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Catalogue of Spacetimes

arXiv:0904.4184v3 [gr-qc] 4 Nov 2010

e2
e1
x2 = 2
11
00∂
x1 = 2
00
11
q x2

∂x11
00 x2 = 1
00
11
1
x1 = 1

x1 = 0
x2 = 0

Authors: Thomas Müller


Visualisierungsinstitut der Universität Stuttgart (VISUS)
Allmandring 19, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany
Thomas.Mueller@vis.uni-stuttgart.de

Frank Grave
formerly, Universität Stuttgart, Institut für Theoretische Physik 1 (ITP1)
Pfaffenwaldring 57 // IV, 70550 Stuttgart, Germany
Frank.Grave@vis.uni-stuttgart.de

URL: http://www.vis.uni-stuttgart.de/~muelleta/CoS

Date: 04. Nov 2010


Co-authors

Andreas Lemmer, formerly, Institut für Theoretische Physik 1 (ITP1), Universität Stuttgart
Alcubierre Warp
Sebastian Boblest, Institut für Theoretische Physik 1 (ITP1), Universität Stuttgart
deSitter, Friedmann-Robertson-Walker
Felix Beslmeisl, Institut für Theoretische Physik 1 (ITP1), Universität Stuttgart
Petrov-Type D
Heiko Munz, Institut für Theoretische Physik 1 (ITP1), Universität Stuttgart
Bessel and plane wave
Contents

1 Introduction and Notation 1


1.1 Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 General remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.3 Basic objects of a metric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.4 Natural local tetrad and initial conditions for geodesics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.4.1 Orthonormality condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.4.2 Tetrad transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.4.3 Ricci rotation-, connection-, and structure coefficients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.4.4 Riemann-, Ricci-, and Weyl-tensor with respect to a local tetrad . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.4.5 Null or timelike directions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.4.6 Local tetrad for diagonal metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.4.7 Local tetrad for stationary axisymmetric spacetimes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.5 Newman-Penrose tetrad and spin-coefficients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.6 Coordinate relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.6.1 Spherical and Cartesian coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.6.2 Cylindrical and Cartesian coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.7 Embedding diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.8 Equations of motion and transport equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.8.1 Geodesic equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.8.2 Fermi-Walker transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.8.3 Parallel transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.8.4 Euler-Lagrange formalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.8.5 Hamilton formalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.9 Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.10 Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.10.1 Maple/GRTensorII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.10.2 Mathematica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.10.3 Maxima . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

2 Spacetimes 14
2.1 Minkowski . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.1.1 Cartesian coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.1.2 Cylindrical coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.1.3 Spherical coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.1.4 Conform-compactified coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.1.5 Rotating coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.1.6 Rindler coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.2 Schwarzschild spacetime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.2.1 Schwarzschild coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.2.2 Schwarzschild in pseudo-Cartesian coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.2.3 Isotropic coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.2.4 Eddington-Finkelstein . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.2.5 Kruskal-Szekeres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.2.6 Tortoise coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

i
ii CONTENTS

2.2.7 Painlevé-Gullstrand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.2.8 Israel coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
2.3 Alcubierre Warp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2.4 Barriola-Vilenkin monopol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
2.5 Bertotti-Kasner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
2.6 Bessel gravitational wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.6.1 Cylindrical coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.6.2 Cartesian coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.7 Cosmic string in Schwarzschild spacetime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
2.8 Ernst spacetime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
2.9 Friedman-Robertson-Walker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
2.9.1 Form 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
2.9.2 Form 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
2.9.3 Form 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
2.10 Gödel Universe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
2.10.1 Cylindrical coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
2.10.2 Scaled cylindrical coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
2.11 Halilsoy standing wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
2.12 Janis-Newman-Winicour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
2.13 Kasner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
2.14 Kerr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
2.14.1 Boyer-Lindquist coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
2.15 Kottler spacetime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
2.16 Morris-Thorne . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
2.17 Oppenheimer-Snyder collapse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
2.17.1 Outer metric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
2.17.2 Inner metric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
2.18 Petrov-Type D – Levi-Civita spacetimes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
2.18.1 Case AI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
2.18.2 Case AII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
2.18.3 Case AIII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
2.18.4 Case BI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
2.18.5 Case BII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
2.18.6 Case BIII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
2.18.7 Case C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
2.19 Plane gravitational wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
2.20 Reissner-Nordstrøm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
2.21 de Sitter spacetime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
2.21.1 Standard coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
2.21.2 Conformally Einstein coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
2.21.3 Conformally flat coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
2.21.4 Static coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
2.21.5 Lemaître-Robertson form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
2.21.6 Cartesian coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
2.22 Straight spinning string . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
2.23 Sultana-Dyer spacetime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
2.24 TaubNUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

Bibliography 79
Chapter 1

Introduction and Notation

The Catalogue of Spacetimes is a collection of four-dimensional Lorentzian spacetimes in the context of


the General Theory of Relativity (GR). The aim of the catalogue is to give a quick reference for students
who need some basic facts of the most well-known spacetimes in GR. For a detailed discussion of a
metric, the reader is referred to the standard literature or the original articles. Important resources for
exact solutions are the book by Stephani et al[SKM+ 03] and the book by Griffiths and Podolský[GP09].
Most of the metrics in this catalogue are implemented in the Motion4D-library[MG09] and can be visu-
alized using the GeodesicViewer[MG10]. Except for the Minkowski and Schwarzschild spacetimes, the
metrics are sorted by their names.

1.1 Notation
The notation we use in this catalogue is as follows:
Indices: Coordinate indices are represented either by Greek letters or by coordinate names. Tetrad
indices are indicated by Latin letters or coordinate names in brackets.
Einstein sum convention: When an index appears twice in a single term, once as lower index and once
as upper index, we build the sum over all indices:
3
ζµ ζ µ ≡ ∑ ζµ ζ µ . (1.1.1)
µ =0

Vectors: A coordinate vector in xµ direction is represented as ∂xµ ≡ ∂µ . For arbitrary vectors, we use
boldface symbols. Hence, a vector a in coordinate representation reads a = a µ ∂µ .
Derivatives: Partial derivatives are indicated by a comma, ∂ ψ /∂ xµ ≡ ∂µ ψ ≡ ψ,µ , whereas covariant
derivatives are indicated by a semicolon, ∇ψ = ψ;µ .
Symmetrization and Antisymmetrization brackets:
1 1
(1.1.2)
 
a( µ bν ) = a µ bν + aν b µ , a[ µ bν ] = a µ bν − aν b µ
2 2

1.2 General remarks


The Einstein field equation in the most general form reads[MTW73]
8π G
Gµν = κTµν − Λg µν , κ= , (1.2.1)
c4
with the symmetric and divergence-free Einstein tensor Gµν = Rµν − 21 Rgµν , the Ricci tensor Rµν , the
Ricci scalar R, the metric tensor gµν , the energy-momentum tensor Tµν , the cosmological constant Λ,
Newton’s gravitational constant G, and the speed of light c. Because the Einstein tensor is divergence-
free, the conservation equation T µν ;ν = 0 is automatically fulfilled.

1
2 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION AND NOTATION

A solution to the field equation is given by the line element

ds2 = gµν dxµ dxν (1.2.2)

with the symmetric, covariant metric tensor gµν . The contravariant metric tensor gµν is related to the
covariant tensor via g µν gνλ = δµλ with the Kronecker-δ . Even though gµν is only a component of the
metric tensor g = gµν dxµ ⊗ dxν , we will also call g µν the metric tensor.
Note that, in this catalogue, we mostly use the convention that the signature of the metric is +2. In
general, we will also keep the physical constants c and G within the metrics.

1.3 Basic objects of a metric


The basic objects of a metric are the Christoffel symbols, the Riemann and Ricci tensors as well as the
Ricci and Kretschmann scalars which are defined as follows:
Christoffel symbols of the first kind:1

1
Γνλ µ = (1.3.1)

g µν ,λ + gµλ ,ν − gνλ ,µ
2
with the relation

gνλ ,µ = Γµνλ + Γµλ ν (1.3.2)

Christoffel symbols of the second kind:

µ 1
Γνλ = gµρ gρν ,λ + gρλ ,ν − gνλ ,ρ

(1.3.3)
2
which are related to the Christoffel symbols of the first kind via
µ
Γνλ = gµρ Γνλ ρ (1.3.4)

Riemann tensor:
µ µ µ µ
Rµ νρσ = Γνσ ,ρ − Γνρ ,σ + Γρλ Γνσ
λ λ
− Γσ λ Γνρ (1.3.5)

or

Rµνρσ = gµλ Rλ νρσ = Γνσ µ ,ρ − Γνρ µ ,σ + Γνρ


λ λ
Γµσ λ − Γνσ Γµσ λ (1.3.6)

with symmetries

Rµνρσ = −Rµνσ ρ , Rµνρσ = −Rν µρσ , Rµνρσ = Rρσ µν (1.3.7)

and

Rµνρσ + Rµρσ ν + Rµσ νρ = 0 (1.3.8)

Ricci tensor:

Rµν = gρσ Rρ µσ ν = Rρ µρν (1.3.9)

Ricci and Kretschmann scalar:

R = gµν Rµν = Rµ µ , K = Rαβ γδ Rαβ γδ = Rγδ αβ Rαβ γδ (1.3.10)


1 The notation of the Christoffel symbols of the first kind differs from the one used by Rindler[Rin01], ΓRindler = ΓCoS
µνλ νλ µ .
1.4. NATURAL LOCAL TETRAD AND INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR GEODESICS 3

Weyl tensor:
1  1
Cµνρσ = Rµνρσ − gµ [ ρ Rσ ]ν − gν [ ρ Rσ ]µ + R gµ [ ρ gσ ]ν (1.3.11)
2 3
If we change the signature of a metric, these basic objects transform as follows:
µ µ
Γνλ 7→ Γνλ , Rµνρσ 7→ −Rµνρσ , Cµνρσ 7→ −Cµνρσ , (1.3.12a)
Rµν 7→ Rµν , R 7→ −R, K 7→ K . (1.3.12b)

Covariant derivative

∇λ gµν = gµν ;λ = 0. (1.3.13)

Covariant derivative of the vector field ψ µ :


µ µ
∇ν ψ µ = ψ;ν = ∂ν ψ µ + Γνλ ψ λ (1.3.14)

Covariant derivative of a r-s-tensor field:


∇c T a1 ...ar b1 ...bs = ∂c T a1 ...ar b1 ...bs + Γadc1 T d...ar b1 ...bs + . . . + Γadcr T a1 ...ar−1 d b1 ...bs
(1.3.15)
− Γdb1 c T a1 ...ar d...bs − . . . − Γdbs c T a1 ...ar b1 ...bs−1 d

Killing equation:

ξµ ;ν + ξν ;µ = 0. (1.3.16)

1.4 Natural local tetrad and initial conditions for geodesics


We will call a local tetrad natural if it is adapted to the symmetries or the coordinates of the spacetime.
µ
The four base vectors e(i) = e(i) ∂µ are given with respect to coordinate directions ∂ /∂ xµ = ∂µ , compare
Nakahara[Nak90] or Chandrasekhar[Cha06] for an introduction to the tetrad formalism. The inverse or
dual tetrad is given by θ (i) = θµ dxµ with
(i)

(i) µ
θµ eν(i) = δµν .
(i) (i)
θ µ e( j) = δ( j) and (1.4.1)

Note that we us Latin indices in brackets for tetrads and Greek indices for coordinates.

1.4.1 Orthonormality condition


To be applicable as a local reference frame (Minkowski frame), a local tetrad e(i) has to fulfill the or-
thonormality condition
µ
e(i) , e( j) g = g e(i) , e( j) = gµν e(i) eν( j) = η(i)( j) ,

 !
(1.4.2)

where η(i)( j) = diag(∓1, ±1, ±1, ±1) depending on the signature sign(g) = ±2 of the metric. Thus, the
line element of a metric can be written as

ds2 = η(i)( j) θ (i) θ ( j) = η(i)( j) θµ θν dxµ dxν .


(i) ( j)
(1.4.3)

To obtain a local tetrad e(i) , we could first determine the dual tetrad θ (i) via Eq. (1.4.3). If we combine all
four dual tetrad vectors into one matrix Θ, we only have to determine its inverse Θ−1 to find the tetrad
vectors,
 (0) (0) (0) (0) 
θ0 θ1 θ2 θ3
 0
e(0) e0(1) e0(2) e0(3)

 (1) (1) (1) (1)  e1 1 1 1 
θ θ1 θ2 θ3   (0) e(1) e(2) e(3) 
Θ =  0(2) (2) (2) (2) ⇒ Θ −1
= 2 2 2 2 . (1.4.4)
θ0 θ1 θ2 θ3  e(0) e(1) e(2) e(3) 
 

θ
(3)
θ
(3)
θ
(3)
θ
(3) e3(0) e3(1) e3(2) e3(3)
0 1 2 3
4 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION AND NOTATION

There are also several useful relations:


µ
e(a)µ = gµν eν(a) ,
(a)
η(a)(b) = e(a) e(b)µ , e(b)µ = η(a)(b) θµ , (1.4.5a)

η (a)(b) = θµ θν gµν .
(b) (a) (a) (b)
θµ = η (a)(b) e(a)µ , gµν = e(a)µ θν , (1.4.5b)

1.4.2 Tetrad transformations


Instead of the above found local tetrad that was directly constructed from the spacetime metric, we can
also use any other local tetrad

ê(i) = Aki e(k) , (1.4.6)

where A is an element of the Lorentz group O(1, 3). Hence AT η A = η and (det A)2 = 1. p
Lorentz-transformation in the direction na = (sin χ cos ξ , sin χ sin ξ , cos ξ )T = na with γ = 1/ 1 − β 2,

Λ00 = γ , Λ0a = −β γ na , Λa0 = −β γ na , Λab = (γ − 1)na nb + δba . (1.4.7)

1.4.3 Ricci rotation-, connection-, and structure coefficients


The Ricci rotation coefficients γ(i)( j)(k) with respect to the local tetrad e(i) are defined by

µ µ µ β
γ(i)( j)(k) := gµλ e(i) ∇e(k) eλ( j) = gµλ e(i) eν(k) ∇ν eλ( j) = gµλ e(i) eν(k) ∂ν eλ( j) + Γλνβ e( j) .
 
(1.4.8)

They are antisymmetric in the first two indices, γ(i)( j)(k) = −γ( j)(i)(k) , which follows from the definition,
Eq. (1.4.8), and the relation

β
0 = ∂µ η(i)( j) = ∇µ gβ ν e(i) eν( j) ,
 
(1.4.9)

where ∇µ gβ ν = 0, compare [Cha06]. Otherwise, we have

γ (i)( j)(k) = θλ eν(k) ∇ν eλ( j) = −eλ( j) eν(k) ∇ν θλ .


(i) (i)
(1.4.10)

The contraction of the first and the last index is given by

γ( j) = γ (k)( j)(k) = η (k)(i) γ(i)( j)(k) = −γ(0)( j)(0) + γ(1)( j)(1) + γ(2)( j)(2) + γ(3)( j)(3) = ∇ν eν( j) . (1.4.11)

(m)
The connection coefficients ω ( j)(n) with respect to the local tetrad e(i) are defined by

µ µ µ µ β
ω ( j)(n) := θµ ∇e( j) e(n) = θµ eα( j) ∇α e(n) = θµ eα( j) ∂α e(n) + Γαβ e(n) ,
 
(m) (m) (m) (m)
(1.4.12)

compare Nakahara[Nak90]. They are related to the Ricci rotation coefficients via
(m)
γ(i)( j)(k) = η (i)(m) ω (k)( j) . (1.4.13)

Furthermore, the local tetrad has a non-vanishing Lie-bracket [X,Y ]ν = X µ ∂µ Y ν − Y µ ∂µ X ν . Thus,

(k) (k)
c(i)( j) = θ (k) e(i) , e( j) .
   
e(i) , e( j) = c(i)( j) e(k) or (1.4.14)

(k)
The structure coefficients c(i)( j) are related to the connection coefficients or the Ricci rotation coefficients
via
(k) (k) (k)
c(i)( j) = ω (i)( j) − ω ( j)(i) = η (k)(m) γ(m)( j)(i) − γ(m)(i)( j) = γ (k)( j)(i) − γ (k)(i)( j) . (1.4.15)

1.4. NATURAL LOCAL TETRAD AND INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR GEODESICS 5

1.4.4 Riemann-, Ricci-, and Weyl-tensor with respect to a local tetrad


The transformations between the coordinate representations of the Riemann-, Ricci-, and Weyl-tensors
and their representation with respect to a local tetrad e(i) are given by
µ ρ
R(a)(b)(c)(d) = Rµνρσ e(a) eν(b) e(c) eσ(d) , (1.4.16a)
µ
R(a)(b) = Rµν e(a) eν(b) , (1.4.16b)
µ ρ
C(a)(b)(c)(d) = Cµνρσ e(a) eν(b) e(c) eσ(d)
1  R
= R(a)(b)(c)(d) − η(a)[ (c) R(d) ](b) − η(b)[ (c) R(d) ](a) + η(a)[ (c) η(d) ](b) . (1.4.16c)
2 3

1.4.5 Null or timelike directions


A null or timelike direction υ = υ (i) e(i) with respect to a local tetrad e(i) can be written as

υ = υ (0) e(0) + ψ sin χ cos ξ e(1) + sin χ sin ξ e(2) + cos χ e(3) = υ (0) e(0) + ψ n. (1.4.17)


In the case of a null direction we have ψ = 1 and υ (0) = ±1. A timelike direction can be identified with
an initial four-velocity u = cγ (e0 + β n), where

u2 = hu, uig = c2 γ 2 e(0) + β n, e(0) + β n = c2 γ 2 −1 + β 2 = ∓c2 , sign(g) = ±2. (1.4.18)





Thus, ψ = cβ γ and υ 0 = ±cγ . The sign of υ (0) determines the time direction.

e(3)

χ ψ

ξ e(2)

Figure 1.1: Null or timelike direction υ


e(1) with respect to the local tetrad e(i) .

The transformations between a local direction υ (i) and its coordinate representation υ µ read

µ
υ µ = υ (i) e(i) υ (i) = θµ υ µ .
(i)
and (1.4.19)

1.4.6 Local tetrad for diagonal metrics


If a spacetime is represented by a diagonal metric

ds2 = g00 (dx0 )2 + g11(dx1 )2 + g22(dx2 )2 + g33(dx3 )2 , (1.4.20)

the natural local tetrad reads


1 1 1 1
e(0) = √ ∂0 , e(1) = √ ∂1 , e(2) = √ ∂2 , e(3) = √ ∂3 , (1.4.21)
g00 g11 g22 g33

given that the metric coefficients are well behaved. Analogously, the dual tetrad reads
√ √ √ √
θ (0) = g00 dx0 , θ (1) = g11 dx1 , θ (2) = g22 dx2 , θ (3) = g33 dx3 . (1.4.22)
6 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION AND NOTATION

1.4.7 Local tetrad for stationary axisymmetric spacetimes


The line element of a stationary axisymmetric spacetime is given by
ds2 = gtt dt 2 + 2gt ϕ dt d ϕ + gϕϕ d ϕ 2 + grr dr2 + gϑ ϑ d ϑ 2 , (1.4.23)
where the metric components are functions of r and ϑ only.
The local tetradfor an observer on a stationary circular orbit, (r = const, ϑ = const), with four velocity
u = cΓ ∂t + ζ ∂ϕ can be defined as, compare Bini[BJ00],
1 1
e(0) = Γ ∂t + ζ ∂ϕ , e(1) = √ ∂r , ∂ϑ , (1.4.24a)

e(2) = √
grr gϑ ϑ
e(3) = ∆Γ ±(gt ϕ + ζ gϕϕ )∂t ∓ (gtt + ζ gt ϕ )∂ϕ , (1.4.24b)
 

where
1 1
Γ= q and ∆= q . (1.4.25)
− gtt + 2ζ gt ϕ + ζ 2 gϕϕ 2

gt ϕ − gtt gϕϕ

The angular velocity ζ is limited due to gtt + 2ζ gt ϕ + ζ 2 gϕϕ < 0


gtt gtt
r r
ζmin = ω − ω − 2 and ζmax = ω + ω 2 − (1.4.26)
gϕϕ gϕϕ
with ω = −gt ϕ /gϕϕ .
For ζ = 0, the observer is static with respect to spatial infinity. The locally non-rotating frame (LNRF)
has angular velocity ζ = ω , see also MTW[MTW73], exercise 33.3.
Static limit: ζmin = 0 ⇒ gtt = 0.
The transformation between the local direction υ (i) and the coordinate direction υ µ reads
  υ (1) υ (2)  
υ 0 = Γ υ (0) ± υ (3) ∆w1 , υ1 = √ , υ2 = √ , υ 3 = Γ υ (0) ζ ∓ υ (3)∆w2 , (1.4.27)
grr gϑ ϑ
with
w1 = gt ϕ + ζ gϕϕ and w2 = gtt + ζ gt ϕ . (1.4.28)
The back transformation reads
1 υ 0 w2 + υ 3w1 √ √ 1 ζ υ0 − υ3
υ (0) = , υ (1) = grr υ 1 , υ (2) = gϑ ϑ υ 2 , υ (3) = ± . (1.4.29)
Γ ζ w1 + w2 ∆Γ ζ w1 + w2
µ
 
Note, to obtain a right-handed local tetrad, det e(i) > 0, the upper sign has to be used.

1.5 Newman-Penrose tetrad and spin-coefficients


The Newman-Penrose tetrad consists of four null vectors e⋆(i) = {l, n, m, m̄}, where l and n are real and m
and m̄ are complex conjugates; see Penrose and Rindler[PR84] or Chandrasekhar[Cha06] for a thorough
discussion. The Newman-Penrose (NP) tetrad has to fulfill the orthonormality relation
 
0 1 0 0
D E  1 0 0 0 
e⋆(i) , e⋆( j) = η ⋆(i)( j) with η ⋆(i)( j) = 
 0 0 0 −1  .
 (1.5.1)
0 0 −1 0
A straightforward relation between the NP tetrad and the natural local tetrad, as discussed in Sec. 1.4,
is given by
1  1  1 
l = ∓ √ e(0) + e(1) , n = ∓ √ e(0) − e(1) , m = ∓ √ e(2) + ie(3) , (1.5.2)
2 2 2
1.6. COORDINATE RELATIONS 7

where the upper/lower sign has to be used for metrics with positive/negative signature. The Ricci
rotation-coefficients of a NP tetrad are now called spin coefficients and are designated by specific symbols:

1
κ = γ(2)(1)(1) , ρ = γ(2)(0)(3), ε= γ(1)(0)(0) + γ(2)(3)(0) , (1.5.3a)

2
1
σ = γ(2)(0)(2) , µ = γ(1)(3)(2), γ= γ(1)(0)(1) + γ(2)(3)(1) , (1.5.3b)

2
1
λ = γ(1)(3)(3) , τ = γ(2)(0)(1), α= γ(1)(0)(3) + γ(2)(3)(3) , (1.5.3c)

2
1
ν = γ(1)(3)(1) , π = γ(1)(3)(0), β= γ(1)(0)(2) + γ(2)(3)(2) . (1.5.3d)

2

1.6 Coordinate relations


1.6.1 Spherical and Cartesian coordinates
The well-known relation between the spherical coordinates (r, ϑ , ϕ ) and the Cartesian coordinates (x, y, z),
compare Fig. 1.2, are

x = r sin ϑ cos ϕ , y = r sin ϑ sin ϕ , z = r cos ϑ , (1.6.1)

and

ϑ = arctan 2( x2 + y2 , z), ϕ = arctan 2(y, x),


p p
r= x2 + y2 + z2 , (1.6.2)

where arctan 2() ensures that ϕ ∈ [0, 2π ) and ϑ ∈ (0, π ).

ϑ r

ϕ y

Figure 1.2: Relation between spherical


x and Cartesian coordinates.

The total differentials of the spherical coordinates read

x dx + y dy + z dz xz dx + yz dy − (x2 + y2 )dz −y dx + x dy
dr = , dϑ = , dϕ = , (1.6.3)
x2 + y2
p
r r 2 x2 + y2

whereas the coordinate derivatives read

∂x ∂y ∂z
∂r = ∂x + ∂y + ∂z = sin ϑ cos ϕ ∂x + sin ϑ sin ϕ ∂y + cos ϑ ∂z , (1.6.4a)
∂r ∂r ∂r
∂x ∂y ∂z
∂ϑ = ∂x + ∂y + ∂z = r cos ϑ cos ϕ ∂x + r cos ϑ sin ϕ ∂y − r sin ϑ ∂z , (1.6.4b)
∂ϑ ∂ϑ ∂ϑ
∂x ∂y ∂z
∂ϕ = ∂x + ∂y + ∂z = −r sin ϑ sin ϕ ∂x + r sin ϑ cos ϕ ∂y , (1.6.4c)
∂ϕ ∂ϕ ∂ϕ
8 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION AND NOTATION

and
∂r ∂ϑ ∂ϕ cos ϑ cos ϕ sin ϕ
∂x = ∂r + ∂ϑ + ∂ϕ = sin ϑ cos ϕ ∂r + ∂ϑ − ∂ϕ , (1.6.5a)
∂x ∂x ∂x r r sin ϑ
∂r ∂ϑ ∂ϕ cos ϑ sin ϕ cos ϕ
∂y = ∂r + ∂ϑ + ∂ϕ = sin ϑ sin ϕ ∂r + ∂ϑ + ∂ϕ , (1.6.5b)
∂y ∂y ∂y r r sin ϑ
∂r ∂ϑ ∂ϕ sin ϑ
∂z = ∂r + ∂ϑ + ∂ϕ = cos ϑ ∂r − ∂ϑ . (1.6.5c)
∂z ∂z ∂z r

1.6.2 Cylindrical and Cartesian coordinates


The relation between cylindrical coordinates (r, ϕ , z) and Cartesian coordinates (x, y, z) is given by

x = r cos ϕ , y = r sin ϕ , r = x2 + y2 , ϕ = arctan 2(y, x),


p
and (1.6.6)

where arctan 2() again ensures that the angle ϕ ∈ [0, 2π ).

ϕ y

r Figure 1.3: Relation between cylindrical


x and Cartesian coordinates.

The total differentials of the spherical coordinates are given by


x dx + y dy −y dx + x dy
dr = , dϕ = , (1.6.7)
r r2
and

dx = cos ϕ dr − r sin ϕ d ϕ , dy = sin ϕ dr + r cos ϕ d ϕ . (1.6.8)

The coordinate derivatives are


∂x ∂y
∂r = ∂x + ∂y = cos ϕ ∂x + sin ϕ ∂y , (1.6.9a)
∂r ∂r
∂x ∂y
∂ϕ = ∂x + ∂y = −r sin ϕ ∂x + r cos ϕ ∂y m (1.6.9b)
∂ϕ ∂ϕ
and
∂r ∂ϕ sin ϕ
∂x = ∂r + ∂ϕ = cos ϕ ∂r − ∂y , (1.6.10a)
∂x ∂x r
∂r ∂ϕ cos ϕ
∂y = ∂r + ∂ϕ = sin ϕ ∂r + ∂y . (1.6.10b)
∂y ∂y r

1.7 Embedding diagram


A two-dimensional hypersurface with line segment

d σ 2 = grr (r)dr2 + gϕϕ (r)d ϕ 2 (1.7.1)


1.8. EQUATIONS OF MOTION AND TRANSPORT EQUATIONS 9

can be embedded in a three-dimensional Euclidean space with cylindrical coordinates,


"  2 #
dz
dσ = 1 +
2
d ρ 2 + ρ 2d ϕ 2 . (1.7.2)

With ρ (r)2 = gϕϕ (r) and dr = (dr/d ρ )d ρ , we obtain for the embedding function z = z(r),
 √
s
d gϕϕ 2

dz
= ± grr − . (1.7.3)
dr dr

If gϕϕ (r) = r2 , then d gϕϕ /dr = 1.

1.8 Equations of motion and transport equations


1.8.1 Geodesic equation
The geodesic equation reads

D2 x µ d 2 xµ ρ
µ dx dx
σ
= + Γρσ =0 (1.8.1)
dλ 2 dλ 2 dλ dλ
with the affine parameter λ . For timelike geodesics, however, we replace the affine parameter by the
proper time τ .
The geodesic equation (1.8.1) is a system of ordinary differential equations of second order. Hence, to
solve these differential equations, we need an initial position xµ (λ = 0) as well as an initial direction
(dxµ /d λ )(λ = 0). This initial direction has to fulfill the constraint equation

dxµ dxν
gµν = κ c2 , (1.8.2)
dλ dλ
where κ = 0 for lightlike and κ = ∓1, (sign(g) = ±2), for timelike geodesics.
The initial direction can also be determined by means of a local reference frame, compare sec. 1.4.5, that
automatically fulfills the constraint equation (1.8.2). If we use the natural local tetrad as local reference
frame, we have
dxµ

µ
= υ µ = υ (i) e(i) . (1.8.3)
d λ λ =0

1.8.2 Fermi-Walker transport


The Fermi-Walker transport, see e.g. Stephani[SS90], of a vector X = X µ ∂µ along the worldline xµ (τ )
with four-velocity u = uµ (τ )∂µ is given by Fu X µ = 0 with

dX µ µ 1
Fu X µ := + Γρσ uρ X σ + 2 (uσ aµ − aσ uµ ) gρσ X ρ . (1.8.4)
dτ c
The four-acceleration follows from the four-velocity via

D2 x µ Duµ duµ µ
aµ = = = + Γρσ uρ uσ . (1.8.5)
dτ 2 dτ dτ

1.8.3 Parallel transport


If the four-acceleration vanishes, the Fermi-Walker transport simplifies to the parallel transport Pu X µ = 0
with
DX µ dX µ µ
Pu X µ := = + Γρσ uρ X σ . (1.8.6)
dτ dτ
10 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION AND NOTATION

1.8.4 Euler-Lagrange formalism


A detailed discussion of the Euler-Lagrange formalism can be found, e.g., in Rindler[Rin01]. The La-
grangian L is defined as

L := gµν ẋµ ẋν ,


!
L = κ c2 , (1.8.7)

where xµ are the coordinates of the metric, and the dot means differentiation with respect to the affine
parameter λ . For timelike geodesics, κ = ∓1 depending on the signature of the metric, sign(g) = ±2. For
lightlike geodesics, κ = 0.
The Euler-Lagrange equations read

d ∂L ∂L
− = 0. (1.8.8)
d λ ∂ ẋµ ∂ xµ
If L is independent of xρ , then xρ is a cyclic variable and

pρ = gρν ẋν = const. (1.8.9)

length2
Note that [L ]U = time2
for timelike and [L ]U = 1 for lightlike geodesics, see Sec. 1.9.

1.8.5 Hamilton formalism


The super-Hamiltonian H is defined as
1 ! 1
H := gµν pµ pν , H = κ c2 , (1.8.10)
2 2
where p µ = gµν ẋν are the canonical momenta, see e.g. MTW[MTW73], para. 21.1. As in classical me-
chanics, we have
dxµ ∂H d pµ ∂H
= and =− µ . (1.8.11)
dλ ∂ pµ dλ ∂x

1.9 Units
A first test in analyzing whether an equation is correct is to check the units. Newton’s gravitational
constant G, for example, has the following units

length3
[G]U = , (1.9.1)
mass · time2
where [·]U indicates that we evaluate the units of the enclosed expression. Further examples are

length 1 h i
[ds]U = length, [u]U = , Schwarzschild
[Rtrtr ]U = , RSchwarzschild
ϑ ϕϑ ϕ = length2 . (1.9.2)
time time2 U

1.10 Tools
1.10.1 Maple/GRTensorII
The Christoffel symbols, the Riemann- and Ricci-tensors as well as the Ricci and Kretschmann scalars in
this catalogue were determined by means of the software Maple together with the GRTensorII package
by Musgrave, Pollney, and Lake.2

A typical worksheet to enter a new metric may look like this:


2 The commercial software Maple can be found here: http://www.maplesoft.com. The GRTensorII-package is free:
http://grtensor.phy.queensu.ca.
1.10. TOOLS 11

> grtw();
> makeg(Schwarzschild);

Makeg 2.0: GRTensor metric/basis entry utility


To quit makeg, type ’exit’ at any prompt.
Do you wish to enter a 1) metric [g(dn,dn)],
2) line element [ds],
3) non-holonomic basis [e(1)...e(n)], or
4) NP tetrad [l,n,m,mbar]?
> 2:

Enter coordinates as a LIST (eg. [t,r,theta,phi]):


> [t,r,theta,phi]:

Enter the line element using d[coord] to indicate differentials.


(for example, r^2*(d[theta]^2 + sin(theta)^2*d[phi]^2)
[Type ’exit’ to quit makeg]
ds^2 =

If there are any complex valued coordinates, constants or functions


for this spacetime, please enter them as a SET ( eg. { z, psi } ).

Complex quantities [default={}]:


> {}:

You may choose to 0) Use the metric WITHOUT saving it,


1) Save the metric as it is,
2) Correct an element of the metric,
3) Re-enter the metric,
4) Add/change constraint equations,
5) Add a text description, or
6) Abandon this metric and return to Maple.
> 0:

The worksheets for some of the metrics in this catalogue can be found on the authors homepage. To
determine the objects that are defined with respect to a local tetrad, the metric must be given as non-
holonomic basis.
The various basic objects can be determined via
µ
Christoffel symbols Γνρ grcalc(Chr2); grcalc(Chr(dn,dn,up));
µ
partial derivatives Γνρ ,σ grcalc(Chr(dn,dn,up,pdn));
Riemann tensor Rµνρσ grcalc(Riemman); grcalc(R(dn,dn,dn,dn));
Ricci tensor Rµν grcalc(Ricci); grcalc(R(dn,dn));
Ricci scalar R grcalc(Ricciscalar);
Kretschmann scalar K grcalc(RiemSq);

1.10.2 Mathematica
The calculation of the Christoffel symbols, the Riemann- or Ricci-tensor within Mathematica could read
like this:
Clearing the values of symbols:
In[1]:= Clear[coord, metric, inversemetric, affine,
t, r, Theta, Phi]

Setting the dimension:


In[2]:= n := 4

Defining a list of coordinates:


In[3]:= coord := {t, r, Theta, Phi}

Defining the metric:


In[4]:= metric := {{-(1 - rs/r) c^2, 0, 0, 0},
{0, 1/(1 - rs/r), 0, 0},
{0, 0, r^2, 0},
{0, 0, 0, r ^2 Sin[Theta]^2}}
In[5]:= metric // MatrixForm
12 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION AND NOTATION

Calculating the inverse metric:


In[6]:= inversemetric := Simplify[Inverse[metric]]

In[7]:= inversemetric // MatrixForm

Calculating the Christoffel symbols of the second kind:


In[8]:= affine := affine = Simplify[
Table[(1/2) Sum[inversemetric[[Mu, Rho]] (
D[metric[[Rho, Nu]], coord[[Lambda]]] +
D[metric[[Rho, Lambda]], coord[[Nu]]] -
D[metric[[Nu, Lambda]], coord[[Rho]]]),
{Rho, 1, n}], {Nu, 1, n}, {Lambda, 1, n}, {Mu, 1, n}]]

Displaying the Christoffel symbols of the second kind:


In[9]:= listaffine :=
Table[If[UnsameQ[affine[[Nu, Lambda, Mu]], 0],
{Style[ Subsuperscript[\[CapitalGamma],
Row[{coord[[Nu]], coord[[Lambda]]}], coord[[Mu]]], 18],
"=",
Style[affine[[Nu, Lambda, Mu]], 14]}],
{Lambda, 1, n}, {Nu, 1, Lambda}, {Mu, 1, n}]

In[10]:= TableForm[Partition[DeleteCases[Flatten[listaffine],
Null], 3],
TableSpacing -> {1, 2}]

Defining the Riemann tensor:


In[11]:= riemann := riemann =
Table[D[affine[[Nu, Sigma, Mu]], coord[[Rho]]] -
D[affine[[Nu, Rho, Mu]], coord[[Sigma]]] +
Sum[affine[[Rho, Lambda, Mu]]
affine[[Nu, Sigma, Lambda]] -
affine[[Sigma, Lambda, Mu]]
affine[[Nu, Rho, Lambda]],
{Lambda, 1, n}],
{Mu, 1, n}, {Nu, 1, n}, {Rho, 1, n}, {Sigma, 1, n}]

Defining the Riemann tensor with lower indices:


In[12]:= riemannDn := riemannDn =
Table[Simplify[
Sum[metric[[Mu, Kappa]] riemann[[Kappa, Nu, Rho, Sigma]],
{Kappa, 1, n}]],
{Mu, 1, n}, {Nu, 1, n}, {Rho, 1, n}, {Sigma, 1, n}]

In[13]:= listRiemann :=
Table[If[UnsameQ[riemannDn[[Mu, Nu, Rho, Sigma]], 0],
{Style[Subscript[R, Row[{coord[[Mu]], coord[[Nu]], coord[[Rho]],
coord[[Sigma]]}]], 16], "=",
riemannDn[[Mu, Nu, Rho, Sigma]]}],
{Nu, 1, n}, {Mu, 1, Nu}, {Sigma, 1, n}, {Rho, 1, Sigma}]

In[14]:= TableForm[Partition[DeleteCases[Flatten[listRiemann],
Null], 3],
TableSpacing -> {2, 2}]

Defining the Ricci tensor:


In[15]:= ricci := ricci =
Table[Simplify[
Sum[riemann[[Rho, Mu, Rho, Nu]], {Rho, 1, n}]],
{Mu, 1, n}, {Nu, 1, n}]

In[16]:= listRicci :=
Table[If[UnsameQ[ricci[[Mu, Nu]], 0],
{Style[Subscript[R, Row[{coord[[Mu]], coord[[Nu]]}]], 16],
"=",
Style[ricci[[Mu, Nu]], 16]}], {Nu, 1, 4}, {Mu, 1, Nu}]

In[17]:= TableForm[Partition[DeleteCases[Flatten[listRicci],
Null], 3],
TableSpacing -> {1, 2}]

Defining the Ricci scalar:


In[18]:= ricciscalar := ricciscalar =
Simplify[Sum[
1.10. TOOLS 13

Sum[inversemetric[[Mu, Nu]] ricci[[Nu, Mu]],


{Mu, 1, n}], {Nu, 1, n}]]

Defining the Kretschmann scalar:


In[19]:= riemannUp := riemannUp =
Table[Simplify[
Sum[inversemetric[[Nu, Kappa]]
riemann[[Mu, Kappa, Rho, Sigma]], {Kappa, 1, n}]],
{Mu, 1, n}, {Nu, 1, n}, {Rho, 1, n}, {Sigma, 1, n}]

In[20]:= kretschmann := kretschmann =


Simplify[Sum[ Sum[Sum[Sum[
riemannUp[[Mu, Nu, Rho, Sigma]]
riemannUp[[Rho, Sigma, Mu, Nu]],
{Mu, 1, n}], {Nu, 1, n}], {Rho, 1, n}], {Sigma, 1, n}]]

Some example notebooks can be found on the authors homepage.

1.10.3 Maxima
Instead of using commercial software like Maple or Mathematica, Maxima also offers a tensor package
that helps to calculate the Christoffel symbols etc. The above example for the Schwarzschild metric can
be written as a maxima worksheet as follows:
/* load ctensor package */
load(ctensor);

/* define coordinates to use */


ct_coords:[t,r,theta,phi];

/* start with the identity metric */


lg:ident(4);
lg[1,1]:c^2*(1-rs/r);
lg[2,2]:-1/(1-rs/r);
lg[3,3]:-r^2;
lg[4,4]:-r^2*sin(theta)^2;
cmetric();

/* calculate the christoffel symbols of the second kind */


christof(mcs);

/* calculate the riemann tensor */


lriemann(mcs);

/* calculate the ricci tensor */


ricci(mcs);

/* calculate the ricci scalar */


scurvature();

/* calculate the Kretschmann scalar */


uriemann(mcs);
rinvariant();
ratsimp(%);

As you may have noticed, the Schwarzschild metric must be given with negative signature.
Chapter 2

Spacetimes

2.1 Minkowski
2.1.1 Cartesian coordinates
The Minkowski metric in Cartesian coordinates {t, x, y, z ∈ R} reads
ds2 = −c2 dt 2 + dx2 + dy2 + dz2 . (2.1.1)

All Christoffel symbols as well as the Riemann- and Ricci-tensor vanish identically. The natural local
tetrad is trivial,
1
e(t) = ∂t , e(x) = ∂x , e(y) = ∂y , e(z) = ∂z , (2.1.2)
c
with dual

θ (t) = c dt, θ (x) = dx, θ (y) = dy, θ (z) = dz. (2.1.3)

2.1.2 Cylindrical coordinates


The Minkowski metric in cylindrical coordinates {t ∈ R, r ∈ R+ , ϕ ∈ [0, 2π ), z ∈ R},
ds2 = −c2 dt 2 + dr2 + r2 d ϕ 2 + dz2 , (2.1.4)

has the natural local tetrad


1 1
e(t) = ∂t , e(r) = ∂r , e(ϕ ) = ∂ϕ , e(z) = ∂z . (2.1.5)
c r
Christoffel symbols:

ϕ 1
Γϕϕ
r
= −r, Γrϕ = . (2.1.6)
r
Partial derivatives
ϕ 1
Γrϕ ,r = − , Γrϕϕ ,r = −1. (2.1.7)
r2

Ricci rotation coefficients:


1 1
γ(ϕ )(r)(ϕ ) = and γ(r) = . (2.1.8)
r r

14
2.1. MINKOWSKI 15

2.1.3 Spherical coordinates


In spherical coordinates {t ∈ R, r ∈ R+, ϑ ∈ (0, π ), ϕ ∈ [0, 2π )}, the Minkowski metric reads
ds2 = −c2 dt 2 + dr2 + r2 d ϑ 2 + sin2 ϑ d ϕ 2 . (2.1.9)


Christoffel symbols:
1
Γrϑ ϑ = −r, Γrϕϕ = −r sin2 ϑ , Γϑrϑ = , (2.1.10a)
r
ϑ ϕ 1 ϕ
Γϕϕ = − sin ϑ cos ϑ , Γrϕ = , Γϑ ϕ = cot ϑ . (2.1.10b)
r
Partial derivatives
1 ϕ 1
Γϑrϑ ,r = − , Γrϕ ,r = − , Γrϑ ϑ ,r = −1, (2.1.11a)
r2 r2
ϕ 1
Γϑ ϕ ,ϑ =− 2 , Γϕϕ
r
,r = − sin ϑ ,
2
Γϑϕϕ ,ϑ = − cos(2ϑ ), (2.1.11b)
sin ϑ
Γϕϕ
r
,ϑ = − sin(2ϑ ). (2.1.11c)

Local tetrad:
1 1 1
e(t) = ∂t , e(r) = ∂r , e(ϑ ) = ∂ϑ , e(ϕ ) = ∂ϕ . (2.1.12)
c r r sin ϑ
Ricci rotation coefficients:
1 cot ϑ
γ(ϑ )(r)(ϑ ) = γ(ϕ )(r)(ϕ ) = , γ(ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ ) = . (2.1.13)
r r
The contractions of the Ricci rotation coefficients read
2 cot ϑ
γ(r) = , γ(ϑ ) = . (2.1.14)
r r

2.1.4 Conform-compactified coordinates


The Minkowski metric in conform-compactified coordinates {ψ ∈ [−π , π ], ξ ∈ (0, π ), ϑ ∈ (0, π ), ϕ ∈ [0, 2π )}
reads[HE99]

ds2 = −d ψ 2 + d ξ 2 + sin2 ξ d ϑ 2 + sin2 ϑ d ϕ 2 . (2.1.15)




This form follows from the spherical Minkowski metric (2.1.9) by means of the coordinate transforma-
tion
ψ +ξ ψ −ξ
ct + r = tan , ct − r = tan , (2.1.16)
2 2
resulting in the metric

−d ψ 2 + d ξ 2 sin2 ξ
d s̃2 = d ϑ 2 + sin2 ϑ d ϕ 2 ,

+ (2.1.17)
4 cos2 ψ +
2
ξ
cos2 ψ −
2
ξ
4 cos2 ψ +
2
ξ
cos2 ψ −
2
ξ

and by the conformal transformation ds2 = Ω2 d s̃2 with Ω2 = 4 cos2 ψ + ξ


2 cos
2 ψ −ξ .
2
Christoffel symbols:
ϕ ξ
Γϑξϑ = cot ξ , Γξ ϕ = cot ξ , Γϑ ϑ = − sin ξ cos ξ , (2.1.18a)
ϕ ξ ϑ
Γϑ ϕ = cot ϑ , Γϕϕ = − sin ξ cos ξ sin2 ϑ , Γϕϕ = − sin ϑ cos ϑ . (2.1.18b)
16 CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

Partial derivatives
1 ϕ 1 ξ
Γϑξϑ ,ξ = − , Γξ ϕ ,ξ = − 2 , Γϑ ϑ ,ξ = − cos(2ξ ), (2.1.19a)
sin ξ
2
sin ξ
ϕ 1 ξ
Γϑ ϕ ,ϑ =− 2 , Γϕϕ ,ξ = − cos(2ξ ) sin2 ϑ , Γϑϕϕ ,ϑ = − cos(2ϑ ), (2.1.19b)
sin ϑ
ξ 1
Γϕϕ ,ϑ = − sin(2ξ ) sin(2ϑ ). (2.1.19c)
2

Riemann-Tensor:

Rξ ϑ ξ ϑ = sin2 ξ , Rξ ϕξ ϕ = sin2 ξ sin2 ϑ , Rϑ ϕϑ ϕ = sin4 ξ sin2 ϑ . (2.1.20)

Ricci-Tensor:

Rξ ξ = 2, Rϑ ϑ = 2 sin2 ξ , Rϕϕ = 2 sin2 ξ sin2 ϑ . (2.1.21)

Ricci and Kretschmann scalars:

R = 6, K = 12. (2.1.22)

The Weyl tensor vanishs identically.


Local tetrad:
1 1
e(ψ ) = ∂ψ , e(ξ ) = ∂ξ , e(ϑ ) = ∂ϑ , e(ϕ ) = ∂ϕ . (2.1.23)
sin ξ sin ξ sin ϑ

Ricci rotation coefficients:


cot ϑ
γ(ϑ )(ξ )(ϑ ) = γ(ϕ )(ξ )(ϕ ) = cot ξ , γ(ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ ) = . (2.1.24)
sin ξ

The contractions of the Ricci rotation coefficients read


cot ϑ
γ(ξ ) = 2 cot ξ , γ(ϑ ) = . (2.1.25)
sin ξ

Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:

R(ξ )(ϑ )(ξ )(ϑ ) = R(ξ )(ϕ )(ξ )(ϕ ) = R(ϑ )(ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ ) = 1. (2.1.26)

Ricci-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:

R(ξ )(ξ ) = R(ϑ )(ϑ ) = R(ϕ )(ϕ ) = 2. (2.1.27)

2.1.5 Rotating coordinates


The transformation d ϕ →
7 d ϕ + ω dt brings the Minkowski metric (2.1.4) into the rotating form[Rin01]
R R
with coordinates {t ∈ , r ∈ + , ϕ ∈ [0, 2π ), z ∈ }, R
ω 2 r2 r2
 
ds2 = − 1 − 2 [c dt − Ω(r)d ϕ ]2 + dr2 + d ϕ 2 + dz2 (2.1.28)
c 1 − ω 2r2 /c2

with Ω(r) = (r2 ω /c)/(1 − ω 2r2 /c2 ).


Metric-Tensor:

gtt = −c2 + ω 2 r2 , gt ϕ = ω r2 , grr = gzz = 1, gϕϕ = r2 . (2.1.29)


2.1. MINKOWSKI 17

Christoffel symbols:

ϕ ω ϕ 1
Γttr = −ω 2 r, Γtr = , Γtrϕ = −ω r, Γrϕ = , Γϕϕ
r
= −r. (2.1.30)
r r
Partial derivatives
ϕ ω ϕ 1
Γtt,r
r
= −ω 2 , Γtr,r = − , Γtrϕ ,r = −ω , Γrϕ ,r = − , Γϕϕ
r
,r = −1. (2.1.31)
r2 r2
The local tetrad of the comoving observer is
1 ω 1
e(t) = ∂t − ∂ϕ , e(r) = ∂r , e(ϕ ) = ∂ϕ , e(z) = ∂z , (2.1.32)
c c r
whereas the static observer has the local tetrad
1
e(t) = p ∂t , e(r) = ∂r , e(z) = ∂z , (2.1.33a)
c 1 − ω 2r2 /c2
ωr 1 − ω 2r2 /c2
p
e(ϕ ) = p ∂t + ∂ϕ . (2.1.33b)
c 1 − ω 2r2 /c2
2 r

2.1.6 Rindler coordinates


The worldline of an observer in the Minkowski spacetime who moves with constant proper acceleration
α along the x direction reads

c2 αt′ c2 αt′
x= cosh , ct = sinh , (2.1.34)
α c α c
where t ′ is the observer’s proper time. The observer starts at x = 1 with zero velocity.
However, such an observer could also be described with Rindler coordinates. With the coordinate trans-
formation
1 1
(ct, x) 7→ (τ , ρ ) : ct = sinh τ , x= cosh τ , (2.1.35)
ρ ρ

where ρ = α /c2 , the Rindler metric reads

1 2 1
ds2 = − d τ + 4 d ρ 2 + dy2 + dz2 . (2.1.36)
ρ2 ρ

Christoffel symbols:

ρ τ 1 ρ 2
Γττ = −ρ , Γτρ =− , Γρρ = − . (2.1.37)
ρ ρ
Partial derivatives
ρ τ 1 ρ 2
Γττ ,ρ = −1, Γτρ ,ρ = , Γρρ ,ρ = . (2.1.38)
ρ2 ρ2
The Riemann and Ricci tensors as well as the Ricci and Kretschmann scalar vanish identically.
Local tetrad:

e(τ ) = ρ∂τ , e(ρ ) = ρ 2 ∂ρ , e(y) = ∂y , e(z) = ∂z . (2.1.39)

Ricci rotation coefficients:

γ(τ )(ρ )(τ ) = ρ , and γ(ρ ) = −ρ . (2.1.40)


18 CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

2.2 Schwarzschild spacetime


2.2.1 Schwarzschild coordinates
In Schwarzschild coordinates {t ∈ R, r ∈ R+ , ϑ ∈ (0, π ), ϕ ∈ [0, 2π )}, the Schwarzschild metric reads
 rs  2 2 1
ds2 = − 1 − dr2 + r2 d ϑ 2 + sin2 ϑ d ϕ 2 ,

c dt + (2.2.1)
r 1 − rs/r

where rs = 2GM/c2 is the Schwarzschild radius, G is Newton’s constant, c is the speed of light, and M is
the mass of the black hole. The critical point r = 0 is a real curvature singularity while the event horizon,
r = rs , is only a coordinate singularity, see e.g. the Kretschmann scalar.
Christoffel symbols:
c2 rs (r − rs ) rs rs
Γttr = , Γttr = , Γrrr = − , (2.2.2a)
2r3 2r(r − rs ) 2r(r − rs )
1 ϕ 1
Γϑrϑ = , Γrϕ = , Γrϑ ϑ = −(r − rs ), (2.2.2b)
r r
ϕ ϑ
Γϑ ϕ = cot ϑ , Γrϕϕ = −(r − rs ) sin2 ϑ , Γϕϕ = − sin ϑ cos ϑ . (2.2.2c)

Partial derivatives
(2r − 3rs )c2 rs (2r − rs )rs (2r − rs )rs
Γtt,r
r
=− , Γttr,r = − , Γrrr,r = , (2.2.3a)
2r4 2r2 (r − rs )2 2r2 (r − rs )2
1 ϕ 1
Γϑrϑ ,r = − 2 , Γrϕ ,r = − 2 , Γϑr ϑ ,r = −1, (2.2.3b)
r r
ϕ 1 ϑ
Γϑ ϕ ,ϑ = − 2 , Γrϕϕ ,r = − sin2 ϑ , Γϕϕ ,ϑ = − cos(2ϑ ), (2.2.3c)
sin ϑ
Γϕϕ ,ϑ = −(r − rs ) sin(2ϑ ).
r
(2.2.3d)

Riemann-Tensor:
c2 rs 1 c2 (r − rs ) rs 1 c2 (r − rs ) rs sin2 ϑ
Rtrtr = − , Rt ϑ t ϑ = , Rt ϕ t ϕ = , (2.2.4a)
r3 2 r2 2 r2
1 rs 1 rs sin2 ϑ
Rr ϑ r ϑ =− , Rr ϕ r ϕ =− , Rϑ ϕϑ ϕ = rrs sin2 ϑ . (2.2.4b)
2 r − rs 2 r − rs
As aspected, the Ricci tensor as well as the Ricci scalar vanish identically because the Schwarzschild
spacetime is a vacuum solution of the field equations. Hence, the Weyl tensor is identical to the Riemann
tensor. The Kretschmann scalar reads
rs2
K = 12 . (2.2.5)
r6
Here, it becomes clear that at r = rs there is no real singularity.
Local tetrad:
r
1 rs 1 1
e(t) = p ∂t , e(r) = 1 − ∂r , e(ϑ ) = ∂ϑ , e(ϕ ) = ∂ϕ . (2.2.6)
c 1 − rs /r r r r sin ϑ
Dual tetrad:
r
rs dr
θ (t) = c 1 − dt, θ (r) = p , θ (ϑ ) = r d ϑ , θ (ϕ ) = r sin ϑ d ϕ . (2.2.7)
r 1 − rs/r

Ricci rotation coefficients:


cot ϑ
r
r 1 rs
γ(r)(t)(t) = p s , γ(ϑ )(r)(ϑ ) = γ(ϕ )(r)(ϕ ) = 1− , γ(ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ ) = . (2.2.8)
2
2r 1 − rs/r r r r
2.2. SCHWARZSCHILD SPACETIME 19

The contractions of the Ricci rotation coefficients read


4r − 3rs cot ϑ
γ(r) = p , γ(ϑ ) = . (2.2.9)
2r2 1 − rs/r r

Structure coefficients:
cot ϑ
r
(t) rs (ϑ ) (ϕ ) 1 rs (ϕ )
c(t)(r) = p , c(r)(ϑ ) = c(r)(ϕ ) =− 1− , c(ϑ )(ϕ ) = . (2.2.10)
2
2r 1 − rs/r r r r

Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


rs
R(t)(r)(t)(r) = −R(ϑ )(ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ ) = − , (2.2.11a)
r3
rs
R(t)(ϑ )(t)(ϑ ) = R(t)(ϕ )(t)(ϕ ) = −R(r)(ϑ )(r)(ϑ ) = −R(r)(ϕ )(r)(ϕ ) = . (2.2.11b)
2r3
The covariant derivatives of the Riemann tensor read
3rs p
R(t)(r)(t)(r);(r) = −R(ϑ )(ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ );(r) = 5 r(r − rs ), (2.2.12a)
r
R(t)(r)(r)(ϑ );(ϑ ) = R(t)(r)(t)(ϕ );(ϕ ) = R(t)(ϑ )(t)(ϑ );(r) = R(t)(ϕ )(t)(ϕ );(r) =
3rs p
= R(r)(ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ );(ϑ ) = − 5 r(r − rs ), (2.2.12b)
2r
3rs p
R(r)(ϑ )(r)(ϑ );(r) = R(r)(ϑ )(ϑ )(ϕ );(ϕ ) = R(r)(ϕ )(r)(ϕ );(r) = 5 r(r − rs ). (2.2.12c)
2r
Newman-Penrose tetrad:
1 1 1
(2.2.13)
  
l = √ e(t) + e(r) , n = √ e(t) − e(r) , m = √ e(ϑ ) + ie(ϕ ) .
2 2 2
Non-vanishing spin coefficients:

cot ϑ
r
1 rs rs
ρ = µ = −√ 1− , γ = ε = √ p , α = −β = − √ . (2.2.14)
2r r 4 2r2 1 − rs/r 2 2r

Embedding:
The embedding function reads
√ √
z = 2 rs r − rs . (2.2.15)

Euler-Lagrange:
The Euler-Lagrangian formalism, Sec. 1.8.4, for geodesics in the ϑ = π /2 hyperplane yields

1 k2 rs  h2
 
1 2 1
ṙ + Veff = , Veff = 1 − − κ c 2
(2.2.16)
2 2 c2 2 r r2

with the constants of motion k = (1 − rs /r)c2t˙, h = r2 ϕ̇ , and κ as in Eq. (1.8.2). For timelike geodesics, the
effective potential has the extremal points
p
h2 ± h h2 − 3c2rs2
r± = , (2.2.17)
c2 rs
where r+ is a maximum and r− is a minimum. The innermost timelike circular geodesic follows from
h2 = 3c2 rs2 and reads ritcg = 3rs . Null geodesics, however, have only a maximum at rpo = 32 rs . The
corresponding circular orbit is called photon orbit.
Further reading:
Schwarzschild[Sch16, Sch03], MTW[MTW73], Rindler[Rin01], Wald[Wal84], Chandrasekhar[Cha06],
Müller[Mül08b, Mül09].
20 CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

2.2.2 Schwarzschild in pseudo-Cartesian coordinates


The Schwarzschild spacetime in pseudo-Cartesian coordinates (t, x, y, z) reads

x2
 2 
y2
  2
 rs  2 2 2 2 dx 2 2 dy
ds2 = − 1− c dt + +y +z + x + +z
 r 1−
 rs/r2 r2 1 − rs /r r2
2 (2.2.18)
z dz 2r s
+ x2 + y2 + + 2 (xy dxdy + xz dxdz + yz dydz),
1 − rs/r r2 r (r − rs )

where r2 = x2 + y2 + z2 . For a natural local tetrad that is adapted to the x-axis, we make the following
ansatz:
1
e(0) = p ∂t , e(1) = A∂x , e(2) = B∂x + C∂y , e(3) = D∂x + E ∂y + F ∂z . (2.2.19)
c 1 − rs /r

1 −gxy 1
A= √ , B= q , C= q , (2.2.20a)
gxx gxx −g2xy /gxx + gyy −g2xy /gxx + gyy

gxy gyz − gxz gyy gxz gxy − gxx gyz N
D= √ , E= √ , F=√ , (2.2.20b)
NW NW W
with

N = gxx gyy − g2xy , (2.2.21a)


W= gxx gyy gzz − g2xz gyy + 2gxzgxy gyz − g2xy gzz − gxx g2yz . (2.2.21b)

2.2.3 Isotropic coordinates


Spherical isotropic coordinates
The Schwarzschild metric (2.2.1) in spherical isotropic coordinates (t, ρ , ϑ , ϕ ) reads

1 − ρs /ρ ρs 4  2
 2  
2 2 2
d ρ + ρ 2 d ϑ 2 + sin2 ϑ d ϕ 2 , (2.2.22)

ds = − c dt + 1 +
1 + ρs /ρ ρ

where

ρs 2
 
1 
r = ρ 1+ ρ=
p
or 2r − rs ± 2 r(r − rs ) (2.2.23)
ρ 4
is the coordinate transformation between the Schwarzschild radial coordinate r and the isotropic radial
coordinate ρ , see e.g. MTW[MTW73] page 840. The event horizon is given by ρs = rs /4. The photon
orbit and the innermost timelike circular geodesic read
 √   √ 
ρpo = 2 + 3 ρs and ρitcg = 5 + 2 6 ρs . (2.2.24)

Christoffel symbols:

ρ 2(ρ − ρs)ρ 4 ρs c2 2ρs ρ 2ρs


Γtt = , Γtt ρ = 2 , Γρρ = − , (2.2.25a)
(ρ + ρs )7 ρ − ρs2 (ρ + ρs)ρ
ϑ ρ − ρs ϕ ρ − ρs ρ ρ − ρs
Γρϑ = , Γρϕ = , Γϑ ϑ = −ρ , (2.2.25b)
(ρ + ρs )ρ (ρ + ρs )ρ ρ + ρs
ϕ ρ (ρ − ρs )ρ sin2 ϑ ϑ
Γϑ ϕ = cot ϑ , Γϕϕ = − , Γϕϕ = − sin ϑ cos ϑ . (2.2.25c)
ρ + ρs
2.2. SCHWARZSCHILD SPACETIME 21

Riemann-Tensor:
(ρ − ρs )2 ρs c2 (ρ − ρs )2 ρρs c2
Rt ρ t ρ = −4 , Rt ϑ t ϑ = 2 , (2.2.26a)
(ρ + ρs)4 ρ (ρ + ρs )4
(ρ − ρs)2 ρ c2 ρs sin2 ϑ (ρ + ρs )2 ρs
Rt ϕ t ϕ = 2 , Rρϑ ρϑ = −2 , (2.2.26b)
(ρ + ρs)4 ρ3
(ρ + ρs )2 ρs sin2 ϑ 4(ρ + ρs )2 ρs sin2 ϑ
Rρϕρϕ = −2 , Rϑ ϕϑ ϕ = . (2.2.26c)
ρ3 ρ

The Ricci tensor and the Ricci scalar vanish identically.


Kretschmann scalar:
rs2 rs2
K = 192 = 12 . (2.2.27)
ρ 6 (1 + ρs/ρ )12 r(ρ )6

Local tetrad:
1 + ρs/ρ ∂t 1
e(t) = , e(r) = ∂ρ , (2.2.28a)
1 − ρs /ρ c [1 + ρs/ρ ]2
1 1
e(ϑ ) = ∂ϑ , e(ϕ ) = ∂ϕ . (2.2.28b)
ρ [1 + ρs/ρ ]2 ρ [1 + ρs/ρ ]2 sin2 ϑ

Ricci rotation coefficients:


2ρs ρ 2 ρ (ρ − ρs )
γ(ρ )(t)(t) = , γ(ϑ )(ρ )(ϑ ) = γ(ϕ )(ρ )(ϕ ) = , (2.2.29a)
(ρ + ρs)3 (ρ − ρs) (ρ + ρs)3
ρ cot ϑ
γ(ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ ) = . (2.2.29b)
(ρ + ρs)2

The contractions of the Ricci rotation coefficients read


2ρ (ρ 2 − ρρs + ρs2) ρ cot ϑ
γ(ρ ) = , γ(ϑ ) = . (2.2.30)
(ρ + ρs)3 (ρ − ρs) (ρ + ρs)2

Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


rs
R(t)(ρ )(t)(ρ ) = −R(ϑ )(ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ ) = − , (2.2.31a)
r(ρ )3
rs
R(t)(ϑ )(t)(ϑ ) = R(t)(ϕ )(t)(ϕ ) = −R(ρ )(ϑ )(ρ )(ϑ ) = −R(ρ )(ϕ )(ρ )(ϕ ) = . (2.2.31b)
2r(ρ )3

Further reading:
Buchdahl[Buc85].

Cartesian isotropic coordinates


The Schwarzschild metric (2.2.1) in Cartesian isotropic coordinates (t, x, y, z) reads,

1 − ρs /ρ ρs 4  2
 2  
2 2 2
dx + dy2 + dz2 , (2.2.32)

ds = − c dt + 1 +
1 + ρs /ρ ρ

where ρ 2 = x2 + y2 + z2 and, as before,

ρs 2
 
r = ρ 1+ . (2.2.33)
ρ
22 CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

Christoffel symbols:

2c2 ρ 3 ρs (ρ − ρs) x 2c2 ρ 3 ρs (ρ − ρs) y 2c2 ρ 3 ρs (ρ − ρs) z


Γttx = , Γtty = , Γttz = , (2.2.34a)
(ρ + ρs) 7
( ρ + ρs ) 7
(ρ + ρs )7
2ρs x 2 ρ s y 2ρs z
Γttx = 3 , Γtty = 3 , Γttz = , (2.2.34b)
ρ [1 − ρs2/ρ 2 ] ρ [1 − ρs2/ρ 2 ] ρ 3 [1 − ρs2/ρ 2 ]
2ρs x
Γxxx = Γyxy = Γzxz = −Γxyy = −Γxzz = − 3 , (2.2.34c)
ρ 1 + ρs /ρ
2ρs y
Γyxx = −Γxxy = −Γyyy = −Γzyz = Γyzz = 3 , (2.2.34d)
ρ 1 + ρs /ρ
2ρs z
Γzxx = −Γxxz = Γzyy = −Γyyz = −Γzzz = 3 . (2.2.34e)
ρ 1 + ρs /ρ

2.2.4 Eddington-Finkelstein
The transformation of the Schwarzschild metric (2.2.1) from the usual Schwarzschild time coordinate t
to the advanced null coordinate v with
cv = ct + r + rs ln(r − rs ) (2.2.35)
leads to the ingoing Eddington-Finkelstein[Edd24, Fin58] metric with coordinates (v, r, ϑ , ϕ ),
 rs  2 2
ds2 = − 1 − c dv + 2c dv dr + r2 d ϑ 2 + sin2 ϑ d ϕ 2 . (2.2.36)

r

Metric-Tensor:
 rs 
gvv = −c2 1 − , gvr = c, gϑ ϑ = r 2 , gϕϕ = r2 sin2 ϑ . (2.2.37)
r
Christoffel symbols:

crs c2 rs (r − rs ) crs 1
Γvvv = 2
, Γrvv = , Γrvr = − 2 , Γϑrϑ = , (2.2.38a)
2r 2r3 2r r
ϕ 1 r ϕ
Γrϕ = , Γϑ ϑ = − ,
v
Γϑ ϑ = −(r − rs ),
r
Γϑ ϕ = cot ϑ , (2.2.38b)
r c
r sin ϑ
2
ϑ
Γvϕϕ =− , Γϕϕ
r
= −(r − rs ) sin2 ϑ , Γϕϕ = − sin ϑ cos ϑ . (2.2.38c)
c
Partial derivatives
crs (2r − 3rs )c2 rs crs
Γvvv,r = − , Γrvv,r = − , Γrvr,r = , (2.2.39a)
r3 2r4 r3
1 ϕ 1 1
Γϑrϑ ,r = − 2 , Γrϕ ,r = − 2 , Γvϑ ϑ ,r = − , (2.2.39b)
r r c
ϕ 1 sin 2
ϑ
Γrϑ ϑ ,r = −1, Γϑ ϕ ,ϑ = − 2 , Γϕϕ
v
,r = − , (2.2.39c)
sin ϑ c
r sin(2ϑ )
Γvϕϕ ,ϑ = − , Γrϕϕ ,r = − sin2 ϑ , Γϑϕϕ ,ϑ = − cos(2ϑ ), (2.2.39d)
c
Γϕϕ
r
,ϑ = −(r − rs ) sin(2ϑ ). (2.2.39e)

Riemann-Tensor:
c2 rs c2 rs (r − rs ) crs
Rvrvr = − , Rvϑ vϑ = , Rvϑ rϑ = − , (2.2.40a)
r3 2r2 2r
c2 rs (r − rs ) sin2 ϑ crs sin2 ϑ
Rvϕ vϕ = , Rvϕ rϕ =− , Rϑ ϕϑ ϕ = rrs sin2 ϑ . (2.2.40b)
2r2 2r
2.2. SCHWARZSCHILD SPACETIME 23

While the Ricci tensor and the Ricci scalar vanish identically, the Kretschmann scalar is K = 12rs2 /r6 .
Static local tetrad:
r
1 1 rs 1 1
e(v) = p ∂v , e(r) = p ∂v + 1 − ∂r , e(ϑ ) = ∂ϑ , e(ϕ ) = ∂ϕ . (2.2.41)
c 1 − rs/r c 1 − rs/r r r r sin ϑ

Dual tetrad:
r
rs dr dr
θ (v)
= c 1 − dv − p , θ (r) = p , θ (ϑ ) = r d ϑ , θ (ϕ ) = r sin ϑ d ϕ . (2.2.42)
r 1 − rs /r 1 − rs /r

Ricci rotation coefficients:

cot ϑ
r
rs 1 rs
γ(r)(v)(v) = p , γ(ϑ )(r)(ϑ ) = γ(ϕ )(r)(ϕ ) = 1− , γ(ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ ) = . (2.2.43)
2
2r 1 − rs/r r r r

The contractions of the Ricci rotation coefficients read


4r − 3rs cot ϑ
γ(r) = p , γ(ϑ ) = . (2.2.44)
2r2 1 − rs/r r

Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


rs
R(v)(r)(v)(r) = −R(ϑ )(ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ ) = − , (2.2.45a)
r3
rs
R(v)(ϑ )(v)(ϑ ) = R(v)(ϕ )(v)(ϕ ) = −R(r)(ϑ )(r)(ϑ ) = −R(r)(ϕ )(r)(ϕ ) = . (2.2.45b)
2r3

2.2.5 Kruskal-Szekeres
The Schwarzschild metric in Kruskal-Szekeres[Kru60, Wal84] coordinates (T, X, ϑ , ϕ ) reads

4rs3 −r/rs
ds2 = −dT 2 + dX 2 + r2 dΩ2 , (2.2.46)

e
r

where r ∈ R+ \ {0} is given by means of the LambertW-function W ,


  2
X −T2
   
r
− 1 er/rs = X 2 − T 2 or r = rs W +1 . (2.2.47)
rs e

The Schwarzschild coordinate time t in terms of the Kruskal coordinates T and X reads
T
t = 2rs arctanh , r > rs , (2.2.48a)
X
X
t = 2rs arctanh , r < rs , (2.2.48b)
T
t = ∞, r = rs . (2.2.48c)

The transformations between Kruskal- and Schwarzschild coordinates read


r r
r r/(2rs ) ct r ct
X = 1− e sinh , T = 1 − er/(2rs ) cosh , 0 < r < r2 , (2.2.49a)
rs 2rs rs 2rs
r r
r ct r ct
X= − 1 er/(2rs ) cosh , T= − 1 er/(2rs ) sinh , r ≥ rs . (2.2.49b)
rs 2rs rs 2rs
24 CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

Christoffel symbols:

Trs (r + rs ) −r/rs
ΓTT T = ΓXT X = ΓTXX = e , (2.2.50a)
r2
Xrs (r + rs ) −r/rs
ΓXT T = ΓTT X = ΓXXX =− e , (2.2.50b)
r2
2r2 T 2rs2 X −r/rs
ΓϑT ϑ = − s2 e−r/rs , ΓϑX ϑ = e , (2.2.50c)
r r2
r r
ΓTϑ ϑ = − T, ΓXϑ ϑ = X, (2.2.50d)
2rs 2rs
r r
ΓTϑ ϑ = − T sin2 ϑ , ΓXϑ ϑ = X sin2 ϑ , (2.2.50e)
2rs 2rs
ϕ ϑ
Γϑ ϕ = cot ϑ , Γϕϕ = − sin ϑ cos ϑ . (2.2.50f)

Riemann-Tensor:

rs7 −2r/rs 2rs4 −r/rs


RT XT X = −16 e , RT ϑ T ϑ = e , (2.2.51a)
r5 r2
2rs4 −r/rs 2 2r4
RT ϕ T ϕ = e sin ϑ , RX ϑ X ϑ = − 2s e−r/rs , (2.2.51b)
r2 r
2r4
RX ϕ X ϕ = − 2s e−r/rs sin2 ϑ , Rϑ ϕϑ ϕ = rrs sin2 ϑ . (2.2.51c)
r

The Ricci-Tensor as well as the Ricci-scalar vanish identically.


Kretschmann scalar:

12rs2
K = . (2.2.52)
r6

Local tetrad:
√ √
r r 1 1
e(T ) = √ er/(2rs ) ∂T , e(X) = √ er/(2rs ) ∂X , e(ϑ ) = ∂ϑ , e(ϕ ) = ∂ϕ (2.2.53)
2rs rs 2rs rs r r sin ϑ

Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


rs
R(T )(X)(T )(X) = R(X)(ϑ )(X)(ϑ ) = R(X)(ϕ )(X)(ϕ ) = −R(ϑ )(ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ ) = − , (2.2.54a)
r3
rs
R(T )(ϑ )(T )(ϑ ) = R(T )(ϕ )(T )(ϕ ) = . (2.2.54b)
2r3

2.2.6 Tortoise coordinates


The Schwarzschild metric represented by tortoise coordinates (t, ρ , ϑ , ϕ ) reads

   
rs rs
ds2 = − 1 − c2 dt 2 + 1 − d ρ 2 + r(ρ )2 d ϑ 2 + sin2 ϑ d ϕ 2 , (2.2.55)

r(ρ ) r(ρ )

where rs = 2GM/c2 is the Schwarzschild radius, G is Newton’s constant, c is the speed of light, and M
is the mass of the black hole. The tortoise radial coordinate ρ and the Schwarzschild radial coordinate r
are related by

ρ
     
r
ρ = r + rs ln −1 or r = rs 1 + W exp −1 . (2.2.56)
rs rs
2.2. SCHWARZSCHILD SPACETIME 25

Christoffel symbols:

ρ c2 rs rs ρ rs
Γtt = , Γtt ρ = , Γρρ = , (2.2.57a)
2r(ρ )2 2r(ρ )2 2r(ρ )2
ϑ 1 1 ϕ 1 1 ρ
Γρϑ = − , Γρϕ = − , Γϑ ϑ = −r(ρ ), (2.2.57b)
r(ρ ) rs r(ρ ) rs
ϕ ρ ϑ
Γϑ ϕ = cot ϑ , Γϕϕ = −r(ρ ) sin2 ϑ , Γϕϕ = − sin ϑ cos ϑ . (2.2.57c)

Riemann-Tensor:

c2 rs rs 2 c2
   
rs rs
Rt ρ t ρ = − 1− , Rt ϑ t ϑ = 1− , (2.2.58a)
r(ρ )3 r(ρ ) 2 r(ρ ) r(ρ )
c2 sin2 ϑ
   
rs rs 1 rs rs
Rt ϕ t ϕ = 1− , Rρϑ ρϑ =− 1− (2.2.58b)
2 r(ρ ) r(ρ ) 2 r(ρ ) r(ρ )
sin2 ϑ
 
rs rs
Rρϕρϕ =− 1− , Rϑ ϕϑ ϕ = r(ρ )rs sin2 ϑ . (2.2.58c)
2 r(ρ ) r(ρ )

The Ricci tensor as well as the Ricci scalar vanish identically because the Schwarzschild spacetime is a
vacuum solution of the field equations. Hence, the Weyl tensor is identical to the Riemann tensor. The
Kretschmann scalar reads
rs2
K = 12 . (2.2.59)
r(ρ )6

Local tetrad:
1 1 1 1
e(t) = p ∂t , e(ρ ) = p ∂ρ , e(ϑ ) = ∂ϑ , e(ϕ ) = ∂ϕ . (2.2.60)
c 1 − rs /r(ρ ) 1 − rs /r(ρ ) r(ρ ) r(ρ ) sin ϑ

Dual tetrad:
r r
rs (ρ ) rs
θ (t)
= c 1− dt, θ = 1− dρ , θ (ϑ ) = r(ρ ) d ϑ , θ (ϕ ) = r(ρ ) sin ϑ d ϕ . (2.2.61)
r(ρ ) r(ρ )

Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


rs
R(t)(ρ )(t)(ρ ) = −R(ϑ )(ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ ) = − , (2.2.62a)
r(ρ )3
rs
R(t)(ϑ )(t)(ϑ ) = R(t)(ϕ )(t)(ϕ ) = −R(ρ )(ϑ )(ρ )(ϑ ) = −R(ρ )(ϕ )(ρ )(ϕ ) = . (2.2.62b)
2r(ρ )3

Further reading:
MTW[MTW73]

2.2.7 Painlevé-Gullstrand
The Schwarzschild metric expressed in Painlevé-Gullstrand coordinates[MP01] reads

 r 2
rs
ds2 = −c2 dT 2 + dr + c dT + r2 d ϑ 2 + sin2 ϑ d ϕ 2 , (2.2.63)

r

where the new time coordinate T follows from the Schwarzschild time t in the following way:
p !
r 1 r/rs − 1
r
cT = ct + 2rs + ln p . (2.2.64)
rs 2 r/rs + 1
26 CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

Metric-Tensor:
r
 rs  rs
gT T = −c 2
1− , gTr = c , grr = 1, gϑ ϑ = r 2 , gϕϕ = r2 sin2 ϑ . (2.2.65)
r r

Christoffel symbols:

c2 rs (r − rs )
r
crs rs rs
ΓT T = 2
T
, ΓrT T = , ΓTTr = , (2.2.66a)
2r r 2r3 2r2
r r
crs rs rs r rs
ΓrTr = − 2 , ΓTrr = 2
, Γrrr = − 2 , (2.2.66b)
2r r 2cr rs 2r
r
1 ϕ 1 r rs
Γϑrϑ = , Γrϕ = , Γϑ ϑ = −
T
, (2.2.66c)
r r c r
r
ϕ r rs 2
Γϑr ϑ = −(r − rs ), Γϑ ϕ = cot ϑ , Γϕϕ
T
=− sin ϑ , (2.2.66d)
c r
ϑ
Γrϕϕ = −(r − rs ) sin2 ϑ , Γϕϕ = − sin ϑ cos ϑ . (2.2.66e)

Riemann-Tensor:
c2 rs c2 rs (r − rs )
r
crs rs
RTrTr =− 3 , RT ϑ T ϑ = , RT ϑ r ϑ = − , (2.2.67a)
r 2r2 2r r
c2 rs (r − rs ) sin2 ϑ
r
crs rs 2 rs
RT ϕ T ϕ = , RT ϕ r ϕ =− sin ϑ , Rrϑ rϑ = − , (2.2.67b)
2r2 2r r 2r
rs sin2 ϑ
Rr ϕ r ϕ = − , Rϑ ϕϑ ϕ = rrs sin2 ϑ . (2.2.67c)
2r
The Ricci tensor and the Ricci scalar vanish identically.
Kretschmann scalar:

K = 12rs2 /r6 . (2.2.68)

For the Painlevé-Gullstrand coordinates, we can define two natural local tetrads.
Static local tetrad:
√ r
1 rs rs 1 1
ê(T ) = p ∂T , ê(r) = √ ∂T + 1 − ∂r , ê(ϑ ) = ∂ϑ , ê(ϕ ) = ∂ϕ , (2.2.69)
c 1 − rs /r c r − rs r r r sin ϑ

Dual tetrad:
r
(T ) rs dr (r) dr (ϑ ) (ϕ )
θ̂ = c 1 − dT − p , θ̂ =p , θ̂ = r dϑ , θ̂ = r sin ϑ d ϕ . (2.2.70)
r r/rs − 1 1 − rs/r

Freely falling local tetrad:


r
1 rs 1 1
e(T ) = ∂T − ∂r , e(r) = ∂r , e(ϑ ) = ∂ϑ , e(ϕ ) = ∂ϕ . (2.2.71)
c r r r sin ϑ
Dual tetrad:
r
rs
θ (T ) = c dT, θ (r) = c dT + dr, θ (ϑ ) = r d ϑ , θ (ϕ ) = r sin ϑ d ϕ . (2.2.72)
r

Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


rs
R(T )(r)(T )(r) = −R(ϑ )(ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ ) = − , (2.2.73a)
r3
rs
R(T )(ϑ )(T )(ϑ ) = R(T )(ϕ )(T )(ϕ ) = −R(r)(ϑ )(r)(ϑ ) = −R(r)(ϕ )(r)(ϕ ) = . (2.2.73b)
2r3
2.2. SCHWARZSCHILD SPACETIME 27

2.2.8 Israel coordinates


The Schwarzschild metric in Israel coordinates (x, y, ϑ , ϕ ) reads[SKM+03]

y2 dx
   
2
rs2 + (1 + xy) d ϑ + sin ϑ d ϕ
2 2 2 2
(2.2.74)

ds = 4dx dy + ,
1 + xy

where the coordinates x and y follow from the Schwarzschild coordinates via
 y
t = rs 1 + xy + ln and r = rs (1 + xy). (2.2.75)
x

Christoffel symbols:

y(2 + xy) y3 (3 + xy) y(2 + xy)


Γxxx = − , Γyxx = , Γyxy = , (2.2.76a)
(1 + xy)2 (1 + xy)3 (1 + xy)2
y ϕ y x
Γϑxϑ = , Γxϕ = , Γϑyϑ = , (2.2.76b)
1 + xy 1 + xy 1 + xy
ϕ x x y
Γxϕ = , Γxϑ ϑ = − (1 + xy), Γyϑ ϑ = − (1 − xy), (2.2.76c)
1 + xy 2 2
ϕ x y
Γϑ ϕ = cot ϑ , Γxϕϕ = − (1 + xy) sin2 ϑ , Γyϕϕ = − (1 − xy) sin2 ϑ , (2.2.76d)
2 2
ϑ
Γϕϕ = − sin ϑ cos ϑ . (2.2.76e)

Riemann-Tensor:
rs2 y2 rs2 rs2
Rxyxy = −4 , Rxϑ xϑ = −2 , R xϑ yϑ = − , (2.2.77a)
(1 + xy)3 (1 + xy)2 1 + xy
rs2 y2 sin2 ϑ rs2 sin2 ϑ
Rxϕ xϕ = −2 , Rxϕ yϕ = − , Rϑ ϕϑ ϕ = (1 + xy)rs2 sin2 ϑ . (2.2.77b)
(1 + xy)2 1 + xy

The Ricci tensor as well as the Ricci scalar vanish identically. Hence, the Weyl tensor is identical to the
Riemann tensor. The Kretschmann scalar reads
12
K = . (2.2.78)
rs4 (1 + xy)6

Local tetrad:
√ √
1 + xy y 1 + xy
e(0) = − ∂x + √ ∂y , e(1) = ∂x , (2.2.79a)
2rs y rs 1 + xy 2rs y
1 1
e(2) = ∂ϑ , e(3) = ∂ϕ . (2.2.79b)
rs (1 + xy) rs (1 + xy) sin ϑ

Dual tetrad:
√ √
rs 1 + xy 2rs y rs 1 + xy
θ (0)
= dy, θ (1)
=√ dx + dy, (2.2.80a)
y 1 + xy y
θ (2) = rs (1 + xy) d ϑ , θ (3) = rs (1 + xy) sin ϑ d ϕ . (2.2.80b)
28 CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

2.3 Alcubierre Warp


The Warp metric given by Miguel Alcubierre[Alc94] reads

ds2 = −c2 dt 2 + (dx − vs f (rs )dt)2 + dy2 + dz2 (2.3.1)

where
dxs (t)
vs = , (2.3.2a)
qdt
rs (t) = (x − xs (t))2 + y2 + z2 , (2.3.2b)
tanh(σ (rs + R)) − tanh(σ (rs − R))
f (rs ) = . (2.3.2c)
2 tanh(σ R)
The parameter R > 0 defines the radius of the warp bubble and the parameter σ > 0 its thickness.
Metric-Tensor:
gtt = −c2 + v2s f (rs )2 , gtx = −vs f (rs ), gxx = gyy = gzz = 1. (2.3.3)
Christoffel symbols:
f 2 fx v3s
Γttt = , Γttz = − f fz v2s , Γtty = − f fy v2s , (2.3.4a)
c2
f 3 fx v4s − c2 f fx v2s − c2 ft vs f f x v2 f 2 f x v3
Γttx = 2
, Γttx = − 2 s , Γtx
x
=− 2 s, (2.3.4b)
c c c
f v f f 2
y y s f v
z s y vs
Γtx = , Γtx
z
= , Γtty = − , (2.3.4c)
2 2 2c2
f 2 fy v3s + c2 fy vs f fz v2s f 2 fz v3s + c2 fz vs
Γtyx
=− , Γ t
tz = − , Γ x
tz = − , (2.3.4d)
2c2 2c2 2c2
f x vs f fx v 2 f y vs
Γtxx = 2 , Γxxx = 2 s , Γtxy = 2 , (2.3.4e)
c c 2c
2
f f y v f z v s f fz v2s
Γxxy = s
, Γ t
xz = , Γ x
xz = , (2.3.4f)
2c2 2c2 2c2
with derivatives
d f (rs ) −vs σ (x − xs(t)) h i
ft = = sech2 (σ (rs + R)) − sech2 (σ (rs − R)) (2.3.5a)
dt 2rs tanh(σ R)
d f (rs ) σ (x − xs(t)) h i
fx = = sech2 (σ (rs + R)) − sech2 (σ (rs − R)) (2.3.5b)
dx 2rs tanh(σ R)
d f (rs ) σy h i
fy = = sech2 (σ (rs + R)) − sech2 (σ (rs − R)) (2.3.5c)
dy 2rs tanh(σ R)
d f (rs ) σz h i
fz = = sech2 (σ (rs + R)) − sech2 (σ (rs − R)) (2.3.5d)
dz 2rs tanh(σ R)
Riemann- and Ricci-tensor as well as Ricci- and Kretschman-scalar are shown only in the Maple work-
sheet.
Comoving local tetrad:
1
e(0) = (∂t + vs f ∂x ) , e(1) = ∂x , e(2) = ∂y , e(3) = ∂z . (2.3.6)
c
Static local tetrad:
p
1 vs f c2 − v2s f 2
e(0) = p ∂t , e(1) = p ∂t + ∂x , e(2) = ∂y , e(3) = ∂z . (2.3.7)
c2 − v2s f 2 c c2 − v2s f 2 c

Further reading:
Pfenning[PF97], Clark[CHL99], Van Den Broeck[Bro99]
2.4. BARRIOLA-VILENKIN MONOPOL 29

2.4 Barriola-Vilenkin monopol


The Barriola-Vilenkin metric describes the gravitational field of a global monopole[BV89]. In spherical
coordinates (t, r, ϑ , ϕ ), the metric reads

ds2 = −c2 dt 2 + dr2 + k2 r2 d ϑ 2 + sin2 ϑ d ϕ 2 , (2.4.1)




where k is the scaling factor responsible for the deficit/surplus angle.


Christoffel symbols:

1
Γrϑ ϑ = −k2 r, Γϕϕ
r
= −k2 r sin2 ϑ , Γϑrϑ = , (2.4.2a)
r
ϑ ϕ 1 ϕ
Γϕϕ = − sin ϑ cos ϑ , Γrϕ = , Γϑ ϕ = cot ϑ . (2.4.2b)
r
Partial derivatives
1 ϕ 1
Γϑrϑ ,r = − , Γrϕ ,r = − , Γϑr ϑ ,r = −k2 , (2.4.3a)
r2 r2
ϕ 1 ϑ
Γϑ ϕ ,ϑ =− 2 , Γrϕϕ ,r = −k2 sin2 ϑ , Γϕϕ ,ϑ = − cos(2ϑ ), (2.4.3b)
sin ϑ
Γrϕϕ ,ϑ = −k2 r sin(2ϑ ). (2.4.3c)

Riemann-Tensor:

Rϑ ϕϑ ϕ = (1 − k2)k2 r2 sin2 ϑ . (2.4.4)

Ricci tensor, Ricci and Kretschmann scalar:

1 − k2 (1 − k2)2
Rϑ ϑ = (1 − k2), Rϕϕ = (1 − k2 ) sin2 ϑ , R=2 , K =4 . (2.4.5)
k2 r 2 k4 r 4

Weyl-Tensor:

c2 (1 − k2) c2 c2
Ctrtr = − , Ct ϑ t ϑ = (1 − k 2
), C t ϕ t ϕ = (1 − k2 ) sin2 ϑ , (2.4.6a)
3k2 r2 6 6
1 1 k2 r 2
Crϑ rϑ = − (1 − k2), Crϕ rϕ = − (1 − k2 ) sin2 ϑ , Cϑ ϕϑ ϕ = (1 − k2) sin2 ϑ . (2.4.6b)
6 6 3

Local tetrad:
1 1 1
e(t) = ∂t , e(r) = ∂r , e(ϑ ) = ∂ϑ , e(ϕ ) = ∂ϕ . (2.4.7)
c kr kr sin ϑ
Dual tetrad:

θ (t) = c dt, θ (r) = dr, θ (ϑ ) = kr d ϑ , θ (ϕ ) = kr sin ϑ d ϕ . (2.4.8)

Ricci rotation coefficients:


1 cot ϑ
γ(ϑ )(r)(ϑ ) = γ(ϕ )(r)(ϕ ) = , γ(ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ ) = . (2.4.9)
r kr
The contractions of the Ricci rotation coefficients read
2 cot ϑ
γ(r) = , γ(ϑ ) = . (2.4.10)
r kr
30 CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:

1 − k2
R(ϑ )(ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ ) = . (2.4.11)
k2 r 2

Ricci-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:

1 − k2
R(ϑ )(ϑ ) = R(ϕ )(ϕ ) = . (2.4.12)
k2 r 2

Weyl-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:

1 − k2
C(t)(r)(t)(r) = −C(ϑ )(ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ ) = − , (2.4.13a)
3k2 r2
1 − k2
C(t)(ϑ )(t)(ϑ ) = C(t)(ϕ )(t)(ϕ ) = −C(r)(ϑ )(r)(ϑ ) = −C(r)(ϕ )(r)(ϕ ) = . (2.4.13b)
6k2 r2

Embedding:
The embedding function, see Sec. 1.7, for k < 1 reads
p
z = 1 − k2 r. (2.4.14)

Euler-Lagrange:
The Euler-Lagrangian formalism, Sec. 1.8.4, for geodesics in the ϑ = π /2 hyperplane yields

1 h21 h22
 
1 2 1
ṙ + Veff = , Veff = − κc ,
2
(2.4.15)
2 2 c2 2 k2 r 2

with the constants of motion h1 = c2t˙ and h2 = k2 r2 ϕ̇ .


The point of closest approach rpca for a null geodesic that starts at r = ri with y = ±e(t) +cos ξ e(r) +sin ξ e(ϕ )
is given by r = ri sin ξ . Hence, the rpca is independent of k. The same is also true for timelike geodesics.

Further reading:
Barriola and Vilenkin[BV89], Perlick[Per04].
2.5. BERTOTTI-KASNER 31

2.5 Bertotti-Kasner
The Bertotti-Kasner spacetime in spherical coordinates (t, r, ϑ , ϕ ) reads[Rin98]

√ 1
Λct
ds2 = −c2 dt 2 + e2 dr2 + d ϑ 2 + sin2 ϑ d ϕ 2 , (2.5.1)

Λ

where the cosmological constant Λ must be positive.


Christoffel symbols:

√ Λ 2√Λct ϕ ϑ
Γtr
r
= c Λ, Γtrr = e , Γϑ ϕ = cot ϑ , Γϕϕ = − sin ϑ cos ϑ . (2.5.2)
c
Partial derivatives
√ 1
ϕ
Γtrr,t = 2Λe2 Λct
, Γϑ ϕ ,ϑ = − , Γϑϕϕ ,ϑ = − cos(2ϑ ). (2.5.3)
sin2 ϑ

Riemann-Tensor:

Λct sin2 ϑ
Rtrtr = −Λc2 e2 , Rϑ ϕϑ ϕ = . (2.5.4)
Λ

Ricci-Tensor:

Λct
Rtt = −Λc2 , Rrr = Λe2 , Rϑ ϑ = 1, Rϕϕ = sin2 ϑ . (2.5.5)

The Ricci and Kretschmann scalars read

R = 4Λ, K = 8Λ2 . (2.5.6)

Weyl-Tensor:

2 √ c2 1 √
Ctrtr = − Λc2 e2 Λct , Ct ϑ t ϑ = , Ct ϕ t ϕ = − e2 Λct , (2.5.7a)
3 3 3
1 √ 1 √ 2 sin2 ϑ
Crϑ rϑ = − e2 Λct , Crϕ rϕ = − e2 Λct sin2 ϑ , Cϑ ϕϑ ϕ = . (2.5.7b)
3 3 3 Λ

Local tetrad:

1 √
− Λct
√ Λ
e(t) = ∂t , e(r) = e ∂r , e(ϑ ) = Λ∂ϑ , e(ϕ ) = ∂ϕ . (2.5.8)
c sin ϑ
Dual tetrad:
√ 1 sin ϑ
θ (t) = c dt, θ (r) = e Λct
dr, θ (ϑ ) = √ d ϑ , θ (ϕ ) = √ d ϕ . (2.5.9)
Λ Λ

Ricci rotation coefficients:


√ √
γ (t)(r)(r) = Λ, γ (ϑ )(ϕ )(ϕ ) = − Λ cot ϑ . (2.5.10)

The contractions of the Ricci rotation coefficients read


√ √
γ (t) = − Λ, γ (ϑ ) = Λ cot ϑ . (2.5.11)

Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:

R(t)(r)(t)(r) = −R(ϑ )(ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ ) = −Λ. (2.5.12)


32 CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

Ricci-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:

R(t)(t) = −R(r)(r) = −R(ϑ )(ϑ ) = −R(ϕ )(ϕ ) = −Λ. (2.5.13)

Weyl-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


C(t)(r)(t)(r) = −C(ϑ )(ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ ) = − , (2.5.14a)
3
Λ
C(t)(ϑ )(t)(ϑ ) = C(t)(ϕ )(t)(ϕ ) = −C(r)(ϑ )(r)(ϑ ) = −C(r)(ϕ )(r)(ϕ ) = . (2.5.14b)
3

Euler-Lagrange:
The Euler-Lagrangian formalism, Sec. 1.8.4, for geodesics in the ϑ = π /2 hyperplane yields

Λ ct
c2t˙2 = h21 e−2 + Λh22 − κ (2.5.15)

2 Λ ct
with the constants of motion h1 = ṙe and h2 = ϕ̇ /Λ. Thus,

h2 e−2 Λ ct
 
1 1 + q(t) 1 − q(ti)
λ= √ q ln , q(t) = 1 2 + 1, (2.5.16)
c Λ Λh22 − κ 1 − q(t) 1 + q(ti) Λh2 − κ

where ti is the initial time. We can also solve the orbital equation:
q √
h21 e−2 Λ ct + Λh22 − κ
r(t) = w(t) − w(ti ) + ri , w(t) = − √ , (2.5.17)
h1 Λ
where ri is the initial radial position.

Further reading:
Rindler[Rin98]: “Every spherically symmetric solution of the generalized vacuum field equations Ri j = Λgi j is
either equivalent to Kottler’s generalization of Schwarzschild space or to the [...] Bertotti-Kasner space (for which
Λ must be necessarily be positive).”
2.6. BESSEL GRAVITATIONAL WAVE 33

2.6 Bessel gravitational wave


D. Kramer introduced in [Kra99] an exact gravitational wave solution of Einstein’s vacuum field equa-
tions. According to [Ste03] we execute the substitution x → t and y → z.

2.6.1 Cylindrical coordinates


The metric of the Bessel wave in cylindrical coordinates reads

ds2 = e−2U e2K d ρ 2 − dt 2 + ρ 2d ϕ 2 + e2U dz2 . (2.6.1)


  

The functions U and K are given by

U := CJ0 (ρ ) cos (t) , (2.6.2)


1 n h i o
K := C2 ρ ρ J0 (ρ )2 + J1 (ρ )2 − 2J0 (ρ ) J1 (ρ ) cos2 (t) , (2.6.3)
2
where Jn (ρ ) are the Bessel functions of the first kind.
Christoffel symbols:

ρ ∂U ∂ K ϕ ∂U ∂U
Γttt = Γt ρ = Γtρρ = − + , Γt ϕ = Γtz
z
=− , Γtϕϕ = −e−2K ρ 2 , (2.6.4a)
∂t ∂t ∂t ∂t
ρ ρ ∂U ∂ K ϕ 1 ∂U ∂U
Γtt = Γtt ρ = Γρρ = − + , Γρϕ = − , Γρzz = −e4U−2K , (2.6.4b)
∂ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂ρ ∂ρ
∂U ∂U ∂U
 
ρ
Γϕϕ = ρ e−2K ρ −1 , Γρz z = , Γtzz = e4U−2K . (2.6.4c)
∂ρ ∂ρ ∂t

Local tetrad:
1 U
e(t) = eU−K ∂t , e(ρ ) = eU−K ∂ρ , e(ϕ ) = e ∂ϕ , e(z) = e−U ∂z . (2.6.5)
ρ

Dual tetrad:

θ (t) = eK−U dt, θ (ρ ) = eK−U d ρ , θ (ϕ ) = ρ e−U d ϕ , θ (z) = eU dz. (2.6.6)

2.6.2 Cartesian coordinates


In Cartesian coordinates with ρ =
p
x2 + y2 the metric (2.6.1) reads

e−2U

2 2(K−U) 2
e2K x2 + y2 dx2 + 2xy e2K − 1 dxdy
 
ds = −e dt + 2
x + y2
 (2.6.7)
+ x + e y dy + e2U dz2 .
2 2K 2
 2

Local tetrad:
s
x2 + y2
e(t) = eU−K ∂t , e(x) = eU ∂x ,
e2K x2 + y2
s (2.6.8)
eU−K e2K − 1

e2K x2 + y2
e(y) = eU−K ∂y + xy p ∂x , e(z) = e−U ∂z
x2 + y2 (x2 + y2 ) (e2K x2 + y2 )
34 CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

2.7 Cosmic string in Schwarzschild spacetime


A cosmic string in the Schwarzschild spacetime represented by Schwarzschild coordinates (t, r, ϑ , ϕ )
reads

 rs  2 2 1
ds2 = − 1 − dr2 + r2 d ϑ 2 + β 2 sin2 ϑ d ϕ 2 ,

c dt + (2.7.1)
r 1 − rs/r

where rs = 2GM/c2 is the Schwarzschild radius, G is Newton’s constant, c is the speed of light, M is the
mass of the black hole, and β is the string parameter, compare Aryal et al[AFV86].
Christoffel symbols:

c2 rs (r − rs ) rs rs
Γttr = , Γttr = , Γrrr = − , (2.7.2a)
2r3 2r(r − rs ) 2r(r − rs )
1 ϕ 1
Γϑrϑ = , Γrϕ = , Γrϑ ϑ = −(r − rs ), (2.7.2b)
r r
ϕ ϑ
Γϑ ϕ = cot ϑ , Γrϕϕ = −(r − rs )β 2 sin2 ϑ , Γϕϕ = −β 2 sin ϑ cos ϑ . (2.7.2c)

Partial derivatives

(2r − 3rs )c2 rs (2r − rs )rs (2r − rs )rs


Γtt,r
r
=− , Γttr,r = − 2 , Γrrr,r = 2 , (2.7.3a)
2r4 2r (r − rs )2 2r (r − rs )2
1 ϕ 1
Γϑrϑ ,r = − 2 , Γrϕ ,r = − 2 , Γϑr ϑ ,r = −1, (2.7.3b)
r r
ϕ 1
Γϑ ϕ ,ϑ = − 2 , Γϕϕ
r
,r = −β sin ϑ ,
2 2
Γϑϕϕ ,ϑ = −β 2 cos(2ϑ ), (2.7.3c)
sin ϑ
Γrϕϕ ,ϑ = −(r − rs )β 2 sin(2ϑ ). (2.7.3d)

Riemann-Tensor:

c2 rs 1 c2 (r − rs ) rs 1 c2 (r − rs ) rs β 2 sin2 ϑ
Rtrtr = − , Rt ϑ t ϑ = , R t ϕ t ϕ = , (2.7.4a)
r3 2 r2 2 r2
1 rs 1 rs β 2 sin2 ϑ
Rr ϑ r ϑ =− , Rr ϕ r ϕ = − , Rϑ ϕϑ ϕ = rrs β 2 sin2 ϑ . (2.7.4b)
2 r − rs 2 r − rs

The Ricci tensor as well as the Ricci scalar vanish identically. Hence, the Weyl tensor is identical to the
Riemann tensor. The Kretschmann scalar reads

rs2
K = 12 . (2.7.5)
r6

Local tetrad:
r
1 rs 1 1
e(t) = p ∂t , e(r) = 1 − ∂r , e(ϑ ) = ∂ϑ , e(ϕ ) = ∂ϕ . (2.7.6)
c 1 − rs /r r r rβ sin ϑ

Dual tetrad:
r
rs dr
θ (t)
= c 1 − dt, θ (r) = p , θ (ϑ ) = r d ϑ , θ (ϕ ) = rβ sin ϑ d ϕ . (2.7.7)
r 1 − rs/r

Ricci rotation coefficients:

cot ϑ
r
r 1 rs
γ(r)(t)(t) = p s , γ(ϑ )(r)(ϑ ) = γ(ϕ )(r)(ϕ ) = 1− , γ(ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ ) = . (2.7.8)
2
2r 1 − rs/r r r r
2.7. COSMIC STRING IN SCHWARZSCHILD SPACETIME 35

The contractions of the Ricci rotation coefficients read


4r − 3rs cot ϑ
γ(r) = p , γ(ϑ ) = . (2.7.9)
2r2 1 − rs/r r

Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


rs
R(t)(r)(t)(r) = −R(ϑ )(ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ ) = − , (2.7.10a)
r3
rs
R(t)(ϑ )(t)(ϑ ) = R(t)(ϕ )(t)(ϕ ) = −R(r)(ϑ )(r)(ϑ ) = −R(r)(ϕ )(r)(ϕ ) = . (2.7.10b)
2r3

Embedding:
The embedding function for β 2 < 1 reads

r/(r − rs ) − β 2 − 1 − β 2
r p p
r rs
z = (r − rs ) −β − p
2 ln p . (2.7.11)
2 1−β2 r/(r − rs ) − β 2 + 1 − β 2
p
r − rs

If β 2 = 1, we have the embedding function of the standard Schwarzschild metric, compare Eq.(2.2.15).

Euler-Lagrange:
The Euler-Lagrangian formalism, Sec. 1.8.4, for geodesics in the ϑ = π /2 hyperplane yields

1 k2 rs  h2
 
1 2 1
ṙ + Veff = , Veff = 1− − κ c 2
(2.7.12)
2 2 c2 2 r r2 β 2

with the constants of motion k = (1 − rs/r)c2t˙ and h = r2 β 2 ϕ̇ . The maxima of the effective potential Veff
lead to the same critical orbits rpo = 32 rs and ritcg = 3rs as in the standard Schwarzschild metric.
36 CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

2.8 Ernst spacetime

“The Ernst metric is a static, axially symmetric, electro-vacuum solution of the Einstein-Maxwell equations with
a black hole immersed in a magnetic field.”[KV92]
In spherical coordinates (t, r, ϑ , ϕ ), the Ernst metric reads[Ern76] (G = c = 1)

dr2 r2 sin2 ϑ 2
   
2M
ds2 = Λ2 − 1 − dt 2 + + r2 d ϑ 2 + dϕ , (2.8.1)
r 1 − 2M/r Λ2

where Λ = 1 + B2r2 sin2 ϑ . Here, M is the mass of the black hole and B the magnetic field strength.
Christoffel symbols:

2B2 r3 sin2 ϑ − 3MB2r2 sin2 ϑ + M (r − 2M) 2 (r − 2M) B2 sin ϑ cos ϑ



ϑ
Γttr = , Γ = , (2.8.2a)
r3 Λ tt

2B2 r3 sin2 ϑ − 3MB2r2 sin2 ϑ + M 2B2 r2 sin ϑ cos ϑ
Γttr = , Γtt ϑ = , (2.8.2b)
r (r − 2M) Λ Λ
2B2 r3 sin2 ϑ − 5MB2r2 sin2 ϑ − M 2B2 r sin ϑ cos ϑ
Γrrr = , Γϑrr = − , (2.8.2c)
r (r − 2M) Λ (r − 2M) Λ
2B2 r2 sin ϑ cos ϑ 3B2 r2 sin2 ϑ + 1
Γrrϑ = , Γϑrϑ = , (2.8.2d)
Λ rΛ
1 − B2r2 sin2 ϑ 3B2 r2 sin2 ϑ + 1 (r − 2M)

ϕ
Γrϕ = , Γϑr ϑ = , (2.8.2e)
rΛ Λ
2B2 r2 sin ϑ cos ϑ ϕ Ξ cos ϑ
Γϑϑ ϑ = , Γϑ ϕ = , (2.8.2f)
Λ Λ
(r − 2M) Ξ sin2 ϑ
Γrϕϕ = , (2.8.2g)
Λ5
ϑ Ξ sin ϑ cos ϑ
Γϕϕ = . (2.8.2h)
Λ5

with Ξ = 1 − B2r2 sin2 ϑ .


Riemann-Tensor:

2h 4 4 4 i
Rtrtr = B r sin ϑ (3M − r) − M + 2r 5 4
B sin 2
ϑ cos2
ϑ + B 2 2
r sin 2
ϑ (r − 2M) , (2.8.3a)
r3
= 2B2 sin ϑ cos ϑ (3B2 r2 sin2 ϑ (2M − 3r) + r − 2M ,
 
Rtrt ϑ (2.8.3b)
1
= 2 B4 r4 (r − 2M)(4r − 9M) sin4 ϑ + 2ΞB2r3 (r − 2M) cos2 ϑ + M(r − 2M) ,

Rt ϑ t ϑ (2.8.3c)
r
1 
= 4 2 (2B2 r3 − 3B2Mr2 sin2 ϑ + M)Ξ(r − 2M) sin2 ϑ , (2.8.3d)

Rt ϕ t ϕ
Λ r
(2B2 r3 − 3B2Mr2 sin2 ϑ + M)Ξ
Rr ϑ r ϑ =− , (2.8.3e)
r − 2M
sin2 ϑ  4 4
B r (4r − 9M) sin4 ϑ + 2B2r2 (8M − 4rϑ ) sin2 ϑ + 2ΞB2r3 cos2 ϑ + M , (2.8.3f)

Rr ϕ r ϕ =− 4
Λ (r − 2M)
2B2r3 sin3 ϑ cos ϑ 3B2 r2 sin2 ϑ − 5

Rrϕϑ ϕ =− , (2.8.3g)
Λ4
r sin2 ϑ  4 4
2B r (r − 3M) sin4 ϑ + 4B2r3 cos2 ϑ (1 + Ξ) + 2B2r2 sin2 ϑ (2M − r) + 2M . (2.8.3h)

Rϑ ϕϑ ϕ =
Λ 4
2.8. ERNST SPACETIME 37

Ricci-Tensor:

4B2 (r − 2M)(r + 2M sin2 ϑ ) 4B2[r cos2 ϑ − (r − 2M) sin2 ϑ ]


Rtt = , Rrr = − , (2.8.4a)
r Λ
2 2 (r − 2M)Λ2
8B2 r sin ϑ cos ϑ 4B2 r r cos2 ϑ + (r − 2M) sin2 ϑ
 
Rr ϑ = , Rϑ ϑ = , (2.8.4b)
Λ2 Λ2
4B2 r sin2 ϑ r + 2M sin2 ϑ

Rϕϕ = . (2.8.4c)
Λ6
Ricci and Kretschmann scalars:

R = 0, (2.8.5a)

16
K = 6 8 3B8 r8 4r2 − 18Mr + 21M 2 sin8 ϑ

r Λ
 
+ 2B4r4 31M 2 − 37Mr − 24B2r4 cos2 ϑ + 42B2Mr3 cos2 ϑ + 10r2 + 6B4r6 cos4 ϑ sin6 ϑ
 
+ 2B2r2 −3Mr + 20B2r4 cos2 ϑ + 6M 2 − 46B2Mr3 cos2 ϑ − 12B4r6 cos4 ϑ sin4 ϑ
− 6B6r6 6B2 Mr3 cos2 ϑ + 4r2 − 4B2r4 cos2 ϑ + 18M 2 − 17Mr


+ 20B r cos ϑ + 12B Mr cos ϑ + 3M .
4 6 4 2 3 2 2
(2.8.5b)

Static local tetrad:

Λ
p
1 1 − 2m/r 1
e(t) = ∂t , e(r) = ∂r , e(ϑ ) = ∂ϑ , e(ϕ ) = ∂ϕ . (2.8.6)
Λ 1 − 2m/r Λ Λr r sin ϑ
p

Dual tetrad:

Λ r sin ϑ
r
2m
θ (t)
=Λ 1− dt, θ (r) = p dr, θ (ϑ ) = Λr d ϑ , θ (ϕ ) = dϕ . (2.8.7)
r 1 − 2m/r Λ

Euler-Lagrange:
The Euler-Lagrangian formalism, Sec. 1.8.4, for geodesics in the ϑ = π /2 hyperplane yields

h2 (1 − rs/r) k2 1 − rs /r
ṙ2 + − 4 +κ =0 (2.8.8)
r 2 Λ Λ2
with constants of motion k = Λ2 (1 − rs/r)t˙ and h = (r2 /Λ2 )ϕ̇ .

Further reading:
Ernst[Ern76], Dhurandhar and Sharma[DS83], Karas and Vokrouhlicky[KV92], Stuchlík and Hledík[SH99].
38 CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

2.9 Friedman-Robertson-Walker
The Friedman-Robertson-Walker metric describes a general homogeneous and isotropic universe. In a
general form it reads:

ds2 = −c2 dt 2 + R2 d σ 2 (2.9.1)

with R = R(t) being an arbitrary function of time only and d σ 2 being a metric of a 3-space of constant
curvature for which three explicit forms will be described here.
In all formulas in this section a dot denotes differentiation with respect to t, e.g. Ṙ = dR(t)/dt.

2.9.1 Form 1

dη 2
 
2 2 2 2
+ η d ϑ + sin ϑ d ϕ
2 2 2 2

ds = −c dt + R (2.9.2)
1 − kη 2

Christoffel symbols:

Ṙ Ṙ ϕ Ṙ
Γtηη = , Γtϑϑ = , Γt ϕ = , (2.9.3a)
R R R
RṘ η kη 1
Γtηη = , Γηη = , Γϑηϑ = , (2.9.3b)
c2 (1 − kη 2) 1 − kη 2 η
ϕ 1 Rη 2 Ṙ
Γηϕ = , Γtϑ ϑ = , Γϑη ϑ = (kη 2 − 1)η , (2.9.3c)
η c2
ϕ Rη 2 sin2 ϑ Ṙ
Γϑ ϕ = cot ϑ , Γtϕϕ = , Γηϕϕ = (kη 2 − 1)η sin2 ϑ , (2.9.3d)
c2
ϑ
Γϕϕ = − sin ϑ cos ϑ . (2.9.3e)

Riemann-Tensor:
RR̈
Rt η t η = , Rt ϑ t ϑ = −Rη 2 R̈, (2.9.4a)
kη 2 − 1
R2 η 2 Ṙ2 + kc 2

Rt ϕ t ϕ = −Rη 2 sin2 ϑ R̈, Rηϑ ηϑ = − , (2.9.4b)
c2 (kη 2 − 1)
R2 η 2 sin2 ϑ Ṙ2 + kc2 R2 η 4 sin2 ϑ Ṙ2 + kc2
 
Rηϕηϕ =− , Rϑ ϕϑ ϕ = . (2.9.4c)
c2 (kη 2 − 1) c2

Ricci-Tensor:
R̈ RR̈ + 2(Ṙ2 + kc2 )
Rtt = −3 , Rηη = , (2.9.5a)
R c2 (1 − kη 2 )
RR̈ + 2(Ṙ2 + kc2 ) RR̈ + 2(Ṙ2 + kc2 )
Rϑ ϑ = η 2 , Rϕϕ = η 2 sin2 ϑ . (2.9.5b)
c2 c2
The Ricci scalar and Kretschmann scalar read:

RR̈ + Ṙ2 + kc2 R̈2R2 + Ṙ4 + 2Ṙ2kc2 + k2 c4


R=6 , K = 12 . (2.9.6)
R 2 c2 R 4 c4

Local tetrad:

1 − kη 2
p
1 1 1
e(t) = ∂t , e(η ) = ∂η , eϑ = ∂ϑ , eϕ = ∂ϕ . (2.9.7)
c R Rη Rη sin ϑ
2.9. FRIEDMAN-ROBERTSON-WALKER 39

Ricci rotation coefficients:


1 − kη 2
p

γ(η )(t)(η ) = γ(ϑ )(t)(ϑ ) = γ(ϕ )(t)(ϕ ) = γ(ϑ )(η )(ϑ ) = γ(ϕ )(η )(ϕ ) = ,
Rc Rη
(2.9.8)
cot ϑ
γ(ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ ) = .

The contractions of the Ricci rotation coefficients read
2 1 − kη 2 cot ϑ
p
3Ṙ
γ(t) = , γ(r) = , γ(ϑ ) = . (2.9.9)
Rc Rη Rη
Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:

R(t)(η )(t)(η ) = R(t)(ϑ )(t)(ϑ ) = R(t)(ϕ )(t)(ϕ ) = − (2.9.10a)
Rc2
Ṙ2 + kc2
R(η )(ϑ )(η )(ϑ ) = R(η )(ϕ )(η )(ϕ ) = R(ϑ )(ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ ) = . (2.9.10b)
R 2 c2
Ricci-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:
3R̈ RR̈ + 2Ṙ2 + 2kc2
R(t)(t) = − , R(r)(r) = R(ϑ )(ϑ ) = R(ϕ )(ϕ ) = . (2.9.11)
Rc2 R 2 c2

2.9.2 Form 2
R2
ds2 = −c2 dt 2 + dr + r2 (d ϑ 2 + sin2 ϑ d ϕ 2 )
 2
(2.9.12)

k 2 2
(1 + 4 r )

Christoffel symbols:
Ṙ Ṙ ϕ Ṙ
Γtr
r
= , Γtϑϑ = , Γt ϕ = , (2.9.13a)
R R R
RṘ 2kr 4 − kr2
Γtrr = 16 , Γrrr = − , Γϑrϑ = , (2.9.13b)
c2 (4 + kr2 )2 4 + kr2 (4 + kr2 )r
ϕ 4 − kr2 Rr2 Ṙ r(kr2 − 4)
Γrϕ = , Γtϑ ϑ = 16 , Γϑr ϑ = , (2.9.13c)
(4 + kr2 )r c2 (4 + kr2)2 4 + kr2
ϕ Rr2 sin2 ϑ Ṙ ϑ
Γϑ ϕ = cot ϑ , Γtϕϕ = 16 , Γϕϕ = − sin ϑ cos ϑ , (2.9.13d)
c2 (4 + kr2)2
r sin2 ϑ (kr2 − 4)
Γϕϕ
r
= . (2.9.13e)
4 + kr2
Riemann-Tensor:
RR̈ Rr2 R̈
Rtrtr = −16 , Rt ϑ t ϑ = −16 , (2.9.14a)
(4 + kr2)2 (4 + kr2)2
Rr2 sin2 ϑ R̈ R2r2 Ṙ2 + kc 2

Rt ϕ t ϕ = −16 , Rrϑ rϑ = 256 , (2.9.14b)
(4 + kr2)2 c2 (4 + kr2 )4
R2r2 sin2 ϑ Ṙ2 + kc2 R2r4 sin2 ϑ Ṙ2 + kc2
 
Rrϕ rϕ = 256 , R ϑ ϕϑ ϕ = 256 . (2.9.14c)
c2 (4 + kr2 )4 c2 (4 + kr2 )4
Ricci-Tensor:
R̈ RR̈ + 2(Ṙ2 + kc2 )
Rtt = −3 , Rrr = 16 , (2.9.15a)
R c2 (4 + kr2 )2
RR̈ + 2(Ṙ2 + kc2 ) RR̈ + 2(Ṙ2 + kc2 )
Rϑ ϑ = 16r2 , Rϕϕ = 16r2 sin2 ϑ . (2.9.15b)
c2 (4 + kr2)2 c2 (4 + kr2)2
40 CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

The Ricci scalar and Kretschmann scalar read:

RR̈ + Ṙ2 + kc2 R̈2R2 + Ṙ4 + 2Ṙ2kc2 + k2 c4


R=6 , K = 12 . (2.9.16)
R 2 c2 R 4 c4

Local tetrad:

1 1 + 4k r2 1 + 4k r2 1 + k/4r2
e(t) = ∂t , e(r) = ∂r , eϑ = ∂ϑ , eϕ = ∂ϕ . (2.9.17)
c R Rr Rr sin ϑ

Ricci rotation coefficients:


k 2
Ṙ r −1
γ(r)(t)(r) = γ(ϑ )(t)(ϑ ) = γ(ϕ )(t)(ϕ ) = γ(ϑ )(r)(ϑ ) = γ(ϕ )(r)(ϕ ) = − 4 , (2.9.18a)
Rc Rr
( 4k r2 + 1) cot ϑ
γ(ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ ) = . (2.9.18b)
Rr
The contractions of the Ricci rotation coefficients read

3Ṙ 1 − 4k r2 ( 4k r2 + 1) cot ϑ
γ(t) = , γ(r) = 2 , γ(ϑ ) = . (2.9.19)
Rc Rr Rr

Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


R(t)(η )(t)(η ) = R(t)(ϑ )(t)(ϑ ) = R(t)(ϕ )(t)(ϕ ) = − (2.9.20a)
Rc2
Ṙ2 + kc2
R(η )(ϑ )(η )(ϑ ) = R(η )(ϕ )(η )(ϕ ) = R(ϑ )(ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ ) = . (2.9.20b)
R 2 c2

Ricci-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:

3R̈ RR̈ + 2Ṙ2 + 2kc2


R(t)(t) = − , R(r)(r) = R(ϑ )(ϑ ) = R(ϕ )(ϕ ) = . (2.9.21)
Rc2 R 2 c2

2.9.3 Form 3
The following forms of the metric are obtained from 2.9.2 by setting η = sin ψ , ψ , sinh ψ for k = 1, 0, −1
respectively.

Positive Curvature

ds2 = −c2 dt 2 + R2 d ψ 2 + sin2 ψ d ϑ 2 + sin2 ϑ d ϕ 2


 
(2.9.22)

Christoffel symbols:

ψ Ṙ Ṙ ϕ Ṙ
Γt ψ = , Γtϑϑ = , Γt ϕ = , (2.9.23a)
R R R
RṘ ϕ
Γtψψ = 2, Γϑψϑ = cot ψ , Γψϕ = cot ψ , (2.9.23b)
c
R sin2 ψ Ṙ ψ ϕ
Γtϑ ϑ = , Γϑ ϑ = − sin ψ cos ψ , Γϑ ϕ = cot(ϑ ), (2.9.23c)
c2
R sin2 ψ sin2 ϑ Ṙ ψ ϑ
Γtϕϕ = , Γϕϕ = − sin ψ cos ψ sin2 ϑ , Γϕϕ = − sin ϑ cos ϑ . (2.9.23d)
c2
2.9. FRIEDMAN-ROBERTSON-WALKER 41

Riemann-Tensor:
Rt ψ t ψ = −RR̈, Rt ϑ t ϑ = −R sin2 ψ R̈, (2.9.24a)
R sin ψ Ṙ + c
2 2 2 2

Rt ϕ t ϕ = −R sin2 ψ sin2 ϑ R̈, Rψϑ ψϑ = , (2.9.24b)
c2
R2 sin2 ψ sin2 ϑ Ṙ2 + c 2 R2 sin4 ψ sin2 ϑ Ṙ2 + c2
 
Rψϕψϕ = , Rϑ ϕϑ ϕ = . (2.9.24c)
c2 c2
Ricci-Tensor:
R̈ RR̈ + 2(Ṙ2 + c2 )
Rtt = −3 , Rψψ = , (2.9.25a)
R c2
RR̈ + 2(Ṙ2 + c2 ) RR̈ + 2(Ṙ2 + c2 )
Rϑ ϑ = sin2 ψ , Rϕϕ = sin2 ϑ sin2 ψ . (2.9.25b)
c2 c2
The Ricci scalar and Kretschmann read
RR̈ + Ṙ2 + c2 R̈2R2 + Ṙ4 + 2Ṙ2 c2 + c4
R=6 , K = 12 . (2.9.26)
R 2 c2 R 4 c4
Local tetrad:
1 1 1 1
e(t) = ∂t , e(ψ ) = ∂ψ , eϑ = ∂ϑ , eϕ = ∂ϕ . (2.9.27)
c R R sin ψ R sin ψ sin ϑ
Ricci rotation coefficients:
Ṙ cot ψ
γ(ψ )(t)(ψ ) = γ(ϑ )(t)(ϑ ) = γ(ϕ )(t)(ϕ ) = γ(ϑ )(ψ )(ϑ ) = γ(ϕ )(ψ )(ϕ ) = , (2.9.28a)
Rc R
cot θ
γ(ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ ) = . (2.9.28b)
R sin ψ
The contractions of the Ricci rotation coefficients read
3Ṙ cot ψ cot ϑ
γ(t) = , γ(r) = 2 , γ(ϑ ) = . (2.9.29)
Rc R R sin ψ
Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:

R(t)(ψ )(t)(ψ ) = R(t)(ϑ )(t)(ϑ ) = R(t)(ϕ )(t)(ϕ ) = − , (2.9.30a)
Rc2
Ṙ2 + c2
R(ψ )(ϑ )(ψ )(ϑ ) = R(ψ )(ϕ )(ψ )(ϕ ) = R(ϑ )(ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ ) = 2 2 . (2.9.30b)
R c
Ricci-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:
3R̈ RR̈ + 2(Ṙ2 + c2 )
R(t)(t) = − , R(ψ )(ψ ) = R(ϑ )(ϑ ) = R(ϕ )(ϕ ) = . (2.9.31)
Rc2 R 2 c2

Vanishing Curvature

ds2 = −c2 dt 2 + R2 d ψ 2 + ψ 2 d ϑ 2 + sin2 ϑ d ϕ 2 (2.9.32)


 

Christoffel symbols:
ψ Ṙ Ṙ ϕ Ṙ
Γt ψ = , Γtϑϑ = , Γt ϕ = , (2.9.33a)
R R R
RṘ 1 ϕ 1
Γtψψ = 2, Γϑψϑ = , Γψϕ = , (2.9.33b)
c ψ ψ
Rψ 2 Ṙ ψ ϕ
Γtϑ ϑ = , Γϑ ϑ = −ψ , Γϑ ϕ = cot(ϑ ), (2.9.33c)
c2
Rψ 2 sin2 ϑ Ṙ ψ ϑ
Γtϕϕ = , Γϕϕ = −ψ sin2 ϑ , Γϕϕ = − sin ϑ cos ϑ . (2.9.33d)
c2
42 CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

Riemann-Tensor:
Rt ψ t ψ = −RR̈, Rt ϑ t ϑ = −Rψ 2 R̈, (2.9.34a)
R2 ψ 2 Ṙ2
Rt ϕ t ϕ = −Rψ 2 sin2 ϑ R̈, Rψϑ ψϑ = , (2.9.34b)
c2
R2 ψ 2 sin2 ϑ Ṙ2 R2 ψ 4 sin2 ϑ Ṙ2
Rψϕψϕ = , Rϑ ϕϑ ϕ = . (2.9.34c)
c2 c2
Ricci-Tensor:
R̈ RR̈ + 2Ṙ2
Rtt = −3 , Rψψ = , (2.9.35a)
R c2
RR̈ + 2Ṙ2 2 RR̈ + 2Ṙ
2
Rϑ ϑ = ψ 2 , R ϕϕ = sin 2
ϑ ψ . (2.9.35b)
c2 c2
The Ricci scalar and Kretschmann read
RR̈ + Ṙ2 R̈2 R2 + Ṙ4
R=6 2 2 , K = 12 . (2.9.36)
R c R 4 c4
Local tetrad:
1 1 1 1
e(t) = ∂t , e(ψ ) = ∂ψ , eϑ = ∂ϑ , eϕ = ∂ϕ . (2.9.37)
c R Rψ Rψ sin ϑ
Ricci rotation coefficients:
Ṙ 1
γ(ψ )(t)(ψ ) = γ(ϑ )(t)(ϑ ) = γ(ϕ )(t)(ϕ ) = γ(ϑ )(ψ )(ϑ ) = γ(ϕ )(ψ )(ϕ ) = , (2.9.38a)
Rc Rψ
cot(ϑ )
γ(ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ ) = . (2.9.38b)

The contractions of the Ricci rotation coefficients read
3Ṙ 2 cot ϑ
γ(t) = , γ(r) = , γ(ϑ ) = . (2.9.39)
Rc Rψ Rψ
Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:

R(t)(ψ )(t)(ψ ) = R(t)(ϑ )(t)(ϑ ) = R(t)(ϕ )(t)(ϕ ) = − , (2.9.40a)
Rc2
Ṙ2
R(ψ )(ϑ )(ψ )(ϑ ) = R(ψ )(ϕ )(ψ )(ϕ ) = R(ϑ )(ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ ) = 2 2 . (2.9.40b)
R c
Ricci-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:
3R̈ RR̈ + 2Ṙ2
R(t)(t) = − , R(ψ )(ψ ) = R(ϑ )(ϑ ) = R(ϕ )(ϕ ) = . (2.9.41)
Rc2 R 2 c2

Negative Curvature

ds2 = −c2 dt 2 + R2 d ψ 2 + sinh2 ψ d ϑ 2 + sin2 ϑ d ϕ 2


 
(2.9.42)

Christoffel symbols:
ψ Ṙ Ṙ ϕ Ṙ
Γt ψ = , Γtϑϑ = , Γt ϕ = , (2.9.43a)
R R R
RṘ ϕ
Γtψψ = 2, Γϑψϑ = coth ψ , Γψϕ = coth ψ , (2.9.43b)
c
R sinh2 ψ Ṙ ψ ϕ
Γtϑ ϑ = , Γϑ ϑ = − sinh ψ cosh ψ , Γϑ ϕ = cot ϑ , (2.9.43c)
c2
R sinh2 ψ sin2 ϑ Ṙ ψ ϑ
Γtϕϕ = , Γϕϕ = − sinh ψ cosh ψ sin2 ϑ , Γϕϕ = − sin ϑ cos ϑ . (2.9.43d)
c2
2.9. FRIEDMAN-ROBERTSON-WALKER 43

Riemann-Tensor:

Rt ψ t ψ = −RR̈, Rt ϑ t ϑ = −R sinh2 ψ R̈, (2.9.44a)


R2 sinh2 ψ Ṙ2 − c2

Rt ϕ t ϕ = −R sinh2 ψ sin2 ϑ R̈, Rψϑ ψϑ = , (2.9.44b)
c2
R2 sinh2 ψ sin2 ϑ Ṙ2 − c 2
R2 sinh ψ 4 sin2 ϑ Ṙ2 − c2
 
Rψϕψϕ = , Rϑ ϕϑ ϕ = . (2.9.44c)
c2 c2

Ricci-Tensor:
R̈ RR̈ + 2(Ṙ2 − c2 )
Rtt = −3 , Rψψ = , (2.9.45a)
R c2
RR̈ + 2(Ṙ2 − c2 ) RR̈ + 2(Ṙ2 − c2 )
Rϑ ϑ = sinh2 ψ , Rϕϕ = sin2 ϑ sin2 ψ . (2.9.45b)
c2 c2
The Ricci scalar and Kretschmann read
RR̈ + Ṙ2 − c2 R̈2R2 + Ṙ4 − 2Ṙ2 c2 + c4
R=6 , K = 12 . (2.9.46)
R 2 c2 R 4 c4

Local tetrad:
1 1 1 1
e(t) = ∂t , e(ψ ) = ∂ψ , eϑ = ∂ϑ , eϕ = ∂ϕ . (2.9.47)
c R R sinh ψ R sinh ψ sin ϑ

Ricci rotation coefficients:


Ṙ coth ψ
γ(ψ )(t)(ψ ) = γ(ϑ )(t)(ϑ ) = γ(ϕ )(t)(ϕ ) = γ(ϑ )(ψ )(ϑ ) = γ(ϕ )(ψ )(ϕ ) = , (2.9.48a)
Rc R
cot θ
γ(ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ ) = . (2.9.48b)
R sinh ψ

The contractions of the Ricci rotation coefficients read


3Ṙ coth ψ cot ϑ
γ(t) = , γ(r) = 2 , γ(ϑ ) = . (2.9.49)
Rc R R sinh ψ

Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


R(t)(ψ )(t)(ψ ) = R(t)(ϑ )(t)(ϑ ) = R(t)(ϕ )(t)(ϕ ) = − , (2.9.50a)
Rc2
Ṙ2 − c2
R(ψ )(ϑ )(ψ )(ϑ ) = R(ψ )(ϕ )(ψ )(ϕ ) = R(ϑ )(ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ ) = 2 2 . (2.9.50b)
R c

Ricci-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:

3R̈ RR̈ + 2(Ṙ2 − c2 )


R(t)(t) = − , R(ψ )(ψ ) = R(ϑ )(ϑ ) = R(ϕ )(ϕ ) = . (2.9.51)
Rc2 R 2 c2

Further reading:
Rindler[Rin01]
44 CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

2.10 Gödel Universe


Gödel introduced a homogeneous and rotating universe model in [Göd49]. We follow the notation of
[KWSD04]

2.10.1 Cylindrical coordinates


The Gödel metric in cylindrical coordinates is

dr2
  r 2  c
ds2 = −c2 dt 2 + 2
+ r 2
1 − d ϕ 2 + dz2 − 2r2 √ dtd ϕ , (2.10.1)
1 + [r/(2a)] 2a 2a

where 2a is the Gödel radius.


Christoffel symbols:
r 1 ϕ c 1
Γttr = , Γtr = − √ , (2.10.2a)
2a 1 + [r/(2a)]2
2
2ar 1 + [r/(2a)]2
cr h  r i2 r 1
Γtrϕ =√ 1+ , Γrrr = − 2 , (2.10.2b)
2a 2a 4a 1 + [r/(2a)]2
r3 1 ϕ 1 1
Γtrϕ = √ , Γrϕ = , (2.10.2c)
4 2ca 1 + [r/(2a)]2
3 r 1 + [r/(2a)]2
  r 2   
1  r 2
Γrϕϕ = r 1+ 1− . (2.10.2d)
2a 2 a
Riemann-Tensor:
c2 1 cr2 1
Rtrtr = Rtrrϕ = − √
, , (2.10.3a)
2a 1 + [r/(2a)]2
2
2 2a 1 + [r/(2a)]2
3

c2 r 2 1 r2 1 + 3[r/(2a)]2
Rt ϕ t ϕ = 2 , R r ϕ r ϕ = . (2.10.3b)
2a 1 + [r/(2a)]2 2a2 1 + [r/(2a)]2
Ricci-Tensor:
c2 r2 c r4
Rtt = , Rt ϕ = √ , Rϕϕ = . (2.10.4)
a2 2a3 2a4
Ricci and Kretschmann scalar
1 3
R = − 2, K = 4. (2.10.5)
a a
cosmological constant:
R
Λ= (2.10.6)
2
Killing vectors:
An infinitesimal isometric transformation x′µ = xµ + εξ µ (xν ) leaves the metric unchanged, that is g′µν (x′σ ) =
gµν (x′σ ). A killing vector field ξ µ is solution to the killing equation ξµ ;ν + ξν ;µ = 0. There exist five killing
vector fields in Gödel’s spacetime:
√r cos ϕ
     
1 2c 0
 0  1  a 1 + [r/(2a)]2 sin ϕ 
ξµ =  , ξµ = p , ξ µ =  0 ,
 
 (2.10.7a)
r 1 + 2[r/(2a)] cos ϕ
a 2

a
 0 
b 1 + [r/(2a)] 2   c
 1 
0 0 0
√r sin ϕ
   
0 2c
−a 1 + [r/(2a)]2 cos ϕ 

µ 0  µ 1
ξ =  , ξ =
  
  . (2.10.7b)
1 + [r/(2a)]2  r 1 + 2[r/(2a)]2 sin ϕ 
0
p a
d e
1 0
2.10. GÖDEL UNIVERSE 45

An arbitrary linear combination of killing vector fields is again a killing vector field.
Local tetrad:
For the local tetrad in Gödel’s spacetime an ansatz similar to the local tetrad of a rotating spacetime in
spherical coordinates (Sec. 1.4.7) can be used. After substituting ϑ → z and swapping base vectors e(2)
and e(3) an orthonormalized and right-handed local tetrad is obtained.
q
e(0) = Γ ∂t + ζ ∂ϕ , 1 + [r/(2a)]2∂r , e(2) = ∆Γ A∂t + B∂ϕ , e(3) = ∂z , (2.10.8a)
 
e(1) =

where
r2 c ζ r2 c
A = − √ + ζ r2 1 − [r/(2a)]2 , B = c2 + √ ,

(2.10.9a)
2a 2a
1 1
Γ= q √ , ∆= p . (2.10.9b)
c2 + ζ r2 c 2/a − ζ 2r2 (1 − [r/(2a)]2) rc 1 + [r/(2a)]2

Transformation between local direction y(i) and coordinate direction yµ :


q
y0 = y(0) Γ + y(2)∆ΓA, y1 = y(1) 1 + [r/(2a)]2, y2 = y(0) Γζ + y(2)∆ΓB, y3 = y(3) . (2.10.10)
with the above abbreviations.

2.10.2 Scaled cylindrical coordinates


If we apply the simple transformation
t r z
T= , R= , φ = ϕ, Z= , (2.10.11)
rG rG rG

with rG = 2a, we find a formulation for the metric scaling with rG , which is

dR2 √
 
ds = 2 2
rG 2 2
−c dT + + R (1 − R )Dφ + dZ − 2 2cR dT d φ .
2 2 2 2 2
(2.10.12)
1 + R2

Christoffel symbols:

2R φ 2c
ΓTT R = , ΓT R = − , (2.10.13a)
1 + R2 R(1 + R2)
√ R
ΓRT φ = 2cR(1 + R2), ΓRRR = − , (2.10.13b)
1 + R2
√ 3
2R φ 1
ΓTRφ = , ΓRφ = , (2.10.13c)
c(1 + R2) R(1 + R2)
ΓφRφ = R(1 + R2)(2R2 − 1). (2.10.13d)

Riemann-Tensor:
√ 2 2
2r2 c2 2 2rG cR
RT RT R = G 2 , RT RRφ =− , (2.10.14a)
1+R 1 + R2
2r2 R2 (1 + 3R2)
RT φ T φ = 2c2 rG
2 2
R (1 + R2), RR φ R φ = G . (2.10.14b)
1 + R2
Ricci-Tensor:

RT T = 4c2 , RT φ = 4 2cR2 , Rφ φ = 8R4 . (2.10.15)
46 CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

Ricci and Kretschmann scalar


4 48
R=− 2
, K = 4
. (2.10.16)
rG rG

cosmological constant:
R
Λ= (2.10.17)
2

Killing vectors:
The Killing vectors read

√R cos ϕ
    
1 2c 0
 1 (1 + R2) sin ϕ
, ξµ = √ 1
 0   0 
ξµ =  ξµ = 

 2 ,
 1 ,
 (2.10.18a)
a
 0 
b
1
1 + R2  2R (1 + 2R2) cos ϕ  c
0 0 0
√ sin ϕ
R
   
0 2c
µ 0 
ξ =  , ξ = √


 µ 1 
 − 1
2 (1 + R2) cos ϕ 
. (2.10.18b)
2R (1 + 2R ) sin ϕ
0 2 1 2
d e 1+R  
1 0

Local tetrad:
After the transformation to scaled cylindrical coordinates, the local tetrad reads

Γ 1p ∆Γ 1
∂T + ζ ∂φ , 1 + R2 ∂R , A∂T + B∂φ , ∂Z ,
 
e(0) = e(1) = e(2) = e(3) = (2.10.19a)
rG rG rG rG
where
h √ i √
A = R2 − 2c + (1 − R2)ζ , B = c2 + 2R2 cζ , (2.10.20a)
1 1
Γ= q √ , ∆= √ . (2.10.20b)
c2 + 2 2R2 cζ − R2(1 − R2)ζ 2 Rc 1 + R2

Transformation between local direction y(i) and coordinate direction yµ :

Γ (0) ∆ΓA (2) 1p Γζ (0) ∆ΓB (2) 1 (3)


y0 = y + y , y1 = 1 + R2y(1) , y2 = y + y , y3 = y , (2.10.21)
rG rG rG rG rG rG
and the back transformation is given by

rG By0 − Ay2 rG rG y2 − ζ y0
y(0) = , y(1) = √ y1 , y(2) = , y(3) = rG y3 . (2.10.22a)
Γ B−ζA 1 + R2 ∆Γ B − ζ A
2.11. HALILSOY STANDING WAVE 47

2.11 Halilsoy standing wave


The standing wave metric by Halilsoy[Hal88] reads

 1
ds2 = V e2K d ρ 2 − dt 2 + ρ 2d ϕ 2 + (dz + A d ϕ )2 , (2.11.1)
 
V

where

V = cosh2 α e−2CJ0 (ρ ) cos(t) + sinh2 α e2CJ0 (ρ ) cos(t) , (2.11.2a)


C2  2
ρ J0 (ρ )2 + J1 (ρ )2 − 2ρ J0(ρ )J1 (ρ ) cos2 t , (2.11.2b)
 
K=
2
A = −2C sinh(2α )ρ J1 (ρ ) sin(t). (2.11.2c)

with spherical Bessel functions J1,2 and parameters α and C.


Local tetrad:
e−K e−K 1 A √
e(0) = √ ∂t , e(1) = √ ∂ρ , e(2) = √ ∂ϕ − √ ∂z , e(3) = V ∂z . (2.11.3)
V V ρ V ρ V

dual tetrad:
√ K √ √ 1
θ (0) = V e dt, θ (2) = V eK d ρ , θ (2) = V ρ d ϕ , θ (3) = √ (dz + A d ϕ ). (2.11.4)
V
48 CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

2.12 Janis-Newman-Winicour
The Janis-Newman-Winicour[JNW68] spacetime in spherical coordinates (t, r, ϑ , ϕ ) is represented by the
line element

ds2 = −α γ c2 dt 2 + α −γ dr2 + r2 α −γ +1 d ϑ 2 + sin2 ϑ d ϕ 2 ,



(2.12.1)

where α = 1 − rs/(γ r). The Schwarzschild radius rs = 2GM/c2 is defined by Newton’s constant G, the
speed of light c, and the mass parameter M. For γ = 1, we obtain the Schwarzschild metric (2.2.1).
Christoffel symbols:

rs c2 2γ −1 rs rs
Γttr = α , Γttr = , Γrrr = − , (2.12.2a)
2r2 2γ r 2 α 2γ r 2 α
2γ r − rs (γ + 1) ϕ 2γ r − rs (γ + 1) 2γ r − rs (γ + 1)
Γϑrϑ = , Γrϕ = , Γϑr ϑ =− , (2.12.2b)
2γ r 2 α 2γ r 2 α 2γ
ϕ ϑ
Γrϕϕ = Γrϑ ϑ sin2 ϑ , Γϑ ϕ = cot ϑ , Γϕϕ = − sin ϑ cos ϑ . (2.12.2c)

Riemann-Tensor:
rs c2 [2γ r − rs (γ + 1)] α γ −2 rs c2 [2γ r − rs (γ + 1)] α γ −1
Rtrtr = − , Rt ϑ t ϑ = , (2.12.3a)
2γ r 4 4γ r 2
rs c2 [2γ r − rs (γ + 1)] α γ −1 sin2 ϑ rs 2γ r − rs (γ + 1)
 2 
Rt ϕ t ϕ = , Rr ϑ r ϑ =− , (2.12.3b)
4γ r 2 4γ 2 r2 α γ −1
rs 2γ r − rs (γ + 1) sin ϑ rs 4γ r − rs (γ + 1)2 sin2 ϑ
 2  2  2 
Rr ϕ r ϕ =− , Rϑ ϕϑ ϕ = . (2.12.3c)
4γ 2 r2 α γ −1 4γ 2 α γ

Weyl-Tensor:

rs c2 α γ −2 β rs c2 α γ −1 β
Ctrtr = − , Ct ϑ t ϑ = , (2.12.4a)
6γ 2 r 4 12γ 2 r2
rs c2 α γ −1 β sin2 ϑ rs β
Ct ϕ t ϕ = , Crϑ rϑ = − , (2.12.4b)
12γ 2 r2 12γ 2 r2 α γ −1
rs β sin2 ϑ rs β sin2 ϑ
Crϕ rϕ = − , Cϑ ϕϑ ϕ = , (2.12.4c)
12γ 2 r2 α γ −1 6γ 2 α γ

where β = 6γ 2 r − rs (γ + 1)(2γ + 1).


Ricci-Tensor:
rs2 (1 − γ 2 )
Rrr = . (2.12.5)
2γ 2 r 4 α 2
The Ricci scalar reads
rs2 (1 − γ 2)α γ −2
R= , (2.12.6)
2γ 2 r 4
whereas the Kretschmann scalar is given by

rs2 α 2γ −4  2 2
7γ rs (2 + γ 2) + 48γ 4r2 α + 8γ rs(2γ 2 + 1)(rs − 2γ r) + 3rs2 . (2.12.7)

K =
4γ 4 r 8

Local tetrad:
1 α (γ −1)/2 α (γ −1)/2
e(t) = ∂t , e(r) = α γ /2 ∂r , e(ϑ ) = ∂ϑ , e(ϕ ) = ∂ϕ . (2.12.8)
cα γ /2 r r sin ϑ
2.12. JANIS-NEWMAN-WINICOUR 49

Dual tetrad:
dr r r sin ϑ
θ (t) = cα γ /2 dt, θ (r) = , θ (ϑ ) = dϑ , θ (ϕ ) = dϕ . (2.12.9)
α γ /2 α (γ −1)/2 α (γ −1)/2

Ricci rotation coefficients:


rs (γ −2)/2 2γ r − rs (γ + 1) (γ −2)/2
γ(r)(t)(t) = α , γ(ϑ )(r)(ϑ ) = γ(ϕ )(r)(ϕ ) = α , (2.12.10a)
2r2 2γ r 2
cot ϑ (γ −1)/2
γ(ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ ) = α . (2.12.10b)
r
The contractions of the Ricci rotation coefficients read
4γ r − rs (2 + γ ) (γ −1)/2 cot ϑ (γ −1)/2
γ(r) = α , γ(ϑ ) = α . (2.12.11)
2γ r 2 r

Structure coefficients:

(t) rs (γ −2)/2 (ϑ ) (ϕ ) 2γ r − rs (γ + 1) (γ −2)/2


c(t)(r) = α , c(r)(ϑ ) = c(r)(ϕ ) = − α , (2.12.12a)
2r2 2γ r 2
(ϕ ) cot ϑ (γ −1)/2
c(ϑ )(ϕ ) = − α . (2.12.12b)
r

Euler-Lagrange:
The Euler-Lagrangian formalism, Sec. 1.8.4, for geodesics in the ϑ = π /2 hyperplane yields the effective
potential

h2 α γ −1
 
1
Veff = α γ − κ c2 (2.12.13)
2 r2

with the constants of motion h = r2 α −γ +1 ϕ̇ and k = α γ c2t˙. For null geodesics (κ = 0) and γ > 21 , there is
an extremum at
1 + 2γ
r = rs . (2.12.14)

Embedding:
The embedding function z = z(r) for r ∈ [rs (γ + 1)2 /(4γ 2 ), ∞) follows from
s
dz rs [4rγ 2 − rs (1 + γ )2]
= . (2.12.15)
dr 4r2 γ 2 α γ +1

However, the analytic solution

1 γ + 1 1 1 rs rs (1 + γ )2 2πγ 1 γ +1 4γ
   

z(r) = 2 rs r F1 − ; ,− ; , , − F
2 1 − , ; 1; , (2.12.16)
2 2 2 2 rγ 4rγ 2 γ +1 2 2 (γ + 1)2

depends on the Appell-F1- and the Hypergeometric-2 F1 -function.


50 CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

2.13 Kasner
The Kasner spacetime in Cartesian coordinates (t, x, y, z) is represented by the line element[MTW73,
Kas21] (c = 1)

ds2 = −dt 2 + t 2p1 dx2 + t 2p2 dy2 + t 2p3 tz2 , (2.13.1)

where p1 , p2 , p3 have to fulfill the two conditions


p1 + p2 + p3 = 1 and p21 + p22 + p23 = 1. (2.13.2)
These two conditions can also be represented by the Khalatnikov-Lifshitz parameter u with
u 1+u u(1 + u)
p1 = − , p2 = , p3 = . (2.13.3)
1 + u + u2 1 + u + u2 1 + u + u2
Christoffel symbols:
p1 p2 p3
Γtx
x
= , Γty
y
= , Γtz
z
= , (2.13.4a)
t t t
2p1 2p2 2p3
p 1 t p 2 t p 3t
Γtxx = , Γtyy = , Γtzz = . (2.13.4b)
t t t
Partial derivatives
p1 p2 p3
Γtx,t
x
=− 2 , Γtty,t = − 2 , Γtz,t
z
=− , (2.13.5a)
t t t2
Γtxx,t = p1 (2p1 − 1)t 2p1−2 , Γtyy,t = p2 (2p2 − 1)t 2p2−2 , Γtzz,t = p3 (2p3 − 1)t 2p3−2 . (2.13.5b)

Riemann-Tensor:
p1 (1 − p1)t 2p1 p2 (1 − p2)t 2p2 p3 (1 − p3)t 2p3
Rtxtx = , R tyty = , R tztz = , (2.13.6a)
t2 t2 t2
p1 p2t 2p1 t 2p2 p1 p3t 2p1 t 2p3 p2 p3t 2p2 t 2p3
Rxyxy = , R xzxz = , .R yzyz = . (2.13.6b)
t2 t2 t2
The Ricci tensor as well as the Ricci scalar vanish identically. The Kretschmann scalar reads
4
K = 4 p21 − 2p31 + p41 + p22 − 2p32 + p42 + p21 p23 + p23 − 2p33 + p43 + p21 p22 + p22 p23 (2.13.7a)

t
16u2(1 + u)2
= 4 . (2.13.7b)
t (1 + u + u2)3
Local tetrad:
e(t) = ∂t , e(x) = t −p1 ∂x , e(y) = t −p2 ∂y , e(z) = t −p3 ∂z . (2.13.8)
Dual tetrad:
θ (t) = dt, θ (x) = t p1 dx, θ (y) = t p2 dy, θ (z) = t p3 dz. (2.13.9)

Ricci rotation coefficients:


p1 p2 p3
γ (t)(r)(r) = , γ (t)(ϑ )(ϑ ) = , γ (t)(ϕ )(ϕ ) = . (2.13.10)
t t t
The contractions of the Ricci rotation coefficients read
1
γ (t) = − . (2.13.11)
t
Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:
p1 (1 − p1) p2 (1 − p2) p3 (1 − p3)
R(t)(x)(y)(x) = , R(t)(y)(t)(y) = , R(t)(z)(t)(z) = , (2.13.12a)
t2 t2 t2
p1 p2 p1 p3 p2 p3
R(x)(y)(x)(y) = 2 , R(x)(z)(x)(z) = 2 , R(y)(z)(y)(z) = 2 . (2.13.12b)
t t t
2.14. KERR 51

2.14 Kerr

The Kerr spacetime, found by Roy Kerr in 1963[Ker63], describes a rotating black hole.

2.14.1 Boyer-Lindquist coordinates

The Kerr metric in Boyer-Lindquist coordinates

 rs r  2 2 2rs ar sin2 ϑ Σ
ds2 = − 1− c dt − c dt d ϕ + dr2 + Σd ϑ 2
Σ Σ ∆
(2.14.1)
rs a2 r sin2 ϑ
 
+ r 2 + a2 + sin2 ϑ d ϕ 2 ,
Σ

with Σ = r2 + a2 cos2 ϑ , ∆ = r2 − rs r + a2 , and rs = 2GM/c2 , is taken from Bardeen[BPT72]. M is the mass


and a is the angular momentum per unit mass of the black hole. The contravariant form of the metric
reads

A 2 2rs ar ∆ 2 1 2 ∆ − a2 sin2 ϑ 2
∂s2 = − ∂ − ∂ ∂ϕ + ∂ + ∂ + ∂ϕ , (2.14.2)
Σ r Σ ϑ
t
c2 Σ∆ t
cΣ∆ Σ∆ sin2 ϑ

2
where A = r2 + a2 − a2∆ sin2 ϑ = r2 + a2 Σ + rs a2 r sin2 ϑ .


The event horizon r+ is defined by the outer root of ∆,

r
rs rs2
r+ = + − a2 , (2.14.3)
2 4

whereas the outer boundary r0 of the ergosphere follows from the outer root of Σ − rs r,

r
rs rs2
r0 = + − a2 cos2 ϑ , (2.14.4)
2 4

y
ergosphere

r+
r0
Figure 2.1: Ergosphere and horizon (dashed cir-
cle) for a = 0.99 r2s .
52 CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

Christoffel symbols:

c2 rs ∆(r2 − a2 cos2 ϑ ) c2 rs a2 r sin ϑ cos ϑ


Γttr = , Γttϑ = − , (2.14.5a)
2Σ3 Σ3
rs (r2 + a2)(r2 − a2 cos2 ϑ ) ϕ crs a(r2 − a2 cos2 ϑ )
Γttr = , Γtr = , (2.14.5b)
2Σ2 ∆ 2Σ2 ∆
rs a r sin ϑ cos ϑ
2
ϕ crs ar cot ϑ
Γtt ϑ = − , Γt ϑ = − , (2.14.5c)
Σ2 Σ2
c∆rs a sin2 ϑ (r2 − a2 cos2 ϑ ) crs ar(r2 + a2 ) sin ϑ cos ϑ
Γtrϕ = − , Γtϑϕ = , (2.14.5d)
2Σ3 Σ3
2ra2 sin2 ϑ − rs (r2 − a2 cos2 ϑ ) a2 sin ϑ cos ϑ
Γrrr = , Γϑrr = , (2.14.5e)
2Σ∆ Σ∆
a2 sin ϑ cos ϑ r
Γrrϑ = − , Γϑrϑ = , (2.14.5f)
Σ Σ
r∆ ϑ a2 sin ϑ cos ϑ
Γrϑ ϑ = − , Γϑ ϑ = − , (2.14.5g)
Σ Σ
ϕ cot ϑ rs a3 r sin3 ϑ cos ϑ
Γϑ ϕ = 2 Σ2 + rs a2 r sin2 ϑ , Γtϑ ϕ = (2.14.5h)

,
Σ cΣ2

rs a sin2 ϑ a2 cos2 ϑ (a2 − r2 ) − r2 (a2 + 3r2)


 
Γtrϕ = , (2.14.5i)
2cΣ2 ∆
2rΣ2 + rs a4 sin2 ϑ cos2 ϑ − r2 (Σ + r2 + a2 )
 
ϕ
Γrϕ = , (2.14.5j)
2Σ2 ∆
∆ sin2 ϑ 
Γϕϕ
r
−2rΣ2 + rs a2 sin2 ϑ (r2 − a2 cos2 ϑ ) ,

= 3
(2.14.5k)

ϑ sin ϑ cos ϑ 
Γϕϕ AΣ + r2 + a2 rs a2 r sin2 ϑ , (2.14.5l)
 
=−
Σ3
General local tetrad:


r
e(0) = Γ ∂t + ζ ∂ϕ , ∂r , (2.14.6a)

e(1) =
Σ
Γ gt ϕ + ζ gϕϕ gtt + ζ gt ϕ
 
1
e(2) = √ ∂ϑ , e(3) = ∓ √ ∂t ± √ ∂ϕ , (2.14.6b)
Σ c ∆ sin ϑ ∆ sin ϑ

where −Γ−2 = gtt + 2ζ gt ϕ + ζ 2 gϕϕ ,

rs r  2rs ar sin2 ϑ ζ rs a2 r sin2 ϑ ζ 2 2


  
Γ −2
= 1− + 2 2
− r +a + sin ϑ (2.14.7)
Σ Σ c Σ c2

Non-rotating local tetrad (ζ = ω ):

∆ Σ 1
r   r r
A 1 1
e(0) = ∂t + ω∂ϕ , e(1) = ∂r , e(2) = √ ∂ϑ , e(3) = ∂ϕ , (2.14.8)
Σ∆ c Σ Σ A sin ϑ

where ω = −gt ϕ /gϕϕ = rs ar/A.


Dual tetrad:

Σ∆ Σ √
r r r
A
θ (2)
= c dt, θ (1)
= dr, θ (2)
= Σd ϑ , θ (3)
= sin ϑ (d ϕ − ω d ϕ ) . (2.14.9)
A ∆ Σ
2.14. KERR 53

The relation between the constants of motion E, L, Q, and µ (defined in Bardeen[BPT72]) and the initial
direction υ , compare Sec. (1.4.5), with respect to the LNRF reads (c = 1)


r r
A rs ra
υ =
(0)
E−√ L, υ =
(1)
pr , (2.14.10a)
Σ∆ AΣ∆ Σ
s
Σ L
r
L2
 
1
υ =√
(2)
Q − cos2 ϑ a2 ( µ 2 − E 2 ) + 2 , υ (3) = . (2.14.10b)
Σ sin ϑ A sin ϑ

Static local tetrad (ζ = 0):


r
1 1
e(0) = p ∂t , e(1) = ∂r , e(2) = √ ∂ϑ , (2.14.11a)
c 1 − rs r/Σ Σ Σ
rs ar sin ϑ
p
1 − rsr/Σ
e(3) = ± p √ ∂t ∓ √ ∂ϕ . (2.14.11b)
c 1 − rsr/Σ ∆Σ ∆ sin ϑ

Photon orbits:
The direct(-) and retrograd(+) photon orbits have radius
  
2 ∓2a
rpo = rs 1 + cos arccos . (2.14.12)
3 rs

Marginally stable timelike circular orbits


are defined via
rs  p 
rms = 3 + Z2 ∓ (3 − Z1)(2 + Z1 + 2Z2 ) , (2.14.13)
2
where
1/3 "  #
4a2 2a 1/3 2a 1/3
  
Z1 = 1 + 1 − 2 1+ + 1− , (2.14.14a)
rs rs rs
s
12a2
Z2 = + Z12 . (2.14.14b)
rs2

Euler-Lagrange:
The Euler-Lagrangian formalism, Sec. 1.8.4, for geodesics in the ϑ = π /2 hyperplane yields

1 2
ṙ + Veff = 0 (2.14.15)
2
with the effective potential

k2  3 κ c2 ∆
 
1 2 ahk 2
(2.14.16)

Veff = 3 h (r − rs ) + 2 rs − 2 r + a (r + rs ) − 2
2r c c r

and the constants of motion


rs a2
 
 rs  2 crs a crs a
k = 1− c t˙ + ϕ̇ , h = r 2 + a2 + ϕ̇ − t˙. (2.14.17)
r r r r

Further reading:
Boyer and Lindquist[BL67], Wilkins[Wil72], Brill[BC66].
54 CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

2.15 Kottler spacetime


The Kottler spacetime is represented in spherical coordinates (t, r, ϑ , ϕ ) by the line element[Per04]

rs Λr2 2 2
 
2 1
ds = − 1 − − c dt + dr2 + r2 dΩ2 , (2.15.1)
r 3 1 − rs /r − Λr2 /3

where rs = 2GM/c2 is the Schwarzschild radius, G is Newton’s constant, c is the speed of light, M is
the mass of the black hole, and Λ is the cosmological constant. If Λ > 0 the metric is also known as
Schwarzschild-deSitter metric, whereas if Λ < 0 it is called Schwarzschild-anti-deSitter.
For the following, we define the two abbreviations
rs Λr2 rs 2Λ 2
α = 1− − and β= − r . (2.15.2)
r 3 r 3
The critical points of the Kottler metric follow from the roots of the cubic equation α = 0. These can be
found by means of the parameters p = −1/Λ and q = 3rs /(2Λ). If Λ < 0, we have only one real root
3rs √
  
2 1
r1 = √ sinh arsinh −Λ . (2.15.3)
−Λ 3 2
If Λ > 0, we have to distinguish whether D ≡ q2 + p3 = 9rs2 /(4Λ2 ) − Λ−3 is positive or negative. If D > 0,
there is no real positive root. For D < 0, the two real positive roots read
π 1 3rs √
  
2
r± = √ cos ± arccos Λ (2.15.4)
Λ 3 3 2

Christoffel symbols:
c2 αβ β β
Γttr = , Γttr = , Γrrr = − , (2.15.5a)
2r 2rα 2rα
1 ϕ 1
Γϑrϑ = , Γrϕ = , Γϑr ϑ = −α r, (2.15.5b)
r r
ϕ ϑ
Γϑ ϕ = cot ϑ , Γϕϕ
r
= −α r sin2 ϑ , Γϕϕ = − sin ϑ cos ϑ . (2.15.5c)

Riemann-Tensor:
c2 3rs + Λr3

1
Rtrtr =− , Rt ϑ t ϑ = c2 αβ , (2.15.6a)
3r3 2
1 β
Rt ϕ t ϕ = c2 αβ sin2 ϑ , Rr ϑ r ϑ = − , (2.15.6b)
2 2α
β Λr3
 
Rr ϕ r ϕ =− sin2 ϑ , Rϑ ϕϑ ϕ = r rs + sin2 ϑ . (2.15.6c)
2α 3

Ricci-Tensor:
Λ
Rtt = −c2 α Λ, Rrr = , Rϑ ϑ = Λr2 , Rϕϕ = Λr2 sin2 ϑ . (2.15.7)
α
The Ricci scalar and the Kretschmann scalar read
rs2 8Λ2
R = 4Λ, K = 12 + . (2.15.8)
r6 3
Weyl-Tensor:
c2 rs c2 α rs c2 α rs sin2 ϑ
Ctrtr = − , Ct ϑ t ϑ = , Ct ϕ t ϕ = , (2.15.9a)
r3 2r 2r
rs rs sin2 ϑ
Crϑ rϑ =− , Crϕ rϕ =− , Cϑ ϕϑ ϕ = rrs sin2 ϑ . (2.15.9b)
2rα 2rα
2.15. KOTTLER SPACETIME 55

Local tetrad:
1 √ 1 1
e(t) = √ ∂t , e(r) = α∂r , e(ϑ ) = ∂ϑ , e(ϕ ) = ∂ϕ . (2.15.10)
c α r r sin ϑ

Dual tetrad:
√ dr
θ (t) = c α dt, θ (r) = √ , θ (ϑ ) = r d ϑ , θ (ϕ ) = r sin ϑ d ϕ . (2.15.11)
α

Ricci rotation coefficients:



rs − 32 Λr3 α cot ϑ
γ (r)(t)(t) = √ , γ (ϑ )(r)(ϑ ) = γ (ϕ )(r)(ϕ ) = , γ (ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ ) = . (2.15.12)
2r2 α r r

The contractions of the Ricci rotation coefficients read


4r − 3rs − 2Λr3 cot ϑ
γ (r) = √ , γ (ϑ ) = . (2.15.13)
2r2 α r

Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:

Λr3 + 3rs
R(t)(r)(t)(r) = −R(ϑ )(ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ ) = − , (2.15.14a)
3r3
3rs − 2Λr3
R(t)(ϑ )(t)(ϑ ) = R(t)(ϕ )(t)(ϕ ) = −R(r)(ϑ )(r)(ϑ ) = −R(r)(ϕ )(r)(ϕ ) = . (2.15.14b)
6r3

Weyl-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


rs
C(t)(r)(t)(r) = −C(ϑ )(ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ ) = − , (2.15.15a)
r3
rs
C(t)(ϑ )(t)(ϑ ) = C(t)(ϕ )(t)(ϕ ) = −C(r)(ϑ )(r)(ϑ ) = −C(r)(ϕ )(r)(ϕ ) = . (2.15.15b)
2r3

Embedding:
The embedding function follows from the numerical integration of
s
dz rs /r + Λr2 /3
= . (2.15.16)
dr 1 − rs/r − Λr2 /3

Euler-Lagrange:
The Euler-Lagrangian formalism[Rin01] yields the effective potential

rs Λr2
  2 
1 h
Veff = 1− − − κ c 2
(2.15.17)
2 r 3 r2

with the constants of motion k = (1 − rs/r − Λr2 /3)c2t˙, h = r2 ϕ̇ , and κ as in Eq. (1.8.2).
As in the Schwarzschild metric, the effective potential has only one extremum for null geodesics, the so
called photon orbit at r = 32 rs . For timelike geodesics, however, we have

dVeff h2 (−6r + 9rs ) + c2r2 (3rs − 2r3 Λ) !


= = 0. (2.15.18)
dr 3r4
This polynomial of fifth order might have up to five extrema.

Further reading:
Kottler[Kot18], Weyl[Wey19], Hackmann[HL08], Cruz[COV05].
56 CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

2.16 Morris-Thorne
The most simple wormhole geometry is represented by the metric of Morris and Thorne[MT88],

ds2 = −c2 dt 2 + dl 2 + (b20 + l 2 ) d ϑ 2 + sin2 ϑ d ϕ 2 ,



(2.16.1)

where b0 is the throat radius and l is the proper radial coordinate; and {t ∈ R, l ∈ R, ϑ ∈ (0, π ), ϕ ∈ [0, 2π )}.
Christoffel symbols:
l ϕ l
Γϑl ϑ = , Γl ϕ = , Γϑl ϑ = −l, (2.16.2a)
b20 + l 2 b20 + l 2
ϕ ϑ
Γϑ ϕ = cot ϑ , Γlϕϕ = −l sin ϑ , 2
Γϕϕ = − sin ϑ cos ϑ . (2.16.2b)

Partial derivatives
l 2 − b20 ϕ l 2 − b20
Γϑl ϑ ,l = − , Γl ϕ ,l = − , Γϑl ϑ ,l = −1, (2.16.3a)
(b20 + l 2 )2 (b20 + l 2 )2
ϕ 1
Γϑ ϕ ,ϑ =− 2 , Γlϕϕ ,l = − sin2 ϑ , Γϕϕ
l
,ϑ = −l sin(2ϑ ), (2.16.3b)
sin ϑ
ϑ
Γϕϕ ,ϑ = − cos(2ϑ ). (2.16.3c)

Riemann-Tensor:
b20 b20 sin2 ϑ
Rl ϑ l ϑ = − 2
, Rl ϕ l ϕ = − , Rϑ ϕϑ ϕ = b20 sin2 ϑ . (2.16.4)
b0 + l 2 b20 + l 2
Ricci tensor, Ricci and Kretschmann scalar:
b20 b20 12b40
Rll = −2 2 , R = −2 2 , K = 4 . (2.16.5)
b20 + l 2 b20 + l 2 b20 + l 2

Weyl-Tensor:

2 c2 b20 1 c2 b20 1 c2 b20 sin2 ϑ


Ctltl = −  , Ct ϑ t ϑ = , Ct ϕ t ϕ = , (2.16.6a)
3 b2 + l 2 2 3 b20 + l 2 3 b20 + l 2
0
1 b20 1 b20 sin2 ϑ 2
Cl ϑ l ϑ = − , Cl ϕ l ϕ = − , Cϑ ϕϑ ϕ = b20 sin2 ϑ . (2.16.6b)
3 b20 + l 2 3 b20 + l 2 3

Local tetrad:
1 1 1
e(t) = ∂t , e(l) = ∂l , e(ϑ ) = q ∂ϑ , e(ϕ ) = q ∂ϕ . (2.16.7)
c 2
b0 + l 2 b0 + l 2 sin ϑ
2

Dual tetrad
q q
θ (t) = c dt, θ (l) = dl, θ (ϑ ) = b20 + l 2 d ϑ , θ (ϕ ) = b20 + l 2 sin ϑ d ϕ . (2.16.8)

Ricci rotation coefficients:


l cot ϑ
γ (ϑ )(r)(ϑ ) = γ (ϕ )(r)(ϕ ) = , γ (ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ ) = q . (2.16.9)
b20 + l 2 b20 + l 2

The contractions of the Ricci rotation coefficients read


2l cot ϑ
γ (r) = , γ (ϑ ) = q . (2.16.10)
b20 + l 2 b20 + l 2
2.16. MORRIS-THORNE 57

Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:

b20
R(l)(ϑ )(l)(ϑ ) = R(l)(ϕ )(l)(ϕ ) = −R(ϑ )(ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ ) = − 2 . (2.16.11)
b20 + l 2

Ricci-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:

2b20
R(l)(l) = − 2 . (2.16.12)
b20 + l 2

Weyl-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:

2b20
C(t)(l)(t)(l) = −C(ϑ )(ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ ) = − 2 , (2.16.13a)
3 b20 + l 2
b20
C(t)(ϑ )(t)(ϑ ) = C(t)(ϕ )(t)(ϕ ) = −C(l)(ϑ )(l)(ϑ ) = −C(l)(ϕ )(l)(ϕ ) = 2 . (2.16.13b)
3 b20 + l 2

Embedding:
The embedding function reads
 s 
 2
r r
z(r) = ±b0 ln  + − 1 (2.16.14)
b0 b0

with r2 = b20 + l 2 .

Euler-Lagrange:
The Euler-Lagrangian formalism, Sec. 1.8.4, for geodesics in the ϑ = π /2 hyperplane yields

1 k2 h2
 
1 ˙2 1
l + Veff = , Veff = − κc ,
2
(2.16.15)
2 2 c2 2 b20 + l 2

with the constants of motion k = c2t˙ and h = (b20 + l 2 )ϕ̇ . The shape of the effective potential Veff is inde-
pendend of the geodesic type. The maximum of the effective potential is located at l = 0.
A geodesic that starts at l = li with direction y = ±e(t) + cos ξ e(l) + sin ξ e(ϕ ) approaches the wormhole
throat asymptotically for ξ = ξcrit with

b0
ξcrit = arcsin q . (2.16.16)
b20 + li2

This critical angle is independent of the type of the geodesic.

Further reading:
Ellis[Ell73], Visser[Vis95], Müller[Mül04, Mül08a]
58 CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

2.17 Oppenheimer-Snyder collapse


2.17.1 Outer metric
The metric of the outer spacetime, R > Rb , in comoving coordinates (τ , R, ϑ , ϕ ) with (c = 1) is given by

 4/3
R 3√
ds = −d τ +
2 2
2/3 dR + R − 2 rs τ
2 3/2
d ϑ 2 + sin2 ϑ d ϕ 2 . (2.17.1)

3√
R − 2 rs τ
3/2

Christoffel symbols:
√ √
1 rs rs
ΓτRR = √ , Γϑτϑ = − √ , (2.17.2a)
2 R3/2 − 32 rs τ R3/2 − 23 rs τ
√ √
ϕ rs τ R rs
Γτϕ = − 3/2 3 √ , ΓRR = √ 5/3 , (2.17.2b)
R − 2 rs τ 2 R3/2 − 23 rs τ
√ √
3 rs τ ϑ R
ΓRRR = − √  , ΓRϑ = 3/2 3 √ , (2.17.2c)
4 R3/2 − 23 rs τ R R − 2 rs τ
√  1/3
ϕ R √ 3√
ΓRϕ = 3/2 3 √ , Γτϑ ϑ = − rs R3/2 − rs τ , (2.17.2d)
R − 2 rs τ 2

R3/2 − 23 rs τ ϕ
ΓRϑ ϑ = − √ , Γϑ ϕ = cot ϑ , (2.17.2e)
R
 1/3
τ √ 3√ ϑ
Γϕϕ = − rs R − 3/2
rs τ sin2 ϑ , Γϕϕ = − sin ϑ cos ϑ , (2.17.2f)
2
√ 
R3/2 − 32 rs τ sin2 ϑ
Γϕϕ = −
R
√ . (2.17.2g)
R

Riemann-Tensor:
Rrs 1 rs
Rτ R τ R = − √ 8/3 , Rτϑ τϑ = , (2.17.3a)
R − 32 rs τ
3/2 2 R3/2 − 3 √rs τ 2/3
2
1 rs sin2 ϑ 1 Rrs
Rτϕτϕ = √ 2/3 , RR ϑ R ϑ = − , (2.17.3b)
2 R3/2 − 32 rs τ 2 R3/2 − 3 √r τ 4/3
2 s

Rrs sin2 ϑ
 2/3
1 3√
RR ϕ R ϕ = − , Rϑ ϕϑ ϕ = R3/2 − rs τ rs sin2 ϑ . (2.17.3c)
2 R3/2 − 3 √r τ 4/3 2
2 s

The Ricci tensor and the Ricci scalar vanish identically.


Kretschmann scalar:

rs2
K = 12 √ 4 . (2.17.4)
R3/2 − 32 rs τ

Local tetrad:
√ 1/3
R3/2 − 32 rs τ
e(τ ) = ∂τ , e(R) = √ ∂R , (2.17.5a)
R
1 1
e(ϑ ) =
3√
2/3 ∂ϑ , e(ϕ ) = √ 2/3 ∂ϕ . (2.17.5b)
2 rs τ R3/2 − 2 rs τ sin ϑ
3
R3/2 −
2.17. OPPENHEIMER-SNYDER COLLAPSE 59

Ricci rotation coefficients:


√ √
rs 2 rs
γ(τ )(R)(R) = − 3/2 √ , γ(τ )(ϑ )(ϑ ) = γ(τ )(ϕ )(ϕ ) = 3/2 √ , (2.17.6a)
2R − 3 rs τ 2R − 3 rs τ
 −2/3
3√
γ(R)(ϕ )(ϕ ) = γ(R)(ϑ )(ϑ ) = − R −
3/2
rs τ . (2.17.6b)
2

The contractions of the Ricci rotation coefficients read


√  −2/3  −2/3
3 rs 3√ 3√
γ(τ ) = − 3/2 √ , γ(R) = 2 R −
3/2
rs τ , γ(ϑ ) = cot ϑ R 3/2
− rs τ . (2.17.7)
2R − 3 rs τ 2 2

Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


4rs
R(τ )(R)(τ )(R) = −R(ϑ )(ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ ) = − √ 2 , (2.17.8a)
2R3/2 − 3 rs τ
2rs
R(τ )(ϑ )(τ )(ϑ ) = R(τ )(ϕ )(τ )(ϕ ) = −R(R)(ϑ )(R)(ϑ ) = −R(R)(ϕ )(R)(ϕ ) = √ 2 . (2.17.8b)
2R − 3 rs τ
3/2

The Ricci tensor with respect to the local tetrad vanishes identically.

2.17.2 Inner metric


The metric of the inside, R ≤ Rb , reads

3 √ −3/2 4/3  2
 
ds2 = −d τ 2 + 1 − rs Rb τ dR + R2 d ϑ 2 + sin2 ϑ d ϕ 2 . (2.17.9)

2

For the following components, we define

3 √ −3/2
AOin := 1 − rs Rb τ . (2.17.10)
2

Christoffel symbols:
√ −3/2 √ −3/2 √ −3/2
rs Rb rs Rb ϕ rs Rb
ΓτRR = − , Γϑτϑ = − , Γτϕ = − , (2.17.11a)
AOin AOin AOin
1/3√ 1 ϕ 1
ΓτRR = −AOin rs Rb , ΓϑRϑ = ,
−3/2
ΓRϕ = , (2.17.11b)
R R
ϕ 1/3√
Γϑτ ϑ
−3/2
ΓϑR ϑ = −R, Γϑ ϕ = cot ϑ , = −AOin rs Rb R2 , (2.17.11c)
ϑ τ 1/3√ −3/2
ΓRϕϕ = −R sin2 ϑ , Γϕϕ = − sin ϑ cos ϑ , Γϕϕ = −AOin rs Rb R2 sin2 ϑ . (2.17.11d)

Riemann-Tensor:
1 rs 1 rs R2 1 rs R2 sin2 ϑ
Rτ R τ R = , Rτϑ τϑ = , Rτϕτϕ = , (2.17.12a)
2 R3 A2/3 2 R3 A2/3 2 R3 A2/3
b Oin b Oin b Oin
rs R2 sin2 ϑ 2/3 rs R2 2/3 rs R4 sin2 ϑ 2/3
RR ϕ R ϕ = AOin , RR ϑ R ϑ = A , Rϑ ϕϑ ϕ = AOin . (2.17.12b)
R3b R3b Oin R3b

Ricci-Tensor:
3 rs 3 rs 3 rs R2 3 rs R2 sin2 ϑ
Rττ = , RRR = , Rϑ ϑ = , Rϕϕ = . (2.17.13)
2 R3b A2Oin 2 R3 A2/3 2 R3 A2/3 2 R3 A2/3
b Oin b Oin b Oin
60 CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

The Ricci and Kretschmann scalars read:


3rs rs2
R= , K = 15 . (2.17.14)
R3b A2Oin 6
Rb A4Oin

Local tetrad:
1 1 1
e(τ ) = ∂τ , e(R) = ∂ ,
2/3 R
e(ϑ ) = ∂ ,
2/3 ϑ
e(ϕ ) = 2/3
∂ϕ . (2.17.15)
AOin RAOin AOin R sin ϑ

Ricci rotation coefficients:


√ −3/2
rs Rb
γ(τ )(R)(R) = γ(τ )(ϑ )(ϑ ) = γ(τ )(ϕ )(ϕ ) = , (2.17.16a)
AOin
1
γ(R)(ϑ )(ϑ ) = γ(R)(ϕ )(ϕ ) = − 2/3
, (2.17.16b)
RAOin
cot ϑ
γ(ϑ )(ϕ )(ϕ ) = − 2/3
. (2.17.16c)
RAOin

The contractions of the Ricci rotation coefficients read


√ −3/2
3 rs Rb 2 cot ϑ
γ(τ ) = − , γ(R) = 2/3
, γ(ϑ ) = 2/3
. (2.17.17)
AOin RAOin RAOin

Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:

rs R−3
b
R(τ )(R)(τ )(R) = R(τ )(ϑ )(τ )(ϑ ) = R(τ )(ϕ )(τ )(ϕ ) = , (2.17.18a)
2A2Oin
rs R−3
b
R(R)(ϑ )(R)(ϑ ) = R(R)(ϕ )(R)(ϕ ) = R(ϑ )(ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ ) = . (2.17.18b)
A2Oin

Ricci-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:

3rs R−3
b
R(τ )(τ ) = R(R)(R) = R(ϑ )(ϑ ) = R(ϕ )(ϕ ) = . (2.17.19)
2A2Oin

Further reading:
Oppenheimer and Snyder[OS39].
2.18. PETROV-TYPE D – LEVI-CIVITA SPACETIMES 61

2.18 Petrov-Type D – Levi-Civita spacetimes


The Petrov type D static vacuum spacetimes AI-C are taken from Stephani et al.[SKM+03], Sec. 18.6,
with the coordinate and parameter ranges given in "Exact solutions of the gravitational field equations"
by Ehlers and Kundt [EK62].

2.18.1 Case AI
In spherical coordinates, (t, r, ϑ , ϕ ), the metric is given by the line element

r r−b 2
ds2 = r2 d ϑ 2 + sin2 ϑ d ϕ 2 + dr2 −

dt . (2.18.1)
r−b r

This is the well known Schwarzschild solution if b = rs , cf. Eq. (2.2.1). Coordinates and parameters are
restricted to
t∈ R, 0 < ϑ < π, ϕ ∈ [0, 2π ), (0 < b < r) ∨ (b < 0 < r).

Local tetrad:
r r
r r−b 1 1
e(t) = ∂t , e(r) = ∂r , e(ϑ ) = ∂ϑ , e(ϕ ) = ∂ϕ . (2.18.2)
r−b r r r sin ϑ
Dual tetrad:
r r
r−b r
θ (t)
= dt, θ (r)
= dr, θ (ϑ ) = r d ϑ , θ (ϕ ) = r sin ϑ d ϕ . (2.18.3)
r r−b

Effective potential:
With the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism it is possible to obtain an effective potential fulfilling 12 ṙ2 + 21 Veff (r) =
1 2
2 C0 with
r−b r−b
Veff (r) = K −κ (2.18.4)
r3 r
and the constants of motion
 2
2 2 r−b
C0 = t ˙ , (2.18.5a)
r
K = ϑ̇ 2 r4 + ϕ̇ 2r4 sin2 ϑ . (2.18.5b)

2.18.2 Case AII


In cylindrical coordinates, the metric is given by the line element

z b−z 2
ds2 = z2 dr2 + sinh2 r d ϕ 2 + dz2 − (2.18.6)

dt .
b−z z

Coordinates and parameters are restricted to


t∈ R, 0 < r, ϕ ∈ [0, 2π ), 0 < z < b.

Local tetrad:
r r
z 1 1 b−z
e(t) = ∂t , e(r) = ∂r , e(ϕ ) = ∂ϕ , e(z) = ∂z . (2.18.7)
b−z z z sinh r z
Dual tetrad:
r r
b−z (ϕ ) z
θ (t)
= dt, θ (r)
= z dr, θ = z sinh r d ϕ , θ (z)
= dz. (2.18.8)
z b−z
62 CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

2.18.3 Case AIII


In cylindrical coordinates, the metric is given by the line element

1
ds2 = z2 dr2 + r2 d ϕ 2 + zdz2 − dt 2 . (2.18.9)

z

Coordinates and parameters are restricted to

t∈ R, 0 < r, ϕ ∈ [0, 2π ), 0 < z.

Local tetrad:
√ 1 1 1
e(t) = z∂t , e(r) = ∂r , e(ϕ ) = ∂ϕ , e(z) = √ ∂z . (2.18.10)
z zr z

Dual tetrad:
1 √
θ (t) = √ dt, θ (r) = z dr, θ (ϕ ) = zr d ϕ , θ (z) = z dz. (2.18.11)
z

2.18.4 Case BI
In spherical coordinates, the metric is given by the line element

r r−b 2
ds2 = r2 d ϑ 2 − sin2 ϑ dt 2 + dr2 + dϕ .

(2.18.12)
r−b r

Coordinates and parameters are restricted to

t∈ R, 0 < ϑ < π, ϕ ∈ [0, 2π ), (0 < b < r) ∨ (b < 0 < r).

Local tetrad:
r r
1 r−b 1 r
e(t) = ∂t , e(r) = ∂r , e(ϑ ) = ∂ϑ , e(ϕ ) = ∂ϕ . (2.18.13)
r sin ϑ r r r−b

Dual tetrad:
r r
r (ϑ ) (ϕ ) r−b
θ (t)
= r sin ϑ dt, θ (r)
= dr, θ = r dϑ , θ = dϕ . (2.18.14)
r−b r

Effective potential:
With the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism, an effective potential for the radial coordinate can be calculated
fulfilling 12 ṙ2 + 12 Veff (r) = 21 C02 with

r−b r−b
Veff (r) = K −κ (2.18.15)
r3 r
and the constants of motion
r−b 2
 
C02 = ϕ̇ 2 , (2.18.16a)
r
K = ϑ̇ 2 r4 − t˙2 r4 sin2 ϑ . (2.18.16b)

Note that the metric is not spherically symmetric. Particles or light rays fall into one of the poles if they
are not moving in the ϑ = π2 plane.
2.18. PETROV-TYPE D – LEVI-CIVITA SPACETIMES 63

2.18.5 Case BII


In cylindrical coordinates, the metric is given by the line element

z b−z 2
ds2 = z2 dr2 − sinh2 r dt 2 + dz2 + dϕ .

(2.18.17)
b−z z

Coordinates and parameters are restricted to


t∈ R, ϕ ∈ [0, 2π ), 0 < z < b, 0 < r.

Local tetrad:
r r
1 1 z b−z
e(t) = ∂t , e(r) = ∂r , e(ϕ ) = ∂ϕ , e(z) = ∂z . (2.18.18)
z sinh r z b−z z
Dual tetrad:
r r
b−z z
θ (t) = z sinh r dt, θ (r) = z dr, θ (ϕ ) = dϕ , θ (z) = dz. (2.18.19)
z b−z

2.18.6 Case BIII


In cylindrical coordinates, the metric is given by the line element

1
ds2 = z2 dr2 − r2 dt 2 + zdz2 + d ϕ 2 . (2.18.20)

z

Coordinates and parameters are restricted to


t∈ R, ϕ ∈ [0, 2π ), 0 < z, 0 < r.

Local tetrad:
1 1 √ 1
e(t) = ∂t , e(r) = ∂r , e(ϕ ) = z ∂ϕ , e(z) = √ ∂z . (2.18.21)
zr z z
Dual tetrad:
1 √
θ (t) = zr dt, θ (r) = z dr, θ (ϕ ) = √ d ϕ , θ (z) = z dz. (2.18.22)
z

2.18.7 Case C
The metric is given by the line element
 
1 1 1
ds2 = dx2 + f (x)d ϕ 2 − dy2 + f (−y)dt 2 (2.18.23)
(x + y)2 f (x) f (−y)

with f (u) := ±(u3 + au + b). Coordinates and parameters are restricted to


0 < x + y, f (−y) > 0, 0 > f (x).

Local tetrad:
1 p
e(t) = (x + y) p ∂t , e(x) = (x + y) x3 + ax + b ∂x , (2.18.24a)
3
−y − ay + b
1
e(y) = (x + y) −y3 − ay + b ∂y , ∂ϕ ,
p
e(ϕ ) = (x + y) √ (2.18.24b)
3
x + ax + b
64 CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

Dual tetrad:
1 p 3 1 1
θ (t) = −y − ay + bdt, θ (x) = √ dx, (2.18.25a)
x+y x + y x + ax + b
3
1 1 1 p 3
θ (y) = p dy, θ (ϕ ) = x + ax + bd ϕ , (2.18.25b)
x + y −y3 − ay + b x+y

A coordinate change can eliminate the linear term in the polynom f generating a quadratic term instead.
This brings the line element to the form

 
1 1 1
ds2 = dx2 + f (x)d p2 − dy2 + f (−y)dq2 (2.18.26)
A(x + y)2 f (x) f (−y)

with f (u) := ±(−2mAu3 − u2 + 1) given in [PP01].


Furthermore, coordinates can be adapted to the boost-rotation symmetry with the line element in [PP01]
from in [Bon83]

1 h ρ 2 λ
− eλ dr2 − r2 e−ρ d ϕ 2
i
ds2 = e r (z dt − t dz)2
− e (z dz − t dt)2
(2.18.27)
z2 − t 2

with
R3 + R + Z3 − r2
eρ = ,
4α (R1 + R + Z1 − r2 )
2

2α 2 R(R + R1 + Z1 ) − Z1 r2 R1 R3 + (R + Z1)(R + Z3 ) − (Z1 + Z3 )r2


  
λ
e = ,
Ri R3 [R(R + R3 + Z3 ) − Z3 r2 ]
1 2 2
z − t + r2 ,

R=
2
q
Ri = (R + Zi )2 − 2Zi r2 ,
Zi = zi − z2 ,
1 m2
α2 = ,
4 A (z2 − z1 )2 (z3 − z1)2
6

1
q= ,
4α 2
and z3 < z1 < z2 the roots of 2A4 z3 − A2z2 + m2 .
Local tetrad:

Case z2 − t 2 > 0:
1
qze−ρ /2 ∂t + te−λ /2 ∂z , , e(r) = e−λ /2 ∂r ,
 
e(t) = √ (2.18.28a)
z2 − t 2
1
qte−ρ /2 ∂t + ze−λ /2 ∂z , , e(ϕ ) = reρ /2 ∂ϕ .
 
e(z) = √ (2.18.28b)
z2 − t 2

Case z2 − t 2 < 0:
1
qte−ρ /2 ∂t + ze−λ /2 ∂z , , e(r) = e−λ /2 ∂r ,
 
e(t) = √ (2.18.29a)
t 2 − z2
1
qze−ρ /2 ∂t + te−λ /2 ∂z , , e(ϕ ) = reρ /2 ∂ϕ .
 
e(z) = √ (2.18.29b)
t 2 − z2
2.18. PETROV-TYPE D – LEVI-CIVITA SPACETIMES 65

Dual tetrad:

Case z2 − t 2 > 0:

eρ 1
r
θ (t) = (z dt + t dz) , θ (r) = eλ dr, (2.18.30a)
z2 − t 2 q
s
eλ 1
θ (z) = (t dt + z dz) , θ (ϕ ) = dϕ . (2.18.30b)
z2 − t 2 reρ

Case z2 − t 2 > 0:
s

θ (t) = (t dt + z dz) , θ (r) = eλ dr, (2.18.31a)
t 2 − z2

r
1 1
θ (z)
= (z dt + t dz) , θ (ϕ ) = dϕ . (2.18.31b)
t 2 − z2 q reρ
66 CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

2.19 Plane gravitational wave


W. Rindler described in [Rin01] an exact plane gravitational wave which is bounded between two
planes. The metric of the so called ’sandwich wave’ with u := t − x reads

ds2 = −dt 2 + dx2 + p2 (u) dy2 + q2 (u) dz2 . (2.19.1)

The functions p (u) and q (u) are given by


 
 p0 = const. u < −a
 q0 = const.
 u < −a
p (u) := 1 − u 0<u and q (u) := 1 − u 0<u , (2.19.2)
L (u) e−m(u)
 
L (u)e m(u) else else
 

where a is the longitudinal extension of the wave. The functions L (u) and m (u) are
s
u3 u4 √ Z u2 + au
L (u) = 1 − u + 2 + 3 , m (u) = ±2 3 du. (2.19.3)
a 2a 2a3 u − 2au3 − u4 − 2a3

Christoffel symbols:

1 ∂p ∂q 1 ∂q ∂p
Γty
y
= −Γyxy = , Γtzz = Γxzz = q , Γtz
z
= −Γzxz = , Γtyy = Γxyy = p . (2.19.4)
p ∂u ∂u q ∂u ∂u

Riemann-Tensor:
∂2p ∂ 2q
Rtyty = Rxyxy = −Rtyxy = −p , Rtztz = Rxzxz = −Rtzxz = −q . (2.19.5)
∂ u2 ∂ u2

Local tetrad:
1 1
e(t) = ∂t , e(x) = ∂x , e(y) = ∂y , e(z) = ∂z . (2.19.6)
p q

Dual tetrad:

θ (t) = dt, θ (x) = dx, θ (y) = pdy, θ (z) = qdz. (2.19.7)


2.20. REISSNER-NORDSTRØM 67

2.20 Reissner-Nordstrøm
The Reissner-Nordstrøm black hole in spherical coordinates {t ∈ R, r ∈ R+, ϑ ∈ (0, π ), ϕ ∈ [0, 2π )} is de-
fined by the metric[MTW73]

RN dr + r d ϑ + sin ϑ d ϕ ,
ds2 = −ARN c2 dt 2 + A−1 2 2 2 2 2
(2.20.1)


where

rs ρ Q2
ARN = 1 − + 2 (2.20.2)
r r

with rs = 2GM/c2 , the charge Q, and ρ = G/(ε0 c4 ) ≈ 9.33 · 10−34. As in the Schwarzschild case, there is a
true curvature singularity at r = 0. However, for Q2 < rs2 /(4ρ ) there are also two critical points at
s
rs rs 4 ρ Q2
r= ± 1− . (2.20.3)
2 2 rs2

Christoffel symbols:

ARN c2 (rs r − 2ρ Q2 ) rs r − 2ρ Q2 rs r − 2ρ Q2
Γttr = , Γttr = , Γrrr = − , (2.20.4a)
2r3 2r3 ARN 2r3 ARN
1 ϕ 1
Γϑrϑ = , Γrϕ = , Γϑr ϑ = −rARN , (2.20.4b)
r r
ϕ ϑ
Γϑ ϕ = cot ϑ , Γrϕϕ = −rARN sin2 ϑ , Γϕϕ = − sin ϑ cos ϑ . (2.20.4c)

Riemann-Tensor:

c2 (rs r − 3ρ Q2) ARN c2 (rsr − 2ρ Q2)


Rtrtr = − , Rt ϑ t ϑ = , (2.20.5a)
r4 2r2
ARN c2 (rs r − 2ρ Q2 ) sin2 ϑ rs r − 2ρ Q2
Rt ϕ t ϕ = , Rr ϑ r ϑ =− , (2.20.5b)
2r2 2r2 ARN
(rs r − 2ρ Q2) sin2 ϑ
Rr ϕ r ϕ =− , Rϑ ϕϑ ϕ = (rs r − ρ Q2 ) sin2 ϑ . (2.20.5c)
2r2 ARN

Ricci-Tensor:

c2 ρ Q2 ARN ρ Q2 ρ Q2 ρ Q2 sin2 ϑ
Rtt = , Rrr = − , Rϑ ϑ = , Rϕϕ = . (2.20.6)
r4 r4 ARN r2 r2

While the Ricci scalar vanishes identically, the Kretschmann scalar reads

3rs2 r2 − 12rs rρ Q2 + 14ρ 2Q4


K =4 . (2.20.7)
r8

Weyl-Tensor:

c2 (rs r − 2ρ Q2 ) ARN c2 (rsr − 2ρ Q2)


Ctrtr = − , Ct ϑ t ϑ = − , (2.20.8a)
r4 2r2
ARN c2 (rs r − 2ρ Q2 ) sin2 ϑ rs r − 2ρ Q2
Ct ϕ t ϕ = , Crϑ rϑ =− , (2.20.8b)
2r2 2r2 ARN
(rs r − 2ρ Q2 ) sin2 ϑ
Crϕ rϕ =− , Cϑ ϕϑ ϕ = (rs r − 2ρ Q2) sin2 ϑ . (2.20.8c)
2r2 ARN
68 CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

Local tetrad:
1 1 1
∂t , ARN ∂r , e(ϑ ) = ∂ϑ , ∂ϕ .
p
e(t) = √ e(r) = e(ϕ ) = (2.20.9)
c ARN r r sin ϑ
Dual tetrad:
dr
θ (t) = c ARN dt, θ (r) = √ θ (ϑ ) = r d ϑ , θ (ϕ ) = r sin ϑ d ϕ .
p
, (2.20.10)
ARN

Ricci rotation coefficients:



rrs − 2ρ Q2 ARN cot ϑ
γ (r)(t)(t) = √ , γ (ϑ )(r)(ϑ ) = γ (ϕ )(r)(ϕ ) = , γ (ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ ) = . (2.20.11)
2r3 ARN r r
The contractions of the Ricci rotation coefficients read
4r2 − 3rrs + 2ρ Q2 cot ϑ
γ (r) = √ , γ (ϑ ) = . (2.20.12)
2r3 ARN r

Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


rs r − 3ρ Q2 rs r − ρ Q2
R(t)(r)(t)(r) = − , R(ϑ )(ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ ) = , (2.20.13a)
r4 r4
rs r − 2ρ Q2
R(t)(ϑ )(t)(ϑ ) = R(t)(ϕ )(t)(ϕ ) = −R(r)(ϑ )(r)(ϑ ) = −R(r)(ϕ )(r)(ϕ ) = . (2.20.13b)
2r4
Ricci-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:
ρ Q2
R(t)(t) = −R(r)(r) = R(ϑ )(ϑ ) = R(ϕ )(ϕ ) = . (2.20.14)
r4
Weyl-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:
rs r − 2ρ Q2
C(t)(r)(t)(r) = −C(ϑ )(ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ ) = − , (2.20.15a)
r4
rs r − 2ρ Q2
C(t)(ϑ )(t)(ϑ ) = C(t)(ϕ )(t)(ϕ ) = −C(r)(ϑ )(r)(ϑ ) = −C(r)(ϕ )(r)(ϕ ) = . (2.20.15b)
2r4
Embedding:
The embedding function follows from the numerical integration of
s
dz 1
= − 1. (2.20.16)
dr 1 − rs/r + ρ Q2 /r2

Euler-Lagrange:
The Euler-Lagrangian formalism, Sec. 1.8.4, for geodesics in the ϑ = π /2 hyperplane yields
1 k2 rs ρ Q2
  2 
1 2 1 h
ṙ + Veff = , Veff = 1− + 2 − κc 2
(2.20.17)
2 2 c2 2 r r r2
with constants of motion k = ARN c2t˙ and h = r2 ϕ̇ . For null geodesics, κ = 0, there are two extremal points
s !
3 32ρ Q2
r± = rs 1 ± 1 − , (2.20.18)
4 9rs2

where r+ is a maximum and r− a minimum.


Further reading:
Eiroa[ERT02]
2.21. DE SITTER SPACETIME 69

2.21 de Sitter spacetime


The de Sitter spacetime with Λ > 0 is a solution of the Einstein field equations with constant curvature. A
detailed discussion can be found for example in Hawking and Ellis[HE99]. Here, we use the coordinate
transformations given by Bičák[BK01].

2.21.1 Standard coordinates


The de Sitter metric in standard coordinates {τ ∈ R, χ ∈ [−π , π ], ϑ ∈ (0, π ), ϕ ∈ [0, 2π )} reads
τ  2
ds2 = −d τ 2 + α 2 cosh2 d χ + sin2 χ d ϑ 2 + sin2 ϑ d ϕ 2 , (2.21.1)

α

where α 2 = 3/Λ.
Christoffel symbols:
χ 1 τ 1 τ ϕ 1 τ
Γτ χ = tanh , Γϑτϑ = tanh , Γτϕ = tanh , (2.21.2a)
α α α α α α
τ τ ϕ
Γτχ χ = α sinh cosh , Γϑχϑ = cot χ , Γχϕ = cot χ , (2.21.2b)
α α
τ τ χ ϕ
Γϑτ ϑ = α sin2 χ sinh cosh , Γϑ ϑ = − sin χ cos χ , Γϑ ϕ = cot ϑ , (2.21.2c)
α α
τ τ τ χ ϑ
Γϕϕ = α sin2 χ sin2 ϑ sinh cosh , Γϕϕ = − sin2 ϑ sin χ cos χ ,Γϕϕ = − sin ϑ cos ϑ . (2.21.2d)
α α
Riemann-Tensor:
τ τ
Rτ χτ χ = − cosh2 , Rτϑ τϑ = − cosh2 sin2 χ , (2.21.3a)
α α
τ  τ 2 2
Rτϕτϕ = − cosh2 sin2 χ sin2 ϑ , Rχϑ χϑ = α 2 1 + sinh2 sin χ , (2.21.3b)
α α
 τ 2 2  τ 2 4

Rχϕ χϕ = α 1 + sinh2
2
sin χ sin2 ϑ , Rϑ ϕϑ ϕ = α 2 1 + sinh2 sin χ sin2 ϑ . (2.21.3c)
α α
Ricci-Tensor:
3 τ τ τ
Rττ = − , Rχ χ = 3 cosh2 , Rϑ ϑ = 3 cosh2 sin2 χ , Rϕϕ = 3 cosh2 sin2 χ sin2 ϑ . (2.21.4)
α2 α α α
Ricci and Kretschmann scalars:
12 24
R= , K = . (2.21.5)
α2 α4
Local tetrad:
1 1 1
e(τ ) = ∂τ , e( χ ) = ∂χ , e(ϑ ) = ∂ϑ , e(ϕ ) = ∂ϕ . (2.21.6)
α cosh ατ α cosh ατ sin χ α cosh ατ sin χ sin ϑ
Dual tetrad:
τ τ τ
θ (τ ) = d τ , θ (χ ) = α cosh dχ, θ (ϑ ) = α cosh sin χ d ϑ , θ (ϕ ) = α cosh sin χ sin ϑ d ϕ . (2.21.7)
α α α

2.21.2 Conformally Einstein coordinates


In conformally Einstein coordinates {η ∈ [0, π ], χ ∈ [−π , π ], ϑ ∈ [0, π ], ϕ ∈ [0, 2π )}, the de Sitter metric
reads

α2 
ds2 = −d η 2 + d χ 2 + sin2 χ d ϑ 2 + sin2 ϑ d ϕ 2 . (2.21.8)

sin η
2
70 CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

It follows from the standard form (2.21.1) by the transformation

η = 2 arctan eτ /α .
 
(2.21.9)

2.21.3 Conformally flat coordinates


R R
Conformally flat coordinates {T ∈ , r ∈ , ϑ ∈ (0, π ), ϕ ∈ [0, 2π )} follow from conformally Einstein co-
ordinates by means of the transformations

α sin η α sin χ 2T α 2rα


T= , r= , or η = arctan , χ = arctan . (2.21.10)
cos χ + cos η cos χ + cos η α 2 − T 2 + r2 α 2 + T 2 − r2

For the transformation (T, R) → (η , χ ), we have to take care of the coordinate domains. In that case, if
κ 2 − T 2 + r2 < 0, we have to map η → η + π . On the other hand, if κ 2 + T 2 − r2 < 0, we have to consider
the sign of r. If r > 0, then χ → χ + π , otherwise χ → χ − π .
The resulting metric reads

α2 
ds2 = −dT 2 + dr2 + r2 d ϑ 2 + sin2 ϑ d ϕ 2 .

2
(2.21.11)
T

Note that we identify points (r < 0, ϑ , ϕ ) with (r > 0, π − ϑ , ϕ − π ).


Christoffel symbols:

ϕ 1 ϕ 1 r2
ΓTT T = ΓrTr = ΓϑT ϑ = ΓT ϕ = ΓTrr = − , Γϑrϑ = Γrϕ = , ΓϑT ϑ = − , Γϑr ϑ = −r, (2.21.12a)
T r T
ϕ r2 sin2 ϑ ϑ
Γϑ ϕ = cot ϑ , Γϕϕ T
=− , Γϕϕ
r
= −r sin2 ϑ , Γϕϕ = − sin ϑ cos ϑ . (2.21.12b)
T

Riemann-Tensor:

α2 α 2 r2 α 2 r2 sin2 ϑ
RTrTr = − , RT ϑ T ϑ = − , RT ϕ T ϕ = − , (2.21.13a)
T4 T4 T4
α 2 r2 α 2 r2 sin2 ϑ α 2 r4 sin2 ϑ
Rr ϑ r ϑ = 4 , Rr ϕ r ϕ = , Rϑ ϕϑ ϕ = . (2.21.13b)
T T4 T4

Ricci-Tensor:
3 3 3r2 3r2 sin2 ϑ
RT T = − , Rrr = , Rϑ ϑ = , Rϕϕ = . (2.21.14)
T2 T2 T2 T2
The Ricci and Kretschmann scalar read:
12 24
R= , K = . (2.21.15)
α2 α4

Local tetrad:
T T T T
e(T ) = ∂T , e(r) = ∂r , e(ϑ ) = ∂ϑ , e(ϕ ) = ∂ϕ . (2.21.16)
α α αr α r sin ϑ

2.21.4 Static coordinates


The de Sitter metric in static spherical coordinates {t ∈ R, r ∈ R+ , ϑ ∈ (0, π ), ϕ ∈ [0, 2π )} reads
−1
Λ Λ
  
ds2 = − 1 − r2 c2 dt 2 + 1 − r2 dr2 + r2 d ϑ 2 + sin2 ϑ d ϕ 2 . (2.21.17)

3 3
2.21. DE SITTER SPACETIME 71

It follows from the conformally Einstein form (2.21.8) by the transformations

α cos χ − cos η sin χ


t= ln , r=α . (2.21.18)
2 cos χ + cos η sin η

Christoffel symbols:

(Λr2 − 3) 2 Λr Λr
Γttr = c Λr, Γttr = , Γrrr = , (2.21.19a)
9 Λr2 − 3 3 − Λr2
1 φ 1 (Λr2 − 3)r
Γϑrϑ = , Γrφ = , Γϑr ϑ = , (2.21.19b)
r r 3
φ Λr2 − 3
Γϑ φ = cot(ϑ ), Γrφ φ = r sin2 (ϑ ), Γφϑφ = − sin(ϑ ) cos(ϑ ). (2.21.19c)
3

Riemann-Tensor:

Λ 3 − Λr2 2 2 3 − Λr2 2 2
Rtrtr = − c2 , Rt ϑ t ϑ = − c Λr , Rt ϕ t ϕ = − c Λr sin(ϑ )2 , (2.21.20a)
3 9 9
Λr2 Λr2 sin(θ )2 r4 sin2 (θ )Λ
Rr ϑ r ϑ = , Rr ϕ r ϕ = , Rϑ ϕϑ ϕ = . (2.21.20b)
−Λr2 + 3 −Λr2 + 3 3

Ricci-Tensor:

Λr2 − 3 2 3Λ
Rtt = c Λ, Rrr = , Rϑ ϑ = Λr2 , Rϕϕ = r2 sin2 (ϑ )Λ. (2.21.21)
3 3 − Λr2

The Ricci scalar and Kretschmann scalar read:

8
R = 4Λ, K = Λ2 . (2.21.22)
3

Local tetrad:

∂t Λr2
r r
3 1 1
e(t) = , e(r) = 1− ∂r , e(ϑ ) = ∂ϑ , e(ϕ ) = ∂ϕ . (2.21.23)
3 − Λr2 c 3 r r sin(ϑ )

Ricci rotation coefficients:



Λr 9 − 3Λr2 cot ϑ
γ(t)(r)(t) = − √ , γ(ϑ )(r)(ϑ ) = γ(ϕ )(r)(ϕ ) = , γ(ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ ) = . (2.21.24)
9 − 3Λr2 3r r

The contractions of the Ricci rotation coefficients read



9 − 3Λr2(Λr2 − 2) cot ϑ
γ(r) = , γ(ϑ ) = . (2.21.25)
(Λr2 − 3)r r

Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:

1
−R(t)(r)(t)(r) = −R(t)(ϑ )(t)(ϑ ) = −R(t)(ϕ )(t)(ϕ ) = R(r)(ϑ )(r)(ϑ ) = R(r)(ϕ )(r)(ϕ ) = R(ϑ )(ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ ) = Λ. (2.21.26)
3

Ricci-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:

−R(t)(t) = R(r)(r) = R(ϑ )(ϑ ) = R(ϕ )(ϕ ) = Λ. (2.21.27)


72 CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

2.21.5 Lemaître-Robertson form


The de Sitter universe in the Lemaître-Robertson form reads

ds2 = −c2 dt 2 + e2Ht dr2 + r2 d ϑ 2 + sin2 ϑ d ϕ 2 , (2.21.28)


 

q
with Hubble’s Parameter H = Λc3 = αc , which is assumed here to be time-independent.
2

This a special case of the first and second form of the Friedman-Robertson-Walker metric defined in Eqs.
(2.9.2) and (2.9.12) with R(t) = eHt and k = 0.
Christoffel symbols:
ϕ
Γtr
r
= H, Γtϑϑ = H, Γt ϕ = H, (2.21.29a)
e2Ht H 1 ϕ 1
Γtrr = , Γϑrϑ = , Γrϕ = , (2.21.29b)
c2 r r
e2Ht r2 H ϕ
Γtϑ ϑ = , Γrϑ ϑ = −r, Γϑ ϕ = cot(ϑ ), (2.21.29c)
c2
e2Ht r2 sin2 (θ )H ϑ
Γtϕϕ = , Γϕϕ
r
= −r sin(ϑ )2 , Γϕϕ = − sin(ϑ ) cos(ϑ ). (2.21.29d)
c2
Riemann-Tensor:
Rtrtr = −e2Ht H 2 , Rt ϑ t ϑ = −e2Ht r2 H 2 , (2.21.30a)
e4Ht r2 H 2
Rt ϕ t ϕ = −e2Ht r2 sin2 (ϑ )H 2 , Rr ϑ r ϑ = , (2.21.30b)
c2
e4Ht r2 sin2 (ϑ )H 2 e4Ht r4 sin2 (ϑ )H 2
Rr ϕ r ϕ = , Rϑ ϕϑ ϕ = . (2.21.30c)
c2 c2
Ricci-Tensor:
e2Ht H 2 e2Ht r2 H 2 e2Ht r2 sin2 (ϑ )H 2
Rtt = −3H 2 , Rrr = 3 , Rϑ ϑ = 3 , Rϕϕ = 3 . (2.21.31)
c2 c2 c2
Ricci and Kretschmann scalars:
12H 2 24H 4
R= , K = . (2.21.32)
c2 c4
Local tetrad:
1 e−Ht e−Ht
e(t) = ∂t , e(r) = e−Ht ∂r , e(ϑ ) = ∂ϑ , e(ϕ ) = ∂ϕ . (2.21.33)
c r r sin ϑ
Ricci rotation coefficients:
H
γ(r)(t)(r) = γ(ϑ )(t)(ϑ ) = γ(ϕ )(t)(ϕ ) = (2.21.34a)
c
1 cot(θ )
γ(ϑ )(r)(ϑ ) = γ(ϕ )(r)(ϕ ) = , γ(ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ ) = . (2.21.34b)
eHt r eHt r
The contractions of the Ricci rotation coefficients read
H 2 cot(θ )
γ(t) = 3 , γ(r) = , γ(ϑ ) = . (2.21.35)
c eHt r eHt r
Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:
H2
R(t)(r)(t)(r) = R(t)(ϑ )(t)(ϑ ) = R(t)(ϕ )(t)(ϕ ) = − (2.21.36a)
c2
H2
R(r)(ϑ )(r)(ϑ ) = R(r)(ϕ )(r)(ϕ ) = R(ϑ )(ϕ )(ϑ )(ϕ ) = 2 . (2.21.36b)
c
2.21. DE SITTER SPACETIME 73

Ricci-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:


H2
−R(t)(t) = R(r)(r) = R(ϑ )(ϑ ) = R(ϕ )(ϕ ) = 3 . (2.21.37)
c2

2.21.6 Cartesian coordinates


The de Sitter universe in Lemaître-Robertson form can also be expressed in Cartesian coordinates:

ds2 = −c2 dt 2 + e2Ht dx2 + dy2 + dz2 . (2.21.38)


 

Christoffel symbols:
Γtx
x
= H, Γty
y
= H, Γtz
z
= H, (2.21.39a)
e2Ht H e2Ht H e2Ht H
Γtxx = , Γtyy = , Γtzz = . (2.21.39b)
c2 c2 c2
(2.21.39c)
Partial derivatives
2H 2 e2Ht
Γtxx,t = Γtyy,t = Γtzz,t = . (2.21.40)
c2
Riemann-Tensor:
e4Ht H 2
Rtxtx = Rtxtx = Rtztz = −e2Ht H 2 , Rxyxy = Rxzxz = Ryzyz = . (2.21.41)
c2
Ricci-Tensor:
e2Ht H 2
Rtt = −3H 2 , Rxx = Ryy = Rzz = 3 . (2.21.42)
c2
The Ricci and Kretschmann scalar read:
H2 H4
R = 12 , K = 24 . (2.21.43)
c2 c4
Local tetrad:
1
e(t) = ∂t , e(x) = e−Ht ∂x , e(y) = e−Ht ∂y , e(z) = e−Ht ∂z . (2.21.44)
c
Ricci rotation coefficients:
H
γ(x)(t)(x) = γ(y)(t)(y) = γ(z)(t)(z) =
. (2.21.45)
c
The only non-vanishing contraction of the Ricci rotation coefficients read
H
γ(t) = 3 . (2.21.46)
c
Riemann-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:
H2
R(t)(x)(t)(x) = R(t)(y)(t)(y) = R(t)(z)(t)(z) = − , (2.21.47a)
c2
H2
R(x)(y)(x)(y) = R(x)(z)(x)(z) = R(y)(z)(y)(z) = 2 . (2.21.47b)
c
Ricci-Tensor with respect to local tetrad:
H2
−R(t)(t) = R(x)(x) = R(y)(y) = R(z)(z) = 3 . (2.21.48)
c2
Further reading:
Tolman[Tol34, sec. 142], Bičák[BK01]
74 CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

2.22 Straight spinning string


The metric of a straight spinning string in cylindrical coordinates (t, ρ , ϕ , z) reads

ds2 = − (c dt − a d ϕ )2 + d ρ 2 + k2 ρ 2 d ϕ 2 + dz2 , (2.22.1)

R
where a ∈ and k > 0 are two parameters, see Perlick[Per04].
Metric-Tensor:

gtt = −c2 , gt ϕ = ac, gρρ = gzz = 1, gϕϕ = k2 ρ 2 − a2. (2.22.2)

Christoffel symbols:

a ϕ 1 ρ
Γtρϕ = , Γρϕ = , Γϕϕ = −k2 ρ . (2.22.3)
cρ ρ

Partial derivatives
α ϕ 1 ρ
Γtρϕ ,ρ = − , Γρϕ ,ρ = − , Γϕϕ ,ρ = −k2 . (2.22.4)
cρ 2 ρ2

The Riemann-, Ricci-, and Weyl-tensors as well as the Ricci- and Kretschmann-scalar vanish identically.
Static local tetrad:
1 1 a 
e(0) = ∂t , e(1) = ∂ρ , e(2) = ∂t + ∂ϕ , e(3) = ∂z . (2.22.5)
c kρ c

Dual tetrad:

θ (0) = c dt − a d ϕ , θ (1) = d ρ , θ (2) = kρ d ϕ , θ (3) = dz. (2.22.6)

Ricci rotation coefficients and their contractions read


1 1
γ(2)(1)(2) = , γ(0) = γ(2) = γ(3) = 0, γ(1) = . (2.22.7)
ρ ρ

Comoving local tetrad:

k 2 ρ 2 − a2 1
p  
a
e(0) = ∂t − 2 2 ∂ϕ , e(1) = ∂ρ , (2.22.8a)
kρ c k ρ − a2
1
e(2) = p ∂ϕ , e(3) = ∂z . (2.22.8b)
k 2 ρ 2 − a2

Dual tetrad:
kρ ac dt
q
θ (0) = p c dt, θ (1) = d ρ , θ (2) = p + k 2 ρ 2 − a2 d ϕ , θ (3) = dz. (2.22.9)
k ρ 2 − a2
2 k 2 ρ 2 − a2

Ricci rotation coefficients and their contractions read


a2 ak
γ(0)(1)(0) = , γ(2)(1)(0) = γ(0)(2)(1) = γ(0)(1)(2) = , (2.22.10a)
ρ (k2 ρ 2 − a2 ) k 2 ρ 2 − a2
k2 ρ
γ(2)(1)(2) = , (2.22.10b)
k 2 ρ 2 − a2
1
γ(1) = . (2.22.10c)
ρ
2.22. STRAIGHT SPINNING STRING 75

Euler-Lagrange:
The Euler-Lagrangian formalism, Sec. 1.8.4, for geodesics in the ϑ = π /2 hyperplane yields

ah1 2 h2
 
1
ρ̇ 2 + h2 − − κ c2 = 21 , (2.22.11)
k2 ρ 2 c c

with the constants of motion h1 = c(ct˙ − aϕ̇ ) and h2 = a(ct˙ − aϕ̇ ) + k2 ρ 2 ϕ̇ .


The point of closest approach ρpca for a null geodesic that starts at ρ = ρi with y = ±e(0) + cos ξ e(1) +
sin ξ e(2) with respect to the static tetrad is given by ρ = ρi sin ξ . Hence, the ρpca is independent of a and
k. The same is also true for timelike geodesics.
76 CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

2.23 Sultana-Dyer spacetime


The Sultana-Dyer metric represents a black hole in the Einstein-de Sitter universe. In spherical coordi-
nates (t, r, ϑ , ϕ ), the metric reads[SD05] (G = c = 1)
    
2 2M
4 2 4M 2M 2 2 2
ds = t 1− dt − dt dr − 1 + dr − r dΩ , (2.23.1)
r r r

where M is the mass of the black hole and Ω2 = d ϑ 2 + sin2 ϑ d ϕ 2 is the spherical surface element. Note
that here, the signature of the metric is sign(g) = −2.
Christoffel symbols:

2 r3 + 4M 2 r + M 2t

M(r − 2M)(4r + t) M(r + 2M)(4r + t)
Γttt = , Γttr = , Γttr = , (2.23.2a)
tr3 tr 3 tr3
2 r3 − 4M 2 r − M 2t

2 ϕ 2
Γtrr
= 3
, Γtϑϑ = , Γt ϕ = , (2.23.2b)
tr t t
2 r2 + 2Mr − Mt

1 ϕ 1
Γϑrϑ = , Γrϕ = , Γtϑ ϑ = , (2.23.2c)
r r t
4Mr + tr − 2Mt ϕ ϑ
Γϑr ϑ = − , Γϑ ϕ = cot ϑ , Γϕϕ = − sin ϑ cos ϑ , (2.23.2d)
t

2 r3 + 4Mr2 + 4M 2 r + M 2t + Mtr M 4r2 + 8Mr + 2Mt + tr


 
Γtrr = , Γ r
rr = − , (2.23.2e)
tr3 tr3
2 r2 + 2Mr − Mt sin2 ϑ (4Mr + tr − 2Mt)sin2 ϑ
Γtϕϕ = , Γϕϕ
r
=− . (2.23.2f)
t t

Riemann-Tensor:

2t 2 −2Mr2 − r3 + Mt 2 + 2Mtr
Rtrtr = , (2.23.3a)
r3
t 2 2r4 + 16M 2 r2 + 4Mtr2 − 4M 2 r2t + Mt 2 r − 2M 2t 2

Rr ϑ t ϑ =− , (2.23.3b)
r2
2Mt 2 (4r + t)(r2 + 2Mr − Mt)
Rt ϑ rϑ =− , (2.23.3c)
r2
t 2 sin2 ϑ 2r4 + 16M 2 r2 + 4Mtr2 − 4M 2r2 t + Mt 2 r − 2M 2t 2

Rr ϕ t ϕ =− , (2.23.3d)
r2
2Mt 2 sin2 ϑ (4r + t)(r2 + 2Mr − Mt)
Rt ϕ rϕ =− , (2.23.3e)
r2
t 2 4r4 + 16Mr4 − 4M 2tr + 16M 2 r2 − 2M 2t 2 − Mt 2 r

Rr ϑ r ϑ =− , (2.23.3f)
r2
t 2 sin2 ϑ 4r4 + 16Mr4 − 4M 2tr + 16M 2 r2 − 2M 2t 2 − Mt 2 r

Rr ϕ r ϕ =− , (2.23.3g)
r2
= −2t 2r sin2 ϑ 2r3 + 4Mr2 − 4Mtr + mt 2 .

Rϑ ϕϑ ϕ (2.23.3h)

Ricci-Tensor:
2 3r2 + 12M 2 + 2Mt

4M (3r + t + 6M)
Rtt = 2 2
, Rtr = , (2.23.4a)
t r t 2 r2
2 3r2 + 12Mr + 2Mt + 12M 2 6 r2 + 2Mr − 2Mt
 
Rrr = , Rϑ ϑ = , (2.23.4b)
t 2 r2  t2
6 r2 + 2Mr − 2Mt sin2 ϑ
Rϕϕ = . (2.23.4c)
t2
2.23. SULTANA-DYER SPACETIME 77

Ricci and Kretschmann scalars:


12 r2 + 2Mr − 2Mt

R=− , (2.23.5a)
t 6 r2
48 M 2t 4 + 20M 2 r4 + 20Mr5 + 8M 2r2 t 2 − 4Mr4t − 16M 2r3t + 5r6

K = . (2.23.5b)
t 1 2r6

Comoving local tetrad:


p
1 + 2M/r 2M/r 1 1 1
e(0) = ∂t − p ∂r , e(1) = ∂r , e(2) = ∂ϑ , e(3) = ∂ϕ . (2.23.6)
t2 t 2r t 2 r sin ϑ
p
2
t 1 + 2M/r t2 1 + 2M/r

Static local tetrad:


p
1 2M/r 1 − 2M/r 1 1
e(0) = p ∂t , e(1) = p ∂t + ∂r , e(2) = ∂ϑ , e(3) = ∂ϕ . (2.23.7)
2
t 1 − 2M/r 2
t 1 − 2M/r t2 t 2r t 2 r sin ϑ

Further reading:
Sultana and Dyer[SD05].
78 CHAPTER 2. SPACETIMES

2.24 TaubNUT
The TaubNUT metric in Boyer-Lindquist like spherical coordinates (t, r, ϑ , ϕ ) reads[BCJ02] (G = c = 1)


 2 
dr
ds2 = − (dt + 2ℓ cos ϑ d ϕ )2 + Σ + d ϑ 2 + sin2 ϑ d ϕ 2 , (2.24.1)
Σ ∆

where Σ = r2 + ℓ2 and ∆ = r2 − 2Mr − ℓ2 . Here, M is the mass of the black hole and ℓ the magnetic monopol
strength.
Christoffel symbols:

∆ρ ρ ∆
Γttr = , Γttr = , Γtt ϑ = −2ℓ2 cos ϑ 2 , (2.24.2a)
Σ3 ∆Σ Σ
ϕ ℓ∆ 2ℓρ ∆ cos ϑ ℓ∆ sin ϑ
Γt ϑ = 2 , Γtrϕ = , Γtϑϕ = − , (2.24.2b)
Σ sin ϑ Σ3 Σ2
ρ r ϕ r r∆
Γrrr = − , Γϑrϑ = , Γrϕ = , Γϑr ϑ = − , (2.24.2c)
Σ∆ Σ Σ Σ

−2ℓ(r3 − 3Mr2 − 3rℓ2 + Mℓ2 ) cos ϑ


Γtrϕ = , (2.24.2d)
Σ∆
ℓ cos ϑ 6r ℓ − 8ℓ Mr − 3ℓ + r4 + Σ2
 2 2 2 2 4
 
Γtϑ ϕ =− , (2.24.2e)
Σ2 sin ϑ
∆ h   i
Γϕϕ
r
= 3 cos2 ϑ 9rℓ4 + 4ℓ2Mr2 − 4ℓ4M + r5 + 2r3 ℓ2 − rΣ2 , (2.24.2f)
Σ
4r2 ℓ2 − 4Mrℓ2 − ℓ4 + r4 cot ϑ

ϕ
Γϑ ϕ = , (2.24.2g)
Σ2
6r2 ℓ2 − 8Mrℓ2 − 3ℓ4 + r4 sin ϑ cos ϑ

ϑ
Γϕϕ =− , (2.24.2h)
Σ2
where ρ = 2rℓ2 + Mr2 − Mℓ2 .
Static local tetrad:

Σ ∆ 2ℓ cot ϑ
r r
1 1
e(0) = ∂t , e(1) = ∂r , e(2) = √ ∂ϑ , e(3) = − √ ∂t + √ ∂ϕ . (2.24.3)
∆ Σ Σ Σ Σ sin ϑ
Dual tetrad:

∆ Σ
r
√ √
r
θ (0)
= (dt + 2ℓ cos ϑ d ϕ ) , θ (1)
= dr, θ (2) = Σd ϑ , θ (3) = Σ sin ϑ d ϕ . (2.24.4)
Σ ∆

Euler-Lagrange:
The Euler-Lagrangian formalism, Sec. 1.8.4, for geodesics in the ϑ = π /2 hyperplane yields

1 k2 1 ∆ h2
 
1 2
ṙ + Veff = , Veff = − κ (2.24.5)
2 2 c2 2Σ Σ

with the constants of motion k = (∆/Σ)t˙ and h = Σϕ̇ . For null geodesics, we obtain a photon orbit at
r = rpo with
 
p 1 M
rpo = M + 2 M 2 + ℓ2 cos arccos √ (2.24.6)
3 M 2 + ℓ2

Further reading:
Bini et al.[BCdMJ03].
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z

5.0

4.0

3.0 ds
Rdϑ
2.0 R sin ϑ dϕ

1.0

-1.0 -1.0

1.0 1.0
2.0
2.0 3.0
4.0
3.0 5.0
-1.0 y
4.0
5.0
x