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e-mail: kenneth.gade@ffi.no

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NAV

NAVLLAB,

AB a Generic Simulation and Post-processing Tool for Navigation

e-mail: kenneth.gade@ffi.no

SCIENCE

The ambition of getting one common tool for a - The estimator is a flexible aided inertial naviga-

great variety of navigation tasks was the background tion system, which makes optimal Kalman filtered

for the development of NavLab (Navigation Labo- and smoothed estimates of position, attitude and

ratory).The main emphasis during the development velocity based on the available set of measure-

has been a solid theoretical foundation with a strin- ments.The measurements can be either from the

gent mathematical representation to ensure that simulator or from real sensors of a vehicle.

statistical optimality is maintained throughout the

entire system. NavLab is implemented in Matlab, and This structure makes NavLab useful for a wide range

consists of a simulator and an estimator. of navigation applications, including research and de-

velopment, analysis, real data post-processing and as

- Simulations are carried out by specifying a tra- a decision basis for sensor purchase and mission

jectory for the vehicle, and the available types of planning. NavLab has been used extensively for mass-

sensors. The output is a set of simulated sensor production of accurate navigation results (having

measurements post-processed more than 5,000 hours of real data

Figure 1 - NavLab main structure. Note: The colours used in the figure correspond to the colours of the graphs

generated by the different parts of NavLab (blue is the measurement, red is the smoothed estimate etc).

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NAVIGATION

in four continents). Vehicles navigated by NavLab in- or together, allowing a variety of applications. A list

clude Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs), Re- of usages is given in Section 4.

mote Operated Vehicles (ROVs), ships and aircraft.

The simulator can simulate artificial measurements

from a chosen scenario. The estimator will, based

1 Introduction

on the available set of measurements from either

For many navigation related activities it is very useful the simulator or from sensors of a real vehicle,

to have one common software tool.The tool should make the best possible estimates of position, atti-

cover applications such as navigation system research tude, velocity and sensor errors. The simulator and

and development, analysis and real data post-pro- estimator are described in more detail in Sections

cessing. With a long tradition of developing naviga- 2 and 3.

SCIENCE

tion systems, The Norwegian Defence Research Es- In addition to the simulator and estimator, NavLab

tablishment (FFI) started development of such a tool includes:

in 1998. The result is NavLab (Navigation Laborato- - A pre-processing tool (Preproc), which is used to

ry), a powerful and versatile tool that serves a vari- handle real measurements (by removing outliers,

ety of navigation purposes. For the long-term success compensating for lever arms and misaligned sen-

of this tool, a strong focus on a solid theoretical foun- sors, converting measurements to the correct

dation and a flexible structure has been crucial. format etc)

- An export tool, which creates files for exporting

1.1 NavLab’s theoretical foundation to other programs (containing the estimated po-

The most significant feature of NavLab is its solid sition, attitude and velocity).

theoretical foundation. NavLab is a result of an in-

novative research process to establish a complete- Figure 2 shows the NavLab program modules. Dif-

ly general theoretical basis for navigation and for ferent modules are used in different cases.Typical

implementation of navigation systems.The develop- examples are:

ment has led to the following contributions: - Simulations: Simulator → Estimator

- A new stringent and unified system for notation - Post-processing of real data: Preproc → Estima-

and mathematical representation tor → Export

- A unified design and implementation of algo-

rithms and aiding techniques for the Kalman filter, The modules interface each other via files of a

where statistical optimality is maintained through- specified format (see [2]), or via memory to save

out the entire system time.

- Elimination of numerical problems by

- Deducing and implementing exact formulas

2 Simulator

(rather than approximations)

- Using only non-singular representations The trajectory simulator can simulate any vehicle

- Controlling accumulation of the computer’s in- trajectory specified by the user. In addition, the user

herent round-off errors. specifies a set of available sensors and their charac-

teristics. Based on the specified trajectory and sen-

Articles reporting the above work will be pub- sor characteristics, the sensor simulators calculate a

lished, but currently the most relevant report avail- set of artificial sensor measurements.

able is [1].

2.1 Trajectory simulator

1.2 A flexible structure The coordinate systems I (Inertial), E (Earth), L

The main structure of NavLab is shown in Figure 1. (Local) and B (Body) are simulated (see [2] for def-

NavLab’s different components can be used alone initions). All relevant positions, orientations, linear

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NAVIGATION

locity about z, ω LBBLB = [0 0 1]T deg/s) and two peri-

B

celeration in z, v• EB

BB T 2

EB = [0 0 20] m/s ).

ify the trajectory by giving a dynamical model of the

vehicle and then marking 3D waypoints in a map,

see [3].

SCIENCE

The most significant error types, such as white-

noise, coloured noise and scale factor error are in-

cluded in the sensor simulators, and any other types

can also be added. The magnitude, time-constants

and other parameters that describe the different

errors are user selectable, and can be given as fixed

values or as functions of time.

at any user-specified time.This can be specified as a

constant rate during the entire simulation, different

rates in different intervals, or each single time of

Figure 3 - Earth plot from NavLab. Black circle: Starting point.

Black line: True trajectory (from the trajectory simulator). Blue measurement can be specified in a time-series. Fig-

crosses: Simulated position measurements. ure 3 shows position measurements with one peri-

od of high rate, and also periods of low and zero

rate.

and angular velocities, accelerations and forces de-

scribing the trajectory are calculated.

3 Estimator

Features: The main purpose of the estimator is to estimate a

- Any trajectory in the vicinity of the Earth can be vehicle’s position, attitude and velocity. This is done

simulated (with unlimited complexity). by combining all available knowledge such as sen-

- All vehicle attitudes can be simulated without sin- sor measurements and mathematical models of the

gularities. sensor errors. The optimal (given certain assump-

- All possible vehicle positions relative to the Earth tions) method of combining this knowledge is by

can be simulated without singularities. means of a Kalman filter2 (see [4] for details). Thus,

- Includes all Coriolis and centripetal effects due to if the model used in the Kalman filter is correct, all

the rotating Earth and own movement over the information is used optimally, and no better esti-

Earth curvature. mates can be made. An example illustrating this is 1 ω BLBBLB is the angular velocity

ω

- Includes WGS-84 gravity model and elliptic Earth the concept of gyrocompassing, i.e. finding north by of the body, B, relative to L,

model. inspecting the direction of the Earth’s angular ve- where L is a local system

locity, measured by the gyros. Gyrocompasses are with zero angular velocity

Trajectories are specified in the trajectory simulator manufactured containing gyros, accelerometers and relative to Earth about its

by first giving the initial position, attitude and veloc- dedicated algorithms for this purpose. When the vertical axis (see [1] or [2]

for more details). vv EB

• BB

ity, and then specifying changes in attitude and ve- same sensors are available for the estimator, it will EB is the

locity as a function of time. When developing a tra- gyrocompass optimally as a natural part of its esti- velocity of B relative to

jectory simulator, the actual mathematical quantities mation procedure. Earth, differentiated in the

that are used to describe these changes must be B system

selected carefully, to ensure that it is simple for the The main structure of the estimator is given in Fig-

user to express a trajectory that follows the Earth ure 4. Measurements from the IMU (Inertial Mea- 2

If future measurements are

ellipsoid in both position and attitude. Selecting the surement Unit) are integrated by the navigation available, a better estima-

mathematical quantities1 ω BLBBLB and v• EB

BB

EB actually makes equations (see Section 3.1) to calculate position, at- tor exists, see Section 3.2

this just as simple for the user as it would have titude and velocity. Each time-step where a meas-

been if the surface of the Earth were planar.Thus if urement from any of the aiding sensors is available,

no changes in these quantities are specified, the ve- it will be compared to the corresponding quantity

hicle will travel around the Earth at constant from the navigation equations, and the difference is

depth/height if the initial velocity was horizontal. sent as a measurement to the Kalman filter.

Figure 3 shows an example trajectory from the Note that each of the sensors shown in Figure 4

simulator. This trajectory is simply specified by two are general and can represent different types, e.g.

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NAVIGATION

NavLab has used different types of position meas- - Direction cosine matrix attitude update

urements, including range measurements to a - Numeric drift control

known position (see [5] or [6] for examples of dif- - WGS-84 gravity model and elliptic Earth model

ferent sensor types that have been integrated). - Trapezoid updates to prevent systematic errors

from the forward or backward Euler methods.

The navigation equations and optimal smoothing

are described in Sections 3.1 and 3.2. 3.2 Optimal smoothing

The Kalman filter is the optimal estimator at time t,

Features: when measurements before and including t are

- The estimator accepts arbitrary time-series of used, thus it is well suited for real-time estimation.

measurements from all sensors However, if measurements after t are also available

SCIENCE

- Along with each single sensor measurement, new (which is the case for post-processing, see Section

sensor parameters can be specified, describing 4.1), it is possible to make a better estimator at

that particular measurement, hence describing a time t, by using these additional measurements.The

varying quality best possible algorithm, utilising all measurements

- Zero Velocity Update (ZUPT) and depth/height both before and after t, is called optimal smoothing

measurements are included in the same Kalman (see [4] for details).

filter in an optimal manner - This algorithm is effectively doubling the set of

- The horizontal position measurements are non- relevant measurements for each estimate, since

singular (i.e. with maximum accuracy also near/at the next x seconds of measurements are nor-

the poles) mally just as important as the previous x seconds

- Iterated Extended Kalman filter is used to im- - A symmetrical interval of past and future meas-

prove the performance in cases of significant urements prevents a systematical delay in the es-

nonlinearities. timates, which is unavoidable in real-time estima-

tors

3.1 Navigation equations - Another limitation of an optimal real-time esti-

The navigation equations calculate position, attitude mator (Kalman filter) is its inability to deliver es-

and velocity based on the IMU measurements, as timates that are in accordance with the process

shown in Figure 4. model. At each time-step such estimators make

a prediction (that is in accordance with the

Features: process model), but when a new measurement

- Non-singular for all positions and attitudes arrives, it is weighed against the prediction to give

- Foucault wander azimuth a new updated estimate. Unexpected3 measure-

Figure 4 - Estimator main structure (simplified). The sensors shown can be either simulated or real. (INS: Inertial

Navigation System).

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NAVIGATION

uncertainty (1σ) in the Kalman filter and in the op-

timal smoothing. Position measurements are un-

available in an interval of 2 hours, and in this peri-

od the Kalman filter estimation uncertainty grows,

before dropping instantly when position measure-

ments become available at the end. The smoothing

algorithm on the other hand, utilizes the position

measurements at the end during the whole inter-

val, and thus has a maximum uncertainty in the

middle of the interval. At the last time-step, no fu-

SCIENCE

ture measurements are available and the two algo-

rithms give equal estimates.

modelling errors (robustness)

Another property of the smoothing algorithm, that

is often even more important than the improved

accuracy, is its robustness. As mentioned above,

Figure 5 - Estimation uncertainty in north-position by Kalman

filter (green) and optimal smoothing (red). (A straight-line smoothed estimates are always in accordance with

trajectory to the east, at latitude 45° is simulated. Sensors: 1 the process model, and this quality is crucial in cases

nmi/h class IMU, 600 kHz DVL. Position measurements are with wrong models or faulty measurements. If a

available the first 500 seconds and the last 300 seconds). measurement has an error that is significantly larg-

er than what was modelled in the Kalman filter, a

large jump in the estimates from the real-time filter

ments thus lead to jumps in the estimates that are is inevitable. A real-data example of such a jump is

not in accordance with the process model (e.g. an shown in Figure 6, where a position outlier (wild-

unexpected velocity measurement leads to a point) with an error of about 41 meters is present4.

jump in the velocity estimate that corresponds to Since the Kalman filter expects a total position

an acceleration that is too large according to the measurement uncertainty of 2.4 m (1σ), the error 3

All measurements that are

process model). Since no measurements are un- of this measurement is above 17 sigma, and hence not exactly equal to the

expected for the smoothing algorithm, this prob- extremely unlikely according to the model. In the predicted value are unex-

lem is eliminated, and the smoothed estimate is example, the outlier is followed by a period of po- pected, which in practice

always in accordance with the process model sition measurement dropout (which is typical), and means every measure-

(hence the name "smoothing"). thus the filtering error remains until the sound5 ment

measurements bring the estimate back on track.

The smoothing algorithm however, also seeing the 4

Outliers of this magnitude

measurements from all sensors after the outlier, is will by default be auto-

barely affected, even though it uses the same sen- matically removed in

sor model as the Kalman filter. NavLab by a wild-point

detection algorithm, but is

The optimal smoothing algorithm is also robust left here for demonstration

against systematic sensor errors. In a HUGIN 3000

navigation accuracy verification sea trial in October 5

I.e. in accordance with the

2000 (described in Section 5.2.2), there was a con- Kalman filter model

stant error in the DVL (Doppler Velocity Log) meas-

urements that was above 8.3 sigma (due to an in- 6

According to the model,

correct DVL configuration in this particular trial). the probability of an error

This huge6 unmodelled velocity error led to a posi- of this magnitude in one

tion error in the order of 10-15 m for the real-time measurement is only

estimates, while the smoothing, using the same about 10-16, and in this trial

model, proved a performance of 1.2 and 1.7 metres all measurements had this

(1σ north and east), see Figure 8 in Section 5.2.2. error!

4 NavLab Usage

NavLab has been extensively used by numerous dif-

Figure 6 - Trajectory from the HUGIN 1000 AUV. The track

ferent users since 1999, including several internation-

shows the vehicle going northwest. Blue: position

measurement from DGPS+USBL (differential GPS + Ultra al research groups, universities and commercial sur-

Short Base Line acoustic positioning). Green: Kalman filtered vey companies. The flexible structure of NavLab

estimate. Red: Smoothed estimate. makes it useful for a wide range of applications. Some

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NAVIGATION

users are only working with simulated data, whereas be to stay covert, avoid interference with other

others use the estimator alone to post-process real systems or just to save power)

data. Finally, there are many cases where both simu- - Going to areas where certain measurements are

lations and real data processing are of interest. A available or are more accurate (e.g. go close to

summary of current NavLab usage is given below. bottom to get DVL bottom track, go close to a

transponder or go to surface for GPS measure-

Navigation system research and development ments)

(using simulations and real data) - Running manoeuvres to increase the observabil-

- Development, testing and comparison of new ity in the estimator

navigation concepts and algorithms, including - Running in patterns that cancel out error growth

new aiding sensors and aiding techniques

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- Development of real-time navigation systems, When setting up complex mission plans, simulations

where the algorithms are implemented and test- are helpful to ensure effective missions that meet the

ed in NavLab, and then ported to the real-time navigation accuracy requirements for all parts of the

system. A typical development process is: mission (transit phase, mapping phase etc).

- Implement algorithms in NavLab

- Test in simulations (NavLab) Post-processing of real navigation data (using

- Test with real data (NavLab) real data)

- Port algorithms to the real-time navigation sys- Post-processing of real data improves the navigation

tem (C++ or similar program language) accuracy, robustness and integrity compared to a real-

- Test real-time system. time navigation solution. See 4.1 for more details.

The real-time navigation system in the HUGIN ve- Tuning of real-time and post-processing

hicles was developed using NavLab (see [5] for a navigation systems (using real data)

description of the real-time navigation system and Proper Kalman filter tuning is essential for optimal

[7] or [8] for an overview of the HUGIN AUV Pro- estimation accuracy. Tuning is often based on the

gramme). sensor specifications, but the actual sensor per-

formance can differ from these numbers, and in

Analysis of a given navigation system (using such cases the tuning should be based on empiri-

simulations and real data) cal data. Finding the correct tuning based on a

- Analysis of navigation system behaviour under recorded data set is best done by means of the

different manoeuvres/trajectories and sensor error estimates from the smoothing algorithm.

configurations

- Robustness analysis. The performance of the es- Sensor evaluation (using real data)

timator is studied for the cases of: After purchasing a new sensor, an evaluation of the

- Wrong sensor models used in the Kalman filter sensor is usually desired. Large sensor errors might

- Sensor dropouts be detected by inspecting the measurements from

- Sensor errors. this sensor alone, but for a more thorough sensor

evaluation, the measurements should be compared

Teaching navigation theory (using simulations) with other sensors (with uncorrelated errors) or a

By specifying appropriate simulations, everything known reference. Running a relevant mission or lab

from basic principles to complex mechanisms can test and analysing the result in NavLab will usually

be demonstrated and visualised. reveal errors above the specification and often also

the characteristics of such errors.

7

For instance a surface ve- Decision basis for navigation sensor

hicle measuring the AUV selection/purchase (using simulations) Improving sensor calibration (using real data)

position by means of Simulations of the relevant scenarios are carried Even if a sensor is approved in an evaluation, it can

DGPS+USBL. A full set of out to investigate how varying quality of the differ- exhibit systematic errors, typically due to imperfect

measurements is not ent sensors will affect the obtainable navigation calibration or misaligned mounting. Such (determin-

transmitted to the AUV in performance. Parameters for different sensors avail- istic) errors should be removed before sending the

real time, but is available able in the market are usually entered for compar- measurements to the estimator, otherwise the per-

for use in NavLab after the ison.The goal is to achieve a well-balanced and eco- formance will be reduced (in particular for the real-

mission nomical sensor suite. time Kalman filter). To find these systematic errors,

the smoothing algorithm should be used, as it is sig-

Decision basis for mission planning (using nificantly better than the real-time filter at estimating

simulations) such errors.When systematic errors are known, they

Even if the set of sensors is given, the navigation ac- can be compensated for in future missions.

curacy can vary significantly with the mission type.

Important mission parameters include: 4.1 Using NavLab for real data

- Activation/deactivation of sensors or change of post-processing

measurement rate (reasons to deactivate might For vehicles storing their navigation sensor meas-

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NAVIGATION

usually be rerun as described above, and the

final estimates will be reliable (i.e. more accurate

and associated with a trustworthy accuracy es-

timate). In practice, the ability to recover the

navigation data in the case of degraded sensor

performance means that the need for a new

mission is avoided.

pensive sensors or using them less frequently, and

SCIENCE

still obtaining the required accuracy. For instance, a

submerged vehicle might need to surface to get

position measurements. In Figure 5, we see that

with a position accuracy requirement of 5 metres,

the real-time filter would require position measure-

ments after a period of 2,500 seconds, while with

Figure 7 - A wellhead is mapped repeatedly with

different headings to evaluate the positioning smoothing a position accuracy better than 5 metres

accuracy of the final map. is obtained even with a 2 hours dropout interval.

urements during missions, it is possible to make most important NavLab applications, and through

post-processed estimates of position, attitude, ve- mass-production of accurate navigation results more

locity and sensor errors. There are many situations than 5,000 hours of recorded payload data has been

where these estimates are of great interest after positioned. Any vehicle with recorded sensor data

the mission is finished, for instance if the vehicle has can be navigated, and cur-

recorded payload data that require accurate geo- rently AUVs, ROVs, ships

referencing (e.g. bathymetric data for terrain maps and aircraft have been nav-

or image data for object detection). NavLab is well igated with NavLab.

suited and extensively used to produce optimal

post-processed navigation results. These results are 4.2 Practical usage

valuable also when the vehicle has calculated and NavLab is written in the

stored real-time navigation estimates. When the mathematical program-

time constraints allow, post-processed estimates ming language Matlab [9],

are preferred to the real-time estimation results, but it can also be compiled

since important properties such as estimation ac- to a Windows application

curacy, robustness and integrity are improved: (exe file). Post-processing

- Increased accuracy is mainly due to the use of the of a recorded data set

optimal smoothing (see Section 3.2). In addition, with 3-5 Hz Kalman filter

real-time issues like delayed measurements and update rate and 100 Hz

incomplete data sets from remote sensors7 are IMU data, is approximately

eliminated. Finally, the absence of a real-time 15 times faster than real-

computing requirement makes it possible to use time, when using a 3 GHz

iterations to improve estimation performance Pentium 4 processor.

- Improved robustness is partly due to the smooth- Figure 8 - The mapped positions of the

ing algorithm, which in general is more robust The user interface can vary wellhead (at 1,300 m depth) using NavLab

against degraded sensor performance than the from "Scientific", where all smoothing.

real-time Kalman filter (see Figure 6 and Figure parameters and steps are

8). In addition, the possibility of rerunning the es- fully controllable, to "One-

timation increases the ability to recover a faulty click" [10] where all processes are automated. In Sci-

data set.To do so, one can modify either the de- entific mode, a general multi-menu based plot func-

graded sensor measurements or the filter tuning tion is used after a simulation or estimation. This

(or both) to get the best possible navigation for function plots a range of figures containing numeri-

the faulty data set cal summaries and many different 2D and 3D plots

- The Integrity of the estimator, i.e. the ability to with a total of more than 500 graphs, for results

detect degraded sensor performance and de- analysis. The plot function is also programmable to

graded total navigation performance, is critical show only a predefined subset of plots for users

for the users of the navigation data.The optimal wanting just a simplified summary of the results.The

smoothing algorithm has a very high capability very simplest output is used in the One-click mode,

of detecting reduced sensor quality. In addition where a green/red light at the end of the estimation

it can often tell which sensor is having problems. indicates if the data was OK or not.

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NAVIGATION

5 Verification of Estimator Performance

uncertainty in the DGPS+USBL position measure-

Verification of the estimator performance has been ments. Hence the estimation error is observable

a crucial part of the NavLab development. Both the and is compared with the theoretical uncertainty.

Kalman filter and the optimal smoothing calculate All such tests have documented a very high esti-

an expected uncertainty for their estimates, which mator performance, that was in accordance with

is the theoretically optimal accuracy obtainable for the theoretical uncertainty, see [11] and [5].

the given scenario. When using a correct model in

the estimator, the actual estimation error should be 5.2.2 Verifying the positioning by means of

as small as the theoretical uncertainty limit. A cor- mapped objects

rect model can be used when the measurements For a seabed mapping vehicle, an accurate posi-

SCIENCE

are from the simulator, but since the real world has tioning of the final map is essential, and estimates of

infinite complexity, it is impossible to use a com- the vehicle’s 6 degrees of freedom (position and at-

pletely correct model in the estimator when using titude) are used to position the bathymetric data.

real data. In cases where the model used by the es- Estimation errors in vehicle position will be direct-

timator differs from the model generating the ly translated to errors in the map position, while

measurements, the actual estimation error will be the effect of attitude errors will depend on the

larger than the theoretical limit. The most challeng- geometry between the vehicle and a given patch of

ing part of the estimator development is to keep the seafloor. A crucial test of the entire navigation

its error as close as possible to the theoretical limit system is to verify the position accuracy in the final

in cases of modelling errors (and nonlinearities). To maps. In such tests, all available aiding sensors are

minimize the loss of accuracy, a very careful design used so that the maximum accuracy is evaluated.

and implementation of all parts of the estimator is

vital. In this section it is demonstrated that it is pos- Customers buying HUGIN and NavLab for detailed

sible to achieve a performance close to the optimal seabed mapping have had a strong focus on position

under a range of different non-ideal conditions. accuracy of the maps and have thus run navigation

performance trials as part of the customer accept-

5.1 Verifying performance using the simulator ance tests. These trials determine if the real-life per-

The simulator, having a more complex nonlinear formance of the estimator match the accuracy that

system model than the estimator, is an effective tool was predicted in NavLab simulations before the ve-

for verifying the estimator performance. Any sce- hicle was built. The standard method is to map the

nario can be tested and different modelling errors same object at the seafloor several times, comparing

can be used. After running the estimator, the plot the position estimate of each individual object obser-

function will calculate and plot the true estimation vation. Errors that are uncorrelated between each

error and compare it with the theoretical estima- passing will be visible, as the object will be positioned

tion uncertainty (also Monte Carlo simulations can differently in each observation. Correlated errors are

be run to determine the statistics of the error). typically following the AUV or a ship giving

Thorough and extensive testing of the estimator DGPS+USBL measurements (e.g. timing problems,

since 1999 by different research groups, testing a systematic velocity error and misaligned acoustic po-

variety of scenarios, has proven the estimator to be sitioning transducer). Hence, to also reveal these er-

very robust and to give close to optimal perform- rors, different headings are used for the AUV and ship

ance in all scenarios. for each passing (‘wagon wheel pattern’, as shown in

Figure 7). Figure 7 shows maps from HUGIN 3000 in

5.2 Verifying performance using real data an accuracy test carried out by the HUGIN customer

The ultimate test of the estimator is to use real data C&C Technologies at 1,300 m water depth in the

from a representative mission, where the trajectory Gulf of Mexico in October 2000. 11 different head-

and all sensor errors are (by definition) totally realis- ings were used (5 of the lines were mapped in op-

tic.The challenge with real runs is that it is more dif- posite directions) when mapping the object (a well-

ficult to investigate the estimation errors, since the head), to maximise the visibility of any correlated

true trajectory is unknown. However, some possibili- errors following the AUV or ship.The positions of the

ties do exist, and these are discussed in the following. wellhead observations when using NavLab smooth-

ing are shown in Figure 8, obtaining an accuracy of 1.2

5.2.1 Redundant sensors m and 1.7 m (1σ) north and east (even with a large

A significant sensor measurement can be made un- unmodelled DVL error present, see Section 3.2.1).

available for the navigation system, and later be The theoretical estimation uncertainty in the

used as a reference. For instance, a surface ship smoothed position was about 1.7 m (1σ, north and

might follow a submerged AUV, continually meas- east) during the passings. 60 m from the wellhead, but

uring its position using DGPS+USBL, but not send- within the swath width, another object (natural fea-

ing the measurements to the AUV. The AUV, typi- ture) was also visible in the data. Since the object is

cally using an IMU, a depth sensor, a DVL and in 60 m off the centre of the maps, a somewhat higher

some cases a compass, will have a drift in position uncertainty is expected due to the AUV heading un-

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NAVIGATION

8 References

sonar uncertainty), and indeed this object had a dis-

tribution of 1.3 m north and 1.9 m east. [1] Gade, K (1997): Integrering av treghetsnavi-

gasjon i en autonom undervannsfarkost (in

The test shown is the only test where a large un- Norwegian), FFI/RAPPORT-97/03179

modelled sensor error was present. After this test

many similar navigation accuracy evaluations have [2] Gade, K (2003): NavLab - Overview and User

been carried out by different HUGIN customers, Guide November 2003, FFI/RAPPORT-2003/

with other vehicles and navigation sensors. The ac- 02128

curacy has been tested down to a depth of 2,200

m (obtaining 2.3 m and 3.3 m accuracy in north [3] Svartveit, K and Berglund, E (2003): NavLab

SCIENCE

and east), and in general the tests have proven ex- Plugin: Waypoint editor, FFI (to be published)\

ceptionally good estimator accuracy, even slightly

better than the anticipated theoretical uncertainty [4] Minkler, G and Minkler, J (1993): Theory and

limit. The reason for this is a combination of the Application of Kalman Filtering, Magellan Book

navigation sensors performing somewhat better Company

than their specifications and the estimator produc-

ing close to optimal estimates. [5] Jalving, B, Gade, K, Hagen, O K and Vestgard, K

(2003): A Toolbox of Aiding Techniques for the

HUGIN AUV Integrated Inertial Navigation

6 Conclusions

System. Proceedings from Oceans 2003, Sep-

NavLab is a powerful and versatile tool with usage tember 22-26, San Diego, USA

ranging from research and development by scien-

tists and academics, to mass production of high-ac- [6] Jalving, B, Bovio, E and Gade, K (2003): Inte-

curacy maps by commercial companies (having grated inertial navigation systems for AUVs

post-processed more than 5,000 hours of data for REA applications. Proceedings from

from around the world). MREP 2003, NATO SACLANT Undersea

Research Centre, May 2003, Italy

Even when a real-time navigation system is avail-

able, it is often beneficial to post-process the data [7] Hagen, P E, Størkersen, N and Vestgård, K

with NavLab: (2003): The HUGIN AUVs - multi-role capa-

- The navigation results, i.e. estimates of position, bility for challenging underwater survey oper-

attitude and velocity, will be more accurate and ations. EEZ International, Summer 2003

smooth (no jumps in the data)

- The navigation results will be more reliable (any [8] The HUGIN AUV Programme homepage:

critical sensor errors are detected) www.ffi.no/hugin

- Even in cases of sensor degradation or failure, ac-

curate navigation can often be obtained (no [9] Mathworks homepage: www.mathworks.com

need for a new mission). This is due to the in-

creased robustness of smoothing and the possi- [10] Svartveit, K (2004): NavLab One-Click, FFI (to

bility to rerun the data be published)

- Lower quality navigation sensors might be used,

while still obtaining satisfactory navigational accuracy. [11] Jalving, B, Gade, K, Svartveit, K, Willumsen, A

and Sorhagen, R (2004): DVL Velocity Aiding

The most significant feature of NavLab is its theo- in the HUGIN 1000 Integrated Inertial Navi-

retical foundation, where statistical optimality is main- gation System. Proceedings from ADCPs in

tained throughout the entire system. This has been Action 2004, June 3-4, Nice, France

repeatedly demonstrated through extensive per-

formance verifications, both with simulations and real

Biography of the Author

missions. These tests have proven very high estima-

tor performance, close to the theoretical optimum. Kenneth Gade is MSc from the Norwegian Uni-

versity of Science and Technology (NTNU), De-

partment of Engineering Cybernetics. He works

7 Acknowledgements

as senior scientist at the Norwegian Defence Re-

The author wishes to thank the rest of the Naviga- search Establishment (FFI), where he has been

tion Group at FFI, Bjorn Jalving in particular, for sig- developing integrated navigation systems since

nificant contributions to the development of 1996.The main focus has been GPS independent

NavLab. Also thanks to Bjorn Jalving, Kongsberg (underwater) navigation, where the challenge is

Maritime and HUGIN customers for organising, to find optimal aiding techniques from a variety

carrying out and reporting a range of different tests of sensors to bind or minimize the positional

of the navigation system accuracy. drift.● Kenneth Gade

Copyright © 2005 GITC bv, P.O. Box 112, 8530 AC Lemmer,The Netherlands, www.gitc.nl.

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