQလ<လ.မ(iu,eတ1 e9မယ)ပiuင&ဆiuင&မ]eတ1Piလ) တ)eတ1^ရပQတယ&။ (၁၂,၈၄၈) eယ)က&က) သ.တ
စ&ပQ,လယ&ယ)ကiu လuပ&ကiuင&သ.မ(),9ဖစ&;ပ<, (၁၉,၄၃၆) eယ)က&ဟ) လယ&စ)ရင&,ငY), မ(),9ဖစ&FကပQတယ&။
(၁၉၃၁) ခu?Yစ& သန&,eခQင&စ)ရင&,ကiu (၁၉၃၁) ခu?Yစ& eဖeဖ)&ဝQရ<လ (၂၄) ရက& eနm၌ eက)က&ယ.ခA5ရ) စပQ,ရiတ& သiမ&,;ပ<, ခ(iန&9ဖစ&သ
ည&5အeလ()က&အခ(iueသ) စစ&တeက)င&,ကuလ),တiuမY) စစ&eတ1ပတ&ဝန&,က(င&မY)PiတA5 ဆန& စက&eတ1မY)ဝင& eရ)က&လuပ&ကiuင&eနFက
ပQတယ&။ တခ(iuကလည&,eလYသမ),eတ1အ9ဖစ&လiuက&ပQ;ပ<,eတ)5 တ9ခ),;မiu!1)မ(),သiu သ1),eရ)က&eနဆA အခ(iန&လA9ဖစ&eနပQ
တယ&။

9ပည&သ{က(န&,မ)eရ,ဌ)နညŒန&Fက),eရ,ဝန&၏ (၁၉၃၀-၃၁) ခu?Yစ& အစ<ရင&ခ@စ)တ1င& eဖ)&9ပထ),ခ(က&အရသ) မန&အ),9ဖင&5 တစ&?Yစ&


လeင& စစ&တeက)င&,သ),ဘဂQလ< ကuလ),eပQင&, (၄၀,၀၀၀) ခန&m စစ&eတ1ခ!iuင&သiu ဝင&eရ)က&eလ5PieFက)င&,eဖ)&9ပထ), တ)eတ1^ရပQ
တယ&။

(၁၉၃၁) ခu?Yစ& သန&,eခQင&စ)ရင&, eက)က&ယ.ခ(iန&မY) စစ&eတ1ခ!iuင&အတ1င&,မY)အiန&€ိယတiuင&,ရင&,သ),eယ)က(&), (လ.မ(iu, eပQင&,စu@)


(၂၅၁,၉၄၅) eယ)က&Piတယ&လiu eဖ)&9ပထ),တယ&။

(၁၉၃၄) ခu?Yစ&တ1င& ရခiuင&တiuင&,အတ1င&, ကiuဝင&eရ)က&လ)တA5 စစ&တeက)င&,သ), ကuလ),ဦ,eရ (၂၀,၀၀၀) 9ဖစ& တယ&လiueဖ)& 9ပထ),
ပQတယ&။

စu@စမ&,eရ,eက)&မPင&ရAz တင&9ပခ(က&ထAမY) ရခiuင&တiuင&,အတ1င&,သiu ?Yစ&စt&?Yစ&တiuင&, စစ&တeက)င&,ကuလ),မ(), အ မ(),အ9ပ), ဝင&eရ)


က&eန9ခင&,အတ1က& တiuင&,ရင&,သ), ရခiuင&လ.မ(iu,eတ1မဆiuထ),နAm ရခiuင&မY)အစt&တစiuက&eန ထiuင&ခA5FကတA5ကuလ),မ(),ကပင& မ?Yစ&;မiuFက
တ)eFက)င&5 ယခuအတiuင&,ရခiuင&သiu စစ&တeက)င&, ဘဂQလ<ကuလ), မ(),အဆက& မ9ပတ&ဝင&လ)eန9ခင&,ကiu မတ),ဆ<,ခA5ပQက eန)င&
အန)ဂတ&တ1င& လ.မ(iu,eရ,အဓiက!uဏ&,မ(), 9ဖစ& ပ1),မည&ကiu စiu,ရiမ&ရeFက)င&,နAm သက&eသမ(),အ),လu@,က စစ&တeက)င&,မY ဘဂQလ<
ကuလ),မ(),၏ ဝင&eရ)က&မ] ကiuတ),ဆ<,သင&5eFက)င&,အCက@9ပuခA5FကပQတယ&။

ရခiuင&eဒသမY)PiတA5 eဒသခ@လက.လ< မ(),က စစ&တeက)င&,သ),ကuလ),မ(), လiuအပင&ပန&,ခ@;ပ<, အလuပ&မလuပ& ခ(င&Fက eFက)င&5 စစ&


တeက)င&,ကuလ),မ(),သည& အခegက,eင1နည&,ပQ,eသ)&လည&, အလuပ&ပiu၍ eပ,လiuက&လ(င& စစ&တeက)င&,ကuလ), မ(),လuပ&မည&5
eနရ)မ(),တ1င& ယင&,တiuဝင& eရ)က&လuပ&ကiuင&?iuင&Fကလiမ&5မယ&လiuယ.ဆခA5 FကပQတယ&။

ရခiuင&တiuင&,အတ1င&, လယ&ယ)စiuက&ပ(iu, !uပ&သiမ&,ခ(iန&မ(),မY) စစ&တeက)င&,ကuလ), အလuပ&သမ),မည&မe အလiuPi သည& မည&မeဝင&


eရ)က&လuပ&ကiuင&ခ1င&59ပuမည&ဟu စ<မ@ကiန&, ခ(မYတ&eဆ)င&ရ1က&သင&5eFက)င&, အuပ&ခ(uပ& eရ,ပiuင&,မY ထiuသiuစ<မ@ကiန&,ခ(မYတ&လuပ&eဆ)င&လeင&
ရခiuင&တiuင&,သiu?Yစ&စt&ဝင&eရ)က&လ)eသ) စစ&တeက)င&,ကuလ), ဦ,eရ သiသi သ)သ)က(ဆင&,သ1),eပလiမ&မည&ဟuတင& 9ပFကပQတ
ယ&။

သက&eသအ),လu@,တiuက ရခiuင&တiuင&, အတ1င&,သiuဝင&eရ)က&လ)Fကeသ) စစ&တeက)င&,ဘဂQလ<ကuလ),မ(),ကiu ကန&mသတ&တ),9မစ&


သင&5;ပ<ဟu တည<တ•1တ& တည&,တင&9ပFကပQတယ&။ ဝင&လ)မစA9ဖစ& eနတA5 ကuလ),အuပ&စu မ(),ကiu ;ဗiတiသeတiu စiu,ရiမ&လ)Fက;ပ<,
စu@စမ&,eရ,9ပuလuပ&ခA5ရ)၌ ဒuတiယကမ p)စစ&Cက<,9ဖစ&ပ1),လ)တA5အတ1က& မည& သiuမeအeက)င&အထည&eဖ)&eဆ)င& ရ1က&?iuင&9ခင&,မPiခA5ပQ
ဘ.,။

အAဒ<ကiစdရAz အက(iu,ဆက&အ9ဖစ& ဒuတiယကမ p)စစ&အတ1င&,မY) (၁၉၄၂) ခu?Yစ&၌ ပထမအCကiမ& (ကuလ),၊ ရခiuင&) အဓiက!uဏ&,9ဖစ&ပ1),
လ)ခA5ရပQeတ)5တယ&။
အeန)က&တ2ခ4,မ5ဧည&8သည&မ(),(၂)

ဒuတiယကမ p)စစ&အတ1င&, ဂ(ပန& အဝင& အဂNလiပ&အထ1က& eခတ&ပ(က&က)လမY) eFကက1Aဖ1ယ& ကuလ),၊ ရခiuင&၊ လ.မ(iu,eရ, အဓiက!uဏ&,
9ဖစ&ခA5ရပQတယ&၊ ပထမ အCကiမ&လiu e9ပ)ရမY)eပQ5၊ ခuခ(iန&မY)ဒuတiယ အCကiမ&9ဖစ&လ) ခA5;ပ<ကiu,၊ လ.မ(iu,eရ, အဓiက!uဏ&,9ဖစ&လ)ရ9ခင&,ရAz
အဓiကအeFက)င&, တစ&ရပ&ကeတ)5 အuပ&ခ(uပ&သ. ;ဗiတiသeတiu က ရခiuင&9ပည&အတ1င&,ကiu အi?•iယတiuင&,ရင&, သ),eတ1ကiu တ@ခQ,မPi၊
ဓ),မPi ဝင&/ထ1က& ခ1င&59ပuခA59ခင&,က အe9ခခ@ အeFက)င&,ရင&, 9ဖစ&ခA5ပQတယ&။

တ9ခ),အeFက)င&,တစ&ရပ&အeနနAm ကeတ)5 ;ဗiတiသeအစiu,ရရAz eသ1,ခ1Aအuပ& ခ(uပ&eရ,နည&, ပရiယ)ယ&eFက)င&5 ပA 9ဖစ&ပQတယ&။

(၁၉၄၀-၄၁) ခu?Yစ&မY) 9ဖစ&ပ1),ခA5တA5 ဒuတiယကမ p)စစ&Cက<,eFက)င&5 9မန&မ)?iuင&င@ တစ&ဝYမ&,လu@,ကiuတuန& လ]ပ&e9ခ)က&9ခ),eစခA5 ပQတယ&၊


အAဒ<အခ(iန&မY) ရခiuင&eဒသဟ) လည&, ဖ!iuဖရA 9ဖစ&လ)ခA5ပQတယ&။ ပန&,eတ)င&/ eတ)င&ကuတ&လမ&,မY ပiတ& ;ပ<, ခ(<တက&လ)တA5 အi?•iယ
တiu င&, ရင&, သ), စစ&e9ပ,eတ1 ရAz ဂယက&က စစ&eတ1 ;မiu အထi !iu က&ခ တ&လ)ခA5 တA5 အ တ1 က& ကu လ),ပန&ဇ င&, 9မစ&ဝY မ&, မY) လည&,
အe9ခအeနeတ1 ပ(က&9ပ),ယiမ&, ယiuင&လ)ခA5တယ&၊ ရeသ5eတ)င&၊ ဘ.,သ<,eတ)င&၊ eမ)င&eတ)eဒသမY)PiတA5 eဒသခ@ရခiuင&တiuင&,ရင&,
သ),eတ1ရAz ဘဝဟ)လည&, ဆန&eက)ထAမY)ထည&5;ပ<,လiမ&5eနတA5 ဆ<,9ဖ‚သ<,လiu အတည&တက(မPi9ဖစ&eန ရပQeတ)5တယ&။

အAဒ<အခ(iန&က)လက ရခiuင&eဒသမY) 9ဖစ&ပ(က&eနခA5သမeဟ) 9မန&မ)9ပည&တစ&ဝYမ&,လu@,မY)9ဖစ&ပ(က&eနတA5 အe9ခ အeနအတiuင&,ပA


တည&;ငiမ&မ]မPiခA5ပQဘ.,၊ အဂNလiပ&အခက&/ ဗမ)အခ(က&ဆiuတA5အတiuင&, အဂNလiပ&တiuက လည&, eအ)င&9မင&စ1)ဆuတ&ခ1)မ]ဆiuတA5အတiuင&,
ဆuတ&e9ပ,ခ(iန&မY) eတ)&လYန&eရ,သမ),eတ1အတ1က& အ ခ(iန&eက)င&,9ဖစ& ခA5ပQတယ&၊ ဒQeFက)င&5 စစ&e9ပ, ;ဗiတiသeeတ1နAm ၎င&,တiuရAz
အeပQင&,ပQeတ1ဟ) 9မန&မ)9ပည& သ),eတ1ကiu ယu@Fကည&မ] မPieတ)5ပQဘ.,၊ ;ဗiတiသeeတ1အeနနAm မiမiတiueအ)င&9မင&စ1) ဆuတ&ခ1) ?iuင&
eအ)င& ၎င&, တiuရAz စစ&e9ပ,ဘက&eတ)&သ),eတ1ဟ) တiuင&,ရင&,သ),အခ(င&,ခ(င&,ကiu ရန&တiuက&eပ,တA5နည&,ကiu က(င&5သu@,ခA5Fက ပQတယ&၊
ရန&တiuက&eပ,တA5နည&,က ထ.,ထ., 9ခ),9ခ), ဆန&,ဆန&,9ပ),9ပ),eတ)5 မဟuတ&ပQဘ.,။

;ဗiတiသeဘက&eတ)&သ),eတ1က 9မန&မ)?iuင&င@သ), မဟuတ&တA5 လ.မ(iu,9ခ), eတ1ကiu သ.တiuရAz က)က1ယ&eရ,အ တ1က&ဆiuတA5အeFက)င&,


9ပခ(က&နAm ယ.မသ1),?iuင&တA5 လက&နက&eတ1 eပ,ထ),ခA5တ)ပA 9ဖစ&ပQတယ&။ ;ဗiတiသeeတ1က လ.မ(iu,9ခ), eတ1ကiu လက&နက&eတ1eပ,
ထ),ခA5တ)ဟ) 9မန&မ)?iuင&င@တ1င&,Pi တiuင&,ရင&,သ),eတ1 အတ1က& ;ဂiuဟ&ဆiu,eမŒသလiu9ဖစ&ခA5ရeတ)5 တ)ပQပA။ အထ.,သ9ဖင&5 ရခiuင&တiuင&,
ရင&,သ), eတ1 ဒuကoပင&လယ&eဝခA5ရ ပQတယ&။

ရခiuင&9ပည&နယ&အတ1င&,မY)လည&, အi?•iယဘက&ကiu eအ)င&9မင&စ1) ဆuတ&ခ1)eနတA5 ;ဗiတiသeဘက&eတ)&သ),eတ1 က လက&နက&အမ(),


အ9ပ),ကiu ရခiuင&တiuင&,ရင&, သ),မဟuတ&တA5သ.eတ1ထ@မY) အပ&?Y@eပ,အပ&ခA5ပQတယ&။

အAဒ<အခ(iန& (၁၉၄၂-ခu?Yစ&၊ မတ&လ)မY) အဂNလiပ&စစ&တပ&က ရ)ဇပuတ&ကuလ), စစ&သ),eတ1ဟ) စစ&eတ1;မiuမY) eသ)င&,က(န&,eနတA5


အခ(iန&9ဖစ&ပQတယ&။ ရ)ဇပuတ& ကuလ),စစ&သ),eတ1ဟ) eဒသအတ1င&, ဝင&eရ)က& အe9ခခ(eနထiuင&လ(က&PiတA5 ကuလ),eတ1နAm ပ.,eပQ
င&,;ပ<, ရခiuင&အမ(iu, သ),မ(),ကiu သတ&9ဖတ&FကပQတယ&။

စစ&eတ1 ;မiueပ\က ဆရ)Cက<,ဦ,eမ)င&သ)ထ1န&,ရAz သ),မ(),လည&,သတ&9ဖတ&9ခင&,ခ@ခA5ရပQတယ&။

စစ&eတ1;မiuကiu အဂNလiပ&စစ&အuပ&ခ(uပ& eရ,သiu က.,e9ပ)င&,;ပ<, ရ)ဇပuတ&စစ&သ), eတ1နAm တuတ&၊ ဓ),၊ကiuင& ကu လ),eတ1ဟ) ရခiuင&အမ(iu,
သ),eတ1ရAz အiမ&eတ1ကiuဝiuင&,;ပ<, တစ&အiမ&လu@,eမŒe?Y)က&P)eဖ19ခင&,၊ အiမ&သ),eတ1 မသယ&ယ.?iuင&တA5ပစ&„ည&,eတ1၊ အဝတ&အထည&
လuယက& ယ.ငင&မ]မ(), 9ပu လuပ&တ) ခ@ခA5FကရပQတယ&။ ဒ<မYတ&တမ&, eတ1ကiu Fကည&59ခင&,အ),9ဖင&5 ;ဗiတiသeeတ1ဟ) မiမiတiu eအ)င&9မင&
စ1) ဆuတ&ခ1)?iuင& eရ,အတ1က& ရခiuင& အမ(iu,သ),မဟuတ&သ. ရ)ဇပuတ&ကuလ),မ(),ထ@ လက&နက&အမ(), အ9ပ),eပ,အပ&ခA5;ပ<,
လ.မ(iu,eရ, အဓiက !uဏ&,9ဖစ&eအ)င& လမ&,စeဖ)&eပ,ခA5တ)ကiu eတ1^?iuင&ပQတယ&။
ရခiuင&9ပည&နယ& 9ဖစ&စt&သမiuင&,မY) ကuလ),၊ ရခiuင&အဓiက!uဏ&, !uတ&တရက& 9ဖစ&ရ9ခင&, အeFက)င&, ကiu eဖ)&9ပထ),တ) ကeတ)5-

““e9မပu@;မiuနယ&၊ eခ()င&,Cက<,ရ1)သ. Cက<, ည<အစ&ကiu?Yစ&eယ)က&ကiu ရက&eခ()င&, ကuလ),မ(),က သတ&9ဖတ&Fက သည&။ ယင&, အe9ခအ
eနeFက)င&5 သiန&,eက()&eအ)င& ?Yင&5 eက()&ယတiueခQင&,eဆ)င&eသ) ရခiuင&တပ&ဖ1A^က ရက&eခ()င&,ကuလ),ရ1)ကiu မ<,vi ဖ(က&ဆ<,လiuက&Fက
သ9ဖင&5 ကuလ),၊ ရခiuင& အဓiက!uဏ&, (ပထမ) စတင&ခA5eလ သည&”” လiu ရခiuင&9ပည&နယ&9ဖစ&စt&သမiuင&,၊ ဒuတiယ တ1A၊ စ)မ(က&?Y) -၃၆မY)
eဖ)&9ပထ),ပQ တယ&။

ကuလ),၊ ရခiuင& အဓiက!uဏ&,ဟ) e9မပu@;မiuနယ&ကတစ&ဆင&5၊ မင&,9ပ),;မiuနယ& လက&မeက(,ရ1)၊ ယင&,မYတစ&ဆင&5 ;မiu eဟ)င&,;မiuနယ&


(e9မ)က&ဦ,)၊ eက()က& eတ)&;မiuနယ&မ(),သiu က.,စက&9ပန&mပ1),လ)ခA5သည&။ အAဒ<;မiuနယ&eတ1က ထ1က&e9ပ, လ1တ&e9မ)က&လ)တA5
ကuလ),မ(),ဟ) ဘ.,သ<,eတ)င&၊ eမ)င&eတ);မiuနယ&မ(), သiu eရ)က&Pi လ)Fက;ပ<,၊ အAဒ<eဒသမY) ဝင&eရ)က&eနထiuင&တA5 ကuလ),မ(),
နAm ပ.,eပQင&,က) ဘ.,သ<,eတ)င&၊ eမ)င&eတ) eဒသမY) eနထiuင&FကတA5 ရခiuင&တiuင&,ရင&, သ),မ(),ကiu လက&စ),eခ( တu@9ပန&FကတA5 အတ1
က& eမ)င&eတ);မiuနယ& နတ&9မစ& အe~ဘက&ကမ&,တစ&eလe)က&နAm ဘ.,သ<, eတ)င&;မiuနယ&၊ ရeသ5eတ)င&;မiuနယ&၊ eမယu9မစ&ကမ&,
တစ&ခ1 င&မY) eနထiu င&တA5 ရခiu င&eက(,ရ1) မ(),အ),လu@, မ<, vi ဖ(က&ဆ<, ခ@ ရ9ခင&, ၊ သတ&9ဖတ&ခ@ ရ 9ခင&, မ(),eFက)င&5 eဒသခ@ ရ ခiu င&
တiuင&,ရင&,သ),eတ1 ထ1က&e9ပ, FကပQတယ&။ ရခiuင&လ.မ(iu,မ(),စ1) အသက& ဆu@,|@,ခA5ရ;ပ<,၊ ရခiuင&တiuင&,ရင&,သ),တiuရAz eက(,ရ1)eပQင&,မ(),
စ1) ပ(က&စ<,သ1),ခA5ရပQ တယ&။ အAဒ<က)လက ပ(က&စ<,သ1),တA5 eက(,ရ1)eတ1ကiuဒ<eနmအထi 9ပန&လည& အစ),ထiu,တည&eဆ)က&?iuင&9ခင&,
မPieတ)5ဘA တiuင&,ရင&, သ),ရခiuင&လ.မ(iu,တiu နလန&မထ.?iuင&eတ)5ဘA ဘ.,သ<,eတ)င&၊ eမ)င&eတ);မiuနယ&အတ1င&,မY) ရခiuင&ရ1)မ(), မPi
သeလ)က&9ဖစ&သည&အထi eပ()က&က1ယ& သ1),ခA5ရ;ပ<, ကuလ),ရ1)မ(),သ) 9ဖစ&လ)ခA5 ပQeတ)5တယ&။ ဒ<eနmအခ(iန&အခQမY)လည&, ဒ<9ဖ
စ&စt&ကiu သင&ခန&,စ)ယ. စt&,စ),Fကဖiu လiuအပ&eနပQ;ပ<။

ပထမအCကiမ& ဒuတiယကမ p)စစ& အတ1င&, 9ဖစ&ပ1),ခA5တA5 eFကက1Aဖ1ယ&ရ) လ.မ(iu,eရ,အဓiက!uဏ&,ကiu စ)ရင&,ခ(uပ& လiuက&ရင& ရခiuင&တiuင&,ရ
င&,သ),တiuအတ1က& အစ),ထiu,မရ?iuင&တA5 ဆu@,|@,မ]မ(),စ1) PiခA5တ)ကiu eတ1^ရမY)9ဖစ&ပQတယ&။
(၁) အဓiက!uဏ&,၌ ရခiuင&လ.မ(iu, (၂၀၀၀) ခန&m အသက&ဆu@,|@,ခA5ရ9ခင&,။
(၂) ဘ.,သ<,eတ)င&;မiuနယ&?Yင&5 eမ)င&eတ) ;မiuနယ&မY ရခiuင&ရ1)မ(),အ),လu@,?Yင&5 ရeသ5 eတ)င&;မiuနယ&မY ရခiuင&ရ1)အခ(iuမ<,vi ပ(က&စ<,မ]ခ@
ခA5ရ9ခင&,။
(၃) လ.မ(),eသဆu@,၍ လယ&ယ)e9မမ(), ကiu 9ပန&လည&ထ.eထ)င&မည&5သ. မPi9ဖစ&ခA5 ရ9ခင&,၊ (ယခuအခQ ကuလ),ပiuင&e9မမ(), 9ဖစ&သ1),ပQ
သည&။)
(၄) စစ&တeက)င&,သ), ကuလ),မ(), ပiuမiu မ(),9ပ),လ);ပ<, ရခiuင&ရ1)မ(), 9ပန&လည& ထ.eထ)င&ခ1င&5မရeတ)59ခင&, စတA5အခ(က&eတ1 eတ1^
ရမY)9ဖစ&ပQတယ&။

ပထမအCကiမ&9ဖစ&ပ1),ခA5တA5 ကuလ),၊ ရခiuင&အဓiက!uဏ&,က)လမY) ဘ.,သ<,eတ)င&;မiuနယ&ဟ) အထiအန) ဆu@,9ဖစ& ခA5 ရပQတယ&။ ဘ.,


သ<,eတ)င&;မiueပ\မY)eတ)င& လ.eနအiမ&e9ခeတ1 ဆiတ&သut&,;ပ<, eတ);ခ@uအထi9ဖစ&ခA5ရပu@ကiu ဦ,စ@ ထ1န&,eအ)င&ဆiuသ.က မYတ&တမ&,9ပuစu
ခA5ရ)မY)-

““eမ)င&eတ)ဒuကoသည&စခန&,မY (၁၉၄၅)ခu?Yစ&၊ ဒ<ဇင&ဘ)လ (၂၈)ရက&eနm တ1င& က_န&eတ)&တiuအ), ဘ., သ<,eတ)င& ;မiuသiu 9ပန&ပiueလ
သည&။ စစ&e9ပ,eခတ& ဘ.,သ<,eတ)င&;မiueပ\တ1င& လ.eနအiမ&e9ခ မPi သeလ)က&9ဖစ&eန၏။ ;မiuလယ&9ဖစ& eသ) ;မiuမရပ&က1က&၊
(ယခu-eမယuလမ&,)၊ ယခင& ဘ., သ<,eတ)င&-eမ)င&eတ) လမ&,eဘ,ဝAယ)ရပ&က1က&မ(),၊ ;မiuသစ&e9မ)က& ရပ&က1က&၊သ.eဌ,ကuန&,ရပ&
က1က&၊ သeဘN)ဆiပ&eဟ)င&,ရပ&က1က&၊ က),လမ&,၊ ကသည&,ရ1)၊ အeန)က&စuမ(),တ1င& အiမ&e9ခလu@,ဝမPieတ)5သည&5 အ9ပင& ကiuင&,ပင&၊
က(‚ပင&မ(),eပQက&eရ)က&က) ;ခ@ueတ)စ<,လ(က& ;မiu?Yင&5မတ.eသ)eFက)င&5 က_န&eတ)&5မY)က), မYန&,ဆလeင& ဘယ&eနရ)သiueရ)က&eန
မYန&, မသieခ(။ ;မiuသစ& eတ)င&ပiuင&, သe9ပကuန&,ရပ&က1က&တ1င& အiမ&လu@,ဝ မPieခ(။ eတ)စ<,eနeလသည&။ ;မiuသစ&eတ)င&ရပ&က1က&
တ1င& အiမ&e9ခ အနည&,ငယ&Piရ)လက&ခ(iu,၍ eရ တ1က&?iuင&ပQသည&။ ထiuအiမ& (၄.၅)အiမ&မY)လည&, အစiu,ရအမ]ထမ&,e9မတiuင&,မY အရ)Pi
eန အiမ&မ(),9ဖစ&eလသည&”” လiu မYတ&တမ&,eရ, ထ),ခA5ပQတယ&။
ဒQအ9ပင& ဘ.,သ<,eတ)င&;မiuနယ&မY) ရခiuင&eက(,ရ1)မ(), 9ပန&လည&ထ.eထ)င&eရ,အတ1က& ကiuယ&တiuင&eဆ)င&ရ1က& ခA5ရပu@နAm eအ)င&9မင&မ]
မရPiခA5ပu@မ(),ကiuလည&, eအ)က&ပQအတiuင&, မYတ&တမ&,တင&ခA5ပQသည&။

““က_?u&ပ&သည& ရခiuင&ရ1)မ(),ကiu 9ပန& လည&အe9ခခ(ရန& အစiu,ရeထ)က&ပ@5eရ, ဌ)နအရ)Pi “eမဂ()eဂQဒiuင&”၏ အက.အည< 9ဖင&5 Cကiu,စ),
eဆ)င&ရ1က&ခA5eလသည&။ က_?u&ပ&သည& ကuလ),ပန&ဇင&,9မစ&eအ)က& ပiuင&,သiu ရခiuင&သ), ဦ,eရ (၁၀၀၀၀)eက()& ပiuခA5eလသည&။ eအ)
က&ပiuင&,တ1င&လည&, အလiuအeလ()က& 9ပန&ဝင&လ)သ.မ(),?Yင&5 က_?u&ပ& တiueပ,ပiuသည&5 ရခiuင&ဦ,eရသည& အထက&ပiuင&,ဦ,eရထက& နည&,မ
ည&မဟuတ&eခ(။ ထiuသiu သ.တiuအe9ခ ခ(eနထiuင& ခA5Fက eလသည&။ ရခiuင&သ),eက(,ရ1)မ(),မY) အe9ခအeနအရ လ.နည&,စu9ဖစ&eန9ခင&,၊
လ.မ(),စu9ဖစ&eနeသ) မ. ဆလင&မ(),က မလiuလ),9ခင&,တiueFက)င&5 eရ)က&Piအe9ခ ခ(eန;ပ<9ဖစ&eသ) ရခiuင&တiuမY) က(<,လန&m စ)စ),9ဖစ&
eန သည&။ မ.ဂ()ဟစ& အမည&ခ@မ(),က e9ခ)က&လYန&m?Yင&ထuတ&သ9ဖင&5 လယ&ယ)လuပ&ငန&,မ(),ကiu စ1န&mပစ&က) eFက)က& လန&m တFက),
ထ1က&e9ပ,Fကရ eလသည&။ ထiuသiuခဏ, ခဏe9ပ,ရသ9ဖင&5 ပiuထ),သ.မ(),၏ ထက&ဝက&မeပင& မ က(န& သeလ)က&9ဖစ&eနသည&”” လiu
eရ,သ),ခA5 ပQတယ&။

ဒuတiယကမ p)စစ&;ပ<,eန)က&ပiuင&, အi?•iယ9ပည& “eP)င&ပ.ရ”စခန&,မY)PieနတA5 ကuလ),မ(),ဟ)လည&, ရခiuင&9ပည& တ1င&,သiu 9ပန&ဝင&လ)


Fကရ)မY) 9ပန&ဝင&လ)FကတA5သ.eတ1အနက& အဓiက!uဏ&,နAm သက&ဆiuင&တA5ကuလ), မ(),စ1)ပQ ဝင&လ)ခA5FကပQတယ&။ဒ<အeFက)င&,ကiu
စ)eရ,ဆရ)eမ)င&ထင&က ““;ဗiတiသe မဟ)မiတ&တiuဝင&လ)eသ) လမ&,eပQက& အတiuင&, အi?•iယ?iuင&င@မYလ.မ(iu,eပQင&,မ(), စ1)တiuသည&
9မန&မ)9ပည&ထAသiuအလuအယက& ဝင&လ)Fက သည&။ဆ1@^အ၊ အက(iu,၊အကန&,၊ ?.၊၀ဲစeသ) သ.eတ)င&,စ),လ.ထuသည&ပင&လeင& စစ&တ
eက)င&,မYတစ& ဆင&5ရန& ကuန&မဂiu လမ&,သiuအeရ)က& အ.ယ),ဖ),ယ),e9ပ, ဝင&လ)Fကသည&။ ၎င&,တiuဝင&လ)eသ) လမ&,eFက)င&,
က), ကuလ),ပန&ဇင&,9မစ& ၀ှမ&,””မY အစ9ပueလသည&။

စစ&တeက)င&,အ?1ယ&တiuသည& ကuလ),ပန&ဇင&,9မစ&ဝYမ&,သiu လ)eသ)အခQ ?iuစ),?1),မတစ&eက)င&ကiuသ) ယ.eဆ)င& လ)ခA5Fကသည&။


၎င&,တiu?Yင&5အတ. eP,က 9မန&မ)9ပည&တ1င&မeနထiuင&ဖ.,Fကeသ) အeဆ1အမ(iu,တiu လည&, ပQလ)Fကသည&။ မ(),မFက)မ< ကuလ),ပန&ဇ
င&,9မစ&ဝYမ&,eဒသ အeန)က&ဘက&၌ လယ&e9မ၊ဥယ()t&;ခ@၊ ဆiတ&;ခ@တiuသည&စည&က),သiuက&;မiuက&လ) eလသည&။အeန)က&ဘက&က
မ&,Piရခiuင& တiuင&,ရင&,သ),တiuက), စစ&eဘ,စစ&ဒဏ& eFက)င&5ခ!uဆ@က_တ&9ဖစ&Fကရeလသည&။” လiu ရခiuင&9ပည&နယ&အစ<ရင&်ခ@စ)၊9မဝ
တ<မဂ} ဇင&, (၁၉၆၀-ဇ.လiuင&)လထuတ&မY)eရ,သ), ခA5ပQတယ&။

ဘ.,သ<,eတ)င&;မiuနယ&9ပန&လည&ထ. eထ)င&က)စ (၁၉၄၆)ခu?Yစ& အe9ခအeန နAmစစ&တeက)င&,သ), ကuလ),မ(), အ လu@,အရင&,နAmခiu,ဝ


င&လ)Fက;ပ<,တA5eန)က& (၁၉၄၈)ခu?Yစ&အe9ခအeနကiu ဦ,စ@ထ1န&, eအ)င&ကeအ)က&ပQ အတiuင&,?i]င&,ယYt&eဖ)& 9ပခA5ပQတယ&။

““ထiuအခ(iန&(၁၉၄၆)ခu?Yစ&တ1င& က_?u&ပ&eတ1^ရeသ)ရ1)မ(),မY) ယခuကA5သiuစည&ပင& 9ခင&,မPi၊ eP,က eတ1^PiခA5eသ) “ကက( ဘက&ရ1)” ပင&


လeင&လ.eနအiမ&e9ခအနည&, ငယ&?Yင&5 e9ခ)က&ကပ&ကပ&9ဖစ&eန သည&ကiu eတ1^ရeလ သည&။ eစ(,မY)လည&, ထiuနည&,ပင& မစည&က),
eခ(။ eစ(,စည&က),ရန&မY) eစ(,ခ@ရပ&က1က&စည&က),ပu@?Yင&5လည&, မ;ပ<, eခ(။ eစ(,မYလက&လYမ&,မ<ရ) eက(,ရ1)မ(), လည&, စည&,က),ရ
န&လiueပသည&။

ဘ.,သ<,eတ)င&;မiu?Yင&5 န<,ကပ&eသ) ကက(ဘက&၊ က@Cက<,9ပင&၊ eမ)င&န<ရ1)၊ အလယ&eခ()င&,စeသ)ရ1)မ(),ပင& လeင& အiမ&e9ခ


(၃၀)eက()&မည&မဟuတ&eသ,eခ(။ ကuလ),ပန&ဇင&,eက(,ရ1)မ(),မY)လည&, ထiu နည&,တ.ပင&9ဖစ&eလ သည&။ ရခiuင&ဆiu၍ 9ပ စရ)မPieသ,
eသ) ထiuအခ(iန& (၁၉၄၆) ခu?Yစ&တ1င&ပင& ထiueက(,ရ1)မ(),သည& ဤမe အe9ခ အeနPieသ,သည&9ဖစ&ပQလ(က& (၁၉၄၈) ခu?Yစ&တ1င& လ.ဦ,
eရ တစ&သiန&, ?Yစ&eသ)င&,eက()&လ)သည&မY) ဘယ&ပu@ ဘယ&နည&,?Yင&5 ဝင&လ)Fကသည&ကiu eတ1, Fကည&5က သi?iuင&eပသည&။ အစiu,ရ
အuပ&ခ(uပ&eရ,အe9ခမက(မ< ခiu, ဝင&လ)သ.မ(),ကiu Piရင&,မ.ဆလင&မ(),က လက&ခ@၍ ထiuမY တစ&ဆင&5 စစ&eတ1ခ!iuင& အ9ခ),;မiuနယ&မ(), သiu
ပင&လeင& ပiueနFကသည&။ ရပ&ရ1)သ), မ(),မY)လည&, ရခiuင&မPiဘA မ.ဆလင&သက& သက&9ဖစ&eနရ) ဘ.,Cက<,မ(),မY)လည&, မ. ဆလင&သ)
9ဖစ&eန9ပန&သ9ဖင&5 မiမiပiuင&နက& eက(,ရ1)နယ&e9မမY9ဖစ&eFက)င&, သက&eသ ခ@အeထ)က&အထ),eပ, က) ခရ<,သ1), ခ1င&5Pieနသ9ဖင&5
ဝင&ခ(င&တiuင&,ဝင&ခA5Fကeလသည&။ သ.Cက<,လuပ&သ.က တ)ဝန&ယ.ထ),ရ) အ9ခ), အeထ)က&အထ),ရ?iuင&ရန& ခက&ခAeလသည&”” လiu
ဦ,စ@ထ1န&,eအ)င&က (ကiuယ&eတ1^eမယu?Yင&5 !iuဟင&ဂ())ဆiuတA5 မYတ&တမ&,မY) eရ,ခA5တ)eတ1^ခA5ရပQသည&။
ဒQeတ1ကeတ)5 eန)င&တစ&ခ(iန& “!iuဟင&ဂ()” လiu အမည&ခ@မယ&5 တစ&ဖက&?iuင&င@က စစ&တeက)င&,သ), ဘဂNQလ< ကuလ), eတ1 ဝင&eရ)
က&လ)ပu@ တစ&စiတ&တစ&eဒသပQ။ ဘဂNQလ<ကuလ),eတ1ဟ) အင&အ),Cက<,မ), လ);ပ<,eန)က&ပiuင&,မY) မ.ဆလင&သ<,9ခ),9ပည&နယ&eပ,
eရ,ဆiu;ပ<, တစ&ဆင&5 တက&eတ)င&,ဆiuခA5Fက9ပန&ပQတ)ပA။
မ.ဆလင& သ<,9ခ),9ပည&နယ&eတ)င&,ဆiu9ခင&, အi?•iယ?iuင&င@မY)PiတA5 မ.ဆလင&eတ1က သ<,9ခ), မ.ဆလင&?iuင&င@ ထ.eထ)င&eပ,ရန&အတ1က&
;ဗiတiသeအစiu,ရထ@ eတ)င&,ဆiu လ]ပ&P),လ)FကပQတယ&။ မ.ဆလင&အမ(),စu PiတA5 အi?•i ယအeန)က&ဘက&eဒသနAm အi?•iယအe~ဘ
က&၊ ဘဂNလ),9ပည&နယ& အe~ဘက&eဒသမ(),ကiu ပQကစdတန&?iuင&င@ အ9ဖစ& ထ.eထ)င&eပ,ရန& eတ)င&,ဆiuခA5FကပQတယ&။

အAဒ<လiueတ)င&,ဆiu လ]ပ&P),မ] eတ1ဟ) eမ)င&eတ)၊ ဘ.,သ<,eတ)င&;မiu နယ&မ(),မY)eနFကတA5 စစ&တeက)င&, သ), မ.ဆလင&မ(),


အeပ\မY) လŒမ&,မiu,လ)ခA5ပQတယ&။

(၁၉၄၂) ခu?Yစ& ကuလ),၊ ရခiuင& အဓiက !uဏ&,ကလည&, eမ)င&eတ)၊ ဘ.,သ<,eတ)င& ;မiuနယ&မ(),ကiu 9မန&မ)?iuင&င@မY ခ1Aထ1က&;ပ<, အသစ&
9ဖစ&eပ\လ)တA5 အe~ပQကစdတန& နAm တစ&?iuင&င@တည&,9ဖစ&eအ)င& eပQင&,စည&, လiuတA5ဆ?• ကiu 9ဖစ&eပ\eစခA5ပQတယ&။ အထ.,သ9ဖင&5
စစ&တeက)င&,သ), ပည)တတ&မ(),က ပiu;ပ<,စiတ&အ),ထက&သန&eန Fက ပQတယ&။ဒQeFက)င&5 ကရ)ခ(i;မiuမY) (၁၉၄၂)ခu?Yစ&မY) က(င&,ပ
တA5 အစdလ)မ&ည<လ)ခ@မY) အဆiuတစ&ရပ&အ9ဖစ& တင& သ1င&, ခA5တယ&လiu အဆiuPiခA5ပQတယ&။ အAဒ<အeFက)င&, နAm ပတ&သက&လiu သueတသ<
ခင&Cက<,eဖ()&က eအ)က&ပQအ တiuင&, မYတ&တမ&,တင&ခA5 ပQတယ&။

““(၁၉၄၂) ခu?Yစ&တ1င& (ဇ.မiယ)တ.အ. မလ)) အသင&,၏ ပuဂu}i လ&တiuသည& eမ)င&eတ)၊ ဘ.,သ<,eတ)င&၊ ရeသ5eတ)င& ;မiuတiu၌ မ.ဆလင&
ဦ,eရမ(),သည&5အတ1က& ပQကစdတန&နယ&အတ1င&, ထည&5သ1င&,သတ& မYတ&eပ,ရန& ;ဗiတiသeအစiu,ရထ@ အသန),ခ@ရန&Cကiu,စ),ခA5Fက
eသ,သည&။ Cကiu,ပမ&,ခA5ပu@ မY) (၁) eရ)ဟiရ&ကiန&,(ဘ<eအ)၊ (၂) အueမ•)&မe) (၃)အဒ.eဘ)&eP)(ဘ<eအ) (၄)အဒ.ခQလiတ&(eမ)&လဝ<)၊
(၅) ?.ရ) eမ)က&(ကuန&သည&)၊ (၆) ဟ)ဘ< အ.လ) ?Yင&5 (ဇ.မiဟ)တ.ဘ.မလ)) အသင&,၏ အက(iu,eဆ)င&မ(),ကiu ပQကစdတန&သiu eစလŒ
တ&၍ ပQကစdတန&eခQင&,eဆ)င&တiu ?Yင&5 eဆ1,e?1,Fကသည&။ ဤအeFက)င&,ကiu စစ&တeက)င&,နယ&ထuတ& (eအ)&;ပ<eကq ) ဝQဇ))
သတင&,စ)တ1င& eတ1^9မင&ရသည&”” လiu ရခiuင&9ပည&မY မ.ဂ()ဟiန&,ဟ.သည&၊ eဆ)င&,ပQ,၊ ရခiuင& တန&eဆ)င&, ?Yစ&လည&မဂ}ဇင&,
(၁၉၅၉-၆၀)၊ စ)မ(က&?Y) (၉၉)မY) eရ,ခA5ပQတယ&။

ဒQeပမယ&5 ;ဗiတiသeအစiu,ရက အi?•iယ 9ပည&Cက<,ကiu အi?•iယနAmပQကစdတန&လiu ?iuင&င@?Yစ&?iuင&င@ခ1A;ပ<, လ1တ&လပ&eရ,eပ, ခA5eပမယ&5 အe~ပQ


ကစdတန&နAm နယ&e9မခ(င&, ဆက&စပ& eနတA5 eမ)င&eတ)၊ ဘ.,သ<,eတ)င&eဒသကiu မ.လအ တiuင&, 9မန&မ)?iuင&င@နယ&နiမiတ&အတ1င&,၌သ)
ထ),ခA5;ပ<, 9မန&မ)?iuင&င@ကiuလည&, (၁၉၄၈) ခu?Yစ&မY)လ1တ& လပ&eရ, eပ,ခA5ပQတယ&။

9မန&မ)?iuင&င@eတ)& လ1တ&လပ&eရ, ရ;ပ<,eန)က& ?iuင&င@eရ,အယ.အဆ အမ(iu,မ(iu,က1A9ပ),ရ)က အမ(iu,သ),စည&,လu@, ည<ည1တ&eရ,ပ(က&


9ပ),က) 9ပည&တ1င&,စစ& 9ဖစ&ခA5ရပQတယ&။ ?iuင&င@တစ&ဝYမ&,လu@,မY)လည&, eရ)င&စu@သ.ပuန&မ(),eပ\eပQက&ခA5ပQတယ&။ ရခiuင&9ပည&နယ&မY)လ
ည&, အလ@9ဖ‚၊ အလ@န<၊ 9ပည&သ{လŒတ&e9မ)က&eရ,၊ ရAeဘ)&9ဖ‚ စတA5 သ.ပuန&အဖ1A^အ စည&,eတ1 eပ\ထ1က&လ)ခA5ပQတယ&။

e9မeပ\မY)လည&, ဖဆပလ အ)ဏ)ပiuင&တiuရAz လuပ&eဆ)င&ခ(က&မ(),ကiu ရခiuင& 9ပည&သ.လ.ထuက အ),မရခA5FကပQ ဘ.,။ ဒQeFက)င&5 ရခiuင&
9ပည&နယ&eတ)င&,ဆiuမ] eပ\eပQက&လ)ပQတယ&။ အAဒ<ကiစdကiu ဖဆပလ အစiu,ရက eက)&မ Pင&ဖ1A^;ပ<, စu@စမ&,eစခA5ပQတယ&။ eဒQက&တ)
ဘဦ,eခQင&, eဆ)င&တA5 9ပည&နယ&စu@စမ&,eရ,eက)&မPင&က ဖဆပလ အစiu,ရရAz လiuအင&ဆ?•အတiuင&, ““ရခiuင&9ပည&နယ&မeပ,သင&5eFက)
င&,”” အစ< ရင&ခ@ခA5ပQတယ&။

အAဒ<ပဋiပကoဟ) eဒသခ@ရခiuင&တiuင&, ရင&,သ),တiuကiuသ)မက စစ&တeက)င&,သ), မ.ဆလင&မ(),ကiuပQ !iuက& ခတ&eစခA5ပQတယ&။ ၎င&,တiu


က ““ဖဆပလ အစiu,ရက ရခiuင&တiuကiu 9ပည&နယ&eပ,ရင& ငQတiuမ.ဆလင&မ(),ကiu ရခiuင& တiuက ဖi?Yiပ&မည&။ သiu9ဖစ&၍ ငQတiu အမ(),စueန
eသ) eမ)င&eတ)၊ ဘ.,သ<, eတ)င&;မiuနယ&မ(),ကiuလည&, သ<,9ခ), မ.ဆလင&9ပည&နယ&ထ.eထ)င&eပ,ရမည&။ မeပ,လeင& လက&နက&
ကiuင& ထgကeတ)&လYန&မည&”” ဆiu;ပ<,eတ)5 ဘဂNQ လ<ပည)တတ& eတ1က ဒQက);မiuမY) ပu@?Yiပ&တA5 အဂNလiပ&ဘ)သ)နAm eFကည)ခ(က&ထuတ&
9ပန&;ပ<, ရ)ဇ သ@eပ, eတ)င&,ဆiu ခA5FကပQတယ&။

အAဒ<eန)က&ပiuင&,မY)eတ)5 မ.ဂ()ဟစ& သ.ပuန&မ(),eပ\eပQက&လ)က) လက&နက&ကiuင&စ1A;ပ<, ဘ.,သ<,eတ)င&;မiuနယ& နAm eမ)င& eတ);မiuန


ယ&မY)PiတA5 ရခiuင&တiuင&,ရင&,သ),တiuကiu နည&,မ(iu,စu@နAm ?Yiပ&စက&ကလ.9ပuခA5FကပQ eတ)5တယ&။
တစ&ခQ (၁၉၅၁-ခu?Yစ&)၊ ဇ.လiuင&လမY) eမ)င&eတ);မiuနယ&၊ အလယ&သeက()& eက(,ရ1)မY) အနယ&နယ&အရပ&ရပ& က ကiuယ&စ),လYယ&
မ(),ပQဝင&တA5 မ.ဆလင&ည<လ)ခ@ကiu က(င&,ပ;ပ<, eတ)င&,ဆiuခ(က& (၁၄)ခ(က&ကiu အဂNလiပ&ဘ) သ)နAmeရ,သ), ;ပ<, တင&9ပeတ)င&,ဆiuခA5
FကပQတယ&။ အAဒ< အခ(က&eတ1ကiu ဆ<eလ()&eအ)င& ဘ)သ) 9ပန&ဆiu ပQက eအ)က&ပQအတiuင&, eတ1^ရမY) 9ဖစ&ပQတယ&။

(၁) ရခiuင&တiuင&, e9မ)က&ပiuင&,ကiu 9ပည&eထ)င& စu9မန&မ)?iuင&င@အတ1င&,Pi Pမ&,9ပည&နယ&၊ ကရင&9ပည&နယ&၊ ခ(င&,eတ)င&တန&,မ(),၊ ကခ(င&


eဒသမ(),နည&,တ. လ1တ&လပ&eသ) မ.ဆလင&9ပည&နယ&အ9ဖစ& အ9မန&ဆu@, ဖ1A^စည&,eပ,ရမည&။ ယင&,9ပည&နယ&၌ 9ပည& eထ)င&စu
အစiu,ရက1ပ&ကAမ]eအ)က&တ1င& 9ပည&နယ&စစ& တပ&၊ 9ပည&နယ& ရAတပ&ဖ1A^၊ 9ပည&နယ&လu@;ခ@ueရ, အဖ1A^မ(),လည&, ထ),Piရမည&။

(၂) 9ပည&eထ)င&စu9မန&မ)?iuင&င@eတ)& က)က1ယ&eရ,အတ1က& eအ)က&အမYတ& စt&(၃)တ1င& eဖ)&9ပထ),eသ) စည&,ကမ&,ခ(က&မ(),?Yင&5


ကiuက&ည<ခA5ပQက တစ&ခuတည&, eသ)လက&နက&ကiuင&တပ&ဖ1A^ကiu ထ),Pi?iuင&သည&။

ရခiuင&တiuင&,၏ လက&နက&ကiuင&အဖGHIအစည&, မ(),J5င&8 ရHတပ&ဖGHIတGင&မKစလင&မ(),အညLအမM ပ4ဝင&eရ,
(၃) ရခiuင&တiuင&, လက&နက&ကiuင&တပ&ဖ1A^တ1င& တစ&ဦ,အeပ\တစ&ဦ, အ9ပန&အလYန& ယu@Fကည&စiတ&ခ(ရမ]၊ ပ.,eပQင&,eဆ)င&ရ1က& ?iuင&မ]၊ မ.ဆ
လင&တiu၏ အeနအထ),မY) မဟ)ဗ(‚ဟ)အရ အeရ,ပQမ]ကiu eထ)က& ထ),၍ မ.ဆလင& (၅၀)ရ)ခiuင&?]န&, ပQဝင& ထည&5သ1င&,က) ဖ1A^စ
ည&,ရမည&။

စစ&eတGသeဘP)ဆiပ&ကiu ပK,တGHRကL,Sကပ&eရ,
(၄) စစ&eတ1;မiu?Yင&5 စစ&eတ1သeဘN)ဆiပ& ကiu ရခiuင&e9မ)က&ပiuင&,လ1တ&လပ&eသ) မ.ဆလင&9ပည&နယ&?Yင&5 ရခiuင&eတ)င&ပiuင&,တiu ?Yစ&ဦ,?Yစ&
ဖက&တiu?Yင&5 သက&ဆiuင&eသ);မiu?Yင&5 သeဘN)ဆiပ&အ9ဖစ& သတ&မYတ&ရမည&။ ပ.,တ1ACက<,Fကပ&eရ,မ.အရ မ.ဆလင&မ(),?Yင&5 မ.ဆလင&မဟu
တ&သ.မ(), (၅၀ ရ)ခiuင&?]န&,)စ< အည<အမeပ.,တ1A၍ စ<မ@ အuပ&ခ(uပ&ရမည&။ စစ&eတ1;မiu၏ ;မiueတ)&ဝန&၊ တiuင&,မင&,Cက<, ?Yင&5 ဒuတiယမင&,Cက<,
ရ)ထ.,မ(),တ1င& မ.ဆလင& ?Yင&5 မ.ဆလင& မဟuတ&သ.မ(), အလYည&5က( တ)ဝန&ထမ&,eဆ)င&ရမည&။ ပထမဆu@, ;မiueတ)&ဝန&မY) မ.ဆလ
င&9ဖစ&၍ ဒuတiယ ;မiueတ)&ဝန&မY) မ.ဆလင&မဟuတ&သ.9ဖစ&ရမည&။ ဤသiu9ဖင&5 ?Yစ&?Yစ&တစ&Cကiမ&က(စ< အလYည&5က(အuပ&ခ(uပ& သ1),ရမည&။

ဗဟiuအစiu,ရအဖGHIတGင& မKဆလင&ဝန&RကL,မ(), ခန&Uထ),eရ,


(၅)9မန&မ)?iuင&င@ဗဟiuအစiu,ရအဖ1A^တ1င& ခ(င&, eရ,ရ)ဝန&Cက<,၊ ကရင&eရ,ရ)ဝန&Cက<,၊ ခန&mထ),သကA5သiu ရခiuင&9ပည&e9မ)က&ပiuင&,တ1င& မ.ဆ
လင&9ပည&နယ&မY ကiuယ&စ),လYယ& တစ&ဦ,ကiu ဗဟiuအစiu,ရအဖ1A^တ1င& မ.ဆလင& eရ,ရ)ဝန&Cက<,အ9ဖစ& ခန&mထ),eပ,ရမည&။

တiuင&,WပuWပည&WပuလYတ&eတ)&J5င&8 ရခiuင&eWမ)က&ပiuင&,မ5 မKဆလင&မ(),


(၆) 9ပည&eထ)င&စu9မန&မ)?iuင&င@ဖ1A^စည&,ပu@ အe9ခခ@ဥပeဒကiu eရ,ဆ1A9ပ‹)န&,ရန& ဖ1A^ စည&,eသ) တiuင&,9ပu9ပည&9ပuလŒတ&eတ)& တ1င& ရခiuင&
e9မ)က&ပiuင&,မY မ.ဆလင&မ(),အ), အခ1င&5အeရ,တစ&ရပ&အeန9ဖင&5 အ9ခ), 9ပည&နယ&?Yင&5 တiuင&,မ(),နည&,တ. ကiuယ&စ),လYယ&အည<အမe
eစလŒတ&ခ1င&5eပ,ရမည&။ eရ,ဆ1Aမည&5 အe9ခခ@ဥပeဒတ1င& မ.ဆလင&မ(),၏ eတ)င&,ဆiuခ(က&မ(),ကiuလည&, မလ1A မeသ1ပQသင&5eသ)
အခ(က&မ(), အeန9ဖင&5 ထည&5သ1င&,9ပ‹)န&,eပ,ရမည&။

Wပည&eထ)င&စuဥပeဒWပuလYတ&eတ)&
(၇) 9ပည&eထ)င&စu9မန&မ)?iuင&င@၊ အထက& လŒတ&eတ)&တ1င& အ9ခ),9ပည&နယ&မ(), နည&,တ. ရခiuင&e9မ)က&ပiuင&, မ.ဆ လင&မ(), အ),ကiuယ&
စ),လYယ&အည<အမe eစလŒတ& ခ1င&5eပ,ရမည&။ ဥပeဒ9ပu eအ)က&လŒတ& eတ)&တ1င&မ. လ.ဦ,eရအခ(iu,အစ),အလiuက& ကiuယ&စ),လYယ&
eစလŒတ&ခ1င&5eပ,ရမည&။
လKမ(iu,စu2ကGန&ဂရက&
(၈) 9မန&မ)?iuင&င@အတ1င&,Pi လ.မ(iu,အသ<, သ<,တiu၏ ယt&eက(,မ]?Yင&5 လ.မ]eရ,ဖ1@^;ဖiu, တiu,တက&eရ,တiuအတ1က& အထ.,သ9ဖင&5 ခ(စ&Fကည&
eရ,?Yင&5 ပ.,eပQင&,eဆ)င&ရ1က& eရ,တiu 9မင&5မ),တiu,တက&လ)eစရန& လ.မ(iu, အသ<,သ<,၊ လ.မ(iu,စuအသ<,သ<,တiuပQဝင& eသ) လ.မ(iu,စu@က1န&
ဂရက&Cက<, တစ&ခuကiu ဖ1A^စည&,တည&eထ)င&eပ,ရမည&။ တန&,တ. ရည&တ. ပ.,တ1Aeဆ)င&ရ1က&eရ,မ.အရ က1န&ဂရက&Cက<,ကiu လ.မ(iu,အသ<,
သ<,က ကiuယ&စ),လYယ& အည<အ မeeစလŒတ&ခ1င&5Pi ရမည&။

အစiu,ရဝန&ထမ&,အသL,သL,တGင& ပ4ဝင&ခGင&8
(၉) 9ပည&eထ)င&စuဗဟiuအစiu,ရ လက&နက& ကiuင&အဖ1A^အစည&, အ;မAတမ&,တပ&ဖ1A^၊ ယ)ယ<တပ&ဖ1A^၊ ရAအဖ1A^၊ ပည)eရ, ဝန&ထမ&, ?Yင&5 တရ),
eရ,ဝန&ထမ&,မ(), အပQအဝင& ဗဟiuဝန&ထမ&, အဖ1A^အစည&,မ(),တ1င& မ.ဆလင&မ(),အ), သင&5တင&5မeeသ) အခ(iu,အစ),အeရအတ1က&ခ
န&mထ),eပ,ရန& အ)မခ@ခ(က&eပ,ရမည&။

ဘ)သ)eရ,လGတ&လပ&ခGင&8၊ ယ^&eက(,မ_ လGတ&လပ&ခGင&8J5င&8 လ`အခGင&8အeရ,မ(), တန&,တKရaieရ,


(၁၀) ကuလသမဂ} လ{အခ1င&5အeရ, eက)&မPင&၊ လ{အခ1င&5အeရ,9ပ‹)န&,ခ(က& မ(),၊ လ.နည&,စuမ(), က) က1ယ&eရ,9ပ‹)န&, ခ(က&မ(),၊
မ.ဆလင&မ(),အ), ဘ)သ)eရ, ကiစdတ1င& လu@,ဝလ1တ&လပ&ခ1င&5eပ,eရ,၊ အ9ခ),လ. မ(iu,မ(),?Yင&5 တန&,တ.ရည&တ. စ<,ပ1),eရ,?Yင&5
လ.မ]eရ,အခ1င&5အeရ,မ(), ရPiရန&အတ1က& 9ပည&eထ)င&စu9မန&မ)?iuင&င@ ဖ1A^စည&,ပu@အe9ခခ@ဥပeဒတ1င& အ)မခ@ခ(က& eပ,ရမည&။ ယင&,
အခ1င&5အeရ,မ(),?Yင&5 စပ&လ(t&,၍ တရ),!u@,မ(),တ1င& တရ),ဆiuင& ခ1င&5Pieစရမည&။

(၁၁)မ.ဆလင&မ(),၏ ပစdည&,မ(),၊ စ<,ပ1), eရ,လuပ&ငန&,မ(),၊ eစ(,ဆiuင&မ(),ကiu ဖ(က&ဆ<,9ခင&,၊ လuယ.9ခင&,၊ မတရ), သiမ&, ယ.9ခင&,တiuအ
တ1က& 9ပန&လည&eပ,အပ&eစ 9ခင&,၊ eလ()&eFက,eပ,9ခင&,မ(), eဆ)င& ရ1က&eပ,ရမည&။ မ.ဆလင&မ(),၏ အက(iu, စ<,ပ1),eရ,လ1တ&လပ&
ခ1င&5?Yင&5 လu@;ခ@ueရ,၊ တန&,တ.ရည&တ. စ<,ပ1),eရ,ဖ1@^;ဖiu,တiu, တက& eရ,?Yင&5 မ.ဆလင&တiu၏ သ)ယ)ဝe9ပ) eရ,အတ1က& အ)မခ@ခ(က&eပ,ရ
မည&။

ဘ)သ)eရ,ဆiuင&ရ) ဥပeဒပည)aiRကL, မ(), အဖGHIeအ)က&တGင& တရ),!u2,မ(), တည&eထ)င&ခGင&8


(၁၂) 9မန&မ)?iuင&င@တ1င& မ.ဆလင&မiသ),စu ဥပeဒမ(),အရ ဆu@,9ဖတ&eပ,ရမည&5မ]ခင&, မ(),ကiu မ.ဆလင&ဘ) သ)eရ,ဆiuင&ရ) ဥပeဒ
ပည)Pင&Cက<,မ(), အဖ1A^eအ)က&တ1င& ဖ1A^စည&,တည&eထ)င&eပ,ရမည&။ ယင&, တရ),!u@,မ(), တ1င& မ.ဆလင&တiu၏ P<အiuက& တရ),eတ)&?Y
င&5အည< လက&ထပ&eရ,ကiစd၊ အeမ1ဆက&ခ@eရ,ကiစd?Yင&5 စပ&လ(t&, ၍ eပ\eပQက&eသ) အ9ငင&,ပ1),မ]မ(),ကiu စ<ရင&ဆu@,9ဖတ&ခ1င&5 အ)ဏ)
Piရမည&။

မKဆလင&eက)င&စL
(၁၃) မ.ဆလင&တiu၏ လ.မ]eရ,၊ ဘ)သ) eရ,၊ ပည)eရ,၊ ယt&eက(,မ]အeရ,မ(), ?Yင&5 9မန&မ)?iuင&င@အတ1င&,Pi မ.ဆလင&ပရ ဟiတလuပ&င
န&,မ(), လY‚ဒQန&,ထ),သည& ဘ•)ပစdည&,မ(),၊ ဗလ<မ(),၊ ဘ)သ) eရ, စ)သင&eက()င&,မ(),၊ သချႋဳင&,e9မမ(),၊ သချုႋင&,ဂ.မ(),၊ အထi
မ&,အမYတ&မ(),၊ ယt&eက(,မ]ဆiuင&ရ) ရန&ပu@eင1မ(), စသည&5 တiuကiu စနစ&တက( စ<မ@က1ပ&ကA?iuင&ရန& အတ1က& အစdလ)မ&eက)င&စ<တစ&ရပ&
ကiu ဥပeဒ9ဖင&5 ဖ1A^စည&,ရမည&။ ထiueက)င&စ< ကiu မ.ဆလင&ကiuယ&စ),လYယ&မ(),?Yင&5 အ.လ<မ) eခ\ မ.စလင&eခQင&,eဆ)င&တiu9ဖင&5 ဖ1A^စည&,
ရမည&။ မ.စလင&eက)င&စ<ဝင&မ(),ဆiuင&ရ) နည&,ဥပeဒမ(),ကiu တiuင&,9ပu9ပည&9ပuလŒတ& eတ)&တ1င&ပQဝင&eသ) မ.ဆလင& ကiuယ&စ), လYယ&
မ(),၊ ဗဟiuဥပeဒ9ပuလŒတ&eတ)&?Yင&5 ယင&,ကiစdအတ1က& ဖiတ&eခ\eသ) မ.ဆလင& ည<လ)ခ@တiuက ပ.,eပQင&,eရ,ဆ1Aရမည&။

(၁၄)(က) အစdလ)မ&အထက&တန&,eက()င&, မ(),?Yင&5 eက)လiပ&eက()င&,မ(),ကiuလည&, တည&eထ)င&ခ1င&59ပu ရမည&။ ထiueက()င&, မ(),


တ1င& အ)ရ&ဗ<စ)eပမ(),၊ အစdလ)မ& သမiuင&,?Yင&5 အစdလ)မ&ယt&eက(,မ]မ(),ကiu လည&, သင&Fက),eပ,ခ1င&59ပuရမည&။ မ.ဆလင& တiu၏
ပည)eရ,လuပ&ငန&,?Yင&5 ပရဟiတ လuပ&ငန&,မ(),အတ1က& ?iuင&င@eတ)& အစiu,ရ !u@,မY သင&5တင&5မeတeသ) eထ)က&ပ@5eFက, မ(),ကiuလည&,
ရPiရမည&။
(ခ) မ.ဆလင&eက()င&,သ),မ(),တက& eရ)က&ပည)သင&Fက),eနeသ) အစiu,ရ eက()င&,မ(),တ1င& မ.ဆ လင&eက()င&,သ),မ(),အ),
အ.ရဒ.စ)eပ၊ အ)ရ&ဗ<စ)eပ?Yင&5 အစdလ)မ&ဘ)သ)eရ, သင&ခန&,စ)မ(),ကiuလည&, သင&Fက),eပ,ခ1င&59ပuရမည&။ အ.ရဒ. စ)သင&eက()င&,
မ(),ကiuလည&, ပiတ&ပင&မည&5 အစ), တiu,ခ(Azဖ1A^စည&,eပ,ရမည&။
(ဂ) မ.ဆလင&မ(),အ), မiမiတiu၏ ကiuယ&ပiuင& ပည)သင&eက()င&,မ(),၌ ဘ)သ)ရပ& အ),လu@,ကiu အ.ရဒ.ဘ)သ)9ဖင&5 သင&Fက), ခ1င&5 eပ,ရ
မည&။ မ.ဆလင&မ(),အ), ယင&,တiu၏ ဆ?•သeဘ)ထ),မပQဘA၊ အ9ခ),စ)eပမ(),ကiu အတင&, အFကပ&မသင&Fက), eစရ၊ မ.စလင&
တiu၏ ယt&eက(,မ]?Yင&5 ဂuဏ&သiကo)ကiu ယuတ&eလ()5eသ,သiမ&eစ မ]မ(), ကiuလည&, မ9ပuလuပ&ရ။

အလယ&သ@eက()&ည<လ)ခ@မY eတ)င&,ဆiuခ(က&မ(),ကiu ;ခ@uငu@သu@,သပ&ရလeင& မ.ဆလင&ကuလ),တiuသည& ရခiuင&9ပည& နယ& e9မ)က&ပiuင&,ကiu


မ.ဆလင&သ<,9ခ),9ပည&နယ& eတ)င&,သည&သ)မက ရခiuင&9ပည&နယ& eတ)င&ပiuင&,ကiuလည&, ရခiuင&?Yင&5 ၅၀ ရ)ခiuင&?]န&, စ<အခ1င&5အeရ,
တန&,တ.eပ,ရမည&ဟu eတ)င&,ဆiuထ),တ)eတ1^ရမY)9ဖစ&ပQတယ&။

ရခiuင&Wပည&နယ&J5င&8 !iuဟင&ဂ()အမည&ခ2 ဘင&ဂ4လLမ(),လ_ပ&a),မ_
ရခiuင&9ပည&နယ&လ.ထuသည& ရခiuင& (ဖဆပလ)eခQင&,eဆ)င&မ(),ကiu မeက( နပ&၊ ခ(င&,၊ Pမ&,၊ ကခ(င&၊ ကရင&၊ ကယ), တiuကA5သiu 9ပည&နယ&
အခ1င&5အeရ,ကiu ခ@စ),လiu9ခင&,eFက)င&5 ရခiuင&9ပည&နယ&eတ)င&,ဆiu eသ) (ရတည) (ရခiuင&တiuင&,ရင&,သ), ည<ည1တ&eရ,ပQတ<)ကiu
(၁၉၆၀)9ပည&5?Yစ& ပQလ<မန&eရ1,eက)က&ပ1Aတ1င& တစ&ခA နက& eထ)က&ခ@မAeပ,ခA5FကပQတယ&။ (ရတည) အမတ& (၈)ဦ,အ?iuင&ရPi;ပ<,၊ ဦ,?u
eခQင&, eဆ)င&eသ) 9ပည&eထ)င&စuပQတ<?Yင&5 အeပ,အယ.လuပ&က) 9ပည&eထ)င&စuအစiu, ရအဖ1A^ ဖ1A^စည&,?iuင&ခA5 တယ&။ ဝန&Cက<,ခ(uပ& ဦ,?u
ဟ) ရခiuင&?Yင&5မ1န&တiuကiu 9ပည&နယ&eပ,ပQမယ&လiu ကတi9ပu;ပ<, သiမ&,သ1င&,ရယ.ခA5 9ခင&,9ဖစ& ပQတယ&။

ရခiuင&ကiu 9ပည&နယ&eပ,မည&ဟu အသ@ထ1က&လ)တA5အခQမY) ရခiuင&9ပည&နယ&မY)PiတA5 မ.ဆလင&eတ1က မeက(မ နပ&9ဖစ&လ)ခA5 FကပQတ


ယ&။ လ]ပ&P),တက&gကလ)ခA5Fက တယ&။ အရင&တuန&,က အလယ&သ@eက()& ည<လ)ခ@မY) ပQဝင&ခA5FကတA5 မ.ဆလင&eခQင&, eဆ)င&eတ1ဟ)
အသ1င&အမ(iu,မ(iu,PieနခA5 Fကရ)ကတစ&ဆင&5 ရခiuင&9ပည&နယ&ဆန&m က(င&eရ,လ]ှုပ&P),မ]မ(),ကiu 9ပuလuပ&လ)FကပQတယ&။ 9မန&မ)သတ
င&,စ)၊ အဂNလiပ& သတင&,စ)eတ1မY) မ.ဆ လင&eတ1အတ1က& eတ)င&,ဆiuခ(က&eတ1ကiu အမ(),အ9ပ), တင&9ပeတ)င&,ဆiuလ)FကပQeတ)5
တယ&။

ဒQ5အ9ပင& ဘဂNQလ<လ.မ(iu,မ.ဆလင& eတ1ဟ) 9မန&မ)တiuင&,ရင&,သ),မ(), မဟuတ&FကတA5အတ1က& တiuင&,ရင&,သ),မ(), သ) ခ@စ),ခ1င&5PiတA5


““9ပည&နယ&ရပiuင&5ခ1င&5”” ကiu ခ@စ),ခ1င&5မPieFက)င&,သiFကတA5အခQမY) မiမiတiuကiuယ&ကiu ““ရခiuင&တiuင&,ရင&,သ), မ.ဆလင&မ(),”” 9ဖစ&eFက)င&,
eရ,သ),တင&9ပ လ)FကပQတယ&။ အAဒ<လiuတင&9ပလ)သ. မ(),အနက& ပQလ<မန&အမတ&eဟ)င&, ““မစdတ)ဂဖ),”” ဆiuသ.က စတင&ခA5တ)
9ဖစ& ပQတယ&။ မစ&„တ)ဂဖ),က အလယ&သ@ eက()&ည<လ)ခ@ရAz ဆu@,9ဖတ&ခ(က&မ(),ကiu အ),eပ,တA5 သမiuင&,လiမ&eဆ)င&,ပQ,တစ&ခuကiu
(၂၈.၈.၅၁) ရက&eနmထuတ& ဂQဒ<ယန& အဂNလiပ&သတင&,စ)မY) စတင&eရ,သ),ခA5 ပQတယ&။

အAဒ<eန)က& (၁၀)?Yစ&ခန&mအFက) (၁၉၆၀)ခu?Yစ&9ပည&5၊ eမလထuတ& ဂQဒ<ယန& အဂNလiပ&မဂ}ဇင&,မY) (အမ&eအက) ဟ<ရ&)- (ဘ)သ))က


မစd တ)ဂဖ),ကA5 သiu ဘ., သ<, eတ)င& - eမ)င&eတ)&;မiu နယ&မ(),မY) Pi တA5 စစ&တ eက)င&, သ), ဘဂNQ လ< မ. ဆ လင&မ(),ကiu ရခiu င&
တiu င&, ရင&, သ), မ. ဆ လင&မ(),9ဖစ& Fကeလဟန& လu ပ&Cက@ ဖ န&တ<, ခA5 9ပန&ပQတယ& ။ အA ဒ< eဆ)င&, ပQ,ကiu ပA (!iu ဟ င&ဂ() အမ(iu,သ),
ည<ည1တ&eရ,အဖ1A^ခ(uပ&)ကလည&, ““!iuဟင&ဂ()လ.မ(iu,စu ရ)ဇဝင&အ က(t&,ခ(uပ&”” အ9ဖစ& အနည&,ငယ&9ဖည&5ခ1)က) (၁၉၆၀) 9ပည&5?Yစ& ဒ<ဇ
င&ဘ)လတ1င& ပu@?Yiပ&9ဖန&mခ(iခA5ပQ တယ&။ အAဒ<eန)က&မY) 9မဝတ<၊ |မဝ စတA5 9မန&မ)မဂ&‘ဇင&,မ(),မY)လည&, eမ)င&သ@လ1င&နAm စ)eရ,ဆရ)
eမ)င&eသ)&တiuက ““!iuဟင& ဂ()မ(),သည& ရခiuင&တiuင&,ရင&,သ), မ.ဆလင& မ(),9ဖစ&Fကသည&”” ဆiu;ပ<, eအ)&ဟစ&အ), 9ဖည&5ခA5FကပQ
တယ&။
၎င&,တiu၏သမiuင&,လiမ&eဆ)င&,ပQ,မ(),ကiuရခiuင&သမiuင&,သueတသ<ဦ,eဖ)&ဇ@၊စစ&Cကiueခတ&ရခiuင&?iuင&င@eရ,eခQင&,eဆ)င& eဟ)င&, ဦ,ဘစ@၊
;ဗiတiသeeခတ&?Yင&5 လ1တ&လပ&eရ,eခတ& ရခiuင&?iuင&င@eရ,eခQင&,eဆ)င& ဦ,စ@ထ1န&,eအ)င&တiu က 9ပန& လည&eခ(ပတA5 eဆ)င&,ပQ,မ(),9ဖင&5
အeထ)က&အထ), အကiu,အက),မ(),စ1) တင&9ပခA5FကပQတယ&။
အAဒ<အခ(iန&မY)ပA 9မန&မ)?iuင&င@ရAz ?iuင&င@ eရ,အe9ခအeနဟ) ဗiuလ&ခ(uပ&Cက<,eနဝင&, က (၁၉၆၁)ခu?Yစ& မတ&လ (၂) ရက&eနm အ)ဏ)သiမ&,
မ]eFက)င&5 အသ1င&တစ&မ(iu, e9ပ)င&,လAသ1),ခA5ရပQတယ&။ ရခiuင&9ပည&နယ& နAm မ1န&9ပည&နယ& ဖ1A^ စည&,eရ,ဟ)လည&, အ)ဏ)သiမ&,မ] လi]င&,
တ@ပiu,eအ)က&မY) နစ&9မxuပ&eပ()က&က1ယ&သ1),ပQeတ)5တယ&။

ဗiuလ&ခ(uပ&Cက<,eနဝင&,ဦ,eဆ)င&တA5 eတ)&လYန&eရ,eက)င&စ< အစiu,ရလက&ထက& မY) ?iuင&င@eရ,ပQတ<အ),လu@,ကiu ဖ(က&သiမ&,ခA5 ပQတယ&။


ဒQeFက)င&5 မ.ဆလင&တiuရAz ?iuင&င@ eရ,လ]ပ&P),မ]မ(),မY)PiတA5 မ.ဂ()ဟစ& ကuလ),ဆiu, သ.ပuန& အဖ1A^မ(),ဟ)လည&, တပ&မeတ)&ရAz ထiu,စစ&
eFက)င&5 ;ပiuက1Aက) တစ&ဘက&?iuင&င@သiu တiမ&,eP)င&သ1),FကပQတယ&။
eတ)&လYန&eရ,eက)င&စ<အစiu,ရက (9မန&မ)5ဆiuPယ&လစ&လမ&,စt&ပQတ<)ကiu ထ.eထ)င&;ပ<, တစ&ပQတ<စနစ&နAm ဆက& လက& အuပ&ခ(uပ&ခA5ပQ
တယ&u။ ဖ1A^စည&,ပu@အe9ခခ@ဥပeဒ ကiu eရ,ဆ1Aeရ,အတ1က& (၁၉၇၃)ခu?Yစ&မY) 9ပည&သ.တiuထ@မY အCက@ ’ဏ&မ(), eတ)င&,ခ@ခA5ပQတယ&။
ဒ<အခ1င&5အeရ,ကiu အခ1င&5 eက)င&,ယ.;ပ<,eတ)5 e9မeပ\မY)PiတA5 မ.ဆလင& တiuအတ1က& အခ1င&5အeရ,eတ)င&,တA5 ““!iuဟင&ဂ()လ.မ(iu,မ(),
က အCက@eပ, ဆ?•9ပueသ)စ)တမ&,””ဆiuတA5 အမည& နAm စ)တမ&,တစ&ခu9ပuစu;ပ<, တစ&ည<တစ&•1တ&တည&, တင&9ပခA5FကပQတယ&။

ဒQeပမA5 9မန&မ)5ဆiuPယ&လစ&လမ&,စt&ပQတ< အစiu,ရဟ) မ.ဆလင&တiuရAz eတ)င&, ဆiuခ(က&ကiu လ(စ&လ(‚|;ပ<, ရခiuင&နAm မ1န&တiuကiu 9ပည&နယ&
eပ,ခA5ပQတယ&။ ဒQ5အ9ပင& 9မန&မ)5 ဆiuPယ&လစ&လမ&,စt&ပQတ< လက&ထက&မY) ဘ.,သ<,eတ)င&၊ eမ)င&eတ);မiuနယ&မ(), မY) PiတA5 စစ&တ
eက)င&,သ), မ.ဆလင&တiu ကiu ပQတ<၊ eက)င&စ< အ)ဏ)ပiuင&အဖ1A^ အစည&,မ(),တ1င& ပQဝင&ခ1င&5ကiu ကန&mသတ& ထ),ခA5ပQတယ&။ ဒQeပမA5
ကuလ),ဦ,eရက eတ)5 တiu,တက&;မA တiu,တက&လ(က& PieနပQ တယ&။ ဒuတiယကမ p)စစ&အတ1င&, ကuလ), ရခiuင&အဓiက!uဏ&,9ဖစ&စt&က
ပ(က&စ<,ခA5ရတA5 ရခiuင&နAm တiuင&,ရင&,သ),eက(,ရ1)မ(),ကiu 9ပန& လည&ထ.eထ)င&eရ, 9ပuလuပ&မeပ,?iuင&ခA5ပQ ဘ.,။ ရခiuင&လ.မ(iu,တiu ပiuင&ဆiuင&ခA5
တA5 လယ&ယ) e9မမ(),ဟ) သ<,စ),လက&ငuတ&အ9ဖစ& ကuလ),တiuရAz လက&ထAမY)ပA PieနခA5ပQတယ&။

၁၉၇၈ ခuJ5စ&၊ နဂ4,မင&,စLမ2ခ(က&J5င&8 မKဆလင& တiu၏ အeWခအeန


9မန&မ)5ဆiuPယ&လစ&လမ&,စt&ပQတ<eခတ& မY) အစiu,ရဟ) 9မန&မ)?iuင&င@ရAz လ.ဝင&မ] Cက<,Fကပ&eရ, ဥပeဒကiu eဖ)က&ဖ(က&;ပ<, 9ပည&ပမY
နည&,မ(iu,စu@9ဖင&5 ခiu,ဝင&လ)FကတA5 ?iuင&င@9ခ),သ),မ(),အ), စစ&eဆ,eဖ)&ထuတ& ?iuင&ရန&ရည&ရ1ယ&;ပ<,၊ နဂQ,မင&,စ<မ@ခ(က&ကiu ခ( မYတ&
အeက)င&အထည&eဖ)&ခA5ပQတယ&။ အAဒ<စ<မ@ခ(က&အရ စစ&တeက)င&,သ), ဘင&ဂQလ< မ.ဆလင&မ(), အu@လiuက&က(င&, လiuက&eနထiuင&Fက
တA5 ရခiuင&9ပည&နယ&e9မ)က& ပiuင&,မY)စတင&eဆ)င&ရ1က&ခA5ပQတယ&။

နဂQ,မင&,စ<မ@ခ(က&ရAz ပထမဆင&5ကiu စစ&eတ1;မiuမY) စတင&eဆ)င&ရ1က&ခA5ပQ တယ&။ အAဒ<လiu eဆ)င&ရ1က&ရ)မY)အeန)က& ပiuင&,တiuင&, စစ&


ဌ)နခ(uပ&၊ ရခiuင&9ပည&နယ& eဒသပQတ<၊ ရခiuင&9ပည&နယ&9ပည&သ{eက)င& စ<မY လမ&,•Œန&Cက<,Fကပ&မ]9ဖင&5 လ.ဝင&မ]Cက<, Fကပ&eရ,?Yင&5 9ပည&သ{
အင&အ), ဦ,စ<,ဌ)န ပ.,eပQင&,;ပ<, ၁၉၇၈ ခu?Yစ&၊ eဖeဖ)&ဝQရ<လ (၁၁)ရက&eနmမY) စစ&eတ1;မiueပ\Pi ရပ& က1က&မ(),မY) !uတ&တရက&စစ&
eဆ,ခA5ပQ တယ&။
ဒuတiယအဆင&5ကiu ဘ.,သ<,eတ)င& eမ)င&eတ);မiuနယ&မ(),မY) eဆ)င&ရ1က&ခA5 ပQတယ&။ ဘ.,သ<,eတ)င&;မiuနယ&မY) ၈-၅-၇၈ ရက&eနmမY
၅-၅-၇၈ ရက&eနmအထi eမ)င&eတ);မiuနယ&မY) ၈-၅-၇၈ ရက&eနm မY ၅-၆-၇၈ ရက&eနm အ ထi eဆ)င&ရ1က&ခA5ပQတယ&။ လ.ဝင&မ]Cက<,Fက
ပ&eရ,နAm 9ပည&သ{ အင&အ),ဦ,စ<,ဌ)နမY အင&အ),(၄၀၀)တiuဟ) 9ပည& သ{ရAတပ&ဖ1A^နAm 9ပည&သ{ရAတပ&ရင&, (လu@ထiန&,)တiuရAz အက.အည<နAm
တစ&ရ1)ဝင&တစ&ရ1)ထ1က& စစ&eဆ,ခA5Fက ပQတယ&။

အAဒ<လiu စစ&eဆ,မ]ကiu ရင&မဆiuင&ရAFကတA5 စစ&တeက)င&,သ), ဘင&ဂQလ< ကuလ), eတ1ကeFက)က&လန&m တFက),9ဖစ&;ပ<,eတ)5 ရခiuင&9ပ


ည&နယ&e9မ)က&ပiuင&,;မiuနယ&မ(),က eန ဘဂNလ),eဒ5P&?iuင&င@အတ1င&,ကiu ထ1က& e9ပ, ဝင&eရ)က&သ1),FကပQတယ&။ ထ1က&e9ပ,FကတA5
အiမ&eထ)င&စu?Yင&5 လ.ဦ,eရကeတ)5 eမ)င&eတ)၊ ဘ.,သ<,eတ)င&၊ ရeသ5eတ)င&၊ စစ&eတ1၊ eပQက&eတ)၊ eက()က&eတ)&၊ e9မ)က&ဦ,၊
မင&,9ပ),;မiu နယ&eတ1က အiမ&eထ)င&စueပQင&, (၂၅၉၉၅) စuနAm လ.ဦ,eရ(၁၅၆၉၉) eယ)က&9ဖစ&ပQတယ&။

နဂQ,မင&,စ<မ@ခ(က&eFက)င&5 ဘဂNလ), eဒ5P&သiu အထiတ&တလန&mထ1က&e9ပ,ခA5FကတA5 စစ&တeက)င&,သ), မ.ဆလင& တiuကiu အeFက)င&,9ပu


;ပ<,!iuဟင&ဂ()အမည&ခ@မ.ဆလင&တiuရAz e9မeအ)က&လ]ပ&P),မ]မ(), 9ပန&လည& eခQင&,eထ)င& လ)တ)eတ1^ရပQ တယ&။
(RHF) နAm(RSO) အမည&ခ@e9မ eအ)က&အဖ1A^အစည&,မ(),က သတင&,စ) ဂ()နယ&eတ1မY) 9မန&မ)အစiu,ရက မ.ဆ လင& eတ1ကiu မ(iu,9ပu
တ&eအ)င&သတ&9ဖတ&eနတယ&လiueအ)&ဟစ&FကပQတယ&။ဘ.,သ<,eတ)င&;မiuနယ&?Yင&5 eမ)င&eတ);မiuနယ& ထAမY)PiတA5 မ.ဆလင&အiမ&
အခ(iuကiu ၎င&,င&,တiu ကiuယ&တiuင& မ<,vi;ပ<,ဓ)တ&ပu@!iuက&က) ““မ.ဆလင& ရ1)မ(),ကiu9မန&မ)အစiu,ရက မ<,vieနပQတယ&””ဆiu;ပ<, ကမ p)5သတ
င&,ရပ&က1က&မ(),မY) မဟuတ&မမYန& လiမ&ည) သတင&,9ဖန&mခA5ပQတယ&။

တစ&ဘက&?iuင&င@ဘဂNလ),eဒ5P&အစiu,ရ ကလည&,ထ1က&e9ပ,လ)Fကသ.မ(),ကiu မiမiတiu ?iuင&င@သ),မဟuတ&၍ လu@,ဝ တ)ဝန&မယ. eFက)င&,


ကန&mက1က&ခA5ပQတယ&။ ဘဂNလ), eဒ5P&၊ ပQကစdတန&၊ မeလ,P),စတA5 မ.ဆ လင&?iuင&င@eတ1 က ထuတ&eဝတA5သတင&,စ)မ(),ကလည&, ဝiu
င&,ဝန&,eအ)င&ဟစ&eရ, သ),ခA5FကပQတယ&။ ဒQeFက)င&5 ကuလသမဂ} Fက),ဝင&;ပ<, ထ1က&်e9ပ,သ1),eသ) မ.ဆလင&တiuကiu ဒuကoသည&
မ(),အ9ဖစ&သတ&မYတ&;ပ<, စ),နပ&ရi ကo)၊ eဆ,ဝQ, အeဆ)က&အဦ,တiuနAm က.ည<ခA5ပQတယ&။ ဒ<9ပဿန)ကiu 9မန&မ)အစiu,ရ?Yင&5 ဘဂNလ),
eဒ5P&အစiu,ရတiu ကeဆ1,e?1,e9ဖPင&,ရန&လည&,Fက),ဝင&eစ5 စပ&eပ,ခA5ပQတယ&။ ဒQeFက)င&5 ?Yစ&?iuင&င@အစiu,ရeခQင&,eဆ)င& မ(), eတ1^ဆu@
eဆ1,e?1, ခA5FကပQတယ&။

ဟသ)စcမ2ခ(က&J5င&8 မKဆလင&တiu အeWခအeန


ဟသN)စ<မ@ခ(က&ဆiuတ)ကeတ)5 ထ1က&e9ပ,FကတA5 မ.ဆလင&eတ1ကiu အeFက)င&,9ပu;ပ<, 9မန&မ)အစiu,ရက ဘဂN လ),eဒ5P& အစiu,ရကiu
eဆ1,e?1,ရ)က eနeပ\eပQက&လ)တA5 9မန&မ)အစiu,ရရAz စ<မ@ခ(က&တစ&ခu9ဖစ&ပQတယ&။ ရည&ရ1ယ&ခ(က& ကeတ)5 နဂQ,မင&,စ<မ@ခ(က&9ဖင&5
တရ),မ ဝင& ခiu,ဝင&eနထiuင&သ.မ(),ကiu eဖ)&ထuတ& စစ&eဆ,ခA5စt&က စစ&eဆ,မ]ကiu ရင&မဆiuင&ရA လiu ဘဂNလ),eဒ5P&?iuင&င@ဘက&ကiu ထ1က&
e9ပ,သ1),တA5 မ.ဆလင&eတ1ကiu 9ပန&လည&လက& ခ@တA5 စ<မ@ခ(က&9ဖစ&ပQတယ&။

9ပန&လည&လက&ခ@eရ,နAmပတ&သက&;ပ<, ?Yစ&?iuင&င@ သeဘ)တ.ည<ခ(က&တစ&ရပ&ကiu ၉-၇-၇၈ ရက&eနmမY) ဘဂ&လ),ေ ဒ5P&?iuင&င@ ဒကq ),


;မiuမY)လက&မYတ&eရ,ထiu,ခA5FကပQတယ&။ အAဒ<သeဘ)တ.ည<ခ(က&မY) ပQဝင& တA5အခ(က&eတ1 ကeတ)5-

(၁) 9ပည&eထ)င&စuဆiuPယ&လစ& သမ•တ 9မန&မ)?iuင&င@eတ)&အစiu,ရသည& ဘဂNလ), eဒ5P& 9ပည&သ{သမ•တ?iuင&င@ယ)ယ<စခန&, မ(),တ1င&လ


က&Pi ခiuလ]@လ(က&Piသည&5 9မန&မ)?iuင&င@တ1င& တရ),ဝင& eနထiuင&ခ1င&5Pi ;ပ<,၊ 9မန&မ)?iuင&င@အမ(iu,သ),မYတ&ပu@တင& ကတ&9ပ),မ(),တင&9ပ?iuင&
သ.မ(),?Yင&5 ၎င&,တiu ၏ အiမ&eထ)င&စuဝင&မ(),အ), အeစ)ဆu@, 9ပန&လည&လက&ခ@ရန& သeဘ)တ.သည&။ အiမ&eထ)င&စuဝင&မ(), ဆiuရ)၍
ခင&ပ1န&်း၊ ဇန<,၊ မiဘ၊ eယ)ကoမ၊ သ),၊ သမ<,၊ တရ), ဝင&eမ1,စ),သ),သမ<,၊ e9မ,၊ သမက&၊ eခ_,မ?Yင&5 မuဆiu,မ ည<မမ(),ပQဝင&ပQသ
ည&။

(၂) 9ပည&eထ)င&စuဆiuPယ&လစ&သမ•တက 9မန&မ)?iuင&င@eတ)&အစiu,ရသည& 9မန&မ) ?iuင&င@တ1င& eနထiuင&ခA5ဖ.,သ.9ဖစ&eFက)င&, eဖ)&9ပသည&5


9မန&မ)?iuင&င@မYထuတ& eပ,ထ),eသ) အ9ခ),စ)ရ1က&စ)တမ&,၊ အeထ)က&အထ),တင&9ပ?iuင&သ.မ(),?Yင&5 ၎င&,င&,တiu အiမ&eထ)င&စuဝင&
မ(),၊ 9မန&မ)?iuင&င@ တ1င& eနထiuင&ခA5ဖ.,သ.9ဖစ&eFက)င&,သက& eသအeထ)က&အထ),မ(),၊ ဥပမ)eန ရပ&လiပ&စ)?Yင&5 အ9ခ),အခ(က&
အလက&စသည&မ(),ကiu တင&9ပ?iuင&သ.မ(),?Yင&5 ၎င&, တiu၏ အiမ&eထ)င&စuဝင&မ(),အ), ဒuတiယ အဆင&5 အeန9ဖင&5 9ပန&လည&လက&ခ@ရန&
သeဘ)တ.သည&။ အiမ&eထ)င&စuဝင&မ(), ဆiuရ)၌ ခင&ပ1န&,၊ ဇန<,၊ မiဘ၊ eယ)ကoမ၊ သ),သမ<,၊ တရ),ဝင&eမ1,စ),သမ<,၊ e9မ,၊ သမက&၊
eခ_,မ၊ မuဆiu,မ ည<မမ(),ပQဝင&ပQသည&။

၁၉၇၈ ခu?Yစ&၊ Fသဂuတ&လ(၃)ရက&eနm ကစ;ပ<, ၁၉၇၉ ခu?Yစ&ဒ<ဇင&ဘ)လ(၉)ရက& eနmအထi ဟသN)စ<မ@ ခ(က&9ဖင&5 9ပန&လည&လက&ခ@ခA5တA5
အiမ&eထ)င&စuနAm လ.ဦ,eရက eတ)5 အiမ&eထ)င&စu (၃၁၅၀၈)ခuPi;ပ<, လ.ဦ,eရ (၁၈၆၉၈၆) ဦ9ဖစ&တA5အတ1က& eFက)င&5 လ.ဦ,eရ
(၃၀၂၇၈)ဦ,အကiuလက& ခ@ခA5eရeFက)င&, သiသiသ) သ) eတ1^?iuင&ပQတယ&။

ဒ<စ<မ@ခ(က&ဟ) တစ&ဘက&?iuင&င@နAmထiပ& တiuက&ပဋiပကo9ဖစ&မ]ကiu eP)င&P),?iuင&ခA5eပ မယ&5 တiuင&,ရင&,သ), အeယ)င&eဆ)င& စစ&တစ&


eက)င&,သ), မ.ဆလင&မ(),အ), လ.ဦ,eရ သu@,eသ)င&,eက()&အထi ပiu;ပ<, လက&ခ@ ခA5ရ9ခင&,ကeတ)5 9မန&မ)?iuင&င@အ တ1က&မ(),စ1)
နစ&န)မ]တစ&ရပ&9ဖစ&ခA5ရပQတယ&။

မKဆလင&eWမeအ)က&လ_ပ&a),မ_
နဂQ,မင&,စ<မ@ခ(က&နAm ဟသN)စ<မ@ခ(က& ကiu အeFက)င&,9ပu;ပ<,eတ)5 စစ&တeက)င&, သ), မ.ဆလင&တiuဟ) !iuဟင&ဂ()မ(iu,ခ(စ& တပ&ဦ,
(RHF) နAm !iuဟင&ဂ() eသ1,စည&, ည<ည1တ&eရ,အဖ1A^ (RSO)အမည&ခ@က) တစ&ဘက&?iuင&င@သiu e9ခကuတ&စခန&,ယ.;ပ<, e9မeအ)က&လ]ပ&
P),မ]eတ19ပuလuပ&လ)ခA5Fက ပQတယ&။ (RHF)နAm (RSO)အဖ1A^?Yစ&ခuဟ) အမည&ဘ)သ)က1Aeပမယ&5 ဦ,တည&ခ(က& ခ(င&,ကeတ)5 အတ.တ.
ပQပA။ သ.တiuဟ) သ.တiuကiuယ&သ.တiu ရခiuင&တiuင&,ရင&,သ), !iuဟင&ဂ()လ.မ(iu, မ.ဆလင&မ(),အ9ဖစ&ခ@ယ. ;ပ<, eမ)င&eတ)ဘ.,သ<,eတ)င&;မiuန
ယ&မ(), ကiu !iuဟင&ဂ()9ပည&နယ& eပ,ရမယ&ဆiu;ပ<, eတ)င&,ဆiuခA5FကပQတယ&။ 9မန&မ)?iuင&င@ရAz လu@;ခ@ueရ,ကiu မFက)ခဏ ထi ပQ,e?Y)င&5ယY
က& ;ပ<,တည&;ငiမ&eအ,ခ(မ&,သ)ယ)မ]ကiu အစt&တစiuက&ဖ(က&ဆ<,ခA5FကပQတယ&။

အeရ,အခင&,က)လမKစလင&တiu၏လ_ပ&a), မ_အeWခအeန
၁၉၈၈ ခu?Yစ&မY) 9ဖစ&ပ1),ခA5တA5 အeရ, အခင&,ကiu အeFက)င&,9ပu;ပ<, ဘင&ဂQလ<လ.မ(iu, (၄၀၀၀၀)eက()&ခန&m လY@ လက&နက&မ(iu,စu@ ကiuင&eဆ)
င&က) eမ)င&eတ);မiuနယ&ထAကiu ဝင&eရ)က&;ပ<, ရခiuင&လ.မ(iu,eတ1ရAz အiu,အiမ& eတ1ကiu ဖ(က&ဆ<,ဖiuCကiu,စ),ခA5FကပQတယ&။ (၄)မiuင&မY)PiတA5
9ပည&သ{ရAz တပ&ရင&,နAm အဆက&အသ1ယ&မ9ပuလuပ&?iuင&ရန&အတ1က& လည&, တယ&လ<ဖuန&,လiuင&,Cကiu,မ(),ကiu Cကiuတင&9ပတ&eတ)က&ထ),ခA5
FကပQတယ&။ eန)က&ထပ& အင&အ),eထ)င&နAm ခ(<;ပ<,eတ)5 eတ)င&ပiuင&,၊ e9မ)က&ပiuင&,eဒသမ(),ကeန ခ(<တက&လ)ခA5FကပQတယ&။ အင&
အ),သu@, ;ပ<,eတ)5 eမ)င&eတ);မiuတ1င&,ဝင&eရ)က&ဖiu အCကiမ&Cကiမ&Cကiu,စ), ခA5Fကeပမယ&5;မiu eပ\မY)eန တA5ရခiuင&လ. ငယ&မ(),နAm 9ပည&သ{
ရA တပ&ဖ1A^ဝင&မ(),ကစueပQင&,က)က1ယ&ခA5Fကလiu ရခiuင&လ.မ(iu,eတ1 အသက&eဘ,က သ<သ< eလ,လ1တ&e9မ)က&လ)ခA5 9ခင&,9ဖစ&ပQတယ&။

ဘင&ဂQလ<ကuလ),eတ1ကအAဒ<ညက eမ)င&eတ);မiuနယ&အတ1င&,မ()PiတA5ရခiuင& eက(,ရ1)မ(),ကiu eမ)င&eတ);မiuနAmတစ&;ပiuင& တည&,


ဖ(က&ဆ<,ပစ&?iuင&ဖiuအတ1က&eမ)င& eတ);မiueပ\က မ<,eရ)င&9မင&ရတ)နAm ၎င&,ရ1)မ(),ကiuပQ မ<,viဖ(က&ဆ<,ပစ& ရန& မY)ထ), ;ပ<,eစ)င&5eနခA5
FကeFက)င&, ဘင&ဂQလ<လ.မ(iu, eတ1နAm န<,စပ&တA5ရခiuင&သ), အခ(iuက9ပန&;ပ<, e9ပ)9ပခA5 တ)Fက),သiခA5FကရပQတယ&။ ဒ< အeရ,အခင&,မY)
eတ)5 ၁၉၄၂ ခu?Yစ& ကuလ),၊ ရခiuင&အဓiက!uဏ&,eန)က&ပiuင&, အCက<,မ),ဆu@,eသ) ဘင&ဂQလ<ကuလ),မ(), လ.စuအင&အ),9ပ ဆန&mက(င&
လ)9ခင&,9ဖစ&ပQတယ&။

Jiuင&င2eတ)&dငiမ&ဝပ&ပiWပ),မ_ တည&eဆ)က& eရ,အဖGHIအစiu,ရလက&ထက&!iuဟင&ဂ()ဆiuင&ရ) သu2,J_န&,လ)မ_မ(),


၁၉၈၈ခu?Yစ&၊ စက&တင&ဘ)လ(၁၈) ရက&eနmမY) ?iuင&င@eတ)&;ငiမ&ဝပ&ပi9ပ),မ] တည&eဆ)က&မ] အဖ1A^ကiu ဗiuလ& ခ(uပ&Cက<, eစ)eမ)င&ဦ,eဆ)
င&တA5တပ&မeတ)&က ဖ1A^စည&,;ပ<, ?iuင&င@eတ)&အ)ဏ)ကiuထiန&, သiမ&,တ)ဝန&ယ.ခA5ပQ တယ&။အAဒ<eန)က&ပiuင&,မY) ?iuင&င@eရ,ပQတ<အဖ1A^အစ
ည&,မ(),ကiu တရ),ဝင&မYတ&ပu@တင&;ပ<, ရပ&တည&ခ1င&59ပuခA5ပQတယ&။

အAဒ<အခ(iန&မY)ပA !iuဟင&ဂ()အမည&ခ@ ဘင&ဂQလ<လ.မ(iu,မ(),ကiu ကiuယ&စ),9ပuတA5 အမ(iu,သ),ပQတ<ကiu မYတ&ပu@တင&ခA5 ပQတယ&။ အAဒ<ပQတ<က


eန““ရခiuင&9ပည&သမiuင&,?Yင&5ရခiuင& !iuဟင&ဂ()တiu၏ဘဝ””အမည&နAmထuတ&eဝတA5 လက&စ1A စ)eစ)င&၊အတ1A ၆မY) ရခiuင&?Yင&5ရ1င&ဂ()(!iuဟင&
ဂ())လ.မ(iu,မ(), သမiuင&,အက(t&, ခ(uပ&ဆiu;ပ<,eတ)5 စ)မ(က&?Y)(၅-၆)eတ1 မY)eဖ)&9ပထ),တ)ကeတ)5-

(၁) လ.တiuင&,သည& မiမiလ.မ(iu,ထင&eပ\ eက()&Fက),9ခင&,ကiu လiuလ),FကပQသည&။ထင&eပ\eက()&Fက),eသ) လ.မ(iu, တiuင&,သည& မiမiလ.


မ(iu,တစ&ဦ,စ<အတ1က&အCက<,မ),ဆu@,eသ) ဂuဏ&သiကo)Cက<, တစ&ခu9ဖစ&ပQသည&။ လ.မ(iu,ကiu ဗဟiu9ပu၍ မ(iu,ခ(စ&စiတ&?Yင&5ဇ)တieသ1,၊ ဇ)တi
မ)န&ကiu eပ\eပQက&eစပQသည&။ ထiueFက)င&5 လ.တiuင&,သည&မiမiတiuလ. မ(iu, အeFက)င&,ကiuPင&,Pင&,Cက<, သiထ),ရန&အထ., လiuအပ&ပQသ
ည&။

(၂) အ)Pတiuက& အလယ&ပiuင&,ပရ<,မ<,ယ), ကuန&,9ပင&9မင&5မY အ)ရiယ@လ.မ(iu,တiuသည& eန)က&ဆu@, ဘ<စ<(၁၀၀၀) အထi အi?•iယတiuက&သiu


လi]င&,လu@,Cက<,သဖ1ယ& တသuတ&;ပ<,၊ တသuတ&ဆင&,သက&လ)ခA5ပQသည&။ ထiuစt&ကပင& အ)စ< ယ@တiuသည& လယ&ယ)စiuက&ပ(iu,9ခင&,၊တiရ
စ •)န&မ(),ကiu ယt&ပQ,eအ)င&eမ1,9မ‚9ခင&,?Yင&5 လက&မ] အတတ&ပည)မ(), ကiu eက)င&,စ1)က_မ&, က(င&သ.မ(),9ဖစ&eသ)&eလသည&။ သ.တiu
သည&9မင&,စ<,စစ&တiuက&ရ)တ1င& က_မ&,က(င&eသ) လ.မ(iu,9ဖစ&၍ အe~ဘက&မ1န&ဂiuကuန&,9မင&5 eဒသမYအeန)က&ဘက&e9မထAပင&လယ&
အe~ ဘက& အရပ& eဒသအထi ပ(@z?Y@^eရ)က&Piလ) ခA5Fကသည&။
(၃) အ)ရiယ@လ.မ(iu,စ)eပ အကoရ)မ(),ကiu ဘ<စ<-၆၀၀ခန&mက ၎င&,တiuတ<ထ1င&သည&ဟu သမiuင&,ဆရ)မ(), ကeဖ)&9ပ ပQသည&။သ.တiu ကiu
အင&ဒiuအ)ရiယ@ဟueခ\၍ ၎င&,တiuသည& အi?•iယတiuက& ဂဂNQ9မစ&အe~ဘက&Pi ဘင&ဂQ နယ& သiuလည&,eရ)က& Piလ)ခA5ပQသည&။(ယင&,မYတ
စ&ဆင&5ရခiuင&9ပည&တ1င&,ပiuင&,သiu eရ)က&Piလ)ခA5ပQသည&။)

(၄) ပရ<,မ<,ယ),ကuန&,9ပင&9မင&5မY တစ&ဆင&5 ဆင&,သက&လ);ပ<, ရခiuင&ဘက&သiueရ)က&Pi လ)သ. အင&ဒiuအ)ရiယ@လ. မ(iu,ထAတ1င& “သ.ရi


ယဝ@သ” (eနကiuကiu,က1ယ&eသ)အuပ&စu) ?Yင&5 “စ?•ဝ@သ” (လကiuကiu,က1ယ&eသ)အuပ&စu)တiu ပQဝင&သည&။

(၅) ဘ<စ< (၅၄၀) တ1င& ဗuဒy9မတ&စ1)ဘuရ), ပ1င&5eတ)&မ.;ပ<, ဘ<စ< (၂၅၀) တ1င& အi?•iယ9ပည&၌ အeသ)က မင&,လက& ထက&မYစ၍ အi?•iယ
e9မ)က&ပiuင&,ပu@စ@ဗuဒyဘ)သ)?Yင&5 eက)င&ပiuင&,ပu@စ@ဗuဒyဘ)သ)သည&ရခiuင&9ပည& (ရဇyပ.ရ))သiu ပ(@z?Y@^eရ)က&Piလ)သည&။ ရခiuင&9ပည&Pi
သ.ရiယဝ@သ?Yင&5 စ?•ဝ@သလ.မ(iu, အuပ&စuထAမY အခ(iuတiuသည&ဗuဒyဘ)သ)ဝင& မ(),9ဖစ&သ1),Fကသည&။

(၆) eအဒ< (၅၇၀)တ1င& တမန&eတ)&မiuဟ) မက&eပ\ထ1န&,ပQသည&။ အ)eရဗ<,ယ),က_န&, ဆ1ယ&မကq );မiueတ)&?Yင&5 မဒ<န);မiuတiuကiu


အe9ခခ@၍အစdလ)မ&ဘ)သ)ကiu တမန& eတ)&မiuဟ)မက&ကeဟ)Fက),eတ)&မ.သည&။ eအဒ< (ရသ)တ1င& အi?•iယ9ပည&၊ ဆင&,နယ&သiu
အ)eရဗ&မ.ဆလင&မ(),ဝင&eရ)က&လ) Fကသည&။ ၎င&,eန)က&?Yစ&eပQင&, (၂၅၀) Fက)eသ)အခQ အ)eရဗ&မ.ဆလင&မ(),၏ အuပ&ခ(uပ&မ]
eအ)က&သiu အi?•iယ9ပည&က( eရ)က&သ1),ခA5ရ) ထiuအ ခ(iန&မYစ၍ အi?•iယသiu အစdလ)မ&သ)သန)eရ)က&Pi လ)သည&။

(၇) ခရစ&သကq ရ)ဇ& (၁၂၀၆) ခu?Yစ&တ1င& ဒတ&အ.ဒင&ဘuရင&၏ အuပ&ခ(uပ&မ]eအ)က&သiu အi?•iယတစ&9ပည&လu@, က(eရ)က&သ1),ရ) အစd
လ)မ&ဘ)သ)ဝင&9ဖစ&၍ ၎င&,၏ အuပ&ခ(uပ&မ]eအ)က&တ1င& အစdလ)မ&ဘ)သ)သည& အi?•iယတ1င& eက)င&,စ1)ပ(@z?Y@^လ) eတ)5သည&။

(၈) အi?•iယ9ပည&eဒလ<;မiuCက<,သည& အ<ဂ(စ&?iuင&င@ ကiuင&!iu;မiuCက<,ကA5သiuလည&, သ)သန) 9ပန&mပ1),ရ)ကမ p)5 ဗဟiu ခ(က&9ဖစ&လ)သည&။ ထiu
အခ(က&eFက)င&5 အစdလ)မ&ဘ)သ)သည& ဘင&ဂQ9မစ&အe~ဘက& ဘင&ဂQနယ&အထiပ(@z ?Y@^ လ)ခA5သည&။ ထiuမYတစ&ဆင&5ရခiuင&9ပည& အထi
ပ(@z?Y@^လ)ခA5သည&။

(၉) ခရစ&သကq ရ)ဇ& (၁၆၀၉) တ1င& က1ယ&လ1န&eသ) မဟ)အဂ}ဘ)ဘuရင&Cက<, လက&ထက&တ1င& အစdလ)မ&ဘ) သ)ကiu အထ.,သ9ဖင&5
ပ(@z?Y@^သ1),eစခA5သည&။ မဟ) အဂ}ဘ)ဘuရင&Cက<,သည& ဟi?•‚ယt&eက(, မ]ကiuအeFက)င&,9ပu၍ အစdလ)မ&ဘ)သ)ကiu ဟi?•‚ဘ)သ)?Yင&5
န<,ကပ&eသ) ဘ)သ)ယt&eက(,မ]တစ&ခu9ဖစ&လ)eစ ရန& eအ)င&9မင& စ1)9ပuလuပ&?iuင&ခA5သည&။ ယင&,သiu စ1မ&,eဆ)င&မ]eFက)င&5် အစd
လ)မ&ဘ)သ)သည& ဟi?•‚ယt&eက(,မ]?Yင&5 အတ.ရခiuင& ကမ&, !iu,တမ&,မ(),?Yင&5 ရခiuင&9ပည&သiueရ)က&Piလ)သည&။

(၁၀) ရခiuင&9ပည&သ),!iuဟင&ဂ()တiu၏ ဘ)သ)မY) ဗuဒyဘ)သ)ကA5သiuပင&အi?•iယမYတစ&ဆင&5 (အi?•iယယt&eက(,မ] ကiueန)က&ခ@ ထ),၍)


ပ(@zပ1),လ)eသ) အစdလ)မ& ဘ)သ)အမ(iu,အစ),9ဖစ&သည&။ အ)ရပ&မY ရခiuင&9ပည&သiuခuန&ပ(@ လ)eသ)အစdလ)မ& ဘ)သ)အမ(iu,အစ),
မဟuတ&eခ(။

(၁၁) ခရစ&သကq ရ)ဇ& (၁၆၆၅) ခu?Yစ& eနက&ပiuင&,တ1င& ရခiuင&9ပည&သ),အစdလ)မ&ဘ)သ)ဝင&မ(), အနက&eလ, ကiuင&စစ&သည& eတ)&
မ(),ကiu ပQPန&,ဘ)သ)9ဖင&5 (ကမန&) ဟueခ\;ပ<,၊ ရခiuင&9ပည&သ),အစdလ)မ& ဘ)သ)ဝင&လ.မ(iu, ကiuမ. အ)eရဗ&ဘ)သ) 9ဖင&5 (!iuဟင&
ဂ())ဟueခ\ခA5ပQသည&။ ထiuအခ(iန& မYစ၍ ရခiuင&9ပည&သ),အစdလ)မ&ဘ)သ) ဝင& လuပ&ခA5ပQသည&။ ထiuအခ(iန&မYစ၍ ရခiuင& 9ပည&သ),အစd
လ)မ&ဘ)သ)ဝင&အuပ&စuတiu ကiu (!iuဟင&ဂ()လ.မ(iu,) ဟu လည&,eခ\ တ1င&လ)FကပQသည& စသ9ဖင&5 !iuဟင&ဂ()လ.မ(iu,နAm ပတ&သက&တA5အခ(
က&eတ1ကiu eP,ယခင& ?Yစ&eပQင&, မ(),စ1)ကပAPiခA5eလဟန&သမiuင&,9ဖစ&စt&နAm eရ)eထ1,;ပ<, ထင&eယ)င&ထင&မY),9ဖစ&eစရန& (!iuဟင&ဂ()
အမ(iu,သ), ည<ည1တ& eရ,အဖ1A^ခ(uပ&) (ရမည)က !iuဟင&ဂ()တiu ၏ ဘဝ (၁၉၈၉) ခu?Yစ& ထuတ&စ)eစ)င& တiuမY)eရ,သ),eဖ)&9ပ ခA5ပQ
တယ&။
ဒ<eနရ)မY) အထ.,သတi9ပuရမယ&5 အခ(က&ကeတ)5 ရခiuင&9ပည&နယ&မY)eတ1^ရတA5 မ.ဆလင&ဘ)သ)ဝင&eတ1 မY) eP,ဦ,က eရ)က&Piလ)
ခA5တA5 ကမန&မ.ဆလင&၊ ဗမ) မ.ဆလင&eတ1နAm eန)က&ပiuင&,?Yစ&eတ1က(မY အeFက)င&, အမ(iu,မ(iu,eFက)င&5 စစ&တeက)င&,eဒသက ခiu,ဝင&
လ)တA5ဘင&ဂQလ<လ.မ(iu, မ.စလင&ဆiu;ပ<, ?Yစ&မ(iu,eတ1^ရမY)9ဖစ& ပQတယ&။ ဘင&ဂQလ<လ.မ(iu,မ.ဆလင&eတ1က eP,ဦ,တiuင&, ရင&,သ),က
မန&၊ ဗမ)မ.စလင&eတ1လiuပA !iuဟင&ဂ() အမည&ခ@;ပ<,eတ)5 တiuင&,ရင&,သ), 9ဖစ&ဖiuနည&,မ(iu,စu@နAm Cကiu,စ),လ)Fကတ)ပQ။

ဒ<အခ(က&ကiu (eဒသအသ<,သ<,မY)PiFကတA5 တiuင&,ရင&,သ),/?iuင&င@သ),မ.စလင&အ),လu@, က1Aက1A9ပ),9ပ),၊ 9ခ),9ခ), န),န),သiPiန),လ


ည&သeဘ)eပQက&တ),ဖiuလiuပQတယ&။ မ.ဆလင&ဆiuတiuင&, အစdလ)မ&ဘ)သ)ဝင& အ),လu@,ကiu ရည&ရ1ယ&တ)မဟuတ&ပQဘ.,၊ ဒ<eဆ)င&,ပQ,
မY)eရ,တA5အခ(က&eတ1ကလA တiuင&,ရင&,သ),၊ ?iuင&င@သ),မ.စလင&မ(), (အစdလ)မ&ဘ)သ)ဝင&မ(),)ကiu ရည&ရ1ယ&တ)မဟuတ&ပA တဘက&
?iuင&င@ကတရ),မဝင& ခiu,ဝင&eနထiuင&လ)FကတA5 !iu ဟင&ဂ()အမည& ခ@စစ&တeက)င&,သ),ဘင&ဂQလ<မ(),ကiu ရည&ရ1ယ&တ)9ဖစ&eFက)င&,
သiPiန),လည& eစလiuပQတယ&။

ကမန&မ.ဆလင&မ(),နAm e9မဒ.,အဆက& အ?1ယ&ဗမ)မ.ဆလင&မ(),ဟ) ဘ)သ)eရ, နAm တiuက&!iuက&ဆပ&စပ&တA5 လ. မ]eရ,ကiစdရပ&မ(),မY


တစ&ပQ,ဝတ&စ),eနထiuင&မ] သ1),လ)eနထiuင&မ]ဓeလ5စ!iuက&eတ1ဟ) ရခiuင&/ဗမ)တiuနAm က1A9ပ),9ခ),န),မ] မPiပQဘ., ကမန&လ.မ(iu,eတ1က
ရခiuင&စက),e9ပ)ဆiuFက;ပ<, e9မဒ.,အဆက& အ?1ယ&ဗမ)မ.ဆလင& မ(),က eတ)5 ဗမ)စက),ပAe9ပ)ဆiuFကပQတယ&။

eမယueဒသ (ဘ.,သ<,eတ)င&၊ eမ)င&eတ)eဒသ) မY)PiတA5 !iuဟင&ဂ() အမည&ခ@စစ&တeက)င&,သ), ဘင&ဂQလ<လ. မ(iu,eတ1အeနနAmက


eတ)5 ကမန&၊ e9မဒ., အဆက&အ?1ယ&ဗမ)မ.ဆလင&မ(),?Yင&5မတ.ဘA သ<,9ခ),ဘ)သ)စက),၊ ဓeလ5ထu@,စ@၊ ဝတ&စ),ဆင&ယင&မ]eတ1
ထ.,9ခ),စ1)က1A9ပ),9ခ), န),eနတ)eတ1^ရမY)9ဖစ&ပQတယ&။

eမယueဒသaiဘင&ဂ4လLမ(),၏ ထK,Wခ),ခ(က&

အမ(iu,သ),eတ1ရAz ဝတ&စ),ဆင&ယင&မ]ကeတ)5 eP,အခQတuန&,က ဒ.တ<(eခ\)အ9ဖ‚eရ)င&လu@9ခည&ကiu ဒ.,eခQင&, အထi ဝတ&ဆင&eလ5Pi


FကပQတယ&။ စ1ပ&က(ယ&ဝတ& eလ5မPiပQဘ.,၊ အနက&eရ)င&အကျႌ (လက&တiu) eက)&လ)မA5 တ1င& အန<eရ)င&9ခည&မ(),9ဖင&5 လက&နAmလည&ပ
င&,၊ ရင&ဘတ&eတ1မY) က?]တ&ပန&,eဖ)&;ပ<, ဝတ&ဆင&တတ&FကပQ တယ&။ ရင&eစ5ပu@စ@9ဖစ&ပQတယ&။ အရင&တuန&,ကပQ။

အခueခတ&ဘင&ဂQလ<အမ(iu,သ),eတ1 ကeတ)5 သ)မ)န&အရပ&သ),eတ1အeနနAm ဗမ)၊ ရခiuင&မ(),နည&,တ. ဝတ&ဆင&လ)FကပQတယ&။


ဒQeပမA5 “eတ)က&က()”” eခ\ ဦ,ထuပ&တစ&မ(iu,ကiueတ)5 ဗလ<တက& စt& eဆ)င&,eလ5 PiFကပQတယ&။ ဒQအ9ပင& မuတ&ဆiတ&eမŒ,ထ),eလ5
Piတတ&FကပQတယ&။

eမ)&လဝ<ဆရ)မ(),ကeတ)5 ဗမ)၊ ရခiuင&လ.မ(iu,eတ1လiuလu@9ခည&ဝတ&eလ5PiFက eပမယ&5 အကျႌကeတ)5 အကျႌ လက&Pည& ကiueခQင&,စ1ပ&
(စပiuPပ&ရင&eစ5ပu@သ•)န&) e9ခမ(က&စiခန&mအထiအPည&Cက<,ခ(uပ&;ပ<, ဝတ&ဆင&FကပQတယ&။ ခQ,တစ&ဘက&တစ&ခ(က&မY eအ)က&ဘက&
အထi ခu@eဘ,မY)ခ1Aတ) eလ5PiပQတယ&။ eမ)&လစ<ဆရ)အ),လu@, လiuလiu ဟ) မuတ&ဆiတ&eမŒ,အPည&တ),တတ& ;ပ<, မuတ&ဆiတ&eမŒ,တ)
ရ9ခင&,ကeတ)5 တမန&eတ)&မiuဟ)မက&က မuတ& ဆiတ&eမŒ,ထ),ခA5တ)ကiu အတuယ.;ပ<, တမန&eတ)&အ),တiuင&တည&က) အဓi‹)န&သ
eဘ)ထ), 9ခင&,9ဖစ&eFက)င&, သiရပQတယ&။

အမ(iu,သမ<,eတ1ရAz ဝတ&စ),ဆင&ယင& မ]ကeတ)5 အခueခတ&ဘင&ဂQလ<အမ(iu,သမ<, eတ1အeနနAm အiမ&မY)eနရင& ဗမ)၊ ရခiuင& အမ(iu,သမ<,


eတ1ဝတ&ဆင&သလiu ထဘ<,အကျႌ eတ1 ဝတ&ဆင&FကပQတယ&။ ထ.,9ခ),ခ(က& ကeတ)5 အ9ပင&ထ1က&ရင& “?.မ)လ&” eခ\ eခQင&,;ခ@uပuဝQ;ခ@ု
9ခင&,နAm “ဘ.ဂ&ခQ” eခ\ ကiuယ&!u@;ခ@ုထည&ကiuဝတ&ဆင&Fက9ခင&,ပA9ဖစ&ပQ တယ&။

ဘ.ရ&ခQ၊ eခ\ ;ခ@uတည&ဆiuတ)က တစ&ကiuယ&လu@,ဖu@,လŒမ&,ထ),;ပ<,eတ)5 မ(က&စi e~မY)ပA အeပQက& ကeလ, ?Yစ&eပQက& eဖ)က&ထ),
eလ5PiပQတယ&။ ဒQအ9ပင& eမ)င&ဇ)၊ eခ\တA5 e9ခအiတ& (e9ခစ1ပ&) လည&,စ1ပ&ထ), တတ&FကပQတယ&။ ခရ<,သ1), တA5 အခQမY) မiu,ပAရ1)ရ1)၊
eနပAပ.ပ.၊ ရ)သ< ဥတueက)င&,eက)င&,၊ မeက)င&,eက)င&, အခ(iန& မeရ1,ထ<,eဆ)င&,;ပ<,သ1),FကပQတယ&။ လမ&,eလe)က&တA5အခQမY)
လ.နAmပတ&ပင&, တiu,မiရင& မ(က&?Y)ကiuထ<, နAm က1ယ&ထ),eလ5 PiFကပQတယ&။

ထဘ<ဝတ&ဆင&ရ)မY)လည&,အထက&ကiueအ)က&မY)ခ(;ပ<, ဗမ)၊ ရခiuင&၊ အမ(iu,သမ<, မ(),နAm e9ပ)င&,9ပန&အeန အထ),ဝတ&တတ& FကပQ


တယ&။

လက&ဝတ&ရတန)ဝတ&ဆင&ရ)မY)လည&, “န)က&ဖuလA” eခ\?Y)eခQင&,ပ1င&5ကiuဝတ&ဆင& တတ&FကပQတယ&။


eP)င&Fကည&ရတA5 ဓeလ5ကeတ)5 အမ(iu,သမ<,မ(),ဟ) သ)မ)န&အ),9ဖင&5 အeFက)င&,ထ.,မPiဘA အiမ&အ9ပင& မထ1က&ရပQဘ.,။ အiမ&
အ9ပင&ထ1 က&တ)နAm “ဘ. ရ&ခQ” eခ\;ခ@u တည&ကiu ဝ တ&ဆ င&;ပ<, မY သ1),လ)ရ ပQတယ& ။ အမ(iu,သမ<, မ(),ဟ) အမ(iu,သ),မ(),နAm
ရင&eပQင&တန&,;ပ<, အလuပ&လuပ&9ခင&, eစ(,ဝယ&ထ1က&9ခင&,၊ ဝတ&9ပu9ခင&,၊ အ သuဘပiu9ခင&,မ(), မလuပ&ရပQဘ.,။ အမ(iu,သမ<,မ(),ဟ) မiမi
တiu လင&eယ)က(&),မ(),နAm ယYt&တ1A ;ပ<, သ1),လ)eလ5မPi ပQဘ.,။ ခရ<,သ1),ရ)မY)လည&, ကeလ,ငယ&မ(),ကiu အမ(iu,သမ<,မ(),က ခ(<ပiu,
သ1),လ)9ခင&,မPiပQဘ.,။ အတ. ပQလ) တA5အမ(iu,သ),ကသ) ခ(<ပiu,ရပQတယ&။

အစ),အeသ)က&အeန9ဖင&5လည&, ပuစ1န&မYအပ eသ1,မPieသ) သတ‰ ဝQမ(),၊ eသဆu@,eနeသ)သတ‰ ဝQမ(),ရAz အသ),ကiu မစ),ရပQ


ဘ.,။ တiရစ •)န&မ(),ကiu ကiuယ&တiuင&လည&လY<,သတ&9ဖတ&;ပ<,မY စ),eသ)က&တတ& ပQတယ& ။ eသ1,ကiu လŒင&5ပစ&တတ&ပQတယ&။ အထ.,သ
9ဖင&5 ဝက&သ),၊ ဖ),သ),၊ လiပ&သ),၊ ဂဏန&,တiuကiueP)င&Fကt&eလ5 PiFက ပQတယ&။

eမယueဒသမY)PiတA5 ဘင&ဂQလ<မ(),ရAz !iu,ရ)ယt&eက(,မ]ဟ) တiuင&,ရင&,သ), ?iuင&င@သ),မ.ဆလင& (အစdလ)မ&ဘ) သ)ဝင&) မ(),နAm


ဘယ&eလ)က&အထi9ခ),န),သလAဆiuတ) အ;ငiမ&,စ),ပQကစdတန&သ@အမတ& Cက<, ဦ,eဖခင& (မ.ဆ လင&ဘ)သ)ဝင&)က e9ပ)ခA5ဖ.,တA5
စက),eလ,က သက&eသခ@ eနပQတယ&။

ဦ,eဖခင& ပQကစdတန&သ@အမတ&Cက<, အ9ဖစ&Pieနစt&က ဘ.,သ<,eတ)င&;မiuကiu eရ)က&ခA5ပQတယ&။ ဦ,eဖခင&eရ)က& လ) မယ&5အeFက)


င&,ကiu Cကiuတင&သတင&,ပiuသ), လiuဘ.,သ<,eတ)င&;မiuနယ&က မ.ဆလင&အမ(iu, သ),မ(),စ1) လ)eရ)က&CကiuဆiuFက;ပ<, အရ)Piမ(),တည&,
ခiuရiပ&သ)မY) က(င&,ပ9ပuလuပ&တA5 eဟ)e9ပ)ပ1Aကiu လ.eပQင&,မ(),စ1) တက& eရ)က&FကပQတယ&။ အAဒ<အခ(iန&တuန&,က အမတ&9ဖစ&ခA5ဖ.,တA5
eဒ\eအ,•1န&m၊ ဘ.,သ<, eတ)င&၊ eမ)င&eတ) ဆiuင&ရ) (ဂ(မiတ‰‚အ.eလ မ)အသင&,)၏ ဥကq ‹ မစdတ)ဆ.လ&တင& အ)မတ&ရAz ဇန<,လည&,
တက&eရ)က&ခA5ပQ တယ&။ eဟ)e9ပ)ပ1AမY) ဦ,eဖခင&က သ.သည&ပQကစdတန&သ@အမတ&Cက<,9ဖစ&eFက)င&, မ.ဆလင&အမ(iu,သ),တစ&ဦ,
လည&,9ဖစ&eFက)င&, ဘ.,သ<,eတ)င&၊ eမ)င&eတ)Pi ဘ)သ)တ. မ.ဆလင&အမ(iu,သ),မ(),?Yင&5 eတ1^ဆu@လiu၍ တ က.,တက) လ)eရ)က&
ရeFက)င&, မ.ဆလင&မ(),?Yင&5 eတ1^ဆu@ရသ9ဖင&5 ဝမ&,သ)9ခင&,၊ ဝမ&,နည&,9ခင&,?Yစ&မ(iu,ကiuခ@စ), ရ;ပ<, ဘယ&လiu e9ပ)ရမYန&,ပင&မသi9ဖစ&eနရ
eFက)င&, ဤနယ&မ.ဆလင&မ(),၏ ဝတ&စ),ဆင&ယင&ပu@ ယt&eက(, မ]?Yင&5 ဆက&ဆ@eရ, မလ1ယ&က.မ] eFက)င&5 အထ.,ဝမ&,နည&,ရeFက)င&,
ယခu စက),e9ပ)ရ)၌ပင& တiuက&!iuက&ဗမ) စက),ကiu သu@,မရဘA စက),9ပန&Fက),မY)ထ),က) eဟ)e9ပ)ရသ9ဖင&5 သ.သည&9မန&မ)?iuင&င@
eတ)&၏ တစ&eနရ) တ1င& eရ)က&eနသည&ဟu မထင&ဘA၊ အe~ပQကစdတန&9ပည& တစ&eနရ)ကiueရ)က&eနသလ), ဟuယu@မY),သ@သ
ယ 9ဖစ&မiပQeFက)င&,စသ9ဖင&5 e9ပ)ခA5ပQတယ&။

ဒ<အခ(က&ဟ) တiuင&,ရင&,သ),၊ ?iuင&င@သ),မ.ဆလင&eတ1နAm ဘင&ဂQလ<လ.မ(iu,မ.စလင&eတ1 ဘယ&eလ)က& က1A9ပ),9ခ),န),သလA ဆiuတ)


သiသထင&P),eစတA5အခ(က&တစ&ခu ပQဘA။

ဘင&ဂQလ<လ.မ(iu,eတ1ကiu ရခiuင&လ.မ(iu, eတ1က ကuလ),လiuသ)eခ\eဝ\သu@,?]န&, FကပQတယ&။ ၎င&,တiuကeတ)5 မiမiတiuကiuယ& တiuင& မ.ဆလ


င&လ. မ(iu,လiu ခA eခ\eဝ\သu@, ?] န&, ခA5 FကပQတယ& ။ ;ဗi တi သeအစiu, ရလက&ထ က&က eရ,သ),ခA5 တA5 မစd တ)အ)က< စ မတ&ရAz (Burma
Gagetteer Akyab Dietrict Volume A) မY) စစ&eတ1ခ!iuင&မY)PiတA5 စစ&တeက)င&,သ),ဘင&ဂQလ<ကuလ),မ(),ကiu (မဟ)eမ?Yင&)လiu
မYတ&တမ&,တင& ခA5eFက)င&, eတ1^ရပQတယ&။ အAဒ< မYတ&တမ&,မY)ပA ရခiuင&တစ&မ(iu,တည&,ကiuပင& ရခiuင&သ),၊ ရမ&,;ဗA သ), eခ()င&,သ), ဆiu
;ပ<,ခ1A9ခ),မYတ&တမ&,တင&ခA5တ)ပQ။ တကယ&လiu အAဒ<အခ(iန&ကတည&,က eမယueဒသမY) !iuဟင&ဂ()ဆiuတA5 လ. မ(iu, eတ1PiခA5မယ&ဆiuရင&လ
ည&, !iuဟင&ဂ()လ.မ(iu,ကiu သ<,9ခ),မYတ&တမ&,တင&ခA5မY) 9ဖစ&ပQတယ&။ ဒQeFက)င&5 !iuဟင& ဂ() လ.မ(iu, ဆiuတ)eန)က&ပiuင&,မYသ)eပ\လ)တA5
eဝQ ဟ)ရတစ&ခu9ဖစ&eFက)င&, ထင&P),ပQတယ&။

ဘင&ဂQလ<မ(),ဟ) eမယueဒသမY) အe9ခခ(eနထiuင&လ)တ)Fကလ)တ)နAm အမeအAဒ<eဒသမY) ဘu@ဘ)သ)စက), အ9ဖစ& သu@,စ1AeနတA5


ရခiuင&ဘ)သ)စက),ကiuတတ& က_မ&,လ)FကပQတယ&။ အAဒ<ကတစ&ဆင&5 နည&,လမ&,အမ(iu,မ(iu, နAm 9မန&မ)?iuင&င@အ?Y@^အ9ပ), ကiueရ)က&Pi
ပ(@z?Y@^လ)တA5အခQမY) တiuင&,ရင&,သ),၊ ?iuင&င@သ), ဗမ)မ.ဆလင&မ(),ကiu အ တu ယ.;ပ<, ရခiuင&မ.ဆလင&ဆiu;ပ<,သu@,?]န&,လ)FကပQတယ&။

ရခiuင&လ.မ(iu,eတ1ဟ) အမ(iu,သ<လကiu eစ)င&5ထiန&,Fကသ.မ(),9ဖစ&တA5အတ1က& မ.ဆလင&ဘ)သ)ဝင&မ(),နAm လက& ထပ&ထiမ&, 9မ),eလ5မ


PiFကပQဘ.,၊ ဒQeFက)င&5 ရခiuင&လ.မ(iu,မ(),ဟ) ဗuဒyဘ)သ)ဝင&မ(),သ)9ဖစ& FကပQတယ&။ မ.ဆလင&ဘ)သ)ကiu ကiu,က1ယ&သက&ဝင&9ခင&,မPi
FကတA5အတ1က& (ရခiuင&မ.စလင&) ဆiuတ)လည&, လu@,ဝမPiပQဘ.,။

!iuဟင&ဂ()ဟKeသ)eဝ4ဟ)ရ၏ အဓiပf)ယ&
(!iuဟင&ဂ()ဟ.eသ) eဝQဟ)ရ၏ အဓiပ–)ယ&ကiu ““ပထန&လ.မ(iu,””မ(),?Yင&5 ဘဂN လ),9ပည&မYဝင&eရ)က& လ)Fကeသ) သ.မ(),မY အ)ရဝ&
အဆက&အ?1ယ&9ဖစ&eသ) (!iu,ဝန&ညY)) လ.မ(iu,မ(),?Yင&5 eပQင&,သင&,eနထiuင& လ)Fကသည&တ1င& “!iu,ဝန&ဂ()”” (ယခuအeခ\ !iuဟင&
ဂ())၏ လ.မ(iu,မ(),9ဖစ&eပ\လ)ခA5 eလသည&။

!iu,ဝန&ဂ() ဆiueသ)အမည&မY) ရခiuင&စက),ရင&,9ဖစ&ရ) (ရ1)eဟ)င&,က(),)ဟu အဓiပ–)ယ&ရeလသည&။ အဓiပ–)ယ&ကeတ)5 သတ‰ iPiသ


ည&၊ ရAရင&5သည&ဟu ဆiuလiuပQတယ&။ အeFက)င&,ရင&,ကeတ)5 ရခiuင&လ.မ(iu,မ(), က တiuက&;ပ<,မရ?iuင&တA5 တလiuင&,လ.မ(iu,မ(),ကiu ပထန&လ.
မ(iu,မ(),ကတiuက&ထuတ& ပစ&?iuင&Fက eသ)eFက)င&,ပင&9ဖစ& သည&ဟuဆiuလiuပQ သည&။

တဖန&ခရစ&သကq ရ)ဇ& ၁၆၅ ခu?Yစ& eန)က&ပiuင&,တ1င& ရခiuင&9ပည&သ),အစdလ)မ& ဘ)သ)ဝင&မ(),အနက&eလ, ကiuင&စစ&သည& eတ)&မ(),


ကiu ပQPန&,ဘ)သ)9ဖင&5 (ကမန&) ဟueခ\;ပ<, ရခiuင&9ပည&သ),အစdလ)မ& ဘ)သ)ဝင&လ. မ(iu,တiuကiuမ. အ)eရဗ&ဘ)သ)9ဖင&5 (!iuဟင&ဂ())ဟu
eခ\ခA5ပQသည&။ဆiu;ပ<, eတ)5 ၁၉၆၀ ခu၊ ဒ<ဇင&ဘ)လထuတ&!iuဟင& ဂ() လ.မ(iu,စuရ)ဇဝင&အက(t&,ခ(uပ&နAm ၁၉၈၉ ခu?Yစ& ထuတ& အမ(iu,သ),ပQ
တ<လက&စ1A စ)eစ)င& eတ1မY) eရ, သ),eဖ)&9ပထ),ခA5FကပQတယ&။

တကယ&eတ)5 !iuဟင&ဂ()အမည&PiတA5 လ.မ(iu,ဟ) 9မန&မ)?iuင&င@မY)eသ)&လည&,eက)င&,၊ ရခiuင&9ပည&အ9ဖစ&ထင& P),Piစt&ကeသ)&လည&,


eက)င&,၊ ကမ p)တစ&ဝYမ&,လu@,မY) ဘယ&တiuင&,9ပည&မY)မY မPiခA5eသ)အမည&9ဖစ&ပQသည&။ ဘင&ဂQလ<လ.မ(iu,eတ1အeနနAm (!iuဟင&ဂ())ဆiu တA5
အမည&ကiuအတင&,ဆuပ&ကiuင&ကင&ပ1န&,တတ& လ)Fကတ)ဟ) (၁၉၆၀) ခu?Yစ& ပတ&ဝန&, က(င&ကမY9ဖစ&ပQတယ&။ သ.တiuက တiuင&,ရင&,
သ),eတ1လiuအတင&,eတ)င&,ဆiu;ပ<, အ မည&ခ@ယ.ခA5Fကတ)9ဖစ&ပQတယ&။ !iuဟင&ဂ()ဆiuတ) လ.မ(iu,တစ&မ(iu,ရAz ?]တ&ကထ1က&လ)တA5
စက),မeသ)9ဖစ&ပQ တယ&။ အAဒ<တuန&,က (;မiueဟ)င&,)ဟ) မင&,eန9ပည&eတ)&9ဖစ& ခA5;ပ<, အAဒ<နယ&မY) eနထiuင&လuပ&ကiuင& စ), eသ)က&
FကတA5 မ.ဆလင&eတ1က (ငQတiu;မiu eဟ)င&,သ),) လiue9ပ)ဆiuတ)ကiu Fက),ဖ., FကတA5 မ.ဆလင&တခ(iu ကအဓiပ–)ယ&ကiuန),မလည&ဘA
ရခiuင&9ပည&Piလ.မ(iu,လiuထင&;ပ<, (!iuဟင&ဂ()) လiuခ@ယ.Fက9ခင&,9ဖစ&တယ&လiuလA ဆiuFက ပQတယ&။

ဒQeပမA5 eP,တuန&,ကeတ)5 ;မiueဟ)င&, နယ&သ),မ.ဆလင&မ(),မY တစ&ပQ,ဘယ&သ.မY မသu@,ဘA (၁၉၆၀) ခu?Yစ& ပတ& ဝန&,က(င&eရ)က&တA5
အခQက(မY ထင&ထင&P),P),ထuတ&eဖ)& လ)FကပQတယ&။

ဘင&ဂQလ<စက),မY)လA (ပQဂ)ဂ()) ဆiuတ) (ရ1)သ),)လiu အဓiပ–)ယ&ရပQတယ&။ အလ),တ.ပA စစ&တeက)င&, သ),eတ1က ရခiuင&9ပည&ကiu


(!iuဟင&) လiueခ\ပQတယ&။ (!iuဟင&) မY) ရ1)သ), (ဂ()) eပQင&,လiuက& eတ)5 (!iuဟင&+ဂ()) (!iuဟင&ဂ()) (ရခiuင&9ပည&သ),)လiu အဓiပ&—ာယ&
PiတA5eဝQဟ)ရ9ဖစ& eFက)င&,eတ1^ရပQတယ&။
(!iuဟင&ဂ()) ဆiuတA5 eဝQဟ)ရကiu လ.မ(iu,အမည&နAm eခ\eဝ\သu@,စ1Aလ)မယ&ဆiu ပQက eန)င&?Yစ&eပQင&,မ(), စ1)Fက) လ)တA5အခQမY)
ဘ)သ)eဗဒသeဘ)အရ9ပန&လည& အစeက)က&ရင& (!iuဟင&ဂ())ဆiuတ) (ရခiuင& 9ပည&သ),) ဆiuတA5 တiuင&,ရင&,သ),9ဖစ&လ) eစရန&
Cကiuတင&ဖန&တ<,ထ),eသ) eဝQဟ) ရ9ဖစ&eFက)င&, eတ1^?iuင&ပQတယ&။

တခ(iuကလည&, (!iuဟင&ဂ())ကiu (ရ1င&ဂ()) လiueခ\eဝ\သu@,?]န&,FကပQတယ&။ (ရ1င&ဂ()) ဆiuတA5စက),ရAz ရခiuင&ဘ)သ) အဓiပ–)ယ&က eတ)5


အiu,အiမ&အတည&တက(မPi သ. eလလ1င&5eနသ.e9ခသလu@, အiမ&တiuင&သ1),လ) eနသ.လiu အဓiပ–)ယ& ရပQတယ&။

ဒQကeတ)5 အခuလတ&တeလ)9ဖစ& eပ\eနတA5 !iuဟင&ဂ()9ပဿန)နAm ပတ&သက&လiuသမiuင&,eFက)င&,ကiu လက&လYမ&, မ<သမe စueဆ)င&,


တင&9ပeရ,သ),လiuက&ရပQတယ&။ ပည)Pင&မ(),အeနနAm ပiuမiu9ပည&5စu@မYန&ကန&တA5 အeFက)င&, တရ), မ(),eရ,သ),eဖ)&ထuတ& တင&9ပFက
လiမ&5မယ&လiueမe)&လင&5ပQတယ&။ ?iuင&င@နAm လ.မ(iu,အက(iu,အတ1က&အမYန& တရ),ကiu သiသမeeရ,သ),9ခင&,မeသ)9ဖစ&;ပ<, မည&သ.တစ&ဦ,
တစ&eယ)က& မည&သည&5လ.မ(iu, မည&သည&5ဘ)သ) ကiuမe ထiခiuက&နစ&န)eစ လiu9ခင&,မPiပQeFက)င&,။

?iuင&ထက&Piန& (ဟသN)တ)

က(မ&,ကiu,စ)ရင&,
၁။ 9ပည&eထ)င&စu9မန&မ)?iuင&င@သမiuင&, eဒQက& တ)eက()&သက&
၂။ ရခiuင&9ပည&စ<,ပ1),eရ,ဘဏ&တiuက& ဦ,လYထ1န&,9ဖ‚
၃။ ရခiuင&9ပည&နယ&အစ<ရင&ခ@စ), 9မဝတ< မဂ}ဇင&,၊ (၁၉၆၀/ဇ.လiuင&)၊ eမ)င&တင&
၄။ ရခiuင&9ပည&နယ&9ဖစ&စt&သမiuင&,၊ ရခiuင& 9ပည&နယ& 9ပည&သ{eက)င&စ<
၅။ eတ)&လYန&eရ,ခရ<,ဝယ& ဘu@eပQက&သ) eက()&
၆။ ဘ.,သ<,eတ)င&eမ)င&eတ);မiuနယ&သမiuင&,
၇။ ရခiuင&9ပည&မY မ.ဂ()ဟiန&,ဟ.သည& ခင&Cက<, eဖ)&၊ ရခiuင&တန&eဆ)င&မဂ}ဇင&,
၈။ ရခiuင&9ပည&နယ&သမiuင&,?Yင&5 ရခiuင&!iuဟင& ဂ()တiu၏ဘဝ၊ အမ(iu,သ),ပQတ<လက&စ1A စ)eစ)င&
၉။ အရiယန&မYသက& ရခiuင&မ(iu,?1ယ&ဆင&, သက&လ)ရ9ခင&,မ(), နတ&9မစ&စန&,eအ)င& ရခiuင&တန&eဆ)င&မဂ}ဇင&,
၁၀။ !iuဟင&ဂ()လ.မ(iu,စuရ)ဇဝင&အက(t&,ခ(uပ& !iuဟင&ဂ()အမ(iu,သ),ည<ည1တ&eရ,အဖ1A^ခ(uပ&။

http://www.hotnewsweekly.com/archives/8775

Ref: http://rakhinelandnews.blogspot.sg/2012/08/ad-1430.html
Rohingya people

The Rohingya people (/ˈroʊɪndʒə/, /ˈroʊhɪndʒə/, /ˈroʊɪŋjə/, or /ˈroʊhɪŋjə/)[20] are Muslim Indo-Aryan peoples from
the Rakhine State, Myanmar.[1][21][22]
According to the Rohingyas and some scholars, they are indigenous to Rakhine State, while other historians claim
that the group represents a mixture of precolonial and colonial immigrations. The official stance of the Myanmar
government, however, has been that the Rohingyas are mainly illegal immigrants who migrated into Arakan
following Burmese independence in 1948 or after the Bangladesh liberation war in 1971.[23][24][25][26][27][28][5][29]

Muslims have settled in Rakhine State (also known as Arakan) since the 15th century, although the number of
Muslim settlers before British rule is unclear.[30] Despite debates concerning its origins,[24] the term "Rohingya", in
the form of Rooinga, first appeared in 1799 in an article about a language spoken by Muslims claiming to be natives
of Arakan. In 1826, after the First Anglo-Burmese War, the British annexed Arakan and encouraged migrations
from Bengal to work as farm laborers. The Muslim population may have constituted 5% of Arakan's population by
1869, although estimates for earlier years give higher numbers. Successive British censuses of 1872 and 1911
recorded an increase in Muslim population from 58,255 to 178,647 in Akyab District. During the Second World
War, the Arakan massacres in 1942 involved communal violence between British-armed V Force Rohingya recruits
and Buddhist Rakhine people and the region became increasingly ethnically polarized.[31] After Burmese
independence in 1948, the mujahideen rebellion began as a separatist movement to merge the region into the East
Pakistan and continued into the 1960s, along with the Arkanese Independence Movement by Rakhine Buddhists.
The rebellion left enduring mistrust and hostilities in both Muslim and Buddhist communities. In 1982, General Ne
Win's government enacted the Burmese nationality law, which denied Rohingya citizenship, rendering a majority of
Rohingya population stateless.[1] Since the 1990s, the term "Rohingya" has increased in usage among Rohingya
communities.[24][29]

Prior to the 2015 Rohingya refugee crisis and the military crackdown in 2016 and 2017, the Rohingya population in
Myanmar was around 1.1 to 1.3 million[4][5][6][1][4] They reside mainly in the northern Rakhine townships, where they
form 80–98% of the population.[29] Many Rohingyas have fled to neighbouring Bangladesh,[32] to areas along the
border with Thailand, and to the Pakistani city of Karachi.[33] More than 100,000 Rohingyas in Myanmar live in
camps for internally displaced persons, not allowed by authorities to leave.[34][35] Probes by the UN have found
evidence of increasing incitement of hatred and religious intolerance by "ultra-nationalist Buddhists" against
Rohingyas while the Burmese security forces have been conducting "summary executions, enforced
disappearances, arbitrary arrests and detention, torture and ill-treatment and forced labour" against the community.
[36] International media and human rights organizations have often described Rohingyas as one of the most
persecuted minorities in the world.[37][38][39] According to the United Nations, the human rights violations against
Rohingyas could be termed as "crimes against humanity".[36][40] Rohingyas have received international attention in
the wake of the 2012 Rakhine State riots, the 2015 Rohingya refugee crisis, and the 2016–17 military crackdown.
Rohingya people
Ruáingga ႐ိုဟင်ဂျာ َ‫ﻳﻨڠ‬ َ‫ﺭُﺍ‬

Total population

1,547,778[1]–2,000,000+[2]
Regions with significant populations
Myanmar (Rakhine State), Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan,
Saudi Arabia, Thailand
 Myanmar 1.0[3]–1.3 million[4][5][6]
 Saudi Arabia 400,000[7]
 Bangladesh 300,000–500,000[8][9][10]
 Pakistan 200,000[11][12][13]

 Thailand 100,000[14]
 Malaysia 40,070[15]
 India 40,000[16][17]

 Indonesia 11,941[18]
200[19]
   Nepal
Languages
Rohingya
Religion
Islam

See more...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rohingya_people
Who are the Rohingya?
03 JUN 2015

The plight of Rohingya Muslim migrants from Myanmar has gained worldwide attention as they seek refuge in
neighbouring countries, but this is not a recent problem, writes Anthony Measures.

The migrant crisis in Southeast Asia in the first half of 2015 has brought the situation of the Rohingya Muslim
community of Myanmar into the international spotlight. Thousands of refugees, mainly Rohingya, have left Myanmar
on crowded boats seeking refuge in neighbouring countries. While this phenomenon has been going on for some time
(as discoveries in May 2015 of mass graves of trafficked refugees in Thailand revealed), the scale of the crisis is now
far greater than has previously been seen. Furthermore, the international crisis is a reflection of what is happening inside
Myanmar, where at least 6,000 people were newly internally displaced in 2014. Many of the displaced Rohingya
Muslim community now live in refugee camps along the Myanmar-Thailand border, from Mae Hong Son in the north to
Tham Hin in the south. Conditions in the camps have been condemned by a number of international organisations,
including the United Nations.

The crisis has been seized upon by global Jihadi groups.

The situation has been the subject of extensive international condemnation, including from the Association of South
East Asian Nations (ASEAN). On 29 May 2015 the organisation agreed to work together to stem migration from
Myanmar, with Indonesia and Malaysia stating that they would continue to provide temporary shelter for the refugees
and a joint task force would co-ordinate assistance to countries dealing with migrants. However, the crisis has also been
seized upon by global jihadi groups from al-Qaeda to ISIS. These have, in numerous public statements, called for
jihadis to go to the aid of the Rohingya. In the past, there have been allegations that Rohingya groups were been linked
with al-Qaeda and the Taliban, but there are not thought to be any active Rohingya jihadi groups.
Myanmar is a country closely linked with Buddhism. Religious demographics show that 75 per cent of the population
identifies as Buddhist, eight per cent are Christian and four per cent are Muslim. The Rohingya population, the majority
of whom are Muslim, originated in what is today Bangladesh, although there is extensive evidence that the population
has long been established in the region of Myanmar formerly known as Arakan, officially designated Rakhine State in
1989.

The population of the Rohingya in Rakhine State varies, but it is thought to number between 800,000 and 1.3 million
out of a total state population of 3.3 million. The group is believed to be of mixed ancestry, tracing its origins both to
outsiders (Arabs, Turks, Persians, Moguls and Pathans) and to local Bengali and Rakhine. They speak a version of
Chittagonian, a regional dialect of Bengali, which is also used extensively throughout southeastern Bangladesh.
The Rohingya are not only present in Myanmar: estimates show there are 250,000–350,000 in Pakistan; 250,000–
500,000 in Saudi Arabia; 200,000–500,000 in Bangladesh; 20,000–45,000 in Malaysia; and 3,000–20,000 in Thailand.
History of Persecution

The debate around the status of the Rohingya within Myanmar dates back to 1947 when the country gained
independence. The founding constitution declared that citizens were those defined as an "indigenous race" including the
Arakanese, originating from Arakan (Rakhine State), which at the time was understood to include the Rohingya.

Myanmar's political opening did nothing to stem the discrimination.

However, from 1962, when General Ne Win seized power in a coup d'etat, successive military-backed regimes in
Myanmar have persecuted the Rohingya Muslims. The first major assault accompanied the Bangladeshi War of
Independence in 1971, which led to many Bengalis fleeing to Myanmar. In 1978, a Myanmar government campaign
known as Naga Min aimed to force the refugees from the country. There were arbitrary arrests, desecration of mosques,
destruction of villages, and confiscation of lands. The close identification of Rohingya Muslims with Bangladeshi
refugees led to large numbers of Rohingya fleeing to Bangladesh, where the government set up makeshift camps and
appealed to the United Nations for aid and assistance.

While some official refugee camps were set up, an agreement between Bangladesh and Myanmar in July 1978 allowed
for the repatriation of 200,000 refugees back to Myanmar. By the end of 1979, roughly 180,000 Rohingya had returned
to Rakhine state, despite refugee protests that resulted in hundreds of deaths.

In July 1991 the Myanmar government launched another campaign against the Rohingya, known as Operation Pyi
(Clean and Beautiful Nation), the purpose of which was to scrutinise each individual within the state, to determine
whether they were a citizen or "illegal immigrant." This led to around 250,000 Rohingya Muslims fleeing to
Bangladesh and could be seen as the beginning of the refugee situation, which has led to many Rohingya today living in
makeshift camps as stateless people.

Myanmar's political opening did nothing to stem the discrimination. Rakhine state has for several years seen violent
clashes led by Buddhist nationalists, who believe, according to one slogan, "to be Burmese is to be Buddhist." Further
violence broke out in 2012 between Buddhist nationalists and Rohingya Muslims, and by November 2014 the United
Nations was reporting that over 100,000 Rohingya Muslims had been displaced since 2012, with an average of 900 per
day fleeing the country. The 969 Movement, a Buddhist nationalist movement led by Ashin Wirathu which actively
preaches anti-Muslim sentiment, is thought to have been behind much of the incitement to violence during this period.
Citizenship.

However, violent persecution is not the only issue facing the Rohingya community. Since 1982, a series of legal
changes has challenged the status of the community's presence in Myanmar. The 1982 Citizenship Law defined citizens
as members of ethnic groups that had permanently settled within the boundaries of modern-day Myanmar, prior to
1823. While an earlier citizenship law had included the Arakanese (which was deemed to include the Rohingya), the
1982 version did not, excluding the Rohingya from both full and associate citizenship.

Following this, in 1994 the government stopped issuing Rohingya children birth certificates and later began to require
the Muslim population to be granted official permission from local authorities to marry (this practice has never been
confirmed in law).

Citizenship remains an issue for the Rohingya since 2011. The recent census, the first to be carried out in 30 years, left
the group off its list of ethnicities. The term Rohingya is controversial in the country, with both government and
Rakhine Buddhists suggesting that the term has no historical or legal basis. It has been explained to the UN Special
Rapporteur on Myanmar in 2015 that to validate the Rohingya as an ethnic group could allow a claim of indigenous
status and corresponding rights under the Constitution. It is because of this that the government classified Rohingya
Muslims as Bengali, which links their ethnic origins to Bangladesh.

The Rohingya Muslim community has endured years of uncertainty.

The Rakhine State Action Plan, which has been in draft form since October 2014 has caused further controversy.
International organisations, including the United Nations, have raised concerns that the plan would fall below
international human rights standards. In particular, they have suggested certain measures that would classify Rohingya
as Bengali, could render them "illegal" and subject them to possible prolonged internment in temporary camps or
removal from the country altogether. However, in February 2015 the government announced that it would revoke
temporary identification cards (so-called white cards) for minorities in Myanmar, which gave them temporary
citizenship. The Rohingya Muslim community was the main recipient of these cards. In December 2014 the government
also announced the submission of four bills, known as the 'National Race and Religious Protection' package: the
Interfaith Marriage Bill, the Religious Conversion Bill, the Monogamy Bill and the Population Control Bill. These bills
are also widely regarded as targeting minority communities.

The Rohinyga Muslim community has endured years of uncertainty over its status and the citizenship of its members,
resulting in a crisis affecting the entire region. The words and phrases, 'stateless', 'unwanted' and the 'the world's most
persecuted religious minority,' often used about the group, appear to hold firm today, even as the international
community attempts to rally support.
For more on religion and conflict in Myanmar, see our Situation Report.

]ANTHONY MEASURES
Ref:http://www.religionandgeopolitics.org/rohingya/who-are-rohingya-0



Myanmar: Who are the Rohingya Muslims?

Why are the more than one million Rohingya in Myanmar considered the 'world's most
persecuted minority'?

THE ROHINGYA
▪ Who are they?
▪ Where are they from?
▪ How are they persecuted?
▪ How many have fled?
▪ What does Myanmar say?
▪ What does Bangladesh say?
▪ What does the international community say?
▪ What is the ARSA?

Newly arrived Rohingya refugees sit inside a shelter at the Kutupalang refugee camp in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh
[Mohammad Ponir Hossain/Reuters]

Who are the Rohingya?

The Rohingya are often described as "the world's most persecuted minority". 

They are an ethnic Muslim group who have lived for


centuries in the majority Buddhist Myanmar.
Currently, there are about 1.1 million Rohingya
Muslims who live in the Southeast Asian country.

The Rohingya speak Rohingya or Ruaingga, a dialect


that is distinct to others spoken in Rakhine State and
throughout Myanmar. They are not considered one of
the country's 135 official ethnic groups and have been
denied citizenship in Myanmar since 1982, which has
effectively rendered them stateless.

WATCH: The Rohingya - Silent Abuse (45:33)


Nearly all of the Rohingya in Myanmar live in the western coastal state of Rakhine and are not allowed to
leave without government permission. It is one the poorest states in the country with ghetto-like camps and a
lack of basic services and opportunities.

Due to ongoing violence and persecution, hundreds of thousands of Rohingya have fled to neighbouring
countries either by land or boat over the course of many decades.

Where are the Rohingya from?


Muslims have lived in the area now known as Myanmar since as early as the 12th century, according to many
historians and Rohingya groups.

The Arakan Rohingya National Organisation has said, "Rohingyas have been living in Arakan from time
immemorial," referring to the area now known as Rakhine.

During the more than 100 years of British rule (1824-1948), there was a significant amount of migration of
labourers to what is now known as Myanmar from today's India and Bangladesh. Because the British
administered Myanmar as a province of India, such migration was considered internal, according to Human
Rights Watch (HRW).

The migration of labourers was viewed negatively by the majority of the native population.

After independence, the government viewed the migration that took place during British rule as "illegal, and
it is on this basis that they refuse citizenship to the majority of Rohingya," HRW said in a 2000 report. 
This has led many Buddhists to consider the Rohingya as Bengali, rejecting the term Rohingya as a recent
invention, created for political reasons.

A new Rohingya refugee walks with her belongings towards the makeshift  Kutupalang refugee camp in Cox's Bazar,
Bangladesh [Mohammad Ponir Hossain/Reuters]

How and why are they being persecuted? And why aren't they recognised?
Shortly after Myanmar's independence from the British in 1948, the Union Citizenship Act was passed,
defining which ethnicities could gain citizenship. According to a 2015 report  by the International Human
Rights Clinic at Yale Law School, the Rohingya were not included. The act, however, did allow those whose
families had lived in Myanmar for at least two generations to apply for identity cards.

Rohingya were initially given such identification or even citizenship under the generational provision. During
this time, several Rohingya also served in parliament. 

READ MORE: The faces of Myanmar's internally displaced

After the 1962 military coup in Myanmar, things changed dramatically for the Rohingya. All citizens were
required to obtain national registration cards. The Rohingya, however, were only given foreign identity cards,
which limited the jobs and educational opportunities they could pursue and obtain.

In 1982, a new citizenship law was passed, which effectively rendered the Rohingya stateless. Under the law,
Rohingya were again not recognised as one of the country's 135 ethnic groups. The law established three
levels of citizenship. In order to obtain the most basic level (naturalised citizenship), there must be proof that
the person's family lived in Myanmar prior to 1948, as well as fluency in one of the national languages. Many
Rohingya lack such paperwork because it was either unavailable or denied to them.

As a result of the law, their rights to study, work, travel, marry, practice their religion and access health
services have been and continue to be restricted. The Rohingya cannot vote and even if they jump through
the citizenship test hoops, they have to identify as "naturalised" as opposed to Rohingya, and limits are
placed on them entering certain professions like medicine, law or running for office.

Since the 1970s, a number of crackdowns on the Rohingya in Rakhine State have forced hundreds of
thousands to flee to neighbouring Bangladesh, as well as Malaysia, Thailand and other Southeast Asian
countries. During such crackdowns, refugees have often reported rape, torture, arson and murder by
Myanmar security forces.

IN PICTURES: Rohingya: Chased from Myanmar, unwelcome in Bangladesh

After the killings of nine border police in October 2016, troops started pouring into villages in Rakhine State.
The government blamed what it called fighters from an armed Rohingya group. The killings led to a security
crackdown on villages where Rohingya lived. During the crackdown, government troops were accused of an
array of human rights abuses, including extrajudicial killing, rape and arson - allegations the government
denied.

In November 2016, a UN official accused the government of carrying out "ethnic cleansing" of Rohingya
Muslims. It was not the first time such an accusation has been made.

In April 2013, for example, HRW said Myanmar was conducting a campaign of ethnic cleansing against the
Rohingya. The government has consistently denied such accusations.

Most recently, Myanmar's military has imposed a crackdown on the country's Rohingya population after
police posts and an army base were attacked in late August.

Residents and activists have described scenes of troops firing indiscriminately at unarmed Rohingya men,
women and children. The government, however, has said nearly 100 people were killed after armed men
from the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA) launched a raid on police outposts in the region.

Since the violence erupted, rights groups have documented fires burning in at least 10 areas of Myanmar's
Rakhine State. More than 50,000 people have fled the violence, with thousands trapped in a no-man's land
between the two countries. 
According to the UN, hundreds of civilians who
have tried to enter Bangladesh have been pushed
back by patrols. Many have also been detained and
forcibly returned to Myanmar. 

Members of Bangladesh's border guards gesture towards


Rohingya stranded in the no man's land between the
Myanmar and Bangladesh borders [Mohammad Ponir
Hossain/Reuters]

How many Rohingya have fled Myanmar and where have they gone?

Since the late 1970s, nearly one million Rohingya Muslims have fled Myanmar due to widespread
persecution.

According to the most recently available data from the United Nations in May, more than 168,000 Rohingya
have fled Myanmar since 2012.

Following violence that broke out last year, more than 87,000 Rohingya fled to Bangladesh from October
2016 to July 2017, according to the International Organization for Migration. 

WATCH: Fresh violence forces 18,000 Rohingya to cross into Bangladesh (2:40)

Many Rohingya also risked their lives trying to get to Malaysia by boat across the Bay of Bengal and the
Andaman Sea. Between 2012 and 2015, more than 112,000 made the dangerous journey.

The UN estimated that there are as many as 420,000 Rohingya refugees in Southeast Asia. Additionally,
there are around 120,000 internally displaced Rohingya.

The violence in Myanmar's northwest that began in late August has forced around 58,000 Rohingya to flee
across the border into Bangladesh, while another 10,000 are stranded in no-man's land between the two
countries, Reuters reported, citing UN sources.

 
What do Aung San Suu Kyi and the Myanmar government say about the Rohingya?
State Chancellor Aung San Suu Kyi, who is the de facto leader of Myanmar, has refused to really discuss the
plight of the Rohingya.

Aung San Suu Kyi and her government do not recognise the Rohingya as an ethnic group and have blamed
violence in Rakhine, and subsequent military crackdowns, on those they call “terrorists".

The Nobel Peace Prize laureate does not have control over the military but has been criticised for her failure
to condemn indiscriminate force used by troops, as well as to stand up for the rights of the more than one
million Rohingya in Myanmar.

OPINION: Aung San Suu Kyi's inexcusable silence

The government has also repeatedly rejected accusations of abuses. In February 2017, the UN published a
report that found that government troops "very likely" committed crimes against humanity  since renewed
military crackdowns began in October 2016.

At the time, the government did not directly address the findings of the report and said it had the "the right
to defend the country by lawful means" against "increasing terrorist activities", adding that a domestic
investigation was enough.

In April, however, Aung San Suu Kyi said in a rare interview with the BBC that the phrase "ethnic cleansing"
was "too strong" a term to describe the situation in Rakhine.
"I don't think there is ethnic cleansing going on," she said. "I think ethnic cleansing is too strong an
expression to use for what is happening.”
WATCH: Will Myanmar heed advocacy for Rohingya rights? (24:35)

In September 2016, Aung San Suu Kyi entrusted


former UN chief Kofi Annan with finding ways to
heal the long-standing divisions in the region. While
many welcomed the commission and its findings,
which were released this August, Azeem Ibrahim, a
senior fellow at the Center for Global Policy, argued
it was just a way for Aung San Suu Kyi to "pacify the
global public opinion and try to demonstrate to the
international community that she is doing what she
can to resolve the issue”.

Annan was not given the mandate to investigate


specific cases of human rights abuses, but rather one
for long-term economic development, education and
healthcare.

When setting up the commission, Aung San Suu Kyi's government said it would abide by its findings. The
commission urged the government to end the highly militarised crackdown on neighbourhoods where
Rohingya live, as well as scrap restrictions on movement and citizenship.

Following the release of the August report, the government welcomed the commission's
recommendations  and said it would give the report "full consideration with the view to carrying out the
recommendations to the fullest extent ... in line with the situation on the ground". 

The government has often restricted access to northern Rakhine States for journalists and aid workers. Aung
San Suu Kyi's office has also accused aid groups of helping those it considers to be “terrorists".

OPINION: Myanmar needs to get serious about peace

In January, Yanghee Lee, a UN special rapporteur on human rights in Myanmar, said she was denied access
to certain parts of Rakhine and was only allowed to speak to Rohingya who had been pre-approved by the
government. 

The country has also denied visas to members

of a UN probe investigating the violence and alleged abuses in Rakhine.

What does Bangladesh say about the Rohingya?

There are nearly half a million Rohingya refugees living in mostly makeshift camps in Bangladesh. The
majority remain unregistered.

Bangladesh considers most of those who have crossed its borders and are living outside of camps as having
"illegally infiltrated" the country. Bangladesh has often tried to prevent Rohingya refugees from crossing its
border. 

OPINION: Regional actors should take a stand against Myanmar

In late January, the country resurrected a plan to relocate tens of thousands of Rohingya refugees from
Myanmar to a remote island that is prone to flooding and has also been called "uninhabitable" by rights
groups. Under the plan, which was originally introduced in 2015, authorities would move undocumented
Myanmar nationals to Thengar Char in the Bay of Bengal.

Rights groups have decried the proposal, saying the island completely floods during monsoon season. The
UN also called the forced relocation "very complex and controversial”.

Most recently, the government in Bangladesh has reportedly proposed a joint military operation in Rakhine
to aid Myanmar's battle against armed fighters in the area. The foreign ministry has also expressed fear that
the renewed violence will cause a new influx of refugees to cross its border.

Rohingya children cross the Bangladesh-Myanmar border fence as they try to enter Bangladesh in
Bandarban [Mohammad Ponir Hossain/Reuters]
What does the international community say about the Rohingya?

The international community has labelled the Rohingya the "most persecuted minority in the world”.

The UN, as well as several rights groups such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch, have
consistently decried the treatment of the Rohingya by Myanmar and neighbouring countries.

The UN has said that it is "very likely" that the military committed grave human rights abuses in Rakhine
that may amount to war crimes, allegations the government denies.

OPINION: Only international pressure can save Rohingya now

In March, the UN adopted a resolution to set up an independent, international mission to investigate the
alleged abuses. It stopped short of calling for a Commission of Inquiry, the UN's highest level of
investigation.
The UN investigators must provide a verbal update in September and a full report next year on their findings.
Rights groups have criticised the government's reluctance to accept the UN investigators.
Human Rights Watch warned that Myanmar's government risked getting bracketed with "pariah states" like
North Korea and Syria if it did not allow the UN to investigate alleged crimes.

READ MORE: Myanmar - UN probe 'can only aggravate' Rakhine tension

Most recently, UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres said he was "deeply concerned"  about the ongoing
violence in Rakhine.
"This turn of events is deplorable," the UN human rights chief Zeid Ra'ad al Hussein said. "It was predicted
and could have been prevented," said Hussain, adding that "decades of persistent and systematic human
rights violations, including the very violent security responses to the attacks since October 2016, have almost
certainly contributed to the nurturing of violent extremism, with everyone ultimately losing."
Both UN officials said they completely supported the findings of the advisory commission, led by Kofi Annan,
and urged the government to fulfil its recommendations.
OPINION: The Rohingya crisis and the role of the OIC

What is the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army?

The Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA), formerly known as the al-Yaqeen Faith Movement, released a
statement under its new name in March 2017, saying it was obligated to "defend, salvage and protect [the]
Rohingya community”.

The group said it would do so "with our best capacities as we have the legitimate right under international
law to defend ourselves in line with the principle of self defence”.

The group is considered a "terrorist" organisation by the Myanmar government. 


In its March statement, the ARSA added that it does "not associate with any terrorist group across the world"
and does "not commit any form of terrorism against any civilian[s] regardless of their religious and ethnic
origin”.

The statement also said: "We […] declare loud and clear that our defensive attacks have only been aimed at
the oppressive Burmese regime in accordance with international norms and principles until our demands are
fulfilled.”

The group has claimed responsibility for an attack on police posts and an army base in Rakhine State.
According to the government nearly 400 people were killed, the majority of whom were members of the
ARSA. Rights groups, however, say hundreds of civilians have been killed by security forces. 

Rights group Fortify Rights said it has documented that fighters with the ARSA "are also accused of killing
civilians - suspected government 'informants' - in recent days and months, as well as preventing men and
boys from flee Maungdaw Township". 

According to the International Crisis group, the ARSA has ties to Rohingya living in Saudi Arabia.
The Myanmar government formally categorised the group as a "terrorist" organisation on August 25.

S o u r c e :  A l J a z e e r a :http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2017/08/rohingya-
muslims-170831065142812.html
The Truth About Myanmar’s Rohingya Issue
It is much more complex than is often portrayed by some.

By Jasmine Chia: March 05, 2016

This article is part of “Southeast Asia:


Refugees in Crisis,” an ongoing series by The
Diplomat featuring exclusive articles from
scholars and practitioners tackling Southeast
Asia’s ongoing refugee crisis. All articles in the
series can be found here.

After over 50 years of military rule, Myanmar is finally


making the long-awaited transition to elected
government. Its second liberation is brought about by
Aung San Suu Kyi, the head of the opposition National
League for Democracy (NLD) and the daughter of Aung
San, the man who is known for engineering Myanmar’s
first liberation from the British. Yet, as foreign media
converges on the nation, coverage in recent months has
been focused on one issue: the Rohingya.

Nicholas Kristoff’s recent article in The New York Times begins: “Soon the world will witness a remarkable sight: a
beloved Nobel Peace Prize winner presiding over 21st-century concentration camps.” Tens of thousands of Rohingya
have been forcibly confined in deplorable conditions in Sittwe, whilst there is evidence that the ethnic cleansing
perpetrated under the military government amounts to genocide. In May 2015, stranded Rohingya off the coast of
Thailand elicited humanitarian outrage from the international community. Ever since, foreign commentators have called
for an end to what appears to be government inaction or lack of accountability for extreme human rights abuses in
Rakhine state.

But international attention directed at the issue – meant to hold the government accountable –may have in fact
inadvertently played a role in exacerbating tensions between the Rohingya and the Rakhine Burmese. Increasing
resentment is bred within the Rakhine Buddhist community, who believe the situation has been mischaracterized.

In most cases the situation has been mischaracterized. Rakhine history expert Jacques P. Leider may have put it best
in his analysis Rohingya: The Name, The Movement, The Quest for Identity. “By narrowing the debate on the
Rohingyas to the legal and humanitarian aspects, editorialists around the world have taken an easy approach
towards a complicated issue… where issues like ethnicity, history, and cultural identity are key ingredients of
legitimacy,” Leider states.

In even a cursory survey of Rohingya history, it is clear that the Rohingya are not an ethnic, but rather a political
construction. There is evidence that Muslims have been living in Rakhine state (at the time under the Arakan
kingdom) since the 9th century, but a significant number of Muslims from across the bay of Bengal (at the time a
part of India, now Bangladesh) immigrated to British Burma with the colonialists in the 20th century. They are, as
defined by Benedict Rogers (himself a prominent critic of the military regime’s persecution), “Muslims of Bengali
ethnic origin.” The group referred to as “Rohingya” by contemporary Rohingya scholars (and most of the
international community) today actually display huge diversity of ethnic origins and social backgrounds, and, as
Leider argues, the existence of a “single identity” is difficult to pinpoint.

This is not to deny the Rohingya’s claims for citizenship. This is, however, to point out that claims to legitimacy are
much more complicated than is currently understood. As one diplomat told me: “On all issues, the people of Myanmar
are with you. But on the Rohingya issue, the people will never be with you.” What is at the heart of this huge gap
between perspectives of the majority of Burmese and the international community, and how does this inform making
progress on alleviating the genuine humanitarian crisis facing the Rakhine Muslims in Sittwe?

At stake are issues of legitimacy. The international community’s use of the term ‘Rohingya’ validates the narrative of
essentializing a Muslim identity in Rakhine state. In the most conservative terms, we can say that scholars of Rohingya
history have not understood this to conclusively be the case. Yet, the lack of nuance with which the international
community has approached very important issues of legitimacy has contributed to a sense that Rakhine Buddhists are
misunderstood, and besieged. On the other side of the political tension in Rakhine state, as shown by Schissler, Walton
and Phyu Thi’s “listening project” in this series, are Rakhine Buddhists who are genuinely afraid of a (false) Muslim
takeover.

Myanmar remains a rumor driven society. In Kyaw Yin Hlaing’s analysis of Buddhist misapprehension of Muslim
Burmese, surveys were conducted in seven cities in Myanmar, with 500 participants in total. It is clear that anti-Muslim
propaganda has become part of regular nationalist discourse. Of the survey respondents, 85 percent cited fear of
Muslims turning the country Islamic as the main reason for their dislike of Muslims. In Rakhine state, this discourse is
repeated and amplified due to the outbreaks of communal violence.

Yet, in New York Times coverage of the tensions between Muslim and Buddhist Burmese, very few Rakhine Buddhist
voices were heard. When asked why, Kristoff replies, “The problem is the trade-offs with length… we didn’t want to
exceed 10 minutes for fear of losing viewers.” This careless portrayal of the Rohingya’s claims to legitimacy is not just
a matter of academic nit-picking. It has real implications for humanitarian aid.

Just after the May 2015 boat crisis, there were large protests in Sittwe – largely ignored by the rest of the world – by
Rakhine Buddhists protesting misrepresentation of the situation in Sittwe, with protestors carrying signs like “No UN,
No INGOs [international non-governmental organizations].” Protests like this (of which there have been many) are
aimed at the international community, from media to INGOs, and often lead to increased violence in their aftermath.
This makes it more difficult for these INGOs, as well as local NGOs, to deliver humanitarian aid to those in Rakhine
state.

For Aung San Suu Kyi to retain legitimacy where it matters most, it is understandable that she is not outspoken on an
issue that could spark even more violence. As mentioned before, this is not simply a case of the military government
leaving Rakhine state. The NLD must aim to resolve this crisis peacefully, which means cooperating not only with
Rakhine Muslims but also Rakhine Buddhists.

For a Buddhist, Burman-majority nation like Myanmar, it is difficult for Aung San Suu Kyi to portray herself as a
neutral arbiter. Especially in Rakhine state, where most official positions are held by Rakhine Buddhists, it is important
that she be seen as someone understanding to their plight – and therefore someone who can negotiate with them to
potentially seek a humanitarian alternative to the concentration camps of Sittwe. As Aung San Suu Kyi says herself, “If
you want to bring an end to long-standing conflict, you have to be prepared to compromise.”

If she loses legitimacy with them, not only will future negotiations on the Rohingya be closed off to her and the NLD,
but the peace process itself will come under fire for her seeming partisanship, and with it, the entire process of building
Myanmar’s democracy. What happens in Rakhine state will be watched by the rest of the world, but it will be felt most
acutely in Myanmar.

It is important that the international community tread more carefully in their currently unbridled calls for awareness
about the Rohingya issue. The Myanmar people are not unaware that the Muslim minority of Rakhine state are being
mistreated. Aung San Suu Kyi and the NLD, deep in negotiations on the peace process, are being constantly reminded
of the importance of granting appropriate rights to ethnic nationalities in Myanmar. Myanmar will not be built in a day,
nor will the camps in Sittwe be torn down in a day. The fact that lives are on the line makes it all the more important
that we channel efforts intelligently.

Jasmine Chia is a student at Harvard University and one of the organizers of the Refugees in Crisis series. This article
was written following research recently conducted in Yangon and Rakhine State.

Ref:http://thediplomat.com/2016/03/the-truth-about-myanmars-rohingya-issue/
Rakhine Terrorists Attacks
FATA
GTD COUNTR PERPETRATOR INJU TARGET WEAPON
DATE CITY LITI REGION ATTACK TYPE
ID Y GROUP RED TYPE TYPE
ES
201612 Unkn Government Southeast Hostage Taking
2016-12-29 Myanmar Kwazone Unknown 1 Melee,Melee
290042 own (General) Asia (Kidnapping)
201612 Rohingya extremists Government Southeast
2016-12-26 Myanmar Maungdaw 1 0 Armed Assault Melee
260018 (suspected) (General) Asia
201612 Government Southeast Hostage Taking
2016-12-24 Myanmar Yedwingyun Rohingya extremists 1 0 Melee
240012 (General) Asia (Kidnapping)
201612 Private Citizens Southeast Hostage Taking
2016-12-22 Myanmar Unknown Rohingya extremists 1 0 Melee
220009 & Property Asia (Kidnapping)
Facility/
201611 Government Southeast
2016-11-26 Myanmar Kyaukpandu Unknown 0 0 Infrastructure Incendiary
260048 (General) Asia
Attack
Explosives/
201611 Southeast Bombing/
2016-11-16 Myanmar Maungdaw Unknown 0 0 Unknown Bombs/
160052 Asia Explosion
Dynamite
Explosives/
201611 Southeast Bombing/
2016-11-12 Myanmar Maunghnama Rohingya extremists 0 0 Police Bombs/
120071 Asia Explosion
Dynamite
Facility/
201611 Educational Southeast
2016-11-12 Myanmar Myinlut Rohingya extremists 0 0 Infrastructure Incendiary
120070 Institution Asia
Attack
Facility/
201611 Southeast
2016-11-12 Myanmar Myinlut Rohingya extremists 0 0 Police Infrastructure Incendiary
120069 Asia
Attack
Facility/
201611 Southeast
2016-11-12 Myanmar Ngakura Rohingya extremists 0 0 Business Infrastructure Incendiary
120068 Asia
Attack
Facility/
201611 Private Citizens Southeast
2016-11-12 Myanmar Warpate Rohingya extremists 0 0 Infrastructure Incendiary
120066 & Property Asia
Attack
Facility/
201611 Private Citizens Southeast
2016-11-12 Myanmar Maihtaung Rohingya extremists 0 0 Infrastructure Incendiary
120065 & Property Asia
Attack
Facility/
201611 Private Citizens Southeast
2016-11-12 Myanmar Dargyisar Rohingya extremists 0 0 Infrastructure Incendiary
120064 & Property Asia
Attack
Facility/
201611 Private Citizens Southeast
2016-11-12 Myanmar Gwason Rohingya extremists 0 0 Infrastructure Incendiary
120063 & Property Asia
Attack
Facility/
201611 Private Citizens Southeast
2016-11-12 Myanmar Pwintphyuchang Rohingya extremists 0 0 Infrastructure Incendiary
120062 & Property Asia
Attack
201611 Southeast Firearms,Mele
2016-11-12 Myanmar Maihtung Rohingya extremists 7 0 Military Armed Assault
120061 Asia e
Facility/
201611 Educational Southeast
2016-11-07 Myanmar Myinlut Rohingya extremists 0 0 Infrastructure Incendiary
070054 Institution Asia
Attack
201611 Southeast
2016-11-03 Myanmar Alnurular Unknown 1 1 Police Armed Assault Firearms
030060 Asia
201610 Maungdaw Southeast
2016-10-15 Myanmar Unknown 3 0 Police Armed Assault Melee
150017 district Asia
Armed
Police,Private
201610 Maungdaw Southeast Assault,Facility/ Firearms,Ince
2016-10-12 Myanmar Unknown 0 0 Citizens &
120026 district Asia Infrastructure ndiary
Property
Attack
201610 Maungdaw Southeast Firearms,Mele
2016-10-12 Myanmar Unknown 10 0 Military Armed Assault
120025 district Asia e,Melee
201610 Maungdaw Muslim extremists Southeast Firearms,Mele
2016-10-11 Myanmar 5 1 Military Armed Assault
110061 district (suspected) Asia e
Al-Yakin
Explosives/
Mujahidin,Rohingya Bombing/
201610 Unkn Southeast Bombs/
2016-10-09 Myanmar Buthidaung Solidarity 9 Police Explosion,Armed
090029 own Asia Dynamite,Fire