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Submitted by:

Mary Fe Cuntapay

Manuelito Cornales

John Michael Corpuz

Erica Allag

Maybel Bagsic

Erica Soriano

Dancris Calimag

The problem and Review of Related Literature


This lingua franca enables people with different native languages to come together and
contribute to the science community through their knowledge. As globalization advances, the
demand for people with good skills in multiple languages in working life increases (Karjalainen
and Lehtonen 2005). Now a days in our 21st century all the things improves and progresses,
things that make our daily life easier and comfortable. We as humans make new words for us to
understand each other simply to avoid misunderstanding and to make peace around us.
Throughout the history, facts have been noted repeatedly on our words that employs numerous
and ambiguous expressions or terms. These words give a strong impact to our daily life as we
use it in different ways. These words can be interpreted in many ways as we all know. Many
words with multiple meanings exist in the English language. Almost every word has a multiple
meaning or many meanings. Do you know any single word that have a single meaning? Even if
you look to the dictionary you will not see any words that have it. Many words have slightly
varying meanings. Even though a single word “play”- sometimes it means to a game and
sometimes it means a role play or theater arts, another example is record, one of its meaning is to
write down while the other meaning is to record the voice of who speaks. When we start talking
about words with multiple meanings, there are some basic definitions that we need to consider
first before knowing how to use these words. These definitions of same words are attached to
homonyms, homophones, and homographs. Homonyms are words which have the same spelling
and pronunciation, but have different meaning, homophones are words which have the same
pronunciation but have different spellings and meaning, lastly, homographs are words that are
spelled the same, but have different pronunciation and meanings. Words are broad to understand
and sometimes confusing, so let us start to know these words to avoid confusion. The research
focused on the performance level of Grade 11 Students on the use of Homonyms. The purpose of
this study is to determine the knowledge or the mental capacity of grade 11 students of Enrile
vocational High school and to be aware in homonyms especially to those students that they are
not fluently good in spelling and in reading.
Review of Related Literature & Study

Rabadi, R. I. (2015). Do German English Language Learners Know English Homophones?

There are many ubiquitous words in English language that either sound or are spelt alike which
cause ambiguity at the lexical level to learners of English. This could lead to a serious difficulty
in communication in general as well as in translation or interpretation in particular. As far as
German Learners are concerned; this study explores the reasons beyond this ambiguity for
undergraduate German students studying International Technical Translation. It was revealed
that the negative effect of their L1 and their vocabulary deficiency are the main reasons for their
low performance in both recognition and production homophones tests.

Maryam Safataj, Mohammad Amiryousefi (2016) this piece of research study turned the spotlight
on the area of learners’ vocabulary development and retention through different methods of
teaching lexical set of words named homonyms. Contemplating the fact that homonymic conflict
and clash of vagueness in identifying the correct meaning of a homonym, as in homophones or
homographs will take place under any condition or circumstances, it seems to happen inevitably.
Hence, in the light of mentioned and discussed results obtained from the current study, we came
to this conclusion that explicit, simultaneous and concurrent homonyms instruction may lead to
learners’ metalinguistic awareness and will be fruitful and beneficial in the short run; however, it
is the context that can be helpful and aid us in avoiding any obscurity and complication in
guessing the correct meaning of a word. So, in many cases, the context can work as a
disambiguating factor through which no interference is likely to happen and no real confusion
will arise.
In a nutshell, the outcome of this piece of study proposes several remarkable implications for
teachers, learners, as well as material developers and syllabus designers. It will be fruitful for
teachers to provide learners with a context in order to discriminate and differentiate multiple
meanings of a homonym through various interactive games or via creating innovative methods of
teaching vocabulary to make the class and learning time enjoyable and much more interesting.
The findings will be efficient for learners to foster their lexical knowledge through their
acquaintance with two or more meanings of a homonym simultaneously. Besides, the obtained
results will be beneficial for material developers and syllabus designers who are dealing with
foreign language teaching and providing L2 curricula in a way that they can put the obtained
results into a meaningful learning and relevant tasks in order to engage learners in the class

Areej As'ad Ja'far (2012) this section deals with error analysis and the sources of errors which
are committed by Iraqi EFL learners in using homophony. All learners commit errors at different
stages of language learning. Errors are natural processes of language learning. Interference from
the students’ own language into the target language is not the only reason for making errors.
There are other categories of errors which are called developmental errors such as
overgeneralization. The instructor must realize that all learners make errors. These errors enable
them to learn something new about the language (Harmer, 2000: 62). Therefore, this section
deals with the identification of errors and the reasons beyond committing certain types of errors
as far as these errors are related to the learners’ wrong use of homophony.

The problem lies in the words that have the same pronunciation and different spelling and
meaning, i.e., homophones. Iraqi EFL university students have difficulty (most of the time) in
giving the right orthography of these words without confusing the word with its homophone. The
total number of their correct responses is (458, 43.62%), whereas that of their incorrect ones is
(592, 56.38%). This denotes that the subjects have faced difficulty in producing homophony.

It can be concluded that Iraqi EFL university students encounter difficulties at the
production level because they do not know how to produce homophony appropriately. This
verifies the hypothesis: They have difficulty in giving the right spelling of the homophone.

Maciejewski, G and Klepousniotou, (E 2016) Relative Meaning

Frequencies for 100 Homonyms: British eDom Norms This data set contains British-English
ratings of meaning frequencies for 100 homonyms, i.e., words with multiple unrelated meanings
(e.g., “money/river bank”). The homonyms were carefully selected based on linguistic principles,
dictionary entries, and subjective ratings, and were validated for future studies examining
meaning-frequency effects on homonym processing. Meaning frequencies were rated by 100
native British-English speakers (living throughout the UK) using the eDom norming procedure.
The norms are available at
Evidence suggests that the processing of homonyms, or words with multiple unrelated meanings
(e.g., “money/river bank”), varies depending on the relative frequencies of their meanings [e.g.,
1, 2, 3, 4]. Here, we provide the first meaning-frequency ratings in British norming procedure
[5]. This data set is essential to UK-based researchers examining ambiguity processing who must
otherwise collect their own small-scale meaning-frequency ratings prior to experimental testing
[e.g., 6, 7, 8] or use normative data in other dialects
of English, despite recent evidence for dialectal differences in meaning frequency [9]. We also
appear to be the first to have derived the homonymous status of the word stimuli (i.e., multiple
unrelated word meanings) based on linguistic criteria, dictionary entries, and subjective ratings.
Previous studies [e.g., 6, 10, 11, 12] used either of the methods, even though there is no
consensus as to which one of them captures the nature of homonymy best [13]. We therefore
provide a list of 100 homonyms that were carefully selected and validated for further research,
with the intention of promoting consistency in the ambiguity-processing literature.

Nailufar, R. A. (2017): “The Correlation between Students’ Ability in Distinguishing

Homophones toward Students’ Listening Performance (A Study of Listening 4 Class of IAIN
Salatiga in the Academic Year of 2016/2017)” The objectives in this study are to find out
students’ ability in distinguishing homophones, to investigate students’ listening performance,
and to verify the correlation between students’ ability in distinguishing homophones toward
students’ listening performance. This study is quantitative in nature and the approach used in this
study is structured approach. The subject of this study is the students of Listening 4 Class of
English Education Department of IAIN Salatiga. The total respondents of this study are 18
students. The data of this research are collected through tests for listening performance and
distinguishing homophones ability. The collected data are tested for its validity and reliability,
and later analyzed using SPSS 16 for Windows. Based on test results sstudents’ listening
performance is categorized as failed with mean score of 44.4. In addition, students’ ability in
distinguishing homophones is categorized as good with mean score of 71.25. The calculation of
the correlation between students’ ability in distinguishing homophones toward students’ listening
performance has a correlation coefficient (r) value of 0.193. The result of the study shows that
there is a positive correlation between students’ ability in distinguishing homophones toward
students’ listening performances even though the relationship is low.

J Child Lang. (2005) this study compares homonym learning to novel word learning by three- to
four-year-old children to determine whether homonyms are learned more rapidly or more slowly
than novel words. In addition, the role of form characteristics in homonym learning is examined
by manipulating phonotactic probability and word frequency. Thirty-two children were exposed
to homonyms and novel words in a story with visual support and learning was measured in two
tasks: referent identification; picture naming. Results showed that responses to homonyms were
as accurate as responses to novel words in the referent identification task. In contrast, responses
to homonyms were more accurate than responses to novel words in the picture-naming task.
Furthermore, homonyms composed of common sound sequences were named more accurately
than those composed of rare sound sequences. The influence of word frequency was less
straightforward. These results may be inconsistent with a one-to-one form-referent bias in word

Kajsa Olsson (2010) examined if there is a connection between learning style and
Spelling ability and if so, which styles seem preferable. The results of this investigation show
that there is a connection between students’ learning style and their spelling ability. Good
spellers are more likely to be visual, random, deductive and abstract. Furthermore, it is showed
that poor spellers are kinesthetic to a higher degree; however it has proved more difficult to
define their cognitive learning style as they are likely to be random and sequential, deductive and

JULIE BORAS (2003) this study examines the spelling development of adult learners and Grade
7 children. The study investigates this central question: Does the spelling development of adult
learners differ from that of Grade 7 children? It also addresses sub questions about spelling
development and its association with age, gender differences, and first language experiences.
The study explores other factors affecting a student's perception of spelling ability. The
participants for this research were drawn from two groups. The first group consisted of a cluster
sample of 18 students registered in a reading or English class in the Upgrading program at a
southern Alberta community college. Students registered in this course were over age eighteen
and had been assessed by the Assessment Centre as having a scale score of 541-560 in the
writing skills section of the Canadian Achievement Test (CAT). The other participants in the
study were 14 classroom children from two Grade 7 rural schools in southern Alberta. These
children were approximately twelve or thirteen years of age. The performance of adult learners
and Grade 7 children on the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT3) was compared according
to Henderson's five stages of spelling development. Participants' responses, using the Likert
scale, to 20 statements derived from the literature were also compared. The results of the study
reveal that the spelling development of the adult learners did not differ from that of Grade 7
children; however, there were differences in gender and perception. This information helps to
suggest causes of and reasons for the differences between adult learners and children in Grade 7
and explores implications for teaching.

Li-Hui Tsai a, Ling-Fu Meng a,*, Li-Yu Hung b, Hsin-Yu Chen a, Chiu-Ping Lu a(2010) This
article examines the relationship between writing and attention problems and hypothesizes that
homophone spelling errors coincide with attention deficits. We analyze specific types of
attention deficits, which may contribute to Attention Deficits Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD);
rather than studying ADHD, however, we focus on the inattention dimension of behavior. Our
methodology was to develop a survey study for exploring the coincidence of homophone errors
and attention problems in schoolchildren. Two sets of parent-questionnaires characterizing
individually types of Chinese handwriting errors and behavioral problems in schoolchildren were
developed by the research team. Our participants were 491 Taiwanese children from the first to
fifth grades in an elementary school in Taipei; they all used traditional Chinese as their primary
written language of communication. Based on the ratings of the parent-questionnaires, two
groups with proficient and non-proficient homophonic writing were formed. One consisted of
children known to have made heterographic homophone errors (words with correct
pronunciation but different spellings). The other (control group) consisted of children known to
be proficient in Chinese homophone spellings. In each group, there were 54 boy and girl pupils,
matched by gender, age, school and grade. A significant correlation was found between attention
deficits and homophone errors. This survey study confirms our hypothesis and strengthens a
currently underdeveloped theory in the literature of handwriting that attention impairments play
an important role in the production of Homophone errors.

White, K.K., Abrams, L., & Zoller, S.M. (2013). Perception-production asymmetries in
homophone spelling: the unique influence of aging. This research investigated three potential
asymmetries in the production and perception of homophone spelling errors: aging, homophone
dominance, and priming. A homophone spelling error occurs when a contextually appropriate
word (beet) is replaced with its homophone (e.g., beat glaze). Two experiments investigated
young and older adults’ written production and detection of these errors.
Participants wrote sentences (Experiment 1) or detected errors in sentences (Experiment 2)
containing a dominant homophone (beat) or subordinate homophone (beet). Homophones were
preceded by a prime (neat) that shared orthography with the contextually inappropriate
homophone (beat) or by an unrelated control word (fun).
Results revealed an aging asymmetry in production and detection as a function of dominance.
Older adults made more errors than young adults when producing dominant homophones but
fewer errors in producing subordinate homophones. In contrast, older adults consistently made
fewer errors than young adults when detecting homophone errors. Independent of aging,
dominance had similar effects on production and detection, with more errors on subordinate
homophones. Priming had asymmetric effects different from aging by increasing errors in
production but not detection.

Mark Sadoski, Victor L. Willson, ,Angelia Holcomb, Regina Boulware-Gooden (2004) This study
investigated the relative value of a set of verbal and nonverbal predictors of spelling performance
in a national sample of students in Grades 1-12. Using multiple regression procedures that
controlled for individual differences in spelling ability, statistically significant and substantial
amounts of the variation in spelling performance were accounted for at each grade level using
this set of predictors. In general, larger amounts of variation were accounted for at the lower and
middle grades and less at the upper grades. A similar pattern of results occurred across grades for
three main variables, two of which were verbal and one of which was nonverbal.
Of the verbal, linguistic variables, the most consistently strong predictor of spelling performance
was the proportion of grapheme-phoneme correspondence. The more likely a word was to have
the same number of graphemes and phonemes, the more likely it was to be spelled correctly.
This finding is consistent with much spelling research.

A set of 12 within-participants multiple regression analyses was performed with spelling

performance as the criterion variable and the variables listed earlier as predictors. Data for each
grade were necessarily analyzed separately because word frequencies differed by grade. The
within-participants procedure permitted a detailed analysis of the relative contribution of the
multiple predictors of spelling performance while retaining all the information for each student
and each word at each grade level rather than aggregating across words or students as is typically
done (Cohen, Cohen, West, & Aiken, 2003). Between-participants variance was first removed
statistically, and the residual within-participants variance was regressed on the predictor
variables taken as a single set. This provided a fine-grained analysis of individual spelling

Figure 1.Conceptual Framework of the Study

In this study the research paradigm will be used the input-process-output method.

Find out the OUTPUT
performance level of Performance levels
grade 11 students Using Questionnaire
of grade 11 students
through homonyms. to gather data.
through homonyms.

In this model the input was to find out the performance level of grade 11 students through
homonyms through the process of giving them a questionnaire to gather data, in which the output
was Performance level of grade 11 students through homonyms.

Statement of the Problem

1. What are the profile variables of the respondents in terms of:

1.1 Gender

1.2 Strand

2. What are the performance levels of the Grade 11 Students through homonyms?

3. Is there a significant difference between the performance level of the respondents through
homonyms when grouped according to profile variables?


There is no significant difference between the performance level of the respondents

through homonyms when grouped according to bio-demographic profiles.

Significance of the Study

This study aims to explain the importance of proper usage of words/ spellings.

This study was beneficial to the following:


This study will help the teachers of the school to address and provide solutions to
problem encountered by the respondents through homonyms.


They will know the correct words or spelling with their correct meaning.
Future researchers

This will serve as their basis to make another paper parallel to this study. They could
improve this study for future generation use. The study will help researchers with more
information about homonyms.

Scope and delimitation of the study

This study focuses on the Performance level of Grade 11 students of Enrile Vocational
High School through homonyms. The respondents are grade 11 students of EVHS.

Definition of terms

Homonyms - Homonym is a semantic relation that exists between words when they have the
same spelling and pronunciation.

Performance level - Ranges of literacy scores that provide the ability to group together people
with similar scores into a relatively small number of categories for reporting purposes, when fine
distinctions among score are not needed.
Performance - the action or process of carrying out or accomplishing an action, task or function.
Chapter II

Research Methodology

Research Design
The researchers used a descriptive research design to gather data or information from a variety of
subjects taken from a representative sample or population.
Respondents of the Study
The respondents are the Grade 11 students of Enrile Vocational High School. From the
total number of student using slovin’s formula, the following were gathered:
STEM 17 12
ABM 26 18
GAS 32 21
E-PAS 12 8
HUMSS 46 30
TOTAL 195 131

Questionnaire- the instrument to be used will be a standardized question to get the
desired information from the students that will elicit responses from the respondents.
Data Gathering Procedure-
The researchers asked permission from the advisers of the different strands of Grade 11
students that will get the total no. of students in their class. Questionnaire will be used to
determine the performance level through homonyms of grade 11 students in Enrile Vocational
High School.
Data Analysis
To carry out the objective of the study the following statistical tools were used:
1. Frequency Count and Percentage Distribution - to determine the number of males and females
in Grade 11 and the mean percentage of the respondents through homonyms when group
according to profile variables.
2. The table will use to determine the performance level of the Grade 11 Students through
3. ANNOVA significant difference between the performance level of the respondents through
homonyms when grouped according to bio-demographic profiles.

The table shows the Likert- type Scale that the researchers use to determine the
performance level of students through homonyms.
Score Interpretation
14 Below Needs Improvement
15-20 Poor
21-30 Satisfactory
31-40 Very Satisfactory
41-50 Outstanding
Chapter III

Result and Discussion

Q1. What is the profile variable of the respondents in terms of Gender and Strand?

Table 1.1 Frequency count and percentage distribution of the respondents’ profile in terms of
Gender Frequency Percentage
Female 66 50.38%
Male 65 49.62%
Total 131 100%

The table shows that 66 or 58.38% was Female and 65 or 49.62% was male. Therefore the
number of female respondents is greater than the male respondents.

Table 1.2 Frequency count and percentage distribution of the respondents’ profile in terms of
Strand Frequency Percentage
STEM 12 9.16%
ABM 18 13.74%
GAS 21 16.03%
AUTOMOTIVE 29 22.14%
COOKERY 13 9.92%
E-PAS 8 6.11%
HUMMS 30 22.90%
TOTAL 131 100%

The table show that 12 or 9.16% was STEM, 18 or 13.79% was ABM, 21 or 16.03% was GAS,
29 or 22.14% was AUTOMOTIVE, 13 or 9.92% was COOKERY, 8 or 6.11% was EPAS, 30 or
22.90% was HUMSS. Therefore the total of respondent was 131 or 100%.
Q2. What are the performance levels of the Grade 11 Students through homonyms?

Table2. The table will use to determine the performance level of the Grade 11 Students through

Score Frequency Percentage Interpretation

14 and below 0 0% Needs improvement
15-20 3 2.29% Poor
21-30 56 42.75% Satisfactory
31-40 54 41.22% Very Satisfactory
41-50 18 13.74% Outstanding
Mean 131 100%
Very Satisfactory

The table shows the score of the respondents that consist of 50 items. In the table, there is only
2.29% or 3 of the respondents who get a score ranging from 15-20, 42.75% or 56 on the
respondents get a score ranging 21-30, 41.22% or 54 on the respondents get a score ranging 31-
40, while there is 13.74% or 18 of the respondents get a score ranging from 41-50. The mean
score of the respondents is 31.9. The mean score of the respondents is fall in Very Satisfactory.
Majority in the respondents get a score ranging from 21-30.

Q3. Is there a significant difference between the performance level of the respondents through
homonyms when grouped according to bio-demographic profiles?

Table 3.1 ANNOVA result on the significant difference between the performance level of the
respondents through homonyms when grouped according to Gender.
Gender Mean Standard F-value P-value Significance Decision
Deviation level
Male 29.4 6.55 20.32 1.46 0.05 Accept Ho
Female 34.3 5.84
Table 3.2 ANNOVA result on the significant difference between the performance level of the
respondents on the use of homonyms when grouped according to Strand.

Strand Mean Standard F-value P-value Significance Decision

Deviation level
STEM 38.3 3.98
ABM 39.7 3.93
GAS 30.4 4.30
AUTOMOTIVE 27.1 4.06 32.06 4.60 0.05 Accept Ho
COOKERY 27.5 3.36
EPAS 22.6 3.25
HUMSS 34.8 5.18
Total 31.9 6.65
Summary of findings, Conclusions and Recommendation

This study investigates the performance level of students through homonyms .The descriptive
research design was used in this study. A sample of 131 respondents was selected from a
population of 195 students using the Slovin’s formula. A simple Random Sampling Technique
was used for the selection. The data collected were analyzed with the use of descriptive statistics
of frequency count and percentage. Analysis of variance was used to determine the significant
relationship on the performance level of respondents through homonyms when according to
profile variables. The researchers find out that group according to Gender is greater than the
level of significance. So there is no significant difference between the performance level of the
respondents through homonyms. In terms of Strand it is greater than the level of significance, so
there is no significant difference between the performance level of the respondents through


The result from the findings of this study revealed that homonyms can
cause good from studying of the respondents’ performance level in choosing the correct
homonyms to complete the meaning of a sentence and in writing the right homonyms when they
are asked to. This finding indicates that these students encounter difficulties in the English
Language proficiency that is needed for meeting the challenges of academic cause work and
communication. Another is they will confront inconveniences with reading comprehension as a
result of identifying the meaning of numerous words, including homonyms, homophones, and

The student will benefited in terms of homonyms word and their thinking
about homonyms word is proper use of homonyms and in their performance level will become
must brighter and more educate in terms of homonyms.