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Health & Safety

Anabel Castaneda
HSCI 616
Occupational Health & Safety Topics
California Occupational Fatality Rate
per 100,000 workers
● Timeline 2.4
● Importance 2.2 2.2
● Processes 2.0

● Challenges
○ Vulnerable Populations
● Ergonomics

2013 2014 2015 2016

OSHA's Mission
With the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970,
Congress created the Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA) to assure safe and healthful
working conditions for working men and women by
setting and enforcing standards and by providing
training, outreach, education and assistance.
Timeline of Occupational Health & Safety

1970 Estimated 4,340 workers
Occupational Safety &
Health Administration killed on the job
was established

1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020

1970-2009 (39 years):

● U.S. employment almost doubled (includes over 130 million workers at
Estimated that around over 7.2 million worksites)
14,000 workers were ● Serious workplace injuries/illnesses declined from 11% in 1972 to 3.6%
killed on the job in 2009
Why Care?
14 deaths per day
5,190 workers were killed on the job in 2016.
On average, that is more than 99 deaths per week
or more than 14 deaths per day.
Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries Summary, 2017 (
● U.S. Department of Labor estimates that occupational related injuries
and illness cost of $1 billion per week to employers
● Based on U.S. Labor Force Statistics, 62.9% of the civilian labor
force was employed in 2017
● Employees ages 15-24 represent 14% of the U.S. labor force and face
the highest risk for injury on the job
OSHA Processes
OSHA’s objectives include:
● identification and elimination of health and safety problems
● defining employer-employee rights and responsibilities
● recording and reporting accidents, injuries and fatalities
● setting and enforcing standards and regulations
● encouraging states to create strategic plans
● and, making operations cost-effective
OSHA Processes
General industry standards include:

● national electric code

● ventilation
● machinery engineering
● noise control
● exit standards
● radiation control
● material handling and storage
● fire protection
● walking and working surfaces
● hazardous materials
● personal protective equipment
● medical and first aid
OSHA Processes
● Enforcement: Compliance inspectors conducts worksite inspections with no
advance notice
● Regular inspections happens routinely/special inspections may be triggered
● Employers face a penalty of $10K if there is no effort to correct a cited
hazard/repeat violations
● Willful violations that result in employee death carry fine of $10K or 6-months
in prison for a first conviction/$20K or 1 year in prison for a second conviction
● False documentation carries a fine of $10K and/or 6-months in prison or both
● Assaulting or hampering the work of inspector carries fine of up to $5K and/or
3 years in prison
Challenges ● Workplace settings vary in size, sector, design,
location, processes, culture, and resources
● Employees and their needs vary by age, gender,
training, education, cultural background, health
practices, and access to preventive health care
● Technology and globalization can change the way
work is organized
○ longer shift hours or limited job security
● Occupational health may not be able keep pace with
developing materials, processes, and equipment
Vulnerable Populations
Younger workers Males
Minorities and
(ages 15-24) ● Nonfatal occupational
immigrants, older
● Associated with lack of safety, injuries = 70% males
workers, & workers ● Fatal occupational
protective equipment, or training
with disabilities injuries = 92% male
● Language/culture and ● Optimism bias - think work hazards
ergonomic barriers are less likely to happen to them
Ergonomics is an applied science of work
and a person’s relationship to that work.
(United States Department of Labor)

Three main domains.

Physical Ergonomics
● The most commonly associated with the term
● Involves working postures, material handling, repetitive
movement, and work related musculoskeletal disorders
○ Cumulative trauma, also known as Repetitive Motion Disorder
○ Overt trauma - a single event, such as a fall, that causes harm
● “Sitting is the new smoking…”
Cognitive Ergonomics
● Cognitive ergonomics - an emerging concern
● Deals with: mental workload, decision-making,
skilled performance, human-to-computer
interaction, and work stress
● Stress can cause musculoskeletal,
cardiovascular and digestive disorders
Organizational Ergonomics
● Involves communication, crew resource management, work design,
work times, cooperative work, and quality of management
Benefits & Prevention Methods
● return on investment
● reduction of medical costs
● reduction in absenteeism

Prevention Methods:
● enforcing universal precautions
● improving training and education
● medical surveillance and data
● effective communication of risk and hazard identification
● monitoring and controlling exposures
● quality stress management
● violence prevention
● work-site wellness
The work done in the field of
occupational health and safety
serves to preserve and protect
human capital…our most
valuable resource.
CPS Tables: Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population, 1947 to date. (2018, February 09). Retrieved May 11, 2018, from

Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries Summary, 2016. (2017, December 19). Retrieved May 11, 2018, from

Definition and Domains of Ergonomics. (n.d.). Retrieved May 11, 2018, from

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). (2018, May 14). Retrieved May 11, 2018, from

Occupational injuries and deaths among younger workers: United States, 1998-2007. (2010). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:
MMWR,59(15), 449-475. doi:10.1037/e552402010-001

Occupational Safety and Health. (n.d.). Retrieved May 11, 2018, from

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR. (n.d.). Retrieved May 11, 2018, from

US Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population, 1940 to date [Internet].
Washington: Bureau of Labor Statistics; 2015.