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Prepared by Ali Murat KAYIRAN

Room: A–209

E-mail: mkayiran@metu.edu.tr

Phone: 5266

Date: 17/10/2008

ME 307 – MACHINE ELEMENTS I TUTORIAL 4 “CONTACT STRESSES”

(Updated part is shown in red) Prob.1. A pressure fed bearing is shown in the figure below. The journal diameter is

50.00 mm. The bushing has a bore diameter of 50.30 mm and length of 55mm. When

the journal becomes stationary and subjected to 10 kN load, determine

a) the contact area

b) the maximum pressure

c) the maximum shear stress and its location

between the journal and bushing. (E journal =210 GPa, υ journal =0.32, E bushing =220 GPa,

υ bushing =0.29)

Solution:
10 kN

Housing

Bushing

Oil

Journal

a) The half width of the contact region is

b =

2
2
(1
ν
)
(1
ν
)
1
+
2
2 ⋅ F
E
E
1
2
π ⋅
1
1
+
d
d
1
2

1

where d 1 = 50.00 mm and

d 2 = -50.30 mm (Negative diameter shows concave surface).

Then,
2
2
(1
0.32 )
+ (1
0.29 )
2 ⋅
(10000)
210000
220000
b =
π ⋅ (55)
1
1
50.00
+ −
50.30

b = 2.86 mm

Then the contact area is:

A

c

=

2

⋅⋅=b l

2 (2.86) (55)

=

314.7

2

mm

(Indices “1” shows journal and “2” shows bushing.)

b) The maximum pressure is

p

max

2

F

2 (10000)

==

π

b

⋅⋅

π

(2.86) 55

=

40.4 MPa

METU – ME 307 Machine Elements I – Fall 2008

2

c) Since contact stresses in x, y and z directions are the principal stresses, shear stresses can be obtained as follows,

(

)

σ

x

σ

z

σ

σ

yz

σσ

xy

τττ

xz

,

yz

,

xy

zzz

(

)

(

)

===

222

.

The

τ max

derivative of

equations are solved it can be seen that

maximum shear stress,

one

maximum

(

)

z =

max

(

shear

stress

)

is

of

the

first

two

shear

stresses,

τ

max

(

z

i.e.

,

)

τ

τ

x z

xz

(

,

τ

z

)

. In order to determine the maximum value of

yz

and

τ

τ

max

(

yz

z

(

)

.

z

)

τ

yz

(

z

max

)

w.r.t. z should be equated to zero. When both

gives the maximum value of the

In addition, stress distributions of two contacting cylinders are given in Fig 3-39 for υ = 0.3 . Since it is close to the Poison’s ratios of this question, location and magnitude of the maximum shear stress can also be found from the given graph. Using Fig. 3-39 and the information given there τ becomes the largest of the three

yz

2
(1
− ν
2 )
+ (1
ν
)
1
2
2
⋅ F
E 1 E
2
b
=⋅
π
11
+
d
d 1
2
b = 0.31 mm

=

2
2
(1
0.32 )
+ (1
0.29 )
2
(10000)
210000
220000
π
⋅ (55)
1
1
50.00
+ −
100.00

Then the contact area is:

A =

c

2

⋅⋅=b l

2 (0.31) (55)

=

34.3

2

mm

The maximum pressure is

p

max

2

F

2 (10000)

==

π

⋅⋅

b

π

(0.31) 55

=

370.4 MPa

shear stresses at about z/b=0,75. This stress occurs at

below

the

contact

surfaces.

Its

maximum

z max

0.75 b 2.14 mm

value

is

given

by:

Case 2: D 1 =50.00mm, D 2 = (D 2 / D 1 = )

τ

yz

(

z

max

)

0.30

≅⋅≅p

max

12.1

MPa

Supplementary Information:

In the journal bearings, diameters of bushing bore and journal are so close to each

other. In other words, diameter ratio is almost 1. In many cases, this ratio is different

than 1. In order to understand the effect of diameter ratio, bore diameter will be

increased while journal diameter will be held constant. Calculations of 3 different

cases are shown below.

 (1 − ν 1 2 ) (1 − ν 2 2 ) + 2 ⋅ F E 1 E 2 π ⋅ 11 + d 1 d 2

b = 0.21 mm

=

2
2
(1
0.32 )
+ (1
0.29 )
2
(10000)
210000
220000
π
⋅ (55)
1
1
50.00 + ∞

b =⋅

Case 1: D 1 =50.00mm, D 2 =-100.00mm

(D 2 / D 1 =-2)

Then the contact area is:

A =

c

2

⋅⋅=b l

The maximum pressure is

2 (0.21) (55)

=

24.3

2

mm

METU – ME 307 Machine Elements I – Fall 2008

3

p

max

2

F

2 (10000)

==

π

⋅⋅ b

π

(0.21) 55

= 523.8 MPa

Case3: D 1 =50.00mm , D 2 =100.00 mm

(D 2 / D 1 =2)

2
2
(1
ν
)
(1
ν
)
2
2
(1
0.32 )
+ (1
0.29 )
1
+
2
2
F
E
E
2
(10000)
210000
220000
1
2
b =⋅
=
π
11
π
⋅ (55)
1
1
+
+
d
d
50.00
100.00
1
2
b
= 0.18 mm
Then the contact area is:
2
A =
2
⋅⋅=b l
2 (0.18) (55)
=
19.8
mm
c
The maximum pressure is
2
⋅ F
2 (10000)
==
= 641.5 MPa
p max
π ⋅⋅ b
π
(0.18) 55

As shown in the graphs below, the contact area increases rapidly as the diameters

become equal (d 2 /d 1 =1). As the the d 2 /d 1 ratio increases (Case 1), maximum pressure

increases and reaches to the maximum value of 523.8 MPa which corresponds to the

flat contact problem in Case 2. Note that Hertz equations are valid for b<<d.

4
8

Pmax

(MPa)

d 2 /d 1

A c

(mm 2 )

4
8
d
2 /d 1

Concave and convex surfaces are in contact. (Case 1)

Two convex surfaces are in contact. (Case 3)

METU – ME 307 Machine Elements I – Fall 2008