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SELF-POWERED MULTI-PORT UHF RFID TAG-BASED- SENSOR

SEMINAR REPORT

Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Degree of Bachelor of Technology in Electronics and Communication Engineering of the APJ Abdul Kalam Technological University

Submitted by,

AKHILA M P

(Reg No: VAK15EC002)

University Submitted by, AKHILA M P (Reg No: VAK15EC002) DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING VIDYA ACADEMY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY TECHNICAL CAMPUS, KILIMANOOR

THIRUVANANTHAPURAM,695602

2015-2019

i

SELF-POWERED MULTI-PORT UHF RFID TAG-BASED- SENSOR

SEMINAR REPORT

Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Degree of

Bachelor of Technology in Electronics and Communication Engineering of the

APJ Abdul Kalam Technological University

Submitted by,

AKHILA M P

(Reg No: VAK15EC002)

Guided by,

MS. DIVYA KUMARAN A K

Assistant Professor Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION

ENGINEERING VIDYA ACADEMY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

TECHNICAL CAMPUS, KILIMANOOR

THIRUVANANTHAPURAM,695602

2015-2019

ii

VIDYA ACADEMY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY-TECHNICAL CAMPUS, KILIMANOOR, THIRUVANANTHAPURAM 695602. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING CERTIFICATE Certified that this is a bonafide record of

CERTIFICATE

Certified that this is a bonafide record of seminar entitled on ‘Self-Powered Multi-Port UHF RFID Tag-Based-Sensor by ‘AKHILA M P (Reg No:

VAK15EC002), 2015-2019 batch student, in the seventh semester in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree of BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY in Electronics & Communication Engineering under APJ ABDUL KALAM TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY, Thiruvananthapuram.

Prof. Divya Kumaran A K

Asst. Professor, Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg. (Guide)

Prof.Amlu Anna Joshy

Asst.Professor Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg. (Seminar Co-ordinator)

iii

Prof.Muhammed Anshad P Y

Asst. Professor, Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg. (Seminar Co-ordinator)

Prof.Saheeda P A

Professor Dept. of Electronics & Communication (Head Of The Department)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I extend my heartfelt gratitude to our respected principal Dr. MATHAVRAJ

RAVIKUMAR for providing the opportunity and facility for doing this seminar without

which this effort would not have seen light.

I would like to express my sincere thanks to Ms. SAHEEDA P A the Head of

Electronics & Communication Department for her kind

MUHAMMED ANSHAD P Y, seminar coordinator for his support. I also thank my seminar guide Ms. Divya Kumaran A K, Assistant Professor, Electronics & Communication for her valuable guidance and support during the course of my seminar.

I thank Mr.

I take this opportunity to thank all other staffs of Electronics & Communication department for helping me in the progress of my seminar.

I thank my family and friends for their active support throughout the work of my seminar. Above all, I thank the God Almighty for his grace and blessings that led me to the success of my seminar

iv

AKHILA M P

ABSTRACT

Multi-port UHF RFID tag-based sensor is used for wireless identification and sensing applications. Two RFID chips, one with attached sensor and the other without, are incorporated in a single tag antenna with two excitation ports. The chip with the integrated sensor (sensor port) transmits a signal impacted by the sensed temperature or humidity, while the other RFID chip serves as the reference signal (reference port) transmitter in the sensing process. The proposed tag-based sensor is fabricated and experimentally evaluated. The measured results demonstrate that the sensed data can be extracted using a commercial RFID reader by recording and comparing the difference in the reader output power required to power up the reference port and the power required to power the sensor ports. To improve the reading range of the proposed sensor, a dual-port solar powered RFID sensor is also presented. The reading range of the sensor is increased by two times compared to a similar prototype without solar energy harvesting. The experimental evaluation demonstrates that the proposed tag based sensor can be easily integrated with a resistive humidity or temperature sensor for a low-cost solution to detect the heat or humidity exposure of sensitive items for several applications such as supply chains and construction structures.

v

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

iii

 

ABSTRACT

iv

LIST OF FIGURES

vii

LIST

OF SYMBOLS

ix

ABBREVIATIONS

x

CHAPTER

TITLE

PAGE

 

NO

1.0

RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION

1

1.1 History Of RFID And Early Beginnings

1

1.2 Next RFID Development

1

1.3 Active RFID

2

1.4 UHF RFID History

2

1.5 Proposed System

3

1.6 Summary

4

2.0

LITERATURE SURVEY

5

2.1 Earlier Works An Overview

5

2.2 Conclusion

13

3.0

MULTI -PORT RFID TAG BASED SENSOR

14

3.1 Tag Antenna

14

3.2 Cost Efficiency

15

3.3 Concept Of Multiport Rfid Tag-Based Sensor

15

3.4 Fabrication And Experimental Evaluation

15

3.5 Conclusion

16

4.0

PRINCIPLE OF THE MULTI PORT RFID TAG BASED- SENSOR DESIGN

17

4.1 Idea and Framework

17

4.2 Method Used

18

vi

4.3

Result Analysis

18

 

4.4

Conclusion

19

5.0

UHF RFID SENSOR TAG DESIGN

20

5.1 Design

 

20

 

5.1.1

Tag Design

20

5.1.2

RFID Chip Design

20

5.1.3

Sensor And Reference Port Design

21

 

5.2 Conclusion

23

6.0

RFID TAG BASED SENSOR EVALUATION

24

6.1 RFID Tag Based Sensor Evaluation

24

 

6.1.1 Power Sensitivity Measurement

24

6.1.2 Reading Range Measurements

27

6.1.3 Radiation Pattern

28

 

6.2 Sensor Measurement Results

29

6.3 Power Sensitivity Measurements On Consumer

31

 

Products

 

6.4 Conclusion

 

33

7.0

SOLAR POWERED RFID TAG BASED SENSOR

34

7.1 Solar Powered RFID Tag Based Sensor

36

7.2 Conclusion

 

36

8.0

CONCLUSION

37

 

REFERENCES

38

vii

LIST OF FIGURES

FIG.NO

TITLE

PAGE NO

1.1

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF THE PROPOSED RFID TAG-BASED SENSOR

3

 

GEOMETRY OF THE PROPOSED PATCH ANTENNA

 

5.2

BASED SENSOR

20

 

POWER TRANSFER CO-EFFICIENT AT THE PORT OF

 

5.3

THE PROPOSED SENSOR WITH DIFFERENT

22

RESISTORS

6.4

TAGFORMANCE MEASUREMENT SETUP

25

 

MEASURED MINIMUM TRANSMIT POWER REQUIRED

 

6.5

TO ACTIVATE RFID CHIP AT THE SENSOR PORT WITH DIFFERENT RESISTANCE VALUE

26

 

MEASURED MINIMUM TRANSMIT POWER REQUIRED

 

6.6

TO ACTIVATE RFID CHIP AT THE REFERENCE PORT WITH DIFFERENT RESISTANCE VALUE

26

 

MEASURED TRANSMIT POWER DIFFERENCE

 

6.7

BETWEEN SENSOR PORT AND REFERENCE PORT AT

27

915MHZ

6.8

MEASURED RADIATION PATTERN OF THE PROPOSED SENSOR AT 915MHZ

28

6.9

MEASURED REALIZED GAIN FOR THE PROPOSED TAG-BASED SENSOR

29

6.10

MEASURED MINIMUM TRANSMIT POWER REQUIRED TO ACTIVATE RFID CHIP AT THE SENSOR PORT OF THE PROPOSED RFID SENSOR WITH THERMISTOR- NTC NTC SENSOR

30

viii

 

MEASURED PACKAGES WITH THERMISTORS-

 

6.11

NTCLE100E3681JB0

31

 

MEASURED REQUIRED MINIMUM POWER FOR THE

 

6.12

REFERENCE AND SENSOR PORTS OF THE TAG ATTACHED TO A BOX CONTAINING PLASTIC ITEMS

32

6.13

MEASURED REQUIRED MINIMUM POWER FOR THE REFERENCE AND SENSOR PORTS OF THE TAG IN FIG. 11 ATTACHED TO A BOX CONTAINING METALLIC ITEMS.

32

7.14

MEASURED REQUIRED MINIMUM POWER FOR THE MONOPOLE TAG ANTENNA DESCRIBED IN PLACED TO THE TOP OF A BOX CONTAINING PLASTIC AND METALLIC ITEMS

33

7.15

PICTURE OF THE PROTOTYPED SOLAR POWERED RFID TAG-BASED SENSOR

35

 

MAXIMUM READING RANGE OF THE REFERENCE

 

7.16

PORT WITH AND WITHOUT EXTERNAL ENERGY SOURCES.

36

7.17

MAXIMUM READING RANGE OF THE SENSOR PORT WITH AND WITHOUT EXTERNAL ENERGY SOURCES.

37

ix

LIST OF SYMBOLS

SYMBOLS

 

Input Impedance

Chip Impedance

Antenna Impedance

Chip Resistance

Power Transferred To The Chip By Tag Antenna

0

Free Space Wavelength

Distance Between Reader And Tag

Tag Gain

Reader Gain

Humidity Parameter

Material Parameter

Temperature Parameter

Polarization Mismatch Between Reader And Tag Antenna

()

Modulation Efficiency Of Tag

P

R

Power Received By Reader

ℎℎ

Threshold Power Of The Chips

Minimum Transmit Power

Sensor Transmit Power

Reference Transmit Power

Caliberate Power

Power Transmission Co-Efficient Of Reference Port

Power Transmission Co-Efficient Of Sensor Port

Reflection Co-efficient

x

ABBREVIATIONS

UHF

Ultra High Frequency

RFID

Radio Frequency Identification

NTC

Negative Temperature Co-efficient

HFSS

High Frequency Structure Simulator

WORM

Write Once Read Many

xi

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report on Self- Powered Multi-Port UHF RFID Tag-Based Sensor CHAPTER 1 RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION 1.1. HISTORY

CHAPTER 1

RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION

1.1. HISTORY OF RFID AND EARLY BEGINNINGS

While RFID history can be traced back to the beginnings of radio, and earlier, it really started to come to life when radio technology was used to passively identify objects. The first experiments with radio used in this way were conducted by Sir Robert Watson-Watt when he invented radar. This system used a single transmitter receiver which transmitted a high power signal, and the aircraft (in the first instances) passively reflected a small amount of the radio energy back which was received by the receiver in the radar system. Radar only served to identify the presence of an object, but gave no details about it, apart from its size. It was of particular importance to be able to identify an aircraft to see whether it was "Friend or Foe." As a result Watson-Watt went on to develop a system known as IFF - Identification Friend or Foe. A transponder was placed on each plane and when interrogated by a ground station, it responded with a code to identify it. This is the basis of an RFID system.

1.2. NEXT RFID DEVELOPMENT While radar and IFF systems had demonstrated the principles of remotely detecting and then interrogating objects, for the next stage in RFID history, further development was required to enable these systems to be used for low cost commercial applications.

The first developments were of electronic surveillance tags used for shop packaging. These very simple low cost devices were added to the outside of packages. These had two states and were switched at the payment desk. With sensors at the doors, any tags that had not been switched would be detected and an alarm sounded.

1.3.ACTIVE RFID The original tags that were used in the shopping electronic surveillance tags was purely passive - the next step in the RFID history was to develop active tags.As happens in the development of technology, several people were working on similar types of development around the same time, each with their own approach or result. In one development a US patent was granted for an active RFID tag with a rewritable memory in January 1973.

an active RFID tag with a rewritable memory in January 1973. Vidya Academy Of Science And
an active RFID tag with a rewritable memory in January 1973. Vidya Academy Of Science And

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Self- Powered Multi-Port UHF RFID Tag-Based Sensor

report on Self- Powered Multi-Port UHF RFID Tag-Based Sensor Also in the 1970s the Los Alamos

Also in the 1970s the Los Alamos National Laboratories started to develop a system to track the transportation of nuclear materials securely and safely. The system included a variety of readers and transponders attached to the vehicles carrying the materials. These would then enable the truck to be identified at various points along its route.

In another development in the RFID history, again at Los Alamos, but in the agricultural department needed to devise a system that would allow individual cows to be identified. A system was devised that enabled a passive transponder was injected under the skin of the cow. The RFID was based at a frequency of around 125 kHz transponder drew power from the reader, reflecting back a "backscatter" signal that was modulated with the cow identification information.

While the low frequencies of 125 kHz were initially used, systems around the 13.56 MHz license free frequencies were also developed. The use of the higher frequency allowed for higher data rates and longer ranges to be achieved.

1.4. UHF RFID HISTORY

While RFID had previously been focused on lower frequencies where the technology was cheaper, the advantages of the UHF frequency spectrum started to be employed in the early 1990s.The main drawback to large scale commercialization was the lack of standards. Several processes started to come together to ensure proper standardization that would allow

the grown and widespread use of RFID. In 1999 a number of organizations set up the Auto- ID Center at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. This enabled common standards to be set up. Also the International Standards Organization, ISO introduced standards for the different elements of RFID from tags to readers and writers, etc. Another milestone in RFID history occurred when suppliers started to take RFID seriously and in January 2005, Wal- Mart required its top 100 suppliers to apply RFID labels to all shipments.

1.5. PROPOSED SYSTEM

In this system , a pair of RFID tag antennas are employed for identification and sensing; one of the tags serves as a reference signal, while the other is used as a sensor node. The reference node has a common RFID tag configuration, while different approaches are adopted to implement the sensor node. The proposed tag-based sensor is fabricated and experimentally evaluated & the experimental evaluation demonstrates that the proposed tag-

experimental evaluation demonstrates that the proposed tag- Vidya Academy Of Science And Technology-Technical Campus,
experimental evaluation demonstrates that the proposed tag- Vidya Academy Of Science And Technology-Technical Campus,

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report on Self- Powered Multi-Port UHF RFID Tag-Based Sensor based sensor can be easily integrated with

based sensor can be easily integrated with a resistive humidity or temperature sensor fo r a low-cost solution to detect the heat or humidity exposure of sensitive items for several applications such as supply chains and construction structures.

such as supply chains and construction structures. Fig.1.1. Schematic Diagram Of Proposed RFID Tag-Based System

Fig.1.1. Schematic Diagram Of Proposed RFID Tag-Based System

The sensed physical quantity is determined from the ratio of the minimum power from the reader required to activate the reference and sensor nodes, or the power ratio of the signals received from reference and the sensor nodes. These values are then compared to benchmark laboratory experiments with the same tags, RFID chips and similar sensors. The challenges in developing these types of sensors include designing suitable tag antennas and accurate determination of the sensed physical quantity (e.g. temperature, humidity, or permittivity) by using commercial RFID readers.

1.6. SUMMARY

The history of RFID has shown a steady development in RFID technology. Having its routes in the earliest days of electrical science and then radio, RFID history has come out of developments such as radar and IFF. Now RFID is a technology in its own right which is widely used and showing massive benefits to industry and society as a whole.

RFID technology has recently been employed in sensor applications that require low- cost low-power wireless nodes with radio identification and sensing capabilities. Utilizing

radio identification and sensing capabilities. Utiliz ing Vidya Academy Of Science And Technology-Technical Campus,
radio identification and sensing capabilities. Utiliz ing Vidya Academy Of Science And Technology-Technical Campus,

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report on Self- Powered Multi-Port UHF RFID Tag-Based Sensor low-cost with long life time passive RFID

low-cost with long life time passive RFID tag based sensor technology as an effective and reliable way for tracking and monitoring excess heat and humidity for several consumer items is gaining great interest in the scientific and industrial domains.

great interest in the scientific and industrial domains. Vidya Academy Of Science And Technology-Technical Campus,
great interest in the scientific and industrial domains. Vidya Academy Of Science And Technology-Technical Campus,

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report on Self- Powered Multi-Port UHF RFID Tag-Based Sensor CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE SURVEY The important papers

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE SURVEY

The important papers which are supporting this proposed work is selected and reviewed. The survey includes a broad, comprehensive, in-depth, systematic and critical review of the reference papers which are relevant and useful for the proposed paper.

2.1. EXISTING WORKS AN OVERVIEW

1.Multiport UHF RFID-Tag Antenna For Enhanced Energy Harvesting Of Self- Powered Wireless Sensors

This paper presents the design and experimental evaluation of a long-range solar powered sensor-enhanced radio frequency identification (RFID) tag. The tag antenna is a multiport microstrip patch with an overlay of thin-film solar cells for energy harvesting. A second port is allocated on the patch antenna for supplementary energy-harvesting from the RF signal transmitted by the reader. An I2C-RFID chip along with a microcontroller unit (MCU) and temperature and humidity sensor are incorporated in the tag design to implement a low cost wireless sensor using a commercial RFID reader. The measurements of the fabricated RFID-tag sensor demonstrate that a maximum sensing/reading range of 27 m is achieved when all the circuits are powered using solar cells, while it is 7.48 m with only the secondary option of energy harvesting. The proposed sensor with dual energy harvesting achieves both a longer range and lifetime compared to similar battery-powered sensor- enhanced RFID tags. The RFID sensor is also evaluated in a climate chamber and the sensor data (temperature/humidity) was remotely recorded with an excellent accuracy using a commercial UHF RFID reader. In addition, the sensor can be programmed for the temperature/humidity surveillance of sensitive items, such as those found in various supply chain and transportation applications.

in various supply chain and transportation applications. Vidya Academy Of Science And Technology-Technical Campus,
in various supply chain and transportation applications. Vidya Academy Of Science And Technology-Technical Campus,

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2.Low-Cost Inkjet-Printed Fully Passive RFID Tags For Calibration-Free Capacitive/ Haptic Sensor Applications.

A fully passive, compact, and low-cost capacitive wireless RFID-enabled sensing system for capacitive sensing and other Internet of Things applications is proposed. This calibration-free sensor utilizes a dual-tag topology, which consists of two closely spaced RFID tags with dipole antennas and a printed capacitive sensor component connected to one of the tags. A series LC resonator is used to both reduce the antenna size and improve the isolation between the two antennas and the design/optimization steps are discussed in detail. All components except for the RFID chips are inkjet-printed on an off-the-shelf photo paper using a silver nano particle ink. The complete sensor dimension is 84 mm x 95 mm and the sensor is compatible with EPC Class 1 Gen 2 (UHF) standard reader technology at 915 MHz. In this work, an antenna-embedded series inductor-capacitor(LC) resonator and inkjet printing technology are employed to address the aforementioned design challenges. The inkjet printing method was utilized as a fabrication method in this work in order to take advantages of low-cost, scalable and variable properties of the printing technology. This paper presents a miniaturized RFID-enabled sensor tag using the printed LC-resonator loaded dipole antenna in reducing the spacing of the sensing tag and the reference tag and provides theoretical insights on design the dual-tag RFID-enabled sensor. The statistical method was utilized to provide robust detection of the event which can be applied to any other dual-tag RFID-enabled sensor topology

3.Signal Integrity And EMI Evaluations Of An RFID-Sensor Tag For Internet-Of-

Things Applications.

An RFID (radio frequency identification) -Sensor tag for internet of things applications is evaluated for various signal integrity and electromagnetic radiation measures in this paper. It is found that the placement of digital circuit with respect to the r adiating element has to be optimized and the entire system layout, digital and RF parts has to be co - simulated to be able to capture the detuning of operating frequency. Port impedance plots are generated via full-wave simulations to show this impact. The coupling between ports is also inspected by monitoring transmission coefficient (S21). One possible application of this sensor device is for on-body temperature measurements; therefore, back radiation of the tag and specific absorption rate (SAR) plots are reported as well. The system components of these web-connected sensor devices can be often grouped into three categories; Sensor, Digital and RF circuits Since it is often desired for these devices

and RF circuits Since it is often desired for these devices Vidya Academy Of Science And
and RF circuits Since it is often desired for these devices Vidya Academy Of Science And

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report on Self- Powered Multi-Port UHF RFID Tag-Based Sensor to have a compact form factor, the

to have a compact form factor, the interconnects for routing power, digital and RF signals are packed in close proximity to the radiating antenna. This makes the system susceptible to electromagnetic interference (EMI), signal integrity (SI) and power integrity (PI) problems. Therefore, SI, PI and EMI evaluations are important steps in development of any IOT product that should be considered from the initial design steps. In addition, the deployment environment of a wireless IOT device (with or without a sensor) has to be included in the layout simulations, since the electrical characteristics of its surroundings can alter the antenna performance and impact the overall device operation and power budget. In many cases the IOT sensor nodes are deployed in harsh environments or placed in proximity to human body, metal objects or other lossy materials which result in detuning of the radiation frequency or even altering the impedance of any exposed line in the interconnect network. In the case of placing the device near human users, along with the SI/PI tests and inclusion of environment effects on device operation, absorption of radiated electromagnetic energy in human tissue has to be predicted. Hence, simulation of specific absorption rate (SAR) is an essential part of design and simulation of any wireless IOT product that operates close to human body. Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been considered as one of the low cost and efficient means for implementation of IOT products. This notion has become especially affirmed with the recent developments of RFID enabled sensor tags. In this paper, an RFID-sensor tag operating at the North American UHF RFID band is investigated for various signal integrity and EMI measures. The entire RFID-sensor tag layout is optimized to achieve the best system performance. One suggested application of this sensor tag is for on- body placement and temperature measurement. Therefore, back radiation of the tag antenna and the absorbed powered in human body is monitored via fullwave radiation pattern and SAR simulations. The base RFID tag considered herein is a single port patch antenna printed on a Rogers substrate A full-wave electromagnetic CAD solver (An soft HFSS) has been used for simulation and design of the tag. Signal integrity in the digital section of the RFID tag which is composed of the digital sensor, MCU and connecting bus to RFID chip- is investigated through monitoring scattering parameters.

4.A Cost-Effective UHF RFID Tag For Transmission Of Generic Sensor Data In Wireless Sensor Networks. The use of RF identification (RFID) technology for the automatic transmission of physical parameters in wireless sensor networks paves the way to a large class of attractive applications ranging from healthcare to automotive, diagnostic systems, robotics, and many

to automotive, diagnostic systems, robotics, and many Vidya Academy Of Science And Technology-Technical Campus,
to automotive, diagnostic systems, robotics, and many Vidya Academy Of Science And Technology-Technical Campus,

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report on Self- Powered Multi-Port UHF RFID Tag-Based Sensor others. Nevertheless, although some RFID tags capable

others. Nevertheless, although some RFID tags capable to transmit sensor-like information are already on the market, only a limited number of sensors, such as those for temperature or pressure measurement, can be easily miniaturized and embedded in the RFID chip. The integration of more complex sensors, in fact, appears to be complicated and extremely expensive. In this paper, a cost-effective general-purpose multi-ID tag is proposed. It can be connected to generic sensors, regardless of the actual measured value, and it is capable to transmit, when interrogated by a standard RFID reader, a proper combination of ID codes that univocally codifies the sensor measured value. The functionalities of this device have been extensively validated under stressing conditions and the capability to transmit whatever kind of sensor data has been demonstrated.

In this study, a cost-effective UHF sensor tag (S-tag) is presented and extensively validated. It can be connected to a generic sensor and can transmit toward the RFID reader the measured parameters. The basic idea consists of: 1) de-signing an RFID tag provided of a wired input and coherently2) making a well- defined digital output (in our prototype, it is the simple binary conversion of the measured data) available on the sensor. When the tag and sensor are connected one to an-other and are interrogated, the measured value can be read by a standard UHF RFID system and interpreted through an RFID middleware. In such a way, the system takes advantage of the standard RFID technology, preserving most of its peculiarities and maintaining the compatibility with all the devices already available and standardized worldwide.

In this study, a simplified, but effective approach, called “multi-ID” here, has been used. The realized S-tag samples the value measured by the sensor and transmits in real time a combination of different ID codes. Each combination corresponds to a different level so that the quantized waveform of the input will be naturally received by a standard RFID reader. More specifically, the device can associate a different ID code to each informative “bit” of the quantized real-time value in input. Hence, a certain number of IDs is mandatory in order to effectively transmit the measured value

5.Printed Temperature Sensors For Passive RFID Tags.

A concept is presented where a temperature sensitive printed nano structure is integrated into a UHF RFID tag antenna. The printed structure acts as a WORM memory (Write Once Read Many) allowing telling whether a tag has been exposed to excessive temperature since the last read. The 1-bit WORM used in experiments is defined through its

The 1-bit WORM used in experiments is defined through its Vidya Academy Of Science And Technology-Technical
The 1-bit WORM used in experiments is defined through its Vidya Academy Of Science And Technology-Technical

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report on Self- Powered Multi-Port UHF RFID Tag-Based Sensor resistance where a logical zero equals a

resistance where a logical zero equals a high resistance over 2 kΩ and a logical one equals a lower resistance, typically less than 50 Ω. Setting the bit can be achieved through sintering, which is a process to enhance junctions among nano-particle silver and reduce resistivity by heating. The WORM is designed to modulate the impedance of a passive RFID tag antenna, aiming to change the tag from readable to unreadable or the other way around. The simplest way of modulation is to set the WORM to be parallel with the silicon chip. The tag then works well with the high WORM resistance apparent before sintering and poorly or preferably not working at all after sintered because the chip is short-circuited by the low WORM resistance.

A variant of the half wavelength dipole has been used to demonstrate this concept and it should also work with other antenna patterns. Both the WORM memory and the tag antenna are printed on photo paper by an Inkjet printer and the silicon chip is connected to the antenna using the electrically conductive ink. Compared to the sensor solutions that integrate the normal battery supported sensors into silicon chips with the aid of A/D converters, the sensor tag presented in this paper is much simpler and allowing easy fabrication. It has long lifetime, a smaller size as well as a lower cost. Since the WORM memory by definition stores the state and can be read out long time after it's been programmed this tag can tell about past events. Potential use include all applications where one wants to detect if a high temperature has occurred since the last time of read and where normal sensors either have too short lifetime or are too expensive.

6.RFID Tag Antenna Based Temperature Sensing.

Temperature monitoring is important in a number of fields, particularly cold supply chain applications. Most commercial wireless temperature sensors consist of transceivers, memory and batteries to maintain a temperature time history but this is expensive and allows for limited sensor deployment. In this paper, we propose a low cost temperature sensor based on the paradigm of passive RFID tag antenna based sensing. A simple mechanical method to permanently induce changes in RFID tag power characteristics upon exposure to temperatures greater than a threshold is presented. Critical temperature threshold violations can then be detected by monitoring received backscatter signal strength at a reader. The feasibility of the proposed hypothesis is examined via theoretical and experimental means. It will be shown that this sensing paradigm has the potential to greatly increase the

sensing paradigm has the potential to greatly increase the Vidya Academy Of Science And Technology-Technical Campus,
sensing paradigm has the potential to greatly increase the Vidya Academy Of Science And Technology-Technical Campus,

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report on Self- Powered Multi-Port UHF RFID Tag-Based Sensor pervasiveness of temperature sensing nodes and

pervasiveness

of temperature

sensing

nodes

and

improve

supply

chain

visibility

and

performance.

Temperature sensors are required to monitor and record all critical temperature changes in the environment over the period of deployment. The wide variety of wireless temperature sensors deployed in commercial supply chain applications achieve this by including appropriate on board electronics like memory and battery which drives up the cost of the sensor unit. As a consequence, economic considerations often preclude the deployment of these sensors on a truly pervasive scale. Ambient temperature levels are inferred based on the output of a finite number of sensor nodes, rather than by monitoring each logistic unit passing through the supply chain. It would therefore be very useful to have a dedicated sensor monitoring at the logistic unit level so that critical temperature state changes can be monitored and recorded. However in order to meet this objective, the cost of this sensor must be significantly low. In this paper, we propose the design of an ultra-low cost temperature sensor based on passive UHF RFID principles, which is capable of logging temperature changes above a critical temperature threshold for user specified tolerance intervals.

7. The Art Of UHF RFID Antenna Design: Impedance Matching And Size-Reduction Techniques.

Radio-frequency identification technology, based on the reader/tag paradigm, is quickly permeating several aspects of everyday life. The electromagnetic research mainly concerns the design of tag antennas having high efficiency and small size, and suited to complex impedance matching to the embedded electronics. Starting from the available but fragmented open literature, this paper presents a homogeneous survey of relevant methodologies for the design of UHF passive tag antennas. Particular care is taken to illustrate, within a common framework, the basic concepts of the most-used design layouts. The design techniques are illustrated by means of many noncommercial examples.

Several frequency bands have been standardized for this technology. Low-frequency (LF, 125-134 kHz) and high-frequency (HF, 13.56 MHz) systems are the most mature and worldwide diffused technology. They are based on quasi-static magnetic flux coupling among the reader's and tag's coils. Ultra-high-frequency (UHF, 860-860 MHz) and microwave (2.4 GHz and 5.8 GHz) systems instead involve electromagnetic interaction among true antennas and permit longer communication links, and they are the emerging technology. Together with the power sensitivity of the microchip, the tag's antenna plays a key role in the overall RFID

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report on Self- Powered Multi-Port UHF RFID Tag-Based Sensor system performance factors, such as the overall

system performance factors, such as the overall size, the reading range, and the compatibility with tagged objects.

Most of the antennas for IJHF omini directional tags are commonly fabricated as modified printed dipoles. The design goal is to achieve the inductive input reactance required for the microchip conjugate impedance matching, and to miniaturize the antenna shape. Several tricks are used, and the resulting tags sometimes exhibit charming and nearly artistic layouts. Although many tag configurations can be retrieved in scientific papers, or even in the catalogs of commercial products, there is a lack of systematization of the design methodology. A first tutorial paper was available in, where the concept of conjugate impedance matching to the microchip was reviewed, some performance parameters were introduced, and fabrication and measurement procedures were described in some detail. This paper provides a unitary and general survey of the mostused design procedures for miniaturized tag antennas with a complex impedance matched to the microchip load. Attention is devoted to the rationale and to the main features of basic configurations, by the modification and combination of which a great variety of tag layouts can be easily obtained. For each design solution, the role of the main geometrical parameters over the complex impedance tuning are investigated here by introducing matching charts, which are a useful tool to get the same antenna configuration to suit different kinds of microchips.

8. A Prototype RFID Humidity Sensor For Built Environment Monitoring.

A possible method of utilizing paraffin wax as a substrate material in developing a threshold heat sensing radio frequency identification (RFID) tag is discussed. A small narrowband passive UHF RFID tag is made on top of a multilayer substrate. Paraffin wax acts as the main heat sensitive layer of the substrate. The properties and characteristics of the paraffin layer change due to heat. The narrowband tag on top of the substrate is designed to be sensitive enough to detect any structural and physical changes of the substrate material. The changes in the properties of the substrate material will cause a shift in the operating frequency of the tag. This frequency shift will reduce the performance of the narrowband RFID sensor tag. The change in the properties of paraffin wax after being exposed to heat is irreversible under normal conditions and therefore, the proposed RFID tag can be referred to as a threshold heat sensing device. Such a low-cost solution can be useful in detecting heat exposures in various supply chains and transportation mishandling of heat sensitive items.

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report on Self- Powered Multi-Port UHF RFID Tag-Based Sensor In this study, a low loss antenna

In this study, a low loss antenna and tag substrate is utilized to develop a heat sensing RFID tag. The substrate is made of different layers, where paraffin wax behaves as the main heat sensitive part of the substrate. The main idea of this type of heat sensor is that the overall performance of the RFID tag and its operational frequency gets affected when exposed to high temperatures. Exposing this type of substrate to high temperatures will change the physical and chemical properties of the paraffin wax. These changes will eventually result in changing the dielectric properties of the substrate, causing a shift in the tag’s operating frequency. The shift in the operating frequency is irreversible in normal conditions, unless the paraffin layer of the substrate is retreated and made, as mentioned in Section III-B. This feature makes the tag antenna more like a threshold temperature sensor, optimized for a certain frequency, avoiding the need of a broadband interrogation system. To make this change more prominent, a sensitive narrowband passive RFID tag is developed.

The sensitive narrowband tag can be useful in developing low-cost heat sensing tags, by sensing the change in the dielectric properties of the substrate. These low-cost passive RFID tags are useful in detecting heat exposures of several heat sensitive products like daily consumer items, drugs and other perishable food items. In practical applications the sensing tag should be carefully packaged with the product, to avoid any accidental damage to the tag. This can be done in various ways such as, using some special type of casing for the sensing tag, or placing the tag inside the package, depending on the type of product. However, in many applications the use of external force can also damage the product inside the package, as well as the sensing tag. This will make the tag unreadable, indicating that the quality of the product has been lowered or been damaged. This feature can also be useful in monitoring the quality of various food items in supply chain operations. The readability of the tag after being heated can also be controlled by limiting the transmitted power.

2.2. CONCLUSION The eight reference papers which are mostly supporting are reviewed in-depth found out that those papers form the basic idea of the proposed paper. But also found that the proposed system dominates all those ideas in the reference papers.

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report on Self- Powered Multi-Port UHF RFID Tag-Based Sensor CHAPTER 3 MULTI-PORT RFID TAG-BASED SENSOR A

CHAPTER 3

MULTI-PORT RFID TAG-BASED SENSOR

A radio-frequency identification system uses tags attached to the objects to be identified. Two-way radio transmitter-receivers called readers send a signal to the tag and read its response.

RFID tags can be either passive, active or battery-assisted passive. An active tag has an on-board battery and periodically transmits its ID signal. A battery-assisted passive (BAP) has a small battery on board and is activated when in the presence of an RFID reader. A passive tag is cheaper and smaller because it has no battery; instead, the tag uses the radio energy transmitted by the reader. However, to operate a passive tag, it must be illuminated with a power level roughly a thousand times stronger than for signal transmission. That makes a difference in interference and in exposure to radiation.

RFID tags contain at least three parts: an integrated circuit that stores and processes information and that modulates and demodulates radio-frequency (RF) signals; a means of collecting DC power from the incident reader signal; and an antenna for receiving and transmitting the signal. The tag information is stored in a non-volatile memory. The RFID tag includes either fixed or programmable logic for processing the transmission and sensor data, respectively.

3.1. TAG ANTENNA

In this system the tag antennas are often dipole topology. Due to their omni- directional radiation, these types of antennas are influenced by the characteristics of the identification object, and their resonance frequency, input impedance, radiation pattern and efficiency all degrade, especially when they are mounted on metallic surfaces or in close proximity to the human body. These changes in the tag antenna characteristics affect the reference and the sensor nodes’ signals, reducing the sensing accuracy. To overcome this problem, in patch antennas have also been used for RFID sensors but still in a multiple tag arrangement

3.2. COST EFFICIENCY To reduce the cost, and the overall size of the developed sensor architecture, the sensor and reference ports must be integrated in one ordinary RFID tag. Including both reference and sensor nodes in the same antenna makes it possible to expose them to identical

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environmental conditions such as temperature. In addition, this ensures similar power levels for switches on the RFID chips, since a large separation between the sensor and reference nodes increases the risk of dissimilarity in the received powers due to propagation path variations. In this type of sensor architecture, the sensor nodes also limit the reading rang of the whole system, e.g.,1 m. To increase the range, the sensor nodes’ threshold power should be enhanced.

3.3. CONCEPT OF MULTIPORT RFID TAG-BASED SENSOR In this paper, a multi-port RFID tag-based sensor, operating at the 902-928 MHZ North American frequency band, is proposed. The proposed tag antennas are incorporated with multiple RFID chips (RI-UHF-IC116-00) provided by Texas Instruments, with power sensitivity of -13 dBm and input impedances of 8.2−j61Ω at the operation frequencies of 915 MHz, respectively. For a maximum power transfer between the RFID chips and the antennas, inductively-coupled loop and inset coupled feeds are integrated in each antenna layout. One port in each antenna is dedicated for attaching a resistive sensor as a load in parallel with the RFID chip. Few normal resistors are used as an alternate way to represent the resistive sensor in simulations and measurements.

3.4.FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION The proposed tag based sensor is fabricated and experimentally evaluated using a commercial RFID test system. These tests show that the designed RFID tag sensor can read a resistance variation of between 20Ω to 2KΩ, which is equivalent to the resistance’s variation of the humidity sensor when there is a humidity change from 20% to 80%, or to the temperature sensors (NTC Thermistors) whose resistances change from 1.9KΩ (at 00C) up to 20.86Ω (at 1450C). To improve the reading range of the sensor, a dual-port solar powered RFID-tag-enabled sensor is also fabricated and experimentally evaluated. The measured results demonstrate that the reading range of the dual-port solar powered RFID tag-enabled sensor is increased by two times compared to a similar prototype without solar energy harvesting. Compared to the author’s earlier work on multiport tag antenna, the proposed tag- based sensor is simpler, as it can be integrated with low-cost passive sensors without any additional discrete electronic components to measure different parameters (e.g. temperature or humidity).

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report on Self- Powered Multi-Port UHF RFID Tag-Based Sensor 3.5. CONCLUSION The fabrication and experimental evaluation

3.5. CONCLUSION The fabrication and experimental evaluation has been explained in this chapter. Concept behind multi-port UHF RFID tag based sensor, it’s cost efficiency has also been well explained. The chapter gives a clear base for the further studies on multi-port UHF RFID tag based sensor

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report on Self- Powered Multi-Port UHF RFID Tag-Based Sensor CHAPTER 4 PRINCIPLE OF THE MULTI PORT

CHAPTER 4

PRINCIPLE OF THE MULTI PORT RFID TAG BASED- SENSOR DESIGN

This chapter describes about the sensing principle of the proposed multi-port tag

antenna is described. The principle behind the proposed system is the power harvesting of

RFID tags which is required to operate IC from the RF signal transmitted from the reader. The

power harvested by the tag depends on the tag-antenna performance.

4.1. IDEA AND FRAMEWORK

Passive RFID tags do not contain any power sources; Instead, they harvest the power

required to operate the IC from the RF signal transmitted from the reader. The amount of the

power harvested by the tag strongly depends on the tag-antenna performance and the

matching network between the chip and the tag antenna. The chip’s impedance is highly

capacitive (Zin = RChip jXChip); for the maximum power transfer conditions, the antenna

input impedance must be conjugate matched to the microchip impedance (ZAntenna =

ZChip). The power transferred to the chip by the tag antenna can be represented as :

=

(

4 ) 2

0

(, , ) (, , )

(1)

where λ0 is the free space wavelength, d denotes the distance between the reader and the tag,

GT, and GR represent the tag and reader antenna gain, ψ is the environmental parameter that

could affect the gain and τ is the power transmission coefficient of the tag, defined as:

=

4

()

| +

()| 2

(2)

The other parameters in Eq. 1 are Pt, the power transmitted from the RFID reader, and ηp ,

the polarization mismatch between the reader and the tag antenna. The power received by the

reader can be expressed by a radar equation:

= (

4 ) 4

0

2 (, , ) (, , ) ()

2

(3)

where ρ(ψ) is the modulation efficiency of the tag, which is a function of the antenna and chip

impedances. It is also related to the tag radar cross section as identified. The power received

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report on Self- Powered Multi-Port UHF RFID Tag-Based Sensor by the tag to activate the microchip

by the tag to activate the microchip or to be scattered by the tag is a function of the physical characteristics of the target where the tag is attached. Thus, any change in the target parameters causes a change in the power received by the tag as well as in the scattered power that is received by the reader. By detecting these changes, the target properties can be monitored in real time. However, preliminary laboratory experiments are needed to generate a calibrated reading of the backscattered signal from the sensor tag or the minimum power required from the reader to activate the tag.

4.2. METHOD USED The schematic diagram of the proposed multi-port RFID tag based sensor is shown in Fig.1.1. The sensor port is integrated with a resistive moisture or resistive temperature sensor, while the other port (the reference port) is perfectly matched to the tag antenna. Any change in the resistance of the sensor due to humidity or temperature variation introduces a mismatch between the antenna and the sensor port. The reader should then transmit a higher power level to activate the sensor port compared to that required for the reference port. Since the threshold power of the chips(PC−threshold) is almost the same for the same types of chips and the reference and sensor ports are integrated in the same tag, the parameter of reader-to- tag distance can be dropped by calculating the ratio of the required minimum transmit power (Ptmin) to activate the two chips (PTag ≥ PC−threshold) (sensor and reference ports) using Eq:

The calibration power up curve at any arbitrary distance from the reader can be obtained as follows:

1.

=

=

(4)

By measuring this power ratio, it is possible to map it to the sensor data and thereby the determine humidity or temperature at the tag location.

4.3.RESULT ANALYSIS In a passive UHF RFID system, the reader transmits interrogation signals to the tags and the tags reply to the reader by means of modulating the backscattered signals. The communication channel carrying information from the reader to the tag is regarded as forward link and that carrying information from the tag to the reader is regards as reverse link. In forward link, the reader transmits a power of Pt, reader to its transmitting antenna

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report on Self- Powered Multi-Port UHF RFID Tag-Based Sensor (which has a gain of G reader)

(which has a gain of G reader) for power radiation and this results in a power density of Pt ,reader G reader/(4πr2) at the position of the tag antenna, where r is there adding distance between there reader antenna and the tag antenna. The power received by the tag antenna (Pr,

tag) is the product of the incident power density and the effective aperture of the tag antenna

A certain percentage of the received power, determined by the power transfer

(Ae ,tag)

coefficient (τ), is transferred to the silicon chip of the tag. The power backscattered by the tag antenna (Pbs ,tag) is determined by the incident power density and the radar scattering cross

section of the tag antenna (Asc ,tag). In a similar manner to that for the forward link, the backscattered power received by the reader antenna (Pr ,reader) is the product of the backscattered power density and the effective aperture of the reader antenna (Ae, reader).

4.4. CONCLUSION The basic principle behind multi-port UHF RFID tag based sensor have been studied in detail in this chapter. The main concepts discussed are about the idea and framework used for the fabrication and experimentation of the proposed system. Also gives the methods used for implementation

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report on Self- Powered Multi-Port UHF RFID Tag-Based Sensor CHAPTER 5 UHF RFID SENSOR TAG DESIGN

CHAPTER 5

UHF RFID SENSOR TAG DESIGN

This chapter describes about a UHF RFID sensor tag design. The design and simulation results of the proposed tag antenna are presented. Designing of suitable tag antenna and accurate determination of the sensed physical quantity (e.g. temperature, humidity, or permittivity) by using commercial RFID readers. The amount of the power harvested by the tag strongly depends on the tag-antenna performance and the matching network between the chip and the tag antenna.

5.1. DESIGN 5.1.1. TAG DESIGN The tag antenna shown in Fig.5.2. is designed and fabricated using a single layer substrate, Rogers RO4350B (εr = 3.66) with h= 1.524 mm to operate at the North American UHF RFID band (902-928 MHz). The length of the patch antenna is approximately one-half of a wavelength at the operating frequency of 915 MHz yielding Lpatch=83mm and the width of Wpatch=79.6mm. The overall dimensions of the tag including the ground plane are 126 mm x 126mm. To further reduce the footprint, the patch antenna is backed by an EBG structure and then redesigned with multiple feeds. In this manner, a size reduction of almost 70% (59mmx79mm) is obtained for the multi-port patch tag antenna.

is obtained for the multi-port patch tag antenna. Fig.5.2 Geometry of the proposed patch antenna-based sensor.

Fig.5.2 Geometry of the proposed patch antenna-based

sensor. All dimensions in millimeters

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report on Self- Powered Multi-Port UHF RFID Tag-Based Sensor 5.1.2. RFID chips Multiple RFID chips (RI-UHFIC116-00)

5.1.2. RFID chips

Multiple RFID chips (RI-UHFIC116-00) provided by Texas Instruments are utilized. The power sensitivity of the chip is -13 dBm and the input impedance is 8.2−j61Ω at 915 MHz. The inductive loop and inset feed provide the conjugate match between the chips and

the antenna ports. The port with an inset feed is chosen as the reference node. By changing the length of the inset feed (L1), the imaginary part of the input impedance is adjusted to yield a desired input impedance value. The real part is optimized by controlling the position of the via inside the patch antenna. The second chip is connected to the antenna

via an inductive loop. The size of the matching loop is adjusted to control the imaginary part, while the distance between the antenna and the loop affects the real part. The final dimensions of the inset feed and the loop, as shown in Fig.1.1, are optimized using an HFSS simulator. The sensor can be directly connected to the tag antenna (in series or in parallel) or

it can be inductively coupled to the tag . In this prototype, the sensor is directly connected to the matching loop in parallel with the RFID chip The reflection coefficient Γ of this port as seen by the RFID chip is :

) −

(

=

( ) +

(5)

If the tag antenna is designed to be conjugate matched to the chip impedance (ZAntenna =

ZChip), the reflection coefficient (Γ) becomes:

=

−(

) 2

2 ( )

+ | | 2

(6)

5.1.3. SENSOR AND REFERENCE PORT DESIGN

Adding the resistive sensor in parallel with the sensor port introduces a mismatch (|Γ| is larger than zero) between the antenna and the RFID chip. Thus, the power harvested from

the RFID reader signals will not be completely transferred to the chip circuitry, as part of it will be reflected (the power transfer coefficient τ = 1−|Γ|2). Compared to the reference port that is perfectly conjugate matched to the tag antenna, the reader requires to transmit higher power to activate the sensor port. According to Eq. 6 the reader will not be able to activate the sensor port when (|Γ| = 1,ZSensor = 0), while the best case to activate the sensor port

(perfect conjugate matching) is when (Γ = 0,ZSensor = ∞). The proposed tag is simulated using an HFSS simulator where normal resistors (thick film chip resistors CRCW0402) with

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report on Self- Powered Multi-Port UHF RFID Tag-Based Sensor different resistance values (2kΩ, 1kΩ, 500Ω, 200Ω,

different resistance values (2kΩ, 1kΩ, 500Ω, 200Ω, 100Ω, 50Ω, and 20Ω) are connected one at a time in the inductive loop as an alternative way to represent a resistive sensor (e.g. a Write Once Read Many WORM or an NTCLE100E3681JB0 thermistor). The calculated power transmission co-efficient results using Eq. 6 and the simulated power transmission coefficient of the tag with these resistors are presented in Fig.5.3. In both calculations using Eq.6 and an HFSS simulator, the chip impedance is set to be 8.2−j61Ω (provided in the component data sheet), and the results are calculated at the center frequency of North American band (915 MHz). As expected, when the resistor values that are connected in parallel with the RFID chip, a mismatch between the chip and the antenna is introduced. The mismatch increases when the value of the resistor is decreased. There is a small variation in the power transmission coefficient at the reference port, but it is more than 94 % across the entire North American band. Thus, the reference port chip is expected to be activated with a minimum of power transmitted from the reader, and changing the resistance values at the sensor port does not have any impact

values at the sensor port does not have any impact Fig 5.3.Power transfer co- efficient at

Fig

5.3.Power

transfer co-efficient at the port of the proposed sensor with different resistors.

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5.2. CONCLUSION

Suitable designing of the system is necessary inorder to make the sensed physical quantity accurate .As the sensed physical quantity is determined from the ratio of minimum power from the reader required to activate the reference and sensor nodes, the reference nodes and sensor nodes are designed. This chapter gives information about designing of RFID tag, reference & sensor nodes

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report on Self- Powered Multi-Port UHF RFID Tag-Based Sensor CHAPTER 6 RFID TAG BASED-SENSOR EVALUATION The

CHAPTER 6

RFID TAG BASED-SENSOR EVALUATION

The proposed tag-based sensor is fabricated and experimentally evaluated. The measured results demonstrate that the sensed data can be extracted using a commercial RFID reader by recording and comparing the difference in the reader output power required to power up the reference port and the power required to power the sensor ports. To improve the reading range of the proposed sensor it is also designed using various parameters. Inorder to study about the working of an RFID tag based sensor power sensitivity, reading range, radiation pattern, sensor measurements should be measured. It is important to evaluate the power sensitivity measurement in consumer products, this is done by an experimental setup. These measurements are done using a tagformance which is measurement system

6.1.EVALUATION OF RFID TAG BASED-SENSOR 6.1.1.POWER SENSITIVITY MEASUREMENTS Since sensor operation is based on measuring the relative activation power of the sensor and reference port chips, the power sensitivity measurement must be conducted in order to generate the calibration curve of the power-up levels. In addition, measuring the power sensitivity of the assembled tag provides information about the optimum operation frequency. Thus, any shifts in the resonance frequency because of antenna fabrication tolerances or RFID chip impedance tolerances due to parasitic effects, process variations or packaging can be observed. This test used a commercial RFID measurement system(Tagformance).The measurement system is shown in Fig.6.4., where the reader is connected to a computer to control the operation frequency band, the sweeping frequency step, and the maximum output power. The measurement system also includes a wide band circulator for monostatic radar measurements with over 20 dB port isolation through a range of 800 to 1000 MHz.

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report on Self- Powered Multi-Port UHF RFID Tag-Based Sensor Fig.6.4. Tagformance Measurement System Tagformance was

Fig.6.4. Tagformance Measurement System

Tagformance was selected to perform the power sensitivity measurements because it covers broad operation frequency bands compared to a commercial RFID reader, e.g. GAO 216010, which only operates in a narrow band from 865 to 868 MHz, European band, and 902 to 928 MHz, North America band. With this commercial reader (e.g. GAO 216010), the optimum operation frequency cannot be predicted if it shifts out of the reader’s operational bands. The tag is placed on the top of the foam holder at a 0.45 m distance from the reader, as shown in Fig.6.4. The power sensitivity for the integrated RFID chips is then measured with different thick-film chip resistors (CRCW0402), i.e, 2kΩ, 1kΩ, 500Ω, 200Ω, 100Ω, 50Ω, and 20Ω, soldered one at a time for each port and each test to represent the resistive sensors. This process allows the power sensitivity of the sensor to be measured without the need for a climate room. The proposed sensor is measured across the 800-1000 MHz frequency band. The system starts by transmitting low power (-5 dBm) and then increases the output power by 0.1 dBm until the reader detects a tag response. The minimum transmit power needed to activate the sensor port was recorded for different resistance values and is plotted in Fig.6.5.

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Fig.6.5: Measured minimum transmit power required to activate RFID chip at the sensor port with different resistance values.

chip at the sensor port with different resistance values. Fig.6.6: Measured minimum transmit power required to

Fig.6.6: Measured minimum transmit power required to activate RFID chip at the reference port with different resistance values.

It can be observed that the minimum power required from the reader (Pt) to activate the sensor port is inversely proportional to the sensor resistance. The sensor port is activated with a transmit minimum power of 2.5dBm when the sensor resistance is high (2kΩ), while higher power (18.5 dBm) is needed when the sensor resistance is very low (20Ω). The required transmit power of the reference port is also measured for different resistance values

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connected at the sensor port. The measured results are presented in Fig.6.6. The changes in the resistance values at the sensor port cause small changes in the transmit power required for activation (e.g., 1.5 dBm at 915 MHz when R = 2kΩ, and -0.98dBm when R = 20Ω) of the reference port due to the coupling effect between the two ports. These changes are already included in the calibration curve of the power-up levels and will not degrade the sensor accuracy. It can be seen that the optimum operation frequency of the proposed tag occurs at the center frequency of the North American band, 915 MHz. At this operation frequency, a minimum transmitted power of -0.98 dBm is required to activate the RFID chip at the reference port. Thus, the differential power-up curve can be calculated using Eq.6.4 at the operation frequency of (915 MHz), as presented in Fig.6.7

operation frequency of (915 MHz), as presented in Fig.6.7 Fig.6.7: Measured transmit power difference between sensor

Fig.6.7: Measured transmit power difference between sensor port and reference port at 915 MHz.

6.1.2.READING RANGE MEASUREMENT. The other important parameter in evaluating an RFID tag is its maximum reading range. A tag’s reading range can be easily measured using any commercial RFID reader. The same commercially-available measurement system (Tagformance) used above to measure the power consumption is used here for measuring the reading range. The maximum reading range (with an EIRP of 3.28 W at the reference port) using the proposed tags is 9 m. The calibrated curves of the differential power-up levels of the proposed sensor with a resistive sensor are measured at a distance of 0.45 m from the reader. A solar powered tag-based sensor was developed to enhance the reading range of the whole system.

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report on Self- Powered Multi-Port UHF RFID Tag-Based Sensor 6.1.3.RADIATION PATTERN MEASUREMENTS RFID tag antennas are

6.1.3.RADIATION PATTERN MEASUREMENTS RFID tag antennas are loaded with the complex impedance of RFID chips, which is highly capacitive. This is not the standard setting (50Ω) in conventional pattern measurements, and therefore it is important to investigate the radiation pattern of the RFID tag antenna with an assembled and activated chip to observe any pattern deterioration. The Tagformance measurement system is used in an anechoic chamber to extract the radiation pattern from the power sensitivity measurements without any physical feed connection. The radiation pattern of the proposed tag antenna at the operation frequency of 915 MHz is measured when both sensor and reference chips are connected. The measured results are presented in Fig.6.8.

connected. The measured results are presented in Fig.6.8. Fig.6.8: Measured radiation pattern of the proposed sensor

Fig.6.8: Measured radiation pattern of the proposed sensor at 915 MHz.

The measured front-to-back ratio is 9.8 dB at 915 MHz. The realized antenna gain can be determined by using the power method. The realized gain of the proposed tag is presented in Fig.6.9. The realized gain of the proposed tag antenna is 4.8 dB at 915 MHz.

gain of the proposed tag antenna is 4.8 dB at 915 MHz. Vidya Academy Of Science
gain of the proposed tag antenna is 4.8 dB at 915 MHz. Vidya Academy Of Science

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report on Self- Powered Multi-Port UHF RFID Tag-Based Sensor Fig.6.9: Measured realized gain for the proposed
report on Self- Powered Multi-Port UHF RFID Tag-Based Sensor Fig.6.9: Measured realized gain for the proposed

Fig.6.9: Measured realized gain for the proposed tag-based sensor.

TABLE 6.1: Physical characteristics of Thermistors - NTCLE100E3681JB0

Physical characteristics of Thermistors - NTCLE100E3681JB0 6.2.SENSOR MEASUREMENT RESULTS In the first subsection of

6.2.SENSOR MEASUREMENT RESULTS In the first subsection of this tag-based sensor evaluation (Power Sensitivity Measurements), the proposed tags showed that they can successfully operate with a resistive sensor with a range of 2KΩ to 20Ω. Currently, many different passive, compact and low-cost sensors that have similar resistance variations are available and suitable for direct integration with the proposed tag antennas. An example of a printed low-cost humidity or temperature sensor is a 1-bit write-once-read many (WORM) presented. In our measurements, the

many (WORM) presented. In our measurements, the Vidya Academy Of Science And Technology-Technical Campus,
many (WORM) presented. In our measurements, the Vidya Academy Of Science And Technology-Technical Campus,

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report on Self- Powered Multi-Port UHF RFID Tag-Based Sensor proposed tag is integrated with another sensor

proposed tag is integrated with another sensor available in our lab (Thermistors - NTC) that has a similar resistance variation range to those described, i.e., 1.9KΩ at 00C to 196Ω at 600C. These types of sensors are not equipped with discrete electronic components that would increase the cost of the integrated sensor unit in the RFID tag; making them suitable for integration in a variety of consumer products in the proposed RFID tag sensor designs described earlier. Some of the physical characteristics of Thermistors - NTCLE100E3681JB0 are summarized in Table6.I. From Table 6.I, it can be seen that at room temperature 250C, the available sensor has a resistor value of 680Ω. Since no climate room was available during the time of these measurements, the temperature sensor was only used to extract the power sensitivity of the proposed RFID sensor and to demonstrate the sensing principle of the RFID tag-based sensor operation, and not for the actual temperature measurements. The power sensitivities of the RFID chip at the sensor port and reference port are presented in Fig.6.10. It can be seen that the sensor port requires higher power than the reference port, and that the ratio of the power transmitted to the sensor port to that transmitted to the reference port, can be extracted to determine the temperature if a calibration table or a climate room are available.

if a calibration table or a climate room are available. Fig.6.10: Measured minimum transmit power required

Fig.6.10: Measured minimum transmit power required to activate RFID chip at the sensor port of the proposed RFID sensor with Thermistor - NTC NTC sensor.

the proposed RFID sensor with Thermistor - NTC NTC sensor. Vidya Academy Of Science And Technology-Technical
the proposed RFID sensor with Thermistor - NTC NTC sensor. Vidya Academy Of Science And Technology-Technical

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report on Self- Powered Multi-Port UHF RFID Tag-Based Sensor 6.3.POWER SENSITIVITY MEASUREMENTS ON CONSUMER PRODUCTS To

6.3.POWER SENSITIVITY MEASUREMENTS ON CONSUMER PRODUCTS To demonstrate the use of the proposed tags-based sensor, measurements were conducted using two different types of packages. The measurement system (Tagformance) described in the earlier sections was also used to evaluate the performance of the proposed sensor with two different types of consumer products. As shown in Fig.6.11, the proposed sensor is attached to a box (200×200×200mm) containing plastic items, and then the RFID tag is attached to a box that filled with metallic cans.

tag is attached to a box that filled with metallic cans. Fig.6.11: Measured packages with Thermistors-

Fig.6.11: Measured packages with Thermistors- NTCLE100E3681JB0

The tag is placed on top of the box at a distance of 0.45m from the reader antenna of the measurement system. Since the principle method of sensing depends on the power sensitivity measurements, the tag is therefore first measured in free space and then attached to the two different packages. The measured results of the required minimum power for both ports in these two tests are presented in Figs.6.12 and 6.13.

in these two tests are presented in Figs.6.12 and 6.13. Vidya Academy Of Science And Technology-Technical
in these two tests are presented in Figs.6.12 and 6.13. Vidya Academy Of Science And Technology-Technical

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report on Self- Powered Multi-Port UHF RFID Tag-Based Sensor Fig.6.12: Measured required minimum power for the
report on Self- Powered Multi-Port UHF RFID Tag-Based Sensor Fig.6.12: Measured required minimum power for the

Fig.6.12: Measured required minimum power for the reference and sensor ports of the tag in Fig.6.11 attached to a box containing plastic items.

tag in Fig.6.11 attached to a box containing plastic items. Fig.6.13: Measured required minimum power for

Fig.6.13: Measured required minimum power for the reference and sensor ports of the tag in Fig.6.11 attached to a box containing metallic items.

When the proposed sensor is attached to the top of a box containing plastic items, the minimum power needed to activate the RFID chips at the reference and sensor ports are very close to those of pertinent ports in free standing tag measurements. Thus, the loading effects of these types of items are negligible. However, when the proposed sensor is attached to t he packages containing metallic objects, a small change in the minimum power for RFID chip activation is observed compared to the power required for free standing tags. For example, the required minimum power at 920 MHz for a sensor port is 8.4 dBm in a free standing tag, while it is 7 dBm when it is on the box containing metallic cans. The measured transmitted power difference between the sensor port and the reference port of free standing tags is 8.45 dB, while it is 8.05 dB when it is located on the box of metallic cans. Fig.6.14 presents the loading effect of the two different packages on a sample monopole RFID tag described in. The loading effects of a box containing plastic items causes a large shift in the resonance frequency and increases the required minimum power compared to the proposed RFID tag based sensor. The monopole antenna tag has a dramatically diminished performance when placed on the box containing metallic cans. Therefore, it can be observed that the proposed tag sensor is more immune to the loading effects of consumer products compared to RFID tags that use wire antennas for their sensor implementation.

tags that use wire antennas for their sensor implementation. Vidya Academy Of Science And Technology-Technical Campus,
tags that use wire antennas for their sensor implementation. Vidya Academy Of Science And Technology-Technical Campus,

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report on Self- Powered Multi-Port UHF RFID Tag-Based Sensor Fig.6.14: Measured required minimum power for the
report on Self- Powered Multi-Port UHF RFID Tag-Based Sensor Fig.6.14: Measured required minimum power for the

Fig.6.14: Measured required minimum power for the monopole tag antenna placed to the top of a box containing plastic and metallic items.

6.4.CONCLUSION

Evaluation of RFID tag based sensor is presented on this chapter. Various measurements like power sensitivity, reading range, radiation pattern were explained. Also gives idea about sensor measurements and power sensitivity measurements on consumer products

and power sensitivity measurements on consumer products Vidya Academy Of Science And Technology-Technical Campus,
and power sensitivity measurements on consumer products Vidya Academy Of Science And Technology-Technical Campus,

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report on Self- Powered Multi-Port UHF RFID Tag-Based Sensor CHAPTER 7 SOLAR – POWERED RFID TAG-BASED

CHAPTER 7

SOLAR POWERED RFID TAG-BASED SENSOR

To improve the reading range of the proposed sensor, a dual-port solar powered RFID sensor is used. The reading range of the sensor is increased by two times compared to a similar prototype without solar energy harvesting.

7.1.SOLAR POWERED RFID TAG BASED SENSOR

As mentioned in the previous section, sensor data is extracted from the power ratio described in Eq. 4. The power sensitivity measurements also confirm that the introduced mismatch due to the resistive sensor reduces the power sensitivity of the sensor port, with the reading range of the sensor port reduced accordingly. In fact, these types of sensors are general only suitable for use in short range applications, e.g., of 1 m. Nonetheless, the reading range of the proposed sensors can be extended by improving the power sensitivity of both the reference and the sensor ports. Therefore, an improved design was developed herein. In this prototype, the power sensitivity of the IC is increased by including an additional energy source (solar cells). A Monza X RFID chip with two pins for DC connection is used in the tag, which is designed to operate at the North American bandwidth (902 MHz to 928 MHz). A Rogers RO4350B substrate (εr = 3.66 and 1.524 thickness) is considered for implementing the tag antenna. At 915 MHz, the length and width of the radiating patch is optimized by using an HFSS simulator, yielding L=83 mm and W= 82.8 mm. The inductive loop matching technique is used to feed the RFID chip. The dimensions of the inductive loop are optimized for conjugate matching, resulting in L1=18.8 mm, L2=8.5mm, d=0.6 mm. A thin film of solar cells are attached on the top of the patch antenna, as shown in Fig.7.15. The dimensions of the solar panel are 64mm×37mm×0.2mm, yielding an active area of 23cm2. As shown in Fig.7.15, the DC+ and DC of the solar panel are connected to the RFID using tiny wires

the solar panel are connected to the RFID using tiny wires Vidya Academy Of Science And
the solar panel are connected to the RFID using tiny wires Vidya Academy Of Science And

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report on Self- Powered Multi-Port UHF RFID Tag-Based Sensor Fig.7.15: Picture of the prototyped solar powered
report on Self- Powered Multi-Port UHF RFID Tag-Based Sensor Fig.7.15: Picture of the prototyped solar powered

Fig.7.15: Picture of the prototyped solar powered RFID tag-based sensor.

The same system (Tagformance) that was used in the previous tag measurements is utilized here to evaluate the performance of the solar powered tag-based sensor. The reading ranges for the reference and sensor ports are measured with and without being connected to the solar energy source. First, the reading range of the RFID chip is measured without the external solar power source. Next, it is measured with two different external power sources connected, one at time: a small battery and the solar panel overlay. The measured reading range results for the reference port are presented in Fig.7.16. The maximum reading range without any additional energy source is obtained at 932 MHz (11.2 m), while with a small battery the maximum reading range is 25.6 m at 932 MHz (with an EIRP of 3.28 W). When the solar panel is used to power up the RFID chip under typical indoor office illumination conditions, a maximum reading range of 21.5 is achieved at 937 MHz (with an EIRP from 932 MHz to 937 MHz). These measurements were repeated with a resistive thermal sensor, i.e., a Thermistor NTCE100E3221JB0, connected in parallel with the RFID chip as shown in Fig.7.15. The measured results of the maximum reading range are presented in Fig.7.17. The reading range of the sensor port without an additional energy source is 2.4 m at 928 MHz. When the small battery and solar panel are used to power up the RFID chip, the reading ranges are 5.4 m at 928 MHz and 4.6 m at 934 MHz, respectively. It can be clearly observed that the effective reading range of the tag is almost doubled when an additional energy source is used to power up the RFID chip

additional energy source is used to power up the RFID chip Vidya Academy Of Science And
additional energy source is used to power up the RFID chip Vidya Academy Of Science And

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report on Self- Powered Multi-Port UHF RFID Tag-Based Sensor Fig.7.14: Measured required minimum power for the
report on Self- Powered Multi-Port UHF RFID Tag-Based Sensor Fig.7.14: Measured required minimum power for the

Fig.7.14: Measured required minimum power for the monopole tag antenna described in [29] placed to the top of a box containing plastic and metallic items.

to the top of a box containing plastic and metallic items. Fig.7.16: Maximum reading range of

Fig.7.16: Maximum reading range of the reference port with and without external energy sources.

the reference port with and without external energy sources. Vidya Academy Of Science And Technology-Technical Campus,
the reference port with and without external energy sources. Vidya Academy Of Science And Technology-Technical Campus,

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report on Self- Powered Multi-Port UHF RFID Tag-Based Sensor Fig.7.17: Maximum reading range of the sensor
report on Self- Powered Multi-Port UHF RFID Tag-Based Sensor Fig.7.17: Maximum reading range of the sensor

Fig.7.17: Maximum reading range of the sensor port with and without external energy sources.

7.2.CONCLUSION

The reading range of the proposed sensors can be extended by improving the power sensitivity of both the reference and the sensor ports. RFID tags do not contain any power sources instead they harvest the power required to operate the IC from the RF signal transmitted from the reader. So a solar system is connected to the reader inorder to increase the reading range

to the reader inorder to increase the reading range Vidya Academy Of Science And Technology-Technical Campus,
to the reader inorder to increase the reading range Vidya Academy Of Science And Technology-Technical Campus,

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report on Self- Powered Multi-Port UHF RFID Tag-Based Sensor CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSION The design and experimental

CHAPTER 8

CONCLUSION

The design and experimental evaluation of RFID tag-based sensors operating at UHF band were presented. The proposed sensor was designed to cover North America operation frequency band (902-928 MHz). Multiple RFID chips with operating frequencies from 840 MHz to 960 MHz and input impedances of 8.2 − j61Ω at 915 MHz (North American band), were incorporated with the patch antenna. To achieve maximum power transfer between the chip and the antenna, unique matching mechanisms were implemented in the antenna layout. Utilizing these matching networks (inset feed and inductive loop), the patch antenna was conjugate matched to multiple RFID chips operating at an operation band of 902928 MHz. To augment the sensing capability, resistive sensors were integrated in the same tags. The proposed tag-based sensor was fabricated and experimentally evaluated using a commercial measurement system. The measured front to back ratio is 9.8 dB at operation frequencies of 915 MHz, reducing the background tag materials’ sensitivity. Thus, the proposed tag sensor is more immune to the loading effects of consumer products compared to RFID sensors based on wire antennas. The power sensitivity of the proposed sensor was also tested, and the preliminary calibrated curves of the differential power up levels were obtained by measuring the differential power between the sensor and the reference ports. The maximum power ratio achieved by the proposed sensor is more than 23 dB at 0.45 m from the reader. To improve the reading range of the proposed sensor, a dual-port solar powered tag was fabricated and experimentally evaluated. The reading range was increased by two times compared to a similar prototype without solar energy harvesting. The measured results demonstrate that multi-port single tag antennas can reliably provide identification and sensing ability by monitoring the transmitted power of the reader. Thus, the proposed multi-port patch antennas equipped with resistive sensors are capable of serving as low-cost remote sensors for various applications including supply chain operations and the transportation of sensitive items.

chain operations and the transportation of sensitive items. Vidya Academy Of Science And Technology-Technical Campus,
chain operations and the transportation of sensitive items. Vidya Academy Of Science And Technology-Technical Campus,

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report on Self- Powered Multi-Port UHF RFID Tag-Based Sensor REFERENCES [1] A.E.Abdulhadi, Member, IEEE, and Tayeb

REFERENCES

[1] A.E.Abdulhadi, Member, IEEE, and Tayeb A. Denidni , Senier Member, “ Self-powered Multi-Port UHF RFID Tag-based-Sensor” IEEE Journal of Radio Frequency Identification Vol.1, Issue: 2, June 2017 2469-7281.

[2] ] A. E. Abdulhadi and R. Abhari, “Multiport UHF RFID-tag antenna for enhanced energy harvesting of self-powered wireless sensors,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 801808, 2016.

[3] S. Kim, Y. Kawahara, A. Georgiadis, A. Collado, and M. M. Tentzeris, “Low-cost inkjet- printed fully passive RFID tags for calibration-free capacitive/haptic sensor applications,” IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 31353145, 2015

[4] A. E. Abdulhadi, S. Mandev, and R. Abhari, “Signal int egrity and EMI evaluations of

an RFID-sensor tag for internet-of-things applications,”in 2015 IEEE Symposium on

Electromagnetic Compatibility and Signal Integrity, 2015, pp. 128132.

[5] J. Gao, J. Siden, H. Nilsson, and M. Gulliksson, “Printed humidity sensor with memory functionality for passive RFID tags,” IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 1824–1834,

2013

[6] Z. Jiang and F. Yang, “Reconfigurable RFID tag antenna for wireless temperature monitoring,” in Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation, 2012 [7] J. Gao, J. Sidn and H.-E. Nilsson, “Printed temperature sensors for passive RFID tags,” in Proc. 27th Conf. PIERS, pp. 845849, 2010. [8] R. Bhattacharyya, C. Floerkemeier, and S. Sarma, “RFID tag antenna based temperature sensing,” in IEEE International Conference on RFID, 2010, pp. 8–15. [9]L.Catarinucci,R.Colella ,and L.Tarricone,“ A cost-effective UHF RFID tag for transmission of generic sensor data in wireless sensor networks,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 12911296, 2009. [10] G. Marrocco, “The art of UHF RFID antenna design: impedance matching and size- reduction techniques,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 66–79,

2008.

Propagation Magazine, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 66– 79, 2008. Vidya Academy Of Science And Technology-Technical
Propagation Magazine, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 66– 79, 2008. Vidya Academy Of Science And Technology-Technical