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The Interaction of Gas and Electricity hybrid Energy

Zijuan Yang, Ciwei Gao Jing Zhang
School of Electrical Engineering China Electric Power Research Institute Co.,Ltd
Southeast University Beijing, China
Jiangsu, China

Abstract—This paper studies the interaction of electric power also studied the impact of natural-gas pipeline outages in the
system and natural-gas hybrid energy internet. The indirect natural gas-fired generating units which the total installed
effects of wind power fluctuation on the natural-gas system are capacity mushroomed. It will have a higher chance of natural-
studied through the conduction of power-to-hydrogen. Hydrogen gas flow congestion when the other gas load and electricity
produced by electrolytic water can reduce the demand for natural generation would surge simultaneously. The minimum
gas. The power system is sensitive to fluctuations in energy prices generation of some units probably cannot be sustained when
from the results of the study, but the influence of wind power there is a natural-gas shortage. Supplying additional gas reserves
fluctuation on the natural-gas network is not obvious through the to the self-owned gas storage by power plants can improve the
transmission of the electrolytic water device. A modified IEEE 14-
security and economics of constrained power systems. Through
bus with 20 nodes natural gas system is presented for analyzing
the gas/electric interaction.
the power-to-gas (PtG) process, using renewable electricity to
generate hydrogen or synthetic natural gas can provide a
Keywords—wind power, natural gas system, power-to-gas, seasonal gas storage resource [5].
energy price The increasing proportion of wind power will affect the
safety, reliability and efficiency of power system operation.
I. INTRODUCTION There are major deviations from wind power forecasting,
Gas-fired combined-cycle power plants have mushroomed resulting in penalties in the electricity market. It also will be very
in the last decade due to their characteristics of lower investment promising to use the water electrolysis to control the deviation
cost, high-efficiency, and operation flexibility. The conversion of the wind-power generation if this punishment is increased in
of polluting fossil fuel-burning generations to natural gas will the future. It yields a higher load factor in the combination
greatly diminish air pollution and strength sustainable system with wind power plant and hydrogen storage than a
development in industry and agriculture in a long run. There is conventional setting [6].
another dimension to this problem, which provides a close Water electrolysis device can operate as the power load
connection between natural-gas system and electric power during the off-peak period. In order to compete economically
system. The two systems affect each other more and more years with other sources of hydrogen energy, low power costs are
after year. necessary. Hydrogen can also be combined with renewable
The natural-gas price requires a competitive edge with energy as a means of energy storage when power production is
respect to those of alternative fossil fuels. Otherwise, the market intermittent and transmission are limited. It can promote the use
could switch from generating plants, which utilize natural gas to of renewable energy for the power generation and transportation
those with lower cost fuels. However, the gas and electricity industry [7].
interdependency could inevitably lead to another new electric This paper focuses on the interaction between the electricity
supply risk on a significantly large scale associated with the system and the natural-gas system. After this introduction,
security of natural-gas system infrastructure. The consequence energy system involving natural gas load distribution, P2G
of gas system failures was evaluated, fluctuations in gas and plants and the possible mutual effect are presented in SectionΠ.
electricity prices, and power generation scheduling constraints Optimization modeling of coupled system is developed in
on electricity market operations were also studied on the short- Section Ⅲ. In Section Ⅳ, the presented model is demonstrated
term operation of gas/electric gas/electric gas/electric composite in cases. Finally, Section Ⅴ concludes this paper.
system in [1]. The influence of gas and transmission grids cannot
be neglected [2]. The approach presented in [3] aims at a general
modeling and optimization framework for energy systems,
including electricity, natural gas and thermal power. It can
A. Natural-Gas Load Distribution
improve the efficiency of energy utilization. An integrated
model for short-term security-constrained unit commitment with The natural-gas consumption can be divided into four main
natural-gas transmission constraints was proposed in [4]. categories, including industrial fuel accounted for 38.2%, urban
Bender's decomposition is applied to avoid the computational gas consumption accounted for 32.5%, accounting for 14.7% of
complexity when solving large-scale optimization problems. It power consumption, chemical gas accounted for 14.6% in China.

Sponsored by China Electric Power Research Institute Co., Ltd research

project “Research on the standard system of global energy Internet”.
The gas primarily used in power generation is consumed by The key point of this research is to analyze the influence of
variable load plants and distributed energy. Chemical gas is hydrogen on the gas network and the influence of gas price on
principally used by chemical industry chain, which uses the power grid.
common gas as raw material to produce synthetic ammonia,
methanol, hydrogen, hydrofluoric acid, etc. We can use B. Modle of Electricity System
electrolytic water to produce hydrogen to reduce the demand of
standard gas.

B. P2G Plants PGi − PDi − Vi ∑ V j (Gij cosθij + Bij s inθij ) =0 
The power-to-gas (PtG) plants can covert surplus electricity j =1 
into natural gas or hydrogen, which can be used in industry n  (i ∈ S B ) (3)
production or injected into the natural-gas pipelines or gas iQGi − QDi + Vi ∑ V j (Gij s inθij − Bij cosθij ) =0
storages that can improve the efficiency through the use of j =1
natural-gas infrastructure and avoid the increase in sunk costs.
It emphatically studies the impact of power-to-hydrogen on
the power grid and natural-gas network in this paper since there PGi ≤ PGi ≤ PGi ∀i ∈ SG (4)
is energy loss in conversion unavoidably, and the investment
and installation cost of the PtG is higher at present. The
electrolysis stack accounts generally for 50–60 % of the total QGi ≤ QGi ≤ QGi ∀i ∈ S R (5)
PtG system costs. Electricity price is the key factor affecting its
operating profit. When the price is free, the influence of
hydrogen generated by excess wind power on the natural-gas Vi ≤ Vi ≤ Vi ∀i ∈ S B (6)
system can be discussed.
−rdGi ∆t ≤ PGit − PGi (t −1) ≤ ruGi ∆t (7)
C. Mutual Effect
The economic benefits from hydrogen produced by surplus 𝑆𝑆𝐵𝐵 , 𝑆𝑆𝐺𝐺 , 𝑆𝑆𝑅𝑅 represent the set of all nodes, the generator node
wind power can be summarized in some aspects as follows[8]. set, and the reactive power set. These two parameters 𝑟𝑟𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 and
1) Increase the load factor on the wind farm:A hydrogen 𝑟𝑟𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢 are the speed limits of load reduction and load increasing of
storage owner can produce hydrogen using surplus wind power the generation unit 𝑖𝑖 during the scheduling period 𝑡𝑡 . Other
when the wind farm is disconnected from the electricity grid, formula symbols are the same as those of classical power system
e.g. due to transmission congestion, fossil fuels cannot rapidly
reduce output or shut down. A simple linear demand function can be introduced as
2) Improve the competitiveness of gas turbine: Power-to- follows [9].
hydrogen can indirectly reduce natural-gas demand used to
produce hydrogen. Especially in the peak demand of natural
PeL PeLmax − R( PeLmax / Rmax ) (8)
gas, it reduces the risk of insufficient gas for gas-generation.
3) Provide ancillary services to the system: PtG can be
It can be obtained the inverse demand function from (5).
used as the demand response to consume the power output of
coal-fired plants, which cannot be rapidly cut down.
R Rmax − KPeL (9)

A. Objection function Rmax

K= (10)
min fE ∑ CGi (i ∈ SG ) (1)
i 𝑃𝑃𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 is the power load, and its maximum value is 𝑃𝑃𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 .
𝑅𝑅𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 is the upper limit value of the electricity price, and 𝑅𝑅 is the
where, 𝐶𝐶𝐺𝐺𝐺𝐺 is the cost function of gas-turbine generation. spot price. In order to simplify the practical application, the
marginal unit cost is taken as the equilibrium price of the
electricity market.
max IP=
gas Prgas Lgas − ∑ cg s g (2)
The fuel consumption characteristic function of gas power
g ∈N s
plant can be expressed as
𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔 is the total profit of natural gas system which is the
difference between gas sales income and gas purchasing cost. FGi (=
PGi ) ai PGi2 + bi PGi + ci i ∈ SG (11)
𝐿𝐿𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔 is the total gas load. 𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔 is the gas sale price. 𝑆𝑆𝑔𝑔 is the
net gas supply and 𝑐𝑐𝑔𝑔 is the gas purchasing price.
where, 𝐹𝐹𝐺𝐺𝐺𝐺 (𝑃𝑃𝐺𝐺𝐺𝐺 ) is the amount of natural gas consumed by gas 1
turbine power generation 𝑃𝑃𝐺𝐺𝐺𝐺 . 𝑎𝑎𝑖𝑖 , 𝑏𝑏𝑖𝑖 and 𝑐𝑐𝑖𝑖 are the corresponding λgk = (17)
3.7 Dgk
fitting coefficients. 𝑆𝑆𝐺𝐺 is the generator set. (2log ( )) 2

The generation costs of gas power plant can be expressed as
𝐴𝐴𝑝𝑝 represents a pipeline without a compressor, while 𝐴𝐴𝑎𝑎
CGi ( PGi ) = FGi ( PGi ) * Prgas (12) represents a pipeline with a compressor. The parameter 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔
represents the flow direction of natural gas in pipelines. 𝐷𝐷𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔 is
interior diameter of the pipeline, and 𝐿𝐿𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔 is length of it. 𝑇𝑇, 𝑧𝑧,
Before generation, the gas turbine needs to predict the power
𝛿𝛿 , ∈ represent gas temperature, gas compressibility factor,
generation status and purchase the natural gas.
density of the gas relative to air, absolute rugosity of pipe
C. Modle of Natural Gas System In addition, it also needs to satisfy the following inequality
constraints. 𝑁𝑁𝑠𝑠 and 𝑁𝑁𝑎𝑎 are respectively gas source node set and
all node set.
sg sk
fgk sg ≤ sg ≤ sg ∀g ∈ N s
g k (18)
pg pk
o pg ≤ pg ≤ pg ∀g ∈ N a (19)
h l
Lower and upper limits of 𝑠𝑠𝑔𝑔 and 𝑝𝑝𝑔𝑔 are defined in 𝑠𝑠𝑔𝑔 , 𝑝𝑝𝑔𝑔
Lg.h=-sh Lg.l=-sl Lg.o=-so and 𝑝𝑝𝑔𝑔 , 𝑠𝑠𝑔𝑔 , respectively.
The mathematical model of the market price of natural gas
Fig. 1. The schematic of natural gas network. will be formed:

Gas network nodes such as 𝑔𝑔 and 𝑘𝑘 connect through natural

gas pipelines which flow through natural gas 𝑓𝑓𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔 . 𝑆𝑆𝑔𝑔 and 𝑆𝑆𝑘𝑘 are Prgas.t ϑ * Lgas.t + ξ
= (20)
the net gas supply, and 𝑝𝑝𝑔𝑔 and 𝑝𝑝𝑘𝑘 are the pressure of the
corresponding node. In (18), 𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔.𝑡𝑡 is the gas sale price of the natural gas, 𝐿𝐿𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔.𝑡𝑡
Mathematically, the gas flow conservation can be expressed is the corresponding gas load at the same time. The
as follows. mathematical model of the gas price changing with the gas load
is suitable for the occasions where the natural gas supply is
∑ f gk
= ∑ f kg + sg (13) The payoff function for the natural gas system is as follows.
k |( g , k )∈ A k |( k , g )∈ A
IPgas Prgas Lgas − ∑ cg s g (21)
The mathematical relationship between node pressure and g ∈N s
the pipeline flow is as follows.
D. Combined Gas and Electricity Networks Model
=  sign C
gk gk signgk ( p g − pk ) ∀( g , k ) ∈ Ap
2 2 Gas turbines and electrolytic water units are two key
 components in the coupling of power systems and natural-gas
f gk  (14)
 sign gk C gk sign gk ( p 2
g − pk
) ∀( g , k ) ∈ Aa
systems. The gas turbine consumes natural-gas power
generation, and its function relations as shown in equation (9).
Hydrogen generated from the steam reforming of methane
can be replaced by produced from the electrolysis water system.
+1, if pg ≥ pk It can reduce the industrial use of natural-gas demand.
signgk =  (15)
−1, else PsurpE .t = χ * LreducG.t (22)
Dgk 𝑃𝑃𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠.𝑡𝑡 is the power consumed by the electrolysis water
Cgk (96.075 10−15
= )0.5 (16)
λgk zTLgk δ device at time 𝑡𝑡. The parameter χ represents the corresponding
conversion coefficient.
IV. CASE STUDIES indirectly reducing normal gas used for industrial. It can be seen
from Figure 4 that the price of standard gas is rose by the indirect
A. Case System effect of hydrogen. The effect is not obvious. The price with
A modified power system IEEE 14-bus system and a 20- electrolysis is reduced from 3.9449 $/𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀 to 3.7729 $/
node natural system are coupled by the direct action of the gas 𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀.
turbine and the indirect action of the electrolytic water Wind power is greater than all the electricity load in times 1
device[13][14]. It is assumed that bus 1 is coal-fired units, bus 2 to 6. The excess power is consumed by water electrolysis
and 3 are the gas-turbine; bus 6 and 8 are the wind-turbine. The indirectly making natural-gas load demand reduced. This will
total rated power of the wind turbine is 240𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀, and the total lead to natural-gas prices rising, but the effect is also without
of others is 390𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀. The highest power load is 292𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀 at time great distinctness.
The high-power consumption of electrolytic water is the
The historical value of the gas market is from [10][11]. The main cause of this phenomenon. In this regard, in order to
values of ϑ and ξ can be determined as −0.00075$/𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀 2 maintain the continuity of the operation of electrolytic water, the
and 10.05$/𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀 respectively after data fitting. The values of use of paid electricity in the stable period of wind power output
𝑇𝑇, 𝑧𝑧, 𝛿𝛿,∈ are 281.15 𝐾𝐾, 0.8, 0.6106, 0.05 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 respectively is not much economic value.

B. Results and Discussion 6.5

Wind power injected
into power grid

250 Available wind power

Load power



Gas price($/MBtu)


100 4.5


Gas price-not included in gas turbine consumption
Gas price-included in gas turbine consumption
0 5 10 15 20 25

Time(h) 3.5
0 5 10 15 20 25

Fig. 2. The case data of power system.
Fig. 4. Influence of gas turbine power generation on natural gas prices.
The gas turbine consumers ordinary gas directly resulting in
6 obvious effect on the price of ordinary gas. It significantly
decreases with the gas turbine consumed.

Gas price($/MBtu)


Coal fired power(MW)


Gas price-not included in PtG

Gas price-included in PtG

2.5 50
0 5 10 15 20 25


Fig. 3. Indirect influence of electrolysis water device on natural gas price. Coal price is 3.5MBtu/MW
Coal price is 4.5MBtu/MW

Wind power that injected into the grid has certain 0

0 5 10 15 20 25
requirements. The power fluctuation is no more than 25% of the Time(h)
rated power. Power decline is not limited. Wind power suddenly
soars above the power fluctuation limit at time 18 ℎ. The power Fig. 5. Effect of fuel price on power generation.
injected into the grid will decrease in Figure 3. This excess wind
power can produce hydrogen through electrolysis water, thereby
4 The mathematical model of natural-gas prices upon the
demand for change has certain limitations. It is only suitable for
1.8 Coal price is 3.5MBtu/MW natural-gas supply is sufficient period of time. The follow-up
Coal price is 4.5MBtu/MW
study can establish the model between energy demand and price
based on the theory of demand elasticity.
Total power production cost($)


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