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# There are 24 homomorphisms onto Z6 as in Exercise 3b.

## c. There are no homomorphisms onto S3, because the homomorphic image of an

abelian group must
be abelian, and S3 is not abelian.
7. The definition is correct.
8. The definition is incorrect. The group must be free on the set of generators.
The rank of a free group G is the number of elements in a generating set A such that G
is free
on A.
9. Our reaction to these instances was given in the text. You have to give your reaction.
10. T F F T F F F T F T
11. a. We have 3(2) + 2(3) = 0 but 3(2) 6= 0 and 2(3) 6= 0. A basis for Z4 is {1}.
b. We see that {1} is a basis for Z6 because the group is cyclic with generator 1, and
because m1 = 0
if and only if m1 = 0.
If m12+m23 = 0 in Z6, then in Z, we know that 6 divides m12+m23. Thus 3 divides
m12+m23,
and hence 3 divides m12. Because 3 is prime and does not divide 2, it must be that 3
divides m1.
Thus 6 divides m12 in Z, so m12 = 0 in Z6. A similar argument starting with the fact that
2 divides
m12 + m23 shows that m23 = 0 in Z6. Thus {2, 3} is a basis for Z6.
132 39. Free Groups
c. Yes it is, for if xi is an element of a basis of a free abelian group, then nixi = 0 if and
only if
ni = 0, so we stated the “independence condition” in that form there.
d. By Theorem 38.12, a finite abelian group G is isomorphic to a direct product
Zm1×Zm2×· · ·×Zmr
where mi divides mi+1 for i = 1, 2, · · · , r − 1. Let bi be the element of this direct product
having 1
in the ith component and 0 in the other components. The computation by components
in a direct
product shows at once that {b1, b2, · · · , br} is a basis, and because the order of each
bi is mi, we see
that the orders have the desired divisibility property.
12. a. We proceed as suggested by the hint, and use the notation given there. Let x 2
G_
1 . Because _1
is onto, we have x = _1(y) for some y 2 G. Then _2(x) = _2_1(y) = _2(y) and _1_2(x) =
_1_2(y) =
_1(y) = x. In a similar fashion, starting with z 2 G_
2 , we can show that _2_1(z) = z. Thus both _1_2
and _2_1 are identity maps. Because _2_1 is the identity, _2 must be an onto map and
_1 must be one
to one. Because _1_2 is the identity, _1 is an onto map and _2 is one to one. Thus both
_1 and _2 are
one to one and onto, and hence are isomorphisms. Thus G _
1 and G _
2 are isomorphic groups.
b. Let C be the commutator subgroup of G and let _ : G ! G/C be the canonical
homomorphism
(which we have usually called ). Let : G ! G0 be a homomorphism of G into an abelian
group
G0. Then the kernel K of contains C by Theorem 15.20. Let _ : G/C ! G0 be defined by
_(aC) = (a) for aC 2 G/C. Now _ is well defined, for if bC = aC, then b = ac for some c
2C
and _(bC) = (b) = (ac) = (a) (c) = (a)e0 = (a) because C is contained in the kernel K
of .
Now _((aC)(bC)) = _((ab)C) = (ab) = (a) (b) = _(aC)_(bC), so _ is a homomorphism.
Finally,
for a 2 G, we have _(_(a)) = _(aC) = (a), so __ = , which is the desired factorization.
Thus
G_ = G/C is a blip group of G.
c. A blip group of G is isomorphic to the abelianized version of G, that is, to G modulo
its commutator
subgroup.
13. a. Consider the blop group G1 on S and let G0 be the free group F[S], with f : S !
F[S] given by
f(s) = s for s 2 S. Because f is one to one and f = _f g1, we see that g1 must be one to
one. By a
similar argument, g2 must be one to one.
To see that g1[S] generates G1, we take G0 = G1 and let f(s) = g1(s) for all s 2 S. Clearly
the
identity map _ : G1 ! G1 is a homomorphism and f(s) = g1(s) = _(g1(s)) = (_g1)(s), so f =
_g1, and
the unique homomorphism _f mapping G1 into G1 is _. Let H1 be the subgroup of G1
generated by
g1[S]. Thinking of H1 as G0 for a moment, we see that by hypothesis, there exists a
homomorphism,
_H1 : G1 ! H1 and satisfying f = _H1g1. Now _H1 also maps G1 into G1, and can also serve
as
the required homomorphism _f for the case where G0 = G1. By the uniqueness of _f , we
see that
_H1 = _. Because _H1 [G1] = H1 and _[G1] = G1, this can only be the case if H1 = G1.
Therefore
g1[S] generates G1, and of course changing subscripts from 1 to 2 shows that g2[S]
generates G2.
Taking G0 = G2 and f = g2, we obtain a homomorphism _g2 : G1 ! G2 such that _g2g1 = g2.
Taking G0 = G1 and f = g1, we obtain a homomorphism _g1 : G2 ! G1 such that _g1g2 = g1.
Then
for s 2 S, we have _g1_g2g1(s) = _g1g2(s) = g1(s). Thus _g1_g2 is a homomorphism
mapping G1 into
itself and acts as the identity on a generating set g1[S] of G1, so it is the identity map of
G1 onto G1.
By a symmetric argument, _g2_g1 is the identity map of G2 onto G2. As in Exercise 12,
we conclude
that _g1 and _g2 are isomorphisms, so that G1 ' G2.
b. Let G = F[S], the free group on S, and let g : S ! G be defined by g(s) = s for all s 2 S.
Let a
group G0 and a function f : S ! G0 be given. Let _f : G ! G0 be the unique homomorphism
given
by Theorem 39.12 such that _f (s) = f(s). Then _f g(s) = _f (s) = f(s) for all s 2 S, so _f g =
f.
c. A blop group on S is isomorphic to the free group F[S] on S.
40. Group Presentations 133
14. The characterization is just like that in Exercise 13 with the requirement that both G
and G0 be
abelian groups.
40. Group Presentations
1. Three presentations of Z4 are (a : a4 = 1),
(a, b : a4 = 1, b = a2), and (a, b, c : a = 1, b4 = 1, c = a).
2. Thinking of a = _1, b = μ1, and c = _2, we obtain the presentation (a, b, c : a3 = 1, b2 =
1, c =
a2, ba = cb). Starting with this presentation,the relations can be used to express every
word in one of
the forms 1, a, b, a2, ab, or a2b, so a group with this presentation has at most 6
elements. Because the
relations are satisfied by S3, we know it must be a presentation of a group isomorphic
to S3. (Many