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## Electrical Engineering Department

Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology
INDIA

Abstract— the design of power electronic converter circuit with the use of closed loop
scheme needs modeling and then simulating the converter using the modeled equations.
This can easily be done with the help of state equations and MATLAB/SIMULINK as a tool
for simulation of those state equations. An attempt has been made in this paper to simulate
all basic non-isolated power converters. So that these models can be readily used for any
close loop design (say using PI, fuzzy, or sliding mode control etc.).

subsystems

1 Introduction
Controller design for any system needs DC-DC Switching Converter
Usually this involves a mathematical System modeling is probably the most
description of the relation among inputs important phase in any form of system
to the process, state variables, and control design work. The choice of a
output. This description in the form of circuit model depends upon the
mathematical equations which describe objectives of the simulation. If the goal
behavior of the system (process) is is to predict the behavior of a circuit
called model of the system. This paper before it is built. A good system model
describes an efficient method to learn, provides a designer with valuable
analyze and simulation of power information about the system dynamics.
electronic converters, using system level Due to the difficulty involved in solving
nonlinear, and switched state- space general nonlinear equations, all the
models. The MATLAB/SIMULINK governing equations will be put together
software package can be advantageously in block diagram form and then
used to simulate power converters. This simulated using Matlab’s Simulink
study aims at development of the models program. Simulink will solve these
for all basic converters and studying its nonlinear equations numerically, and
open loop response, so these models can provide a simulated response of the
be used in case of design of any close system dynamics.
loop scheme. Also as a complete
exercise a closed scheme case has been
studied using cascaded control for a
boost converter.
A. Modeling Procedure 6) Implement the derived equations
To obtain a nonlinear model for power with "SIMULINK" blocks (open loop
electronic circuits, one needs to apply system simulation is then possible to
Kirchhoff's circuit laws. To avoid the use check the obtained model).
of complex mathematics, the electrical 7) Use the obtained switched space-
and semiconductor devices must be state model to design linear or nonlinear
represented as ideal components (zero controllers for the power converter.
ON voltages, zero OFF currents, zero 8) Perform closed-loop simulations
switching times). Therefore, auxiliary and evaluate converter performance.
binary variables can be used to 9) The algorithm for solving the
determine the state of the switches. It differential equations and the step size
must be ensure that the equations should be chosen before running any
obtained by the use of Kirchhoff's laws simulation. The two last steps are to
should include all the permissible states obtain closed-loop simulations .
due to power semiconductor devices
being ON or OFF. 3 Simulation Open-Loop Modeling of
DC-DC Converters
The steps to obtain a system-level
modeling and simulation of power A. Buck Converter Modeling
electronic converters are listed below. The buck converter with ideal switching
1) Determine the state variables of devices will be considered here which is
the power circuit in order to write its operating with the switching period of T
switched state-space model, e.g., and duty cycle D Fig. 1, . The state
inductor current and capacitor voltage. equations corresponding to the converter
in continuous conduction mode (CCM)
2) Assign integer variables to the can be easily understood by applying
power semiconductor (or to each Kirchhoff's voltage law on the loop
switching cell) ON and OFF states. containing the inductor and Kirchhoff's
3) Determine the conditions current law on the node with the
governing the states of the power capacitor branch connected to it. When
semiconductors or the switching cell. the ideal switch is ON, the dynamics of
4) Assume the main operating modes
the inductor current iL (t ) and the
of the converter (continuous or
discontinuous conduction or both) or the capacitor voltage vC (t ) are given by,
modes needed to describe all the �diL 1
� = (V - v )
possible circuit operational modes. Then, �dt L in o
� , 0 < t < dT , Q : ON
apply Kirchhoff's laws and combine all
�dvo = 1 (i - vo )
the required stages into a switched state- �dt C L R
space model, which is the desired
system-level model. and when the switch is OFF are
5) Write this model in the integral presented by,
form, or transform the differential form
�diL 1
to include the semiconductors logical � = (-vo )
�dt L
variables in the control vector: the � , dT < t < T , Q : OFF
converter will be represented by a set of �dvo = 1 (i - vo )
�dt C L R
nonlinear differential equations.
Fig.1 DC-DC Buck Converter

## These Fig 2 Open-loop modeling of Buck DC-DC converters

Fig. 4 Open-loop modeling of Boost DC-DC converters
equations
are implemented in Simulink as shown
in Fig. 2 using multipliers, summing
blocks, and gain blocks, and
subsequently fed into two integrators to Fig. 3 DC-DC Boost
obtain the states iL (t ) and vC (t )  Fig. 3 DC-DC Boost Converter
.

## B. Boost Converter Modeling

The boost converter of Fig. 3 with a
switching period of T and a duty cycle of
D is given. Again, assuming continuous
conduction mode of operation, the state
space equations when the main switch
is ON are shown by, .
�diL 1
� = (V )
�dt L in
� , 0 < t < dT , Q : ON
dv 1
� = (- )
o v o C. Buck-Boost Converter Modeling
�dt C R
In Fig. 5 a DC-DC buck-boost converter is
shown. The switching period is T and the
and when the switch is OFF duty cycle is D. Assuming continuous
�diL 1 conduction mode of operation, when the
� = (V - v )
�dt L in o switch is ON, the state space equations are
� , dT < t < T , Q : OFF given by, 
�dvo = 1 (i - vo )
�dt C L R �diL 1
� = (V )
�dt L in
� , 0 < t < dT , Q : ON
dv 1
� = (- )
o v o
�dt C R

## Fig. 4 shows These equations in and when the switch is OFF

Simulink using multipliers, summing �diL 1
blocks, and gain blocks, and � = (v )
�dt L o
subsequently fed into two integrators to � , dT < t < T , Q : OFF
�dvo = 1 (-i - vo )
obtain the states iL (t ) and vC (t ) ,  �dt C L R
�diL1 1
�dt = L (vin - vo )
� 1

�dvc 1
�dt = C (iL1 )
� 2
� , dT < t < T , Q : OFF
di 1
� L 2 = ( -v )
Fig. 5 DC-DC Buck-Boost Converter o
�dt L2

These equations are implemented in �dvo = 1 (i - vo )
Simulink as shown in Fig. 6 using �
�dt C1
L2
R
multipliers, summing blocks, and gain
blocks, and subsequently fed into two
integrators to obtain the states iL (t ) and
vC (t ) ,   .

## these equations are implemented in

Simulink as shown in Fig. 8 using
multipliers, summing blocks, and
gain blocks, and subsequently fed into
two integrators to obtain the states iL (t ) and
vC (t ) ,   .
Fig. 6 Open-loop of Buck-Boost DC-DC Converters
D. Cuk Converter Modeling
The Cuk converter of Fig. 7 with
switching period of T and duty cycle of
D is considered. During the continuous
conduction mode of operation, the state
space equations are as follows, 
�diL1 1
�dt = L (vin )
� 1

�dvc 1
�dt = C (-iL 2 )
� 2
� , 0 < t < dT , Q : ON
di 1
� L 2 = ( -v + v )
o c
�dt L2

�dvo = 1 (i - vo )

�dt C1
L2
R

## When the switch is OFF

the state space equations are represented
by
Fig. 8 Open-loop modeling of Cuk DC-DC converters

## E. Subsystems an input to the switch control. Hence

Each of the power electronic models inputs for the masked subsystem are
represents subsystems within the duty ratio and input voltage, and the
simulation environment. These blocks outputs are chosen to be inductor
have been developed so they can be current, capacitor voltage, and output
interconnected in a consistent and simple voltage. When double-clicking the
manner for the construction of complex pointer on the masked subsystem, one
systems. The subsystems are masked, enters parameter values of the switching
meaning that the user interface displays converter circuit in a dialogue window.
only the complete subsystem, and user The intuitive signal flow interface in
prompts gather parameters for the entire SIMULINK makes this mathematical
subsystem. Relevant parameters can be model and its corresponding masked
set by double-clicking a mouse or subsystem very easy to create.
pointer on each subsystem block, then
entering the appropriate values in the
resulting dialogue window . 4 Simulation Closed-Loop of DC-DC
To facilitate the subsequent
simulation analysis and feedback The simulation model for cascaded
controller verification, the pulse-width- control of DC-DC switching converters
modulation signal to control the ideal is build using the above-mentioned steps
switch can also be built into the masked is as shown in Fig. 10. The DC-DC
subsystem Fig. 9(a) and Fig. 9(b). For buck, boost, buck-boost, and Cuk
each converter to verity it’s working in converters was previously designed, and
open loop configuration trigger pulses simulated on digital computer using
have been derived using a repeating Matlab package with the parameters
sequence generator and duty cycle block. given in Table 1, and Table 2. Inductor
Function block compares the duty cycle current and capacitor voltage for open
and saw tooth from repeating sequence- loop simulation of all converters are as
derived trigger pulses are connected as shown in Fig.11 (a, b, c, and d).
Table 1 Buck, Boost, and Buck-Boost converters Table 2 Cuk converter parameters
parameters

Vin L C R f Vo Vin L1 L2 C1 C2 f R Vo
24, 10, 24 V 69 220 13  100 12, 20, -24 24 69 19 47 220 100 15 31.8

## Respectively mH mF KHz V V mH mH mF mF KHz  V

Respectively

Results of Closed loop using a cascaded affected by input voltage and load
control scheme for a boost converter is variation, with a very small over shoot
shown in Fig. 12(a). Here the output and settling time.
voltage rises up to 21.3V (6.5%) for the
step variation of load from 10 to 13
(30%). The output voltage resumes its
reference value (of 20V) within 15ms
after the transient variation of load. As
per fig 12(b), for a step change at the
input voltage from 10V to18 V (80%) (at
0.5 Sec instant), a satisfactory
performance is obtained in the output
voltage which has a rise up to 22.8V Fig. 9(a) Subsystem for Buck, Boost and Buck-Boost converters
(14%), but it is quickly dropped to its set
value (20V) within 16 ms. Simulation
results verify that the control scheme in
this section gives stable operation of the
power supply. The output voltage and
state even when it is affected by line and

5 Conclusions
Fig. 9(b) Subsystem for Cuk converters
This paper analysis nonlinear, switched,
state-space models for buck, boost,
buck-boost, and Cuk converters. The
simulation environment
to design the modeling circuit, and to
learn the dynamic behavior of different
converter structures in open loop. The
simulation model in
converter is build for close loop. The
simulation results obtained, show that
the output voltage and inductor current Fig.10 Simulink block diagram representing close loop
Ripple (peak-to-peak = 0.11%) (a)

## Ripple (peak-to-peak = 0.43%) (b)

(c)
Ripple (peak-to-peak = 0.12%)
(d)
Ripple (peak-to-peak = 1.96%)
Fig. 11 Output voltage and inductor current Open-loop for (a) Buck (b) Boost (c) Buck-Boost (d) Cuk Converters

(a) (b)
Fig. 12 Output voltage of SMC Boost Converter when (a) load variation (b) input voltage variation

##  Juing-Huei Su, Jiann-Jong Chen, Dong-

6 References Shiuh Wu, Learning Feedback Controller
Design of Switching Converters Via