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Sri Caitanya is the Ultimate Preceptor.

(`caitanyasa sarvacaryasyavirbhave na gurvantaram'
Bhaktivinode Thakur in Tattva sutras).

a) Description of the Age of Kali.

In the forteenth chapter of the last canto of the `Paramahamsa

Samhita' portion of the Vayu Purana, named `Sri Gauranga Candra
Udaya', Lord Brahma prays to the Supreme Lord Sri Hari thus:
"In the age of Kali, people are spontaneously attracted to sinful
activities and are devoid of the regulations of the scriptures. The so-
called `twice-born' are degraded by their low-class activities and those
who are born in low-class families are always hostile to brahminical
culture. The twice-born are low-class by quality and do business by
selling mantras. These so-called learned men are absorbed in their
intestines and genitals and their only identification is the thread they
wear. Indulging in overeating, absorbed in bodily consciousness, lazy,
intellectually dull and greedy for others properties, they are consistantly
against God-consciousness. Due to being overly inclined towards false
paths without essence, they manufacture their own processes for self-
realisation. Neglecting their actual duties they are expert in
blaspheming You (the Supreme Personality of Godhead) and the saintly
persons; hence again Mother Earth is in tears due to this burden.
Therefore, Oh Lord of the Universe, destroyer of the miseries of the
destitute, please mercifully do what is befitting for the protection of the
Earth and the living entities."

"The very day and moment the Personality of Godhead, Lord Sri Krsna,
left this earth, the personality of Kali, who promotes all kinds of
irreligious activities, came into this world." (S.B. 1:18:6)

"O learned one, in this iron age of Kali men have but short lives. They
are quarrelsome, lazy, misguided, unlucky and, above all, always
disturbed." (S.B.1:1:10)

Foreseeing the incompetencies of the people in this age of Kali or the

iron age of quarrel, great sages and saintly people throughout the ages
have sort to benefit the general mass of people by revealing to them

the knowledge contained in the scriptures, whereby they may attain
relief from the inflictions of this most degraded and dangerous of all

Elaborate description of the anomolies of Kali-yuga and the plight of

the living entities is given in the Srimad Bhagavatam. Therein it is
described how as the sun rose and after taking his morning ablutions in
the waters of the Sarasvati, Vyasadeva sat alone to concentrate.
"The great sage Vyasadeva saw anomilies in the duties of the
millennium. This happens on the earth in different ages, due to unseen
forces in the course of time. The great sage, who was fully equipped in
knowledge, could see, through his transcendental vision, the
deterioration of everything material, due to the influence of the age. He
could also see that the faithless people in general would be reduced in
duration of life and would be impatient due to lack of goodness. Thus
he contemplated for the welfare of men in all statuses and orders of
life." (S.B. 1:4:16-18).

In the purport to these verses Srila Prabhupada describes Kali-yuga in

this way. "The unmanifested forces of time are so powerful that they
can reduce all matter to oblivion in due course. In Kali-yuga, the last
millennium of a round of four millenniums, the power of all material
objects deteriorates by the influence of time. In this age the material
body of the people in general is reduced, and so is the memory. The
action of matter has also not so much incentive. The land does not
produce food grains in the same proportions as it did in other ages. The
cow does not give as much milk as it did formerly. The production of
vegetables and fruits is less than before. As such, all living beings, both
men and animals, do not have sumptuous, nourishing food. Due to
want of so many necessities of life, naturally the duration of life is
reduced, the memory is short, intelligence is meager, mutual dealings
are full of hypocricy and so on.

The great sage Vyasadeva could see this by his transcendental vision.
As an astrologer can see the future fate of a man, or an astronomer can
foretell the solar and lunar eclipses, those liberated souls who can see
through the scriptures can foretell the future of mankind. They can see
this due to their sharp vision of spiritual attainment.

And all such transcendentalists, who are naturally devotees of the

Lord, are always eager to render welfare service to the people in
general. They are the real friends of the people in general, not the so-
called public leaders who are unable to see what is going to happen five
minutes ahead. In this age the people in general as well as their so-

called leaders are all unlucky fellows, faithless in spiritual knowledge
and influenced by the age of Kali. They are always disturbed by various
diseases. For example, in the present age there are so many TB
patients and TB hospitals, but formerly this was not so because the
time was not so unfavourable."

Elsewhere in the Srimad Bhagavatam Srila Prabhupada further reveals

the degredation of human society. "In the Kali-yuga the population is
just a royal edition of the animals. They have nothing to do with
spiritual knowledge or godly religious life. They are so blind that they
cannot see anything beyond the jurisdiction of the subtle mind,
intelligence or ego, but they are very much proud of their advancement
in knowledge, science and material prosperity. They can risk their lives
to become a dog or hog just after leaving the present body, for they
have completely lost sight of the ultimate aim of life." (S.B.1:3:43).

The people of the world in this age of Kali are always full of anxieties.
Everyone is diseased with some kind of ailment. From the very faces of
the people of this age, one can find out the index of the mind. Everyone
feels the absence of his relative who is away from home. The particular
symptom of the age of Kali is that no family is now blessed to live
together. To earn a livelihood, the father lives at a place far away from
the son, or the wife lives far away from the husband and so on. There
are sufferings from internal diseases, separation from those near and
dear, and anxieties for maintaining the status quo. These are but some
important factors which make the people of this age always unhappy.

With the progress of the age of Kali, four things particularly, namely the
duration of life, mercy, the power of recollection, and moral or religious
principles will gradually dimminish. Since Dharma, or the principles of
religion, would be lost in the proportion of three out of four, the
symbolic bull is standing on one leg only. When three fourths of the
whole world become irreligious, the situation is converted into hell for
the animals. In the age of Kali, godless civilizations will create so many
so-called religious societies in which the Personality of Godhead will be
directly or indirectly defied. And thus faithless societies of men will
make the world uninhabitable for the saner section of people.

Beef is forbidden in the scriptures, and the bull and cows are offerred
special protection by the followers of the Vedas. But in this age of Kali,
people will exploit the body of the bull and the cow as they like, and
thus they will invite sufferings of various types.

The people of this age will not perform any sacrifice. The mleccha

population will care very little for performances of sacrifices, although
performance of sacrifice is essential for persons who are materially
engaged in sense enjoyment. The mlecchas, however, make plans to
install slaughterhouses for killing bulls and cows along with other
animals, thinking that they will prosper by increasing the number of
factories and live on animal food without caring for performance of
sacrifices and production of grains.

In this age of Kali, the women and the children, along with the
brahmanas and cows, will be grossly neglected and left unprotected. In
this age illicit connection with women will render many women and
children uncared for. Circumstantially, the women will try to become
independent of the protection of men, and marriage will be performed
as a matter of formal agreement between man and woman. In most
cases the children will not be taken care of properly. The brahmanas are
traditionally intelligent men, and thus they will be able to pick up
modern education to the topmost rank, but as far as moral and religious
principles are concerned, they shall be the most fallen. Education and
bad character go ill together, but such things will run parallel. The
administrative heads as a class will condemn the tenets of Vedic
wisdom and will prefer to conduct a so-called secular state, and the so-
called educated brahmanas will be purchased by such unscrupulous
administrators. Even a philosopher and writer of many books on
religious principles may also accept an exalted post in a government
which denies all the moral codes of the sastras. The brahmanas are
specifically restricted from accepting such service. But in this age they
will not only accept service, but they will do so even if it is of the
meanest quality. These are some of the symptoms of the Kali age which
are harmful to the general welfare of human society.

In this age, people are indulging in the necessities of life, eating,

sleeping, defending and mating, without following the rules and
regulations, and this deterioration of social and moral rules is certainly
lamentable because of the harmful effects of such beastly behavior. In
this age, the fathers and the guardians are not happy with the behavior
of their wards. They should know that so many innocent children are
victims of bad association awarded by the influence of this age of Kali.
In this age of Kali the poor innocent students are daily victims of
cinemas which attract men only for sex indulgence.

Nowadays, men without proper training by culture and tradition are

promoted to exalted posts by the votes of the people who are
themselves fallen in the rules and regulations of life. How can such
people select a proper man when they are themselves fallen in the

standard of life? Therefore, by the influence of the age of Kali,
everywhere, politically, socially or religiously, everything is topsy-turvy,
and therefore for the sane man it is most regrettable. (S.B.1:16:19-22).

In the twelth canto of the Srimad Bhagavatam Srila Sukadeva Goswami

relates how after the thorough degredation of the brahminical and
administrative classes these and other symptoms of Kali-yuga increase
to an intolerable level.

"Sukadeva Goswami said: Then, O King, religion, truthfulness,

cleanliness, tolerance, mercy, duration of life, physical strength and
memory will all diminish day by day because of the powerful influence
of the age of Kali. In Kali-yuga, wealth alone will be considered a sign of
a man's good birth, proper behavior and fine qualities. And law and
justice will be applied only on the basis of one's power. Men and women
will live together merely because of superficial attraction, and success
in business will depend on deceit. Womanliness and manliness will be
judged according to one's expertise in sex, and a man will be known as
a brahmana just by his wearing a thread. A person's spiritual position
will be ascertained merely according to external symbols, and on the
same basis people will change from one spiritual order to the next. A
person's propiety will be seriously questioned if he does not earn a
good living. And one who is very clever at juggling words will be
considered a learned scholar. A person will be judged unholy if he does
not have money, and hypocrisy will be accepted as virtue. Marriage will
be arranged simply by verbal agreement, and a person will think he is
fit to appear in public if he has merely taken a bath. A sacred place will
be taken to consist of no more than a reservoir of water located at a
distance, and beauty will be thought to depend on one's hairstyle.
Filling the belly will become the goal of life, and one who is audacious
will be accepted as truthful. He who can maintain a family will be
regarded as an expert man, and the principles of religion will be
observed only for the sake of reputation.

As the earth becomes crowded with a corrupt population, whoever

among any of the social classes shows himself to be the strongest will
gain political power. Losing their wives and properties to such
avaricious and merciless rulers, who will behave no better than ordinary
theives, the citizens will flee to the mountains and forests. Harassed by
famine and excessive taxes, people will resort to eating leaves, roots,
flesh, wild honey, fruits, flowers and seeds. Struck by drought, they will
become completely ruined. The citizens will suffer greatly from cold,
wind, heat, rain and snow. They will be further tormented by quarrels,
hunger, thirst, disease and severe anxiety. The maximum duration of

life for human beings in Kali-yuga will become fifty years.
By the time the age of Kali ends, the bodies of all creatures will be
greatly reduced in size, and the religious principles of followers of
varnasrama will be ruined. The path of the Vedas will be completely
forgotten in human society, and so-called religion will be mostly
atheistic. The kings will mostly be theives, the occupations of men will
be stealing, lying and needless violence, and all the social classes will
be reduced to the lowest level of sudras. Cows will be like goats,
spiritual hermitages will be no different from mundane houses, and
family ties will extend no further than the immediate bonds of
marriage. Most plants and herbs will be tiny, and all trees will appear
like dwarf sami trees. Clouds will be full of lightning, homes will be
devoid of piety, and all human beings will have become like asses. At
that time, the Supreme Personality of Godhead will appear on the earth.
Acting with the power of pure spiritual goodness, He will rescue eternal
religion." (S.B.12:2:1-16).

"In the age of Kali only one fourth of the religious principles remains.
That last remnant will continuously be decreased by the ever-increasing
principles of irreligion and will finally be destroyed.

In the age of Kali people tend to be greedy, ill-behaved and merciless,

and they fight one another without good reason. Unfortunate and
obsessed with material desires, the people of Kali-yuga are almost all
sudras and barbarians. When there is a predominance of cheating,
lying, sloth, sleepiness, violence, depression, lamentation,
bewilderment, fear and poverty, that age is Kali, the age of the mode of
ignorance. Because of the bad qualities of the age of Kali, human
beings will become shortsighted, unfortunate, gluttonous, lustful and
poverty-stricken. The women, becoming unchaste, will freely wander
from one man to the next. Cities will be dominated by theives, the
Vedas will be contaminated by speculative interpretations of atheists,
political leaders will virtually consume the citizens, and the so-called
priests and intellectualls will be devotees of their bellies and genitals.
The brahmacaris will fail to execute their vows and become generally
unclean, the householders will become beggars, the varnaprasthas will
live in the villages, and the sannyasis will become greedy for wealth.

Women become much smaller in size, and they will eat too much,
have more children than they can properly take care of, and lose all
shyness. They will speak harshly and will exhibit qualities of theivery,
deceit and unrestrained audacity.

Businessmen will engage in petty commerce and earn their money by

cheating. Even when there is no emergency, people will consider any
degraded occupation quite acceptable. Servants will abandon a master
who has lost his wealth, even if that master is a saintly person of
exemplary character. Masters will abandon an incapacitated servant,
even if that servant has been in the family for generations. Cows will be
abandoned or killed when they stop giving milk.

In Kali-yuga men will be wretched and controlled by women. They will

reject their fathers, brothers, other relatives and friends and will instead
associate with the sisters and brothers of their wives. Thus their
conception of friendship will be based exclusively on sexual ties.
Uncultured men will accept charity on behalf of the Lord and will earn
their livelihood by making a show of austerity and wearing a
mendicant's dress. Those who know nothing about religion will mount a
high seat and presume to speak on religious principles.

In the age of Kali, people's minds will always be agitated. They will
become emanciated by famine and taxation, my dear King, and will
always be disturbed by fear of drought. They will lack adequate
clothing, food and drink, will be unable to properly rest, have sex or
bathe themselves, and will have no ornaments to decorate their bodies.
In fact, the people of Kali-yuga will gradually come to appear like
ghostly, haunted creatures.

In Kali-yuga men will develop hatred for each other even over a few
coins. Giving up friendly relations, they will be ready to lose their own
lives and kill even their own relatives. Men will no longer protect their
elderly parents, their children or their respectable wives. Thoroughly
degraded, they will care only to satisfy their own bellies and genitals.

O King, in the age of Kali people's intelligence will be diverted by

atheism, and they will almost never offer sacrifice to the Supreme
Personality of Godhead, who is the supreme spiritual master of the
universe. Although the great personalities who control the three worlds
all bow down to the lotus feet of the Supreme Lord, the petty and
miserable human beings of this age will not do so.

Terrified, about to die, a man collapses on his bed. Although his voice
is faltering and he is hardly conscious of what he is saying, if he utters
the holy name of the Supreme Lord he can be freed from the reaction of
his fruitive work and achieve the supreme destination. But still people
in the age of Kali will not worship the Supreme Lord." (S.B.12:3:24-44).

b) Sri Krishna reveals the Supreme Secret of all Secrets.

Due to the compassionate nature of the great sages and saintly persons
after hearing of the abominable qualities of the age of Kali, they
naturally inquire as to how those born in this age can free themselves
of its inherant contamination.

Sri Krishna replied, "My dear Brahma, I will reveal to you the supreme
secret of all secrets: In this age of Kali, I will manifest as the son of Saci
to start the Sankirtan Movement."

This discussion continues wherein Sri Krishna describes His complete

incarnation as Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, revealing His associates and
the identities of His followers.

"May that Lord, who is known as the son of Srimati Sacidevi, be

transcendentally situated in the innermost core of your heart.
Resplendent with the radiance of molten gold, He has descended in the
age of Kali by His causeless mercy to bestow what no incarnation has
ever offered before: the most elevated mellow of devotional service,
the mellow of conjugal love." (C.C.Adi.3:4)

"I take shelter of Lord Sri Krsna Caitanya Mahaprabhu, who is outwardly
of a fair complexion but is inwardly Krsna Himself. In this age of Kali He
dislplays His expansions by performing congregational chanting of the
holy name of the Lord."

Lord Krsna enjoys His transcendental pastimes as long as He wishes,

and then He disappears. After disappearing, however, He thinks thus:

"For a long time I have not bestowed unalloyed loving service to Me

upon the inhabitants of the world. Without such loving attachment, the
existence of the material world is useless. Everywhere in the world
people worship Me according to scriptual injunctions. But simply by
following such regulative principles one cannot attain the loving
sentiments of the devotees in Vrajabhumi. Knowing My opulences, the
whole world looks upon Me with awe and veneration. But devotion
made feeble by such reverence does not attract Me. By performing such
regulated devotional service in awe and veneration, one may go to
Vaikuntha and attain the four kinds of liberation. These liberations are
sarsti [achieving opulences equal to those of the Lord], sarupya [having
a form the same as the Lord's], samipya [living as a personal associate
of the Lord] and salokya [living on a Vaikuntha planet]. Devotees never
accept sayujya, however, since that is oneness with Brahman.

I shall personally inaugurate the religion of the age - nama-
sankirtana, the congregational chanting of the holy name. I shall make
the world dance in ecstacy, realizing the four mellows of loving
devotional service. I shall accept the role of a devotee, and I shall teach
devotional service by practicing Myself. Unless one practices devotional
service himself, he cannot teach it to others. This conclusion is indeed
confirmed throughout the Gita and Bhagavatam.

Whenever and wherever there is a decline in religious practice, O

descendant of Bharata, and a predominant rise of irreligion - at that
time I descend Myself. To deliver the pious and to annihilate the
miscreants, as well as to reestablish the principles of religion,I Myself
appear, millennium after millennium. If I do not show the proper
principles of religion, all these worlds would fall into ruin. I would be a
cause of unwanted population and would spoil all these living beings.
Whatever actions a great man performs, common people follow. And
whatever standards he sets by exemplary acts, all the world pursues.

My plenary portions can establish the principles of religion for each

age. No one but Me, however, can bestow the kind of loving service
performed by the residents of Vraja. There may be many all-auspicious
incarnations of the Personality of Godhead, but who other than Lord Sri
Krishna can bestow love of God upon the surrendered souls?

Therefore in the company of My devotees I shall appear on the earth

and perform various colorful pastimes."

Thinking thus, the Personality of Godhead, Sri Krsna Himself,

descended at Nadia early in the age of Kali. (C.C. Adi 3:13-29).

" Adwaita Acarya is an incarnation of the Lord as a devotee. His loud

calling was the cause for Krsna's incarnation. Whenever Sri Krsna
desires to manifest His incarnation on earth, first He creates the
incarnations of His respectable predecessors. Thus respectable
personalities such as His father, mother, and spiritual master all take
birth on earth first. Madhavendra Puri, Isvara Puri, Srimati Sacimata and
Srila Jagannatha Misra all appeared with Sri Adwaita Acarya.
Adwaita Acarya having appeared, found the world devoid of devotional
service to Sri Krsna because people were all engrossed in material
affairs. Everyone was engrossed in material enjoyment, whether sinfully
or virtuously. No one was interested in the transcendental service of the
Lord, which can give total relief from the repetition of birth and death.
Seeing the activities of the world, the Acarya felt compassion and

began to ponder how he could act for the people's benefit.

"If Sri Krsna were to appear as an incarnation, He Himself could preach

devotion by His personal example. In this age of Kali there is no religion
other than the chanting of the holy name of the Lord, but how in this
age will the Lord appear as an incarnation? I shall worship Krsna in a
purified state of mind. I shall constantly petition Him in humbleness. My
name, `Adwaita', will be fitting if I am able to induce Krsna to
inaugurate the movement of the chanting of the holy name."

While he was thinking about how to propitiate Krsna by worship, the

following verse came to his mind. "Sri Krsna, who is very affectionate
toward His devotees, sells Himself to a devotee who offers merely a
tulasi leaf and a palmful of water."

Adwaita Acarya considered the meaning of the verse in this way: Not
finding any way to repay the debt He owes to one who offers Him a
tulasi leaf and water, Lord Krsna thinks, "There is no wealth in My
possession that is equal to a tulasi leaf and water." Thus the Lord
liquidates the debt by offering His own self to the devotee. Considering
this, the acarya began worshiping the Lord.

Thinking of the lotus feet of Sri Krsna, He constantly offered tulasi

buds in water from the Ganges. He appealed to Sri Krsna with loud calls
and thus made it possible for Krsna to appear.

Therefore the principal external reason for Sri Caitanya's descent is

this appeal by Adwaita Acarya. The Lord, the protector of religion,
appears by the desire of His devotee. (Exerpt from Caitanya Caritamrta
Adi 3:92-110).

Further in the Caitanya Caritamrta, Krsnadasa Kaviraja Goswami has

stressed that Lord Caitanya appeared for three principal reasons of His
own. The first purpose was to relish the position of Srimati Radharani,
who is the prime reciprocator of transcendental love of Sri Krsna. Lord
Krsna is the reservoir of transcendental loving transactions with Srimati
Radharani. The subject of those loving transactions is the Lord Himself,
and Radharani is the object. Thus the subject, the Lord, wanted to relish
the mellow in the position of the object, Radharani.
The second reason for His appearance was to understand the
transcendental mellow of Himself. Lord Krsna is all sweetness.
Radharani's attraction for Krsna is sublime, and to experience that
attraction and understand the transcendental sweetness of Himself, He

accepted the mentality of Radharani.
The third reason that Lord Caitanya appeared was to enjoy the bliss
tasted by Radharani. The Lord thought that undoubtably Radharani
enjoyed His company and He enjoyed the company of Radharani, but
the exchange of transcendental mellow between the spiritual couple
was more pleasing to Srimati Radharani than to Sri Krsna. Radharani
felt more transcendental pleasure in the company of Krsna than He
could understand without taking Her position, but for Sri Krsna to enjoy
in the position of Srimati Radharani was impossible because that
position was completely foreign to Him. Krsna is the transcendental
male, and Radharani is the transcendental female. Therefore, to know
the transcendental pleasure of loving Krsna, Lord Krsna Himself
appeared as Lord Caitanya, accepting the emotions and bodily luster of
Srimati Radharani.

Therefore Sri Krsna as Lord Caitanya appeared to fulfill His internal

confidential desires, and extenally, to preach the special significance of
chanting Hare Krsna, Hare Krsna, Krsna Krsna, Hare Hare/ Hare Rama,
Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare Hare, and to answer the call of His

"All the universe is filled with the conception of My majesty, but love
weakened by that state of majesty does not satisfy Me. If one regards
Me as the Supreme Lord and himself as a subordinate, I do not become
subservient to his love, nor can it control Me. In whatever
transcendental mellow My devotee worships Me, I reciprocate with him.
That is My natural behavior.
In whatever way My devotees surrender unto Me, I reward him
accordingly. Everyone follows My path in all respects, O son of Prtha.
If one cherishes pure loving devotion to Me, thinking of Me as his son,
his friend or his beloved, regarding himself as great and considering Me
his equal or inferior, I become subordinate to him. Devotional service
rendered to Me by the living beings revives their eternal life.
O My dear damsels of Vraja, your affection for Me is your good
fortune, for it is the only means by which you have obtained My favor.
Mother sometimes binds Me as her son. She nourishes and protects
Me, thinking Me utterly helpless. My friends climb on My shoulders in
pure friendship, saying, `What kind of big man are You? You and I are
equal.' If My beloved consort reproaches Me in a sulky mood, that steals
My mind from the reverent hymns of the Vedas.
Taking these pure devotees with Me, I shall descend and sport in
various wonderful ways, unknown even in Vaikuntha. I shall broadcast
such pastimes by which even I am amazed. The influence of yogamaya
will inspire the gopis with the sentiment that I am their paramour.

Neither the gopis nor I shall notice this, for our minds will always be
entranced by one another's beauty and qualities. Pure attachment will
unite us even at the expense of moral and religious duties [dharma].
Destiny will sometimes bring us together and sometimes separate us. I
shall taste the essence of all these rasas, and in this way I shall favor all
the devotees. Then, by hearing about the pure residents of Vraja,
devotees will worship Me on the path of spontaneous love, abandoning
all rituals of religiosity and fruitive activity.(C.C. Adi 4:17-33).
It is described in various places in the sastras that Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu was a covered incarnation. His direct identity is not found
very easily. However, His identity is revealed by the activity He

" In Kali-yuga human society is infested with hypocricy and

superficiality. There is a strong tendency toward imitation and fraud in
this age. Therefore the incarnation of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is
revealed in Vedic literature in a confidential, discrete way, so that it will
be known to the authorized persons who can then propagate the
mission of the Lord on the earth. We actually see in this modern age
that many foolish and ordinary persons claim to be God or incarnations,
avataras, etc. There are many cheap philosophies and acadamies that
promise, for a moderate fee, to make one God in a short time. In
America one famous religious group promises its followers that they will
all become the Supreme Lord in heaven. Such bogus preaching goes on
in the name of Christianity. Thus, were Caitanya Mahaprabhu's name
widely spoken of in Vedic literature, there would soon be a veritable
plague of imitation Caitanya Mahaprabhus infesting the world.
Therefore, to prevent this pandemonium, discretion is exercised in the
Vedic literatures in Kali-yuga, and in a sober, concealed way the actual
followers of Vedic culture are informed through the Vedic mantras of the
descent of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. This discrete system, selected by
the Lord Himself for His appearance in Kali-yuga, is proving to be
greatly successful on the earth planet. And throughout the world
millions of people are chanting the holy names of Krsna without the
unbearable harassment of hundreds and thousands of imitation
Caitanya Mahaprabhus." (Extract from Srila Hridayananda dasa
Goswami's purport to S.B. 11:5:35)

harer nama harer nama

harer namaiva kevalam
kalau nasty eva nasty eva
nasty eva gatir anyatha

"In this age of Kali there is no alternative, there is no alternative, there

is no alternative for spiritual progress other than the holy name, the
holy name, the holy name of the Lord."

In this age, when everything is polluted by the contamination of Kali, it

is instructed in the scriptures and preached by Lord Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu that by chanting the holy name of the Lord, we can at
once be free from contamination and gradually rise to the status of
transcendence and go back to Godhead. The offenseless chanter of the
holy name of the Lord is as auspicious as the Lord Himself, and the
movement of pure devotees of the Lord all over the world can at once
change the troublesome face of the world. Only by the propogation of
the chanting of the holy name of the Lord can we be immune from all
effects of the age of Kali. (S.B.:1:16:32-33 Purport)

c) Sri Caitanya instructs the Founders of the Four


After Lord Buddha decried the authority of the Vedas by preaching His
non-violent philosophy of non-vedic atheism, Sri Sankara drove
Buddhism away by preaching his philosophy of Mayavada, which is
simply Vedic atheism. Then the Supreme Lord, Sri Gaurahari, in His
unmanifest pastimes, instucted the four great acaryas of the four
sampradayas, paving the way perfectly by explaining different aspects
on the conclusion of Vedanta Sutra, defeating the mayavada and other
atheistic philosophies. Thus the ground was made ready for the
Supreme Lord of Sankirtan to descend.
On the full moon day of the month of Phalgun, the ultimate
incarnation of the Supreme Absolute Truth, Sri Hari, appeared in
Mayapur as Nimai, the son of Mother Sacidevi; (pratisarga portion of
the Bhavisya Purana by Srila Vyasadeva and Navadwip Mahatmya by
Srila Bhaktivinode Thakur).


"Then, in the beginning of Kali-yuga, the Lord will appear as Lord

Buddha, the son of Anjana, in the province of Gaya, just for the purpose
of deluding those who are envious of the faithful theist." (S.B. 1:3:24)

Srila Prabhupada gives a detailed description of Lord Buddha and the

cause of His appearance in his purport to this verse.
"Lord Buddha, a powerful incarnation of the Personality of Godhead,
appeared in the province of Gaya (Bihar) as the son of Anjana, and he

preached his own conception of nonviolence and deprecated even the
animal sacrifices sanctioned in the Vedas. At the time when Lord
Buddha appeared, the people in general were atheistic and preferred
animal flesh to anything else. On the plea of Vedic sacrifices, every
place was practically turned into a slaughterhouse, and animal killing
was indulged in unrestrictedly. Lord Buddha preached nonviolence,
taking pity on the poor animals. He preached that he did not believe in
the tenets of the Vedas and stressed the adverse psychological effects
incurred by animal-killing. Less intelligent men of the age of Kali, who
had no faith in God,followed his principle, and for the time being they
were trained in moral discipline and nonviolence, the preliminary steps
on the path of God realization. He deluded the atheists because such
atheists who followed his principles did not believe in God, but they
kept their faith in Lord Buddha, who himself was the incarnation of God.
Thus the faithless people were made to believe in God in the form of
Lord Buddha. That was the mercy of Lord Buddha: he made the
faithless faithful to him.
Killing of animals before the advent of Lord Buddha was the most
prominent feature of the society. People claimed that these were Vedic
sacrifices. When the Vedas are not accepted through the authoritative
disciplic succession, the casual readers of the Vedas are misled by the
flowery language of that system of knowledge. In the Bhagavad-gita a
comment has been made on such foolish scholars (avipascitah). The
foolish scholars of Vedic literature who do not care to recieve the
transcendental message through the transcendental realized sources of
disciplic succession are sure to be bewildered. To them, the ritualistic
cerimonies are considered to be all in all. They have no debth of
knowledge. According to the Bhagavad-gita (15:15), vedais ca sarvair
aham eva veyah: the whole system of the Vedas is to lead one
gradually to the path of the Supreme Lord. The whole theme of the
Vedic literature is to know the Supreme Lord, the individual soul, the
cosmic situation and the relation between all these items. When the
relation is known, the relative function begins, and as a result of such a
function the ultimate goal of life or going back to Godhead takes place
in the easiest manner. Unfortunately, unauthorized scholars of the
Vedas become captivated by the purifactory ceremonies only, and
natural progress is thereby checked.
To such bewildered persons of atheistic propensity, Lord Buddha is the
emblem of theism. He therfore first of all wanted to check the habit of
animal killing. The animal-killers are dangerous elements on the path
going back to Godhead. There are two types of animal-killers. The soul
is also sometimes called the `animal' or the living being. Therefore,
both the slaughter of animals and those who have lost their identity of
soul are animal-killers.

Maharaja Pariksit said that only the animal-killer cannot relish the
transcendental message of the Supreme Lord. Therefore if people are to
be educated on the path of Godhead, they must be taught first and
foremost to stop the process of animal-killing as above mentioned. It is
nonsensical to say that animal-killing has
nothing to do with spiritual realization. By this dangerous theory
many so-called sannyasis have sprung up by the grace of Kali-yuga who
preach animal-killing under the garb of the Vedas. The animal sacrifice
as stated in the Vedas is different from the unrestricted animal-killing in
the slaughterhouse. Because the asuras or so-called scholars of Vedic
literatures put forward the evidence of animal-killing in the Vedas, Lord
Buddha superficially denied the authority of the Vedas. This rejection of
the Vedas by Lord Buddha was adopted in order to save people from
the vice of animal-killing as well as to save the poor animals from the
slaughtering process of their big brothers who clamor for universal
brotherhood, peace, justice and equity. There is no justice when there is
animal-killing. Lord Buddha wanted to stop it completely, and therefore
his cult of ahimsa was propagated not only in India but also outside the
Technically Lord Buddha's philosophy is called atheistic because there
is no acceptance of the Supreme Lord and because that system of
philosophy denied the authority of the Vedas. But that is an act of
camouflage by the Lord. Lord Buddha is the incarnation of the Godhead.
As such, he is the original propounder of Vedic knowledge. He therefore
cannot reject Vedic philosophy. But he rejected it outwardly because the
sura-dvisa, or the demons who are always envious of the devotees of
Godhead, try to support cow-killing or animal-killing from the pages of
the Vedas, and this is now being done by the modernized sannyasis.
Lord Buddha had to reject the authority of the Vedas altogether. This is
simply technical, and had it not been so he would not have been so
accepted as the incarnation of Godhead. Nor would he have been
worshiped in the transcendental songs of the poet Jayadeva, who is a
Vaisnava acarya. Lord Buddha preached the preliminary principles of
the Vedas in a manner suitable for the time being to establish the
authority of the Vedas. Therefore both Lord Buddha and Acarya Sankara
paved the path of theism, and Vaisnava acaryas, specifically Lord Sri
Caitanya Mahaprabhu, led the people on the path towards a relization
of going back to Godhead.
We are glad that people are taking interest in the nonviolent
movement of Lord Buddha. But will they take the matter very seriously
and close the animal slaughterhouses altogether? If not, there is no
meaning to the ahimsa cult."


After Lord Buddha had successfully diverted the general mass of

people away from the Vedas, Sankaracarya appeared to propagate a
clouded form of Buddhism to attract the people back to the Vedas,
leaving aside its real import. This was also the desire of the Supreme
Personality of Godhead. Sankaracarya is an incarnation of Lord Siva and
he had to imagine some kind of misleading interpretation, and therefore
he presented a kind of Vedic literature that is full of atheism. It is stated
in the Padma Purana, and quoted in the Caitanya Caritamrta (Madhya-
lila Ch.6:181-182), that Lord Siva was requested by the Lord to appear
as a brahmana to deviate the human race from Him.
"Addressing Lord Siva, the Supreme Personality of Godhead said,
'Please make the general populace averse to Me by imagining your own
interpretation of the Vedas. Also, cover Me in such a way that people
will take more interest in advancing material civilization just to
propagate a population bereft of spiritual knowledge.'
"Lord Siva informed the goddess Durga, the superintendent of the
material world, 'In the age of Kali, I take the form of a brahmana and
explain the Vedas through false scriptures in an atheistic way, similar to
Buddhist philosophy.'"

The Supreme Personality of Godhead, the Absolute Truth, is not like a

material object that can be known by experimental knowledge or sense
perception. In the Narada-Pancaratra this fact has been explained by
Narayana Himself to Lord Siva. But Sankaracarya, the incarnation of
Siva, under the order of his master, had to mislead the monists, who
favor ultimate extinction. In the conditioned stage of existence, all
living entities have four basic defects, of which one is the cheating
propensity. Sankaracarya has carried this cheating propensity to the
extreme to mislead the monists.
Sankaracarya, by the order of the Supreme Personality of Godhead,
compromised between atheism and theism in order to cheat the
atheists and bring them to theism, and to do so he gave up the direct
method of Vedic knowledge and tried to present a meaning which is
indirect. It was with this purpose that he wrote his Sariraka-bhasya
commentary on the Vedanta-sutra.
"The Mayavada philosophy," Lord Siva informed his wife Parvati, "is
impious [asac-chastra]. My dear Parvati, in the form of a brahmana in
Kali-yuga I teach this imagined Mayavada philosophy. In order to cheat
the atheists, I describe the Supreme Personality of Godhead to be
without form and without qualities. Similarly, in explaining Vedanta I
describe the same Mayavada philosophy in order to mislead the entire
population toward atheism by denying the personal form of the Lord."

(Padma Purana)
Although Sankaracarya was attempting to cover the Supreme Lord by
his Mayavadi philosophy, he was simply following the order of the
Supreme Lord. Therefore, it should be understood that his teachings
were a timely necessity but not a permanent fact.


Both Jiva Goswami in his Bhagavata Sandarbha and Krsnadasa Kaviraja

in his caitanya Caritamrta look to Sripad Visnuswami for inspiration to
establish the essential difference between God and the individual souls
and quote from his Sarvajnasukta, his commentary on Vedanta.

Visnuswami is the founder acarya of the Rudra sampradaya and is the

oldest of the four recognized sampradayas. It is even said that
Visnuswami was born in the Dravida country after the completion of the
sacrifice of Janamejaya around the beginnining of Kali-yuga.

Although most scholars are only able to find scanty and conflicting
information on Sripad Visnuswami, Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati
Thakura gives us a authoritive biographical account of Visnuswami
which we accept to be authoritive..

There were three Acaryas bearing the name of Visnuswami in the Rudra
sampradaya. The first is called Adi Visnuswami who is said to have been
born about the third century B.C. in the Pandyan country. Visnuswami's
father Devesvara was the royal priest and minister. Devatanu, as he
was known before he took the sannyasa name of Visnuswami, was
trained by his father in a vigorous theistic eduacation, to fight
Buddhism. The Pandyan king exerted all his influence to crush
Buddhism in particular and other non-vaisnava sects in general. King
Pandyovijaya and his minister, Devesvara, went to Puri and recovered
the Deities of Jagannatha, Balarama and Subhadra, which had been
turned into the Buddhist Dharma by Buddha and Samgha by the
Buddhists. King Padyovijaya and Devesvara removed the deities from
the main temple to sundaracala about two miles away by cart. This is
said to be the origin of the Rathayatra of Jagannatha. Now the
ceremony of conveying the Deities from the temple to the car is named
Pahandi or Panduvijaya. The word Panda is applied to the priests of
Jagannatha and is said to be derived from the "Pandya". The Deities
were again brought back to the temple after Buddhism had been
supressed to some extent.

Visnuswami was the first to adopt tridandi sannyasa which he brought
into practice among his seven hundred sannyasa disciples. It was he
who introduce the Astottara satanami sannyasa (108 designations of
sannyasis) includinf the dasanami which was adopted by sankara in his
sect. It was not sankara who originated it as some scholars think.
Vyasesvara was the last in the line of Sannyasis, after whom the line
became almost extinct, until it was revived by Raja Gopal who also
assumed the name of Visnuswami in the beginning of the 9th century.
His main follower was Bilvamangala.

Raja Gopala Visnuswami revived the old Visnuswami line and began the
active propaganda with renewed vigour and enthusiasm. He installed
the Varadaraja temple in Kanci, Ranchorlal in Dwaraka and many other
Deities in different places of pilgrimage. He converted many of
Sankara's prominant disciples after Sankara's death.

After the disappearance of the second Visnuswami a great feud took

place between his community and that of Saiva sivaswami who regards
Rudra as an independant God while the former holds Rudra as Guru and
the intimate associate of Visnu. The Saiva opposed it vigorously and
people failing to appreciate the subtle point of theism in the
Suddhadvaita system of Visnuswami, became inclined to Saivite
monism, which soon became embraced by the population in general.
The Saivaite community taking advantage of the situation, tried to
misappropriate Visnuswami's Sarvajnasukta and modified it to a great
extent to suit their system.

The third revival came under Andhra Visnuswami in the 13th century
whose successors included Laksmana Bhatta, the father of
Vallabhacarya. This Visnuswami is said to have been the son of a
minister of a Dravidian prince under the Emperor of Delhi.

Visnuswami's philosophy is visuddhadvaita. Brahman as Visnu,

Narasimha, non-dual and having no second. Brahman has all
contradictory qualities. The soul is part of Brahman like spiritual sparks,
real, eternal, atomic and dependent. Creation has no motive, it is like a
cosmic game and it directly emanates from Brhman. The cause of
bondage is one's attachement to karma. The process of release is
devotion based on Bhagavata. The goal of life is to attain uninterupted
contact with Krsna, Vaikuntha salokya where there is no return.


Sri Nimbarka Acarya comes in the line of the Kumara Smpradaya and is
believed to have lived around the 11th and 12th centuries. Born in the
modern Murgarapattam in the southern Dravidian province, he was the
son of Aruni and Jayanti, a very pious brahmana couple of the Tailanga

He was a great ascetic of the Tridandi order. He wrote many books

according to the Dvaitadvaitavada and he lived most of his devotional
life at a place called Nimbagrama near Govardhana at Vrindavana.

While at Nimbagrama, he defeated a great Jain pandit in a discussion.

The Jain had refused to dine with him saying that the Sun had already
set and so he would not take any food. At this, Nimbarka by his own
potency made the sun appear from a Nimba tree and the astonished
Jain accepted his hospitality. It is said that his name Nimbarka or
Nimbaditya has been derived from this miracle of Aditya or Arka
meaning sun from a nimba tree.

Once in a village near the forest of Bilva Paksha, a group of brahmanas

came to engage in the worship of Lord Siva. Just as Lord Visnu is very
much pleased when He is offered the leaves of His most beloved Tulasi,
so Lord Siva is pleased by offerings of leaves from the bilva or bael tree.
Thus the brahmanas worshipped Lord Siva by offering bilva leaves, for
a period of one fortnight and satisfied Lord Siva greatly.

Amongst those brahmanas was one whose name was Nimbarka. He had
been particularly attentive in his worship of Lord Siva. Being especially
pleased with Nimbarka's devotion, Lord Siva personally appeared to

"Nimbarka," said Lord Siva, "at the edge of this village is a sacred bael
forest. There, in that forest, the four Kumaras are absorbed in
meditation. By their mercy you will receive transcendental knowledge,
for they are your spiritual masters, and by rendering service unto them
you will receive all that is of value." After saying this Lord Siva

Nimbarka immediately went to that place and with great determination

he searched for the four Kumaras in every direction, until he finally
found them, shining as brilliantly as the sun. They were seated on a
very beautiful natural platform beneath a tree and they appeared like
fire blazing on an altar. They were all very young, seeming to be no
more than five years in age, but they appeared most noble in character

as they sat there naked, rapt in meditation. Nimbarka was so excited
that he cried out, "Hare Krsna!"

This sudden sound startled the four brothers, breaking their meditation.
Opening their eyes, they saw before them the blissful form of an ideal
devotee, and with great pleasure they embraced Nimbarka, one after

"Who are you," they asked, "and why have you come here? We are
certainly ready to answer all your prayers."

Nimbarka fell at the feet of the four brothers like a rod, and with great
humility he introduced himself.

With a sweet smile on his face Sanat Kumara then said, "The all-
merciful Supreme Personality of Godhead, knowing that Kali-yuga will
be extremely troublesome for the living entities, resolved to proagate
devotional service to Himself. With this goal in mind, He has
empowered four personalities with devotion and sent them into this
world to preach. Ramanuja, Madhva, and Visnuswami are three and you
are the fourth of these great souls. Laksmi accepted Ramanuja as a
disciple, Brahma accepted Madhva, Rudra accepted Visnuswami and
meeting you today we have the good fortune of being able to instruct
you. This is our intention. Previously we were engaged in meditating on
the impersonal Brahman, but by the causeless mercy of Lord Visnu, we
have been relieved of this sinful activity. Since I have realised that it is
essential to preach pure devotional service, I have composed a literary
work entitled Sanat Kumara Samhita. After taking initiation from me,
you should follow the instructions I have set forth therein."

Nimbarka was greatly enlivened at the prospect of taking initiation and

he immediately ran to take bath in the Ganges. After this he quickly
returned and prostrated himself once more before the effulgent

"O deliverers of the fallen," said Nimbarka, in all humility, "please

deliver this low-born rascal."

The four Kumaras gave him the Radha-Krsna mantra and instructed him
in the method of worshipping Radha and Krsna with the sentiments of
great love called Bhava Marga.

In that sacred bael forest Nimbarka began to worship Sri Sri Radha
Krsna according to the Sanat Kumara Samhita and he chanted the

mantra they had given him. Very soon Radha and Krsna revealed
Themselves to Nimbarka. They stood before him, spreading an
effulgence which illuminated all directions. In sweet voices They
addressed him thus: "Nimbarka, you are very fortunate, for you have
performed Sadhana in Sri Navadwipa. We both combine, and assume
one form, as the son of Sacidevi." At that moment Radha and Krsna
combined and displayed Their form of Gauranga.

Beholding this splendid vision, Nimbarka began to tremble. "Never," he

said, "Never have I ever of such aform at any time."

Lord Gauranga then said, "Keep this form, which I now show you, a
secret for the time being. Just preach about devotional service and the
pastimes of radha and Krsna, for I gain great satisfaction from this.
When I make My appearance and perform My education pastimes, you
will also appear. Taking birth in Kashmir as a great pandit, you will tour
all over India defeating all opposition. Your reputation and learning will
be celebrated everywhere and you will be known as Kesava Kashmiri.
Whilst wandering in Sri Navadwipa you will come to Sri Mayapur. Simply
by hearing your name all the great pandits of Navadwipa will flee.
Intoxicated with scholastic pride, I will take great pleasure in defeating
you. However, by the mercy of Mother Sarasvati, the goddess of
learning, you will realize My true identity. Giving up your false pride,
you will take shelter of Me and I will reward you with the supreme gift of
loving devotional service and will again despatch you to preach. Thus
you can satisfy Me by preaching the philosophy of dvaita-advaita. Keep
My identity a secret. In the future when I begin My sankirtan movement,
I will personally preach, taking the essence of your philosophy and the
philosophies of Madhva, Ramanuja and Visnuswami."

After instructing Nimbarka in this way, Lord Gauranga disappeared, and

filled with intense ecstacy, Nimbarka began to shed tears of love. After
worshipping the lotus feet of his gurus and taking their permission, he
left Sri Navadwipa to begin his preaching mission.
(extract Sri Navawipa Dham).

Nimbarka's philosophy is known as dvaitadvaita. Brahman is

Ramakanta; Purusottama. Radha Krsna is the transcendental form
served by the gopis. The qualities of Brhaman are described as having
dual nature - advaita and dvaita or Nirguna and Saguna - like serpant
and coil. The soul is atomic, individual, possessing knowledge and it is
dependent on Hari - like the sea and waves or the sun and its rays.

Creation is tghe transformation of Brahman, who is both the efficient
and material cause. The cause of bondage is contact with karma
resulting from ignorance, which is beginningless. The process of release
is through uninterupted worship (Bhagavata). The goal is realisation of
the self, in natural form, no power of creation.


Sri Ramanuja Acarya appeared around 1017 A.D in a pious brahman

family. He became the formost Acarya in the Sri Sampradaya and was
reputed to be the incarnation of Laksman, the younger brother of Lord

He was a boy of extraordinary intelligence and placed himself under the

charge of Yadavacarya, a renown Sankarite scholar. His guru was struck
with his marvellous intellect and became very uncomfortable on
account of his firm faith in Bhakti. One day while taking a massage,
Yadavacarya was explaining to ramanuja a sutra "tasya yatha
kapyasam pundarikamevamaksini" (Chandogya 1.6.7), saying that
according to Sankara, the two eyes of Pundariksa are like two lotuses
which are red like the nates of a monkey. On hearing this interpretation
with the unbecoming and low simile, Ramanuja's soft heart, tender by
nature and softened by devotion, melted and as he was massaging,
tears rolled down from the corners of his eyes like flames of fire and fell
on the thigh of Yadava. Looking up at the touch of the hot tears, Yadava
understood that something troubled his disciple. Ramanuja explained
his dismay at hearing such an unbecoming explaination from his guru.
He thought it sinful to compare with the posterior of a monkey the eyes
of the Supreme Personality of Godhead - who is endowed with all
gracious qualities and who is the repository of all the beauty of the
universe. Yadava was angry at the boys audacity and told him to
explain the verse if he could. Ramanuja analysed the word kapyasam to
mean `blossomed by the sun' and the verse to mean "The eyes of that
Golden Purusa are as lovely as lotuses blossomed by the rays of the

After a few more such incidents when Ramanuja corrected his guru,
Yadavacarya thought him to be a threat to the Sankarite line and
plotted to kill him. Later it came to pass that Yadavacarya was to
become the disciple of Ramanuja.

Yamunacarya the formost exponant of Vaisnava philosophy of the time,

knowing of his extraordinary ability and purity, called for Ramanuja with

the intent of placing him in charge of the mission after his
disappearance. Ramanuja was on his way to see Yamunacarya when he
received the news of Yamunacaryas departure from the world. Arriving
at Srirangam, Ramanuja went to have his last darshan of that great
soul. There he noticed three of Yamunacarya's fingers were clenched.
Ramanuja then made three vows:- he would make the people surrender
to God and initiate them by the pancasamskara.- he would write a
commentary on the Vedantasutra which was later called Sri Bhashya.-
He would also write what is like an encyclopedia on the Puranas and
would name one greatly learned Vaisnava after Parasara Muni who
wrote the gem among the Puranas, the Visnu Purana.

Later Ramanuja took sannyasa and travelled throughout India

vigorously defeating atheists and impersonalists by preaching the
Vasistadvaita doctrine. He never failed to win over a rival in spiritual

His philosophy is visistadvaita. Brhman is Narayana - (cit-acit-isvara),

Narayana with Laksmi - (transcendental form), Four Vyuha forms,
Vaibhava forms. The qualities of Brahman are both nirguna and saguna.
The soul is real, eternal, individual, not omnipresent, not independent of
Isvara but part. Isvara is the efficient cause of creation. It is from His
will out of delight. The cause of bondage is beginningless karma. The
process of release is Bhakti based on Pancaratra and Visnupurana
followed by detached karma that brings jnana - Prapatti. The goal is to
attain the same nature of Isvara and companionship with Him. He does
not return and has no power of creation, etc.

Once while Ramanuja Acarya was staying in Jagannath Puri he offered

prayers to Lord Jagannatha, who became very pleased.
Lord Jagannatha appeared before Ramanuja and said, "Ramanuja, go
and visit Sri Navadwipa, for very soon I shall appear there in the house
of Jagannatha Misra. Sri Navadwipa is My most beloved abode and is a
part of the spiritual sky manifest in this world. As my eternal servant
and a leader amongst My devotees, you should go there. Let your
students stay here, for they are absorbed in dasya rasa (servitorship in
awe and reverence) and will not understand the advanced devotional
mood, so travel there alone. Any living entity who does not go to see Sri
Navadwipa has been born uselessly. Just one portion of Sri Navadwipa
contains Ranga Ksetra, Venkatesvara and Yadava Acala. Therefore go to
Sri Navadwipa and see My form of Gauranga. After gaining the Lord's
blessing go to Kurma Sthana and rejoin your disciples."

Folding his hands, Ramanuja humbly requested Lord Jagannatha, "My

dear Lord, You have mercifully told me something about Gauranga, but
exactly who He is, I do not know?"

The Lord answered, "It is known to you that Lord Sri Krsna, the Lord of
Goloka, is the Supreme Absolute Truth. That much is well known to My
devotees. That same Supreme Personality of Godhead who resides in
Seri Vrindavana is fully manifest as Gauranga, and His beloved abode,
Sri Vrindavana, is manifest as the holy land of Sri Navadwipa.
Navadwipa is the Supreme spiritual abode and it is transcendental to
the influence of the material nature. In that divine land, Lord Gauranga
eternally resides. By My mercy that holy abode has come to exist within
the universe, but it remains completely unaffected by maya. This is the
verdict of the scriptures. If anyone thinks that Sri navadwipa is only a
material location, then whatever devotion he has developed will wither
and perish. By My will, My inconceivable energy preserves this
transcendental abode within this material world. Simply by studying the
scriptures, one will not be able to understand the Absolute Truth. Only
by My mercy can My devotees understand."
Hearing these words of Lord Jagannatha, Ramanuja was filled with love.
"My dear Lord," he said, "Your pastimes are truly astounding. The
scriptures cannot fully describe Your opulences. Why is Gauranga-lila
not described in the scriptures? Upon reflection, I find some hint of
Gauranga tattva in the srutis and puranas. Now, however, all my doubts
are gone and I am ready to execute Your will. If it is Your desire, I will go
to Sri Navadwipa and from there, I will set out to preach about Lord
Gauranga throughout the three worlds, giving evidences from the
scriptures to all, converting them to the devotional service of Gauranga.
Please instruct me. You have just to give me Your order."

Lord Jagannatha replied, "Ramanuja, do not broadcast in this way. Keep

these secrets of Lord Gauranga's pastimes as they are for the present.
Only after He has concluded His pastimes will the people in
general come to understand them. Preach about me on the level of
dasya rasa as you have always done, but within your heart, worship
Lord Gauranga constantly."

Following Lord jagannatha's order, Ramanuja secretly cultivated his

attraction for Sri Navadwipa. Being very merciful, Lord Narayana led
him to Vaikunthapura and showed him His transcendental form,
worshipped by manifestations of His different energies. Ramanuja fest
himself most fortunate to see this, but, as he watched, the Lord
manifested His form as Gauranga, the son of Jagannatha Misra.
Ramanuja's mind became stunned by the brilliance of His shining
golden form. Lord Gauranga then placed His two lotus feet upon

Ramanuja's head and Ramanuja, filled with inspiration, began to offer

Ramanuja said, "I must see Your pastimes when You appear here in
Navadwipa My Lord. I shall never leave this place."

Lord Gauranga replied, "Your wish will be fulfilled, O son of Kesava.

When My Navadwipa lila is revealed you will again take your birth here."

Lord Gauranga then disappeared. Greatly satisfied by the Lord's

promise, Ramanuja returned to Kurma Sthana, where he joined his
disciples. During his life he preached devotional service to the Lord in
the mood of dasya rasa, or servitorship throughout the south of India,
whilst internally he was absorbed in meditating on the pastimes of Lord
Gauranga. By Lord Gauranga's mercy, he was born again in Sri
Navadwipa as a devotee named Ananta to assist in the Lord's pastimes.
When Lord Caitanya made His appearance in Sri Navadwipa, Ananta
Vipra was already quite old, He lived in a cottage which was situated
beneath a huge old banyan tree. There, within his humble abode, he
would worship his Deities of Laxmi-Narayana. None could describe the
pure way in which he worshipped Them.
(Extract from Sri Navadwipa dham).


Madhvacarya was born around 1238 A.D. eight miles south-east of the
modern town of Udipi, in the Karnataka State. He is reputed to be the
incarnation of Bhima, taking birth in Kali-yuga to destroy the daityas.
Others refer to him as Vayu himself and it was his life's mission to
defeat the followers of Sankaracarya.

He was born in the family of very elevated brahmanas and from his
early childhood performed many amazing pastimes, such as the killing
of a huge serpentine demon named Maniman, simply with the big toe of
his left foot.

Madhava was only eight years old when he received spiritual initiation
and at the age of twelve he accepted the sannyasa order and began to
travel the length and breadth of India.

He enjoyed a long life of robust health. He engaged in various forms of

sport and physical exercise in his youth, such as wrestling, swimming
and even mountaineering, which he kept up to the very end. He had
very handsome features with a strong muscular frame, tall and strong-

limbed with graceful carriage and dignified bearing. Endowed with a
magnetic personality and traditional thirty-two laksanas, he had a deep
sonorous voice and good musical talent, which he used to advantage in
Vedic recitation and in singing the soulful strains of his own devotional
compositions and in giving open air discources on the Bhagavata
Purana, with its rolling melody of verses.

His life, as discribed in the Madhavavijaya, is the narrative of a born

leader of men. Madhava recognized the soul of man to be potenially
divine; but man, in the ignorance of his true status, has lost his soul to
his body and its cravings, and needs to be awakened by God himself or
His devotees.

He became a student under Acyutapreksa, who came in the order of

Ekanti-Vaisnavas of the Ekadandi order. Madhva entered the sannyasa
order and was given the name Purnaprajna.

During his study of the sastras he became convinced about the inherent
weakness in the Advaita philosophy and developed a keen desire to
revive the theistic science of Vedas with his own thorough
reinterpretation of the texts.

After only a short time in his studies, frequent disagreements of veiws

arose between himself and his teacher. Acyutaprajna could see that
Purnaprajna was destined to make history for himself and made him
head of the Math. On that memorable occasion Purnaprajna was given
another name "Anandatirtha" and later adopted the name Madhva.

Madhvacarya spent some time teaching and engaging outstanding

scholars belonging to Buddhist, Jain and Advaita Sampradayas, in
logical and philosophical discussions and vanquishing them in debates.
He set out to propagate his teachings and travelled extensively
throughout South India. He visited Kanyakumari, Ramesvaram and
Srirangam holding discources on the Brahmasutras and openly
criticizing Sankaracaryas Bhasyas on the Sutras. Giving his own
interpretations he soundly defeated all he encountered and naturally
roused a good deal of opposition from the leaders of the old schools of
thought. At Kanyakumari he met with stiff opposition from an Advaitic
monk of great learning who challenged him to write a fresh
commentary on the Brahmasutras before he ventured to criticize the
time honored one of Sankaracarya. Madhva assured him that he would
be doing so, in good time. At Srirangam he came in contact with the
followers of the Ramanuja school and after exchanging veiws with
them, noted his own points of agreement and difference with them. This

South Indian tour gave him great resolve to set out on his first tour of
the north.

Madhvacarya was anxious to go to Badarikasrama and receive personal

inspiration from a visit to the asrama of Vyasadeva. After staying forty-
eight days at Badarinath, fasting, praying, meditating and dedicating
his Gita-Bhasya to the Lord, Madhvacarya was inspired to go to the
hermitage of Vyasa. He went there all alone and after gaining the
personal darshan of Vyasadeva himself and learning from him, returned
after some months, glowing with divine inspiration and wrote his
Bhasya on the Brahma-Sutras.

Journeying through Bihar, Bengal, Orissa, Andhrapradesa, Maharashtra

and Karnataka, he returned to Udipi. On his way back from
Badarikasrama, Madhvacarya challenged many eminent scholars of the
day. Prominent among these were two outstanding scholars, Swami
Sastrin and Sobhana Bhatta, known as masters of the six systems of
philosophy. Madhvacarya soundly defeated these two who subsequently
became his disciples known as Narahari Tirtha and Padmanabha Tirtha

Madhvacarya's fame and prestige had grown considerably and his

commentaries on the Gita and Brahmasutras had made their mark and
were widely recognized and respected. In his Math in Udipi he
introduced strict codes of conduct for his followers, introduced the
system of Pistapasuyagas (offerings made from flowers), in place of
actual animal sacrifices in yajnas and imposed the rigorous observance
of fasts on Ekadasi. To foster a sense of fellowship among his disciples
he installed a beautiful deity of Lord Krsna.

"Once, as Madhva was travelling in the association of his disciples he

arrived in Sri Navadwipa and decided to spend some days within the
forests of Modradumadvipa.

One night, as Madhva lay sleeping, Lord Gauranga appeared to him in a

dream. The Lord told Madhava, "It is well known to everyone that you
are My eternal servitor. When I appear here in Navadwipa, I will accept
your sampradaya. Travel everywhere and carefully uproot all the false
scriptures of the mayavadis and reveal the glories of worshipping the
personal form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Later, when I
appear, I will personally broadcast your pure teachings." The Lord then

When Madhva awoke, he was astonished and as he remembered the

Lord he began to cry in separation, saying, "Will I ever see that
beautiful golden form again?" A celestial voice from the sky replied,
"Worship Me secretly and you will come to Me."

Carrying these instructions within his heart, Madhva continued his

travels more determined than ever to defeat the mayavadi
(Extract from Sri Navadwipa Dham).

During a meeting between King Jayasimha, the Ruler of Kumbla and

Madhvacarya, a historic disputation developed with the Ruler's Court
Pandit, Trivikrama Pandit, who was the foremost authority on Advaita-
vedanta. Trivikrama engaged Madhvacarya in a vigorous debate for
fifteen days, at the temple of Kudil and was defeated by the Acarya. He
sought to become a disciple of Madhvacarya and was readily admitted.
He was then commissioned to write a commentary on the Brahma-
Sutra Bhasya, and named it Tattva-pradipa.

An interesting incident took place during his second trip to North India.
With the country under tight control of the Persian invaders, travelling
became very hazardous. With Madhvacarya's knowledge of Persian, his
courage and tact in handling difficult situations and his ability to rise to
equal occasions with dignity and complete self-possession, he was able
to escape from potentially dangerous encounters. One such episode
took place with his meeting with Sultan Jalal-uddin-Khilji. Political
hostilities were on at the time. Madhvacarya and his party were forced
to swim across the Ganges to the other side. They were halted on
reaching the shore and were taken to the Ruler who called upon
Madhva to explain his conduct in disobeying orders and crossing the
river when hostilities were on. Madhvacarya spoke to the Ruler in his
own language, convincing him on the importance of his mission in the
cause of Theism.

After completing many commentaries and original erudite works,

establishing prominant Maths and sending out well-chosen veterans to
preach and propagate his siddhanta all over the country, while seated
during a shower of flowers, Madhvacarya disappeared from vision and
transferred himself to Badarikasrama. There he still remains.

His philosophy is dvaita. Brahman is Hari or Visnu definable to an

extent by the Vedas. He has a transcendental form, Vyuhas,
Incarnations are His parts and Laksmi is distinct. The qualities of
Brahman are it is fully independent, the cause of all causes, supreme
bliss, devoid of false attributes but possesses all qualities. The soul is

atomic, it pervades the body by intelligence, infinite in number, Karta
and Bhokta. Creation is the actuation of what is in the womb of matter
and soul by the action of brahman. The cause of bondage is the divine
will of the Supreme and ignorace of the soul (svarupa). The process of
release is through whole hearted devotion, study of the Vedas and
detached karma. The goal is to gain release from samsara and
restoration of one's own individual form. All powers except creation and
there is no return.


Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu was born in Navadwip, situated on the bank

of the holy Ganges river in Begal, in February 1486, during the eclipse
of the full moon amidst the loud chanting of the Holy Name of the Lord.
His father, Jagannatha Misra and mother Saci, were both from pious and
scholarly brahmana families originally from Sylhet. After loosing their
first eight children, all daughters, they gave birth to a son named
Visvarupa, who took sannyasa at an early age. Then Sri Caitanya
appeared from the womb of mother Saci and was given the name

Sri Caitanya showed great attachement to the Holy name from birth. He
would often cry and could not be consoled until the people around him
began to chant Hare Krsna. He was nicknamed Nimai and would was
very fond of singing and dancing. With uplifted hands He seemed to
dance in a fit of divine madness, which enraptured all and made them
dance and chant along with him.

Nimai studied under Ganga dasa Pandit, the most learned scholar in
Navadwip. Although there were many students in His school, some of
which were much older and very learned, Nimai eclipsed them all by His
extraordinary intelligence. A favorite pastime of His was challenging
students from other schools in intellectual debates on the bank of the
Ganges. He would offer His own explaination on certain Sutras and ask
others to criticize it. On their failing to find any flaw, he would Himself
point out a number of flaws and offer another explaination which he
would again criticize to re-establish his original explaination with
extraordinary skill and felicity.

He acquired mastery over the different branches of Sanskrit learning at

a very early age and became known by the name Nimai Pandit. After
the death of His father he married Laksmipriya and set up a school

where he taught grammar. He was embued with scholastic spirit and
indulged in dialectical bouts with the scholars of Nadia. In one such
bout he defeated the world conquerer (Digvijaya Pandit Kesava
Kashmiri), whom the blessings of the godess of learning Saraswati, had
made him invincible. It was later revealed to the Pandit in a dream that
the man who had vanquished him was the Lord Himself.

When Nimai was about twenty-two years old he went on a tour to

Sylhet in East Bengal. During His absence His wife Laksmipriya died of a
snake bite. Later, at the request of His mother he was remarried to

About one year after His tour of east Bengal he went to Gaya. There he
met Isvara Puri the disciple of Madhavendra Puri of the Madhva
sampradaya. He took initiation from Isvara Puri and from that moment
on He began to show spiritual ecstacy at every moment. He returned to
Navadwipa a different person. His pride of learning and aggressive spirit
were gone. He was immersed in the thought of Krsna. Tears incessantly
flowed from his eyes and at the very name of Krsna or anything
associated with Krsna sent Him into trance. It became impossible for
Him to teach his pupils. The only meaning He knew of the Sutras of
grammar which he was accustomed to teach, was that any word or
letter was Krsna. So He always discoursed on Krsna and in the midst of
the discourses laughed and wept and lost Himself in trance. His pupils
did not know what to do. One day in utter helplessness He had to tell
his pupils, "I always see a dark complexioned boy of exquisite beauty
standing before me and playing on His flute. I can only speak of Him
and Him alone. I must therefore stop teaching you from today. You are
free to go and take your lessons anywhere you like."

Saying this He closed His book and burst into tears. The pupils also
closed their books saying,"No more education for us Master! Only bless
us that we may remember life after life what we have learnt at your
lotus feet." Nimai was visibly moved. He took them one by one and
embraced them. Then He performed sankirtan with them. He stood in
the middle singing:

haraye namah krsna-yadavaya namah/

gopala govinda rama sri-madhusudana//

Keeping time with His hands, the pupils went round and round
repeating the song. As the song and the dance went on their hearts
were filled with ecstacy and tears of joy flowed from their eyes. Many
people from the neighborhood were attracted to the scene and

everyone who came as a spectator was caught in the current of
devotion and began to sing and dance. This marked the beginning of
the sankirtana movement of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, the prophesied
mission of His appearance.

Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu was soon joined by His principal associates,

Nityananda, Gadadhara, Sri Advaita and Srivasa Pandit. Many
thousands of people became influenced by the sankirtana movement.
In the courtyard of Srivasa Thakura He held nightly sankirtana with His
very close associates. There He revealed His Divine Forms to His
followers and indicated that His mission was to deliver all the fallen
souls of Kali-yuga.

The courtyard in the house of Srivasa Pandit became the regular

meeting place for the Vaisnavas but soon there was organized
sankirtana parties and processions of which thousands upon thousands
of people participated, parading through the streets of Navadwip,
singing and dancing and surcharging the whole atmosphere with this
unique spiritual fervour.

Once, a small but influencial group, proud of their learning and

maintaining an inimical attitude towards the sankirtan movement,
placed a complaint before the Chand Kazi, the Mohamedan governor of
the town. The Kazi tried to crush the movement, breaking mrdangas
and stopping the processions. But due to the overwelming influence of
the huge congregational gathering organized by Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu, in a defiant display of peaceful civil disobedience, the Kazi
not only came to his senses, but joined the movement of Mahaprabhu
and declared to the world that this movement will never be impeded.

At the age of twenty-four Nimai Pandit decided to take to the renounced

order of life. He accepted sannyasa initiation from Kesava Bharati and
received the name Sri Krsna Caitanya. Soon after He journeyed to Puri
where he converted Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya, a veteran scholar of
Nyaya and Vedanta. The Bhattacarya recognized Him to be the
Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself and became so attached to
Him that he could bear anything in the world but seperation from Him.

Sri Krsna Caitanya Mahaprabhu soon embarked on an extensive journey

through the south of India to the tip of Cape Comorin. Then He turned
northwards and after visiting many of the important temples and holy
rivers, returned to Puri.

His influence on the people of Orissa was epitimized when He captured

the heart of the Orian King, Pratparudra. Yearly the devotees from
Bengal would come to visit Him and this became and annual pilgrimage
for the Bengalis.

In the year 1514 Sri Caitanya started on a pilgimage to Vrindaban.

Travelling through Bengal, Sri Caitanya met two brothers who were
ministers in the court of the Mohamedan king Hussain Shah of Bengal.
They were known by the Mohamedan names of Saker Malik and Dabir
Khas. Won over by Sri Caitanya they became his disciples and given the
names Sanatana and Rupa. These two brothers along with their nephew
Jiva are the great pillars of faith, upon whose writings rests the
theological and philosophical foundations of the Gaudiya sampradaya.

Sri Caitanya had tried going to Vrindaban a few times before with a
large accompaniment of followers. This time however He went with only
two people and travelled through the forests in order to be unnoticed
by the masses. In Vrndaban He was always overwelmed in ecstacy and
absorbed in the mood of Radha and Krsna. He uncovered the sites of
the Divine Radha Kund and Syama Kund. Everyone He met on His
travels He induced to chant the holy name of Krsna merely by the sight
of Him.

Returning from Vrndaban he stayed at Allahabad for some time during

the Kumba Mela. Here he met a Vaidika brahmana named Vallabha
Bhatta, who is also known as Sri Vallabhacarya, the founder of the
Vaisnava sect of that name.
Here He also met Rupa and his younger brother Anupama, who had
renounced the world for His sake and come all the way from Bengal to
receive His instructions. Mahaprabhu gave them detailed instuctions on
Bhakti for ten days and sent them to Vrindaban commissioning Rupa to
devote himself to the preparation of foundational literature for the
propogation of Bhakti. Proceeding to Varanasi he met Sanatana, the
elder brother of Rupa. Sanatana had been imprisoned by the king,
because his meeting with Sri Caitanya had brought a complete change
in his state of mind, and he was not able to attend to the duties of his
ministerial office. He managed, however, to escape from prison and go
in disguise to Varanasi to surrender himself completely at the feet of his
master. Sri Caitanya gave him elaborate discourses on Bhakti and
commissioned him as well with the task of laying more secure
foundations of Vaisnavism by rediscovering the holy places in
Vrindaban, building temples and producing canonical literiture.

An important event at Varanasi was his triumph in theological

discussions over the Mayavadi Sannyasis, who followed the path of

Jnana and deprecated Bhakti as pure sentimentalism. The result was
the conversion of Prakasananda Sarasvati, the head of the Mayavadi
Sannyasis of Varanasi, along with many of his followers.

Sri Caitanya returned to Puri. For six years after taking to the sannyasa
order He travelled all over the country, broadcasting the seeds of
Bhakti. These seeds having sprouted and taken root meant He could
now leave the plants to the care of His able leiutenants, and pass the
remaining eighteen years of His life in monastic seclusion at Puri. He
settled permanently in the house of Kasi Misra and all His days were
spent in deep communion with the Lord, interupted only by the
occasional conversations with a few of His most intimate disciples.

d) Sri Caitanya, the Ultimate Preceptor, bestows Krishna Prema

- All Others and their teachings are Subservient and
Harmonised in Prema Dharma.

That which the Upanisads describe as the nondual Truth is but the
effulgence of His body and the indweller of all souls, known as
Paramatma is but His localised expansion of a plenary portion only. This
Gaurahari is the same Supreme Personality of Godhead, complete with
the six transcendental opulences. There is no truth higher than Sri
Gaurahari. Out of His causeless mercy He has descended in this age of
Kali to bestow, through His own service, that which has not been
bestowed by any other incarnation for an inconceivably long time - pure
transcendental love for Krishna.
Sri Gaurahari took two important aspects from the teachings of each
of the four sampradayas to explain, through the Dharma of the
Sankirtan movement, His ultimate panacea of acintya bhedabheda
philosophy. It is very clear that all the preceptors who preached the
various aspects of the Absolute Truth before Sri Caitanya are all
subordinate to Him and their teachings and conclusions are
incorporated, illuminated and brought to a completed state in Sri
Gaurahari's teaching of Prema Dharma.
One who chants the name `Sacinandana' in an ecstatic mood is a
truly wise man and is understood to have recieved all the conclusions
that are very dear to Gaurahari. One who sings the name of
Sacinandana verily owns Gaurahari and one who knows Him as the son
of Saci and Navadwip to be the land of Sacinandana, understands all
sastras, vedas and vedanta. He who chants Sacinandana! Sacinandana!
Sacinandana! - is qualified to be a guru and Sri Gaurahari becomes dear
to him life after life. (Sri Gaurahari's own words as quoted by Sri Jiva

Jai Sacinandana ki jaya!

"From Madhva I will take two essential teachings; his complete

rejection and defeat of the Mayavadi philosophy and his service
to the deity of Krsna accepting Him as an eternal spiritual
personality. From Ramanuja I will accept two teachings; the
concept of devotional service, unpolluted by karma and jnana,
and service to the devotees. From Visnuswami's teachings I will
accept two elements; the sentiment of exclusive dependence on
Krishna and the path of raga-marga or spontaneous devotion.
From Nimbarka, I will take two very important principles; the
necessity of taking shelter of Srimati Radharani and the high
esteem of the gopi's love for Krsna."

Sri Caitanya is the incarnation of Krsna and the founder of His

sampradaya. He is also the Guru of all the Adi-gurus of the different
orders of the four sampradayas, who, whether directly initiated by Him
or not, derive their authority from Him. His position in the Gaudiya
sampradaya is unique. He is both the worshipper and the worshipped.
He is the object (Visaya) of Bhakti as well as its subject (Asraya). The
Object (Bhagavan) becomes the subject (Bhakta) to show to the Jivas of
Kali the path of Bhakti, and, thus paves the way for their redemption.

Just as the Avatari, or the source of the Avataras, includes all other
Avataras, the Sampradaya founded by the Avatari Purusa Sri Caitanya
includes all other Sampradayas. It cannot be regarded as the branch of
any Sampradaya.

Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu's affiliation with the Madhva Sampradaya is

that of formality in veiw of the doctinal differences between them. Sri
Caitanya took initiation from Isvara Puri who was the disciple of
Madhavendra Puri coming in the Madhva line. Although there are
differences in the doctrines of Madhva and Sri Caitanya there are as
many similarities. Therefore, it is proper to describe the relation
between the Gaudiya-sampradaya and the Madhva-sampradaya as that
of identity-in-difference (bhedabheda) - identity in respect of their Guru-
parampara and difference in respect of their doctrines.

Text 35

Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu's movement especially aims at

defeating the Mayavada conclusion about the Absolute Truth. Since

the memebers of the Mayavada school cannot understand the spiritual
form of the Lord, they incorrectly think the Lord's form is also made of
material energy. They think that HE is covered by a material body just
like other living beings. Due to this offensive understanding, they
cannot recognize that Sri Krsna's personal form is transcendental, not
material. Their conclusion is a great offense at the lotus feet of the
Lord. As explained by Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, Sri Krsna has His
eternal, blissful form that is full of knowledge, and all Vaisnava acaryas
accept this. That is the proper understanding of the Absolute Truth.

C.C. MAD 9.42

tarkika-mimamsaka, yata mayavadi-gana

sankhya, patanjala, smrti, purana, agama


There are many kinds of philosophers. Some are logicians who

follow Gautama or Kanada. Some follow the mimamsa philosophy of
Jaimini. Some follow the Mayavada philosophy of Sankaracarya, and
others follow Kapila's sankhya philosophy or the mystic yoga system of
Patanjali. Some follow the smrti-sastra composed of twenty religious
scriptures, and others follow the Puranas and the tantra-sastra. In this
way there are many different types of philosophers.

C.C. MAD 9.43

nija-nija-sastrodgrahe sabai pracanda

sarva mata dusi prabhu kare khanda khanda


All of these adherents of various scriptures were ready to present

the conclusions of their respective scriptures, but Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu broke all their opinions to pieces and established His own
cult of bhakti based on the Vedas, Vedanta, the Brahma-sutra and the
philosophy of acintya-bhedabheda-tattva.


Lord Caitanya instructed the mass of people in the sankhya

philosophy of acintya-bhedabheda-tattva, which maintains that the

Supreme Lord is simultaneously one with and different from His
creation. Lord Caitanya taught this philosophy through the chanting of
the holy name of the Lord. He taught that the holy name of the Lord is
the sound incarnation of the Lord and that since he Lord is the absolute
whole, there is no difference between His holy name and His
transcendental form. Thus by chanting the holy name of the Lord one
can directly associate with the Supreme Lord by sound vibration. As
one practices this sound vibration, he passes through three stages of
development: the offensive stage, the clearing stage and the
transcendental stage. In the offensive stage one may desire all kinds of
material happiness, but in the second stage one becomes clear of all
material contamination. When one is situated on the transcendental
stage, he attains the most coveted position - the stage of loving God.
Lord Caitanya taught that this is the highest stage of perfection for
human beings.




Krishna Consciousness or Prema Dharma is compared to a lotus

flower that gradually unfolds in due course of time. At first it is manifest
in a budding stage which gradually blooms until it reaches its fully
blossomed stage.
The realisation of the Supreme Lord Sri Hari, His shadow energy and
the process of devotional service (pure love), which are the subjects of
the four seed verses of the Srimad Bhagavatam (catur sloki), were only
germinating in the hearts of aspirants at the time of Lord Brahma.
At the time of Prahlad Maharaj they developed into the form of a bud
and at the time of Srila Vyasadeva this bud gradually began to open.
Then during the periods of Nimbaka, Visnuswami, Ramanuja and
Madhvacarya this bud began forming into a flower. Through their grace
many thousands of followers in India took shelter of the lotus feet of Sri
Finally, when Gaurahari appeared in His `prakata lila', this flower
unfolded its petals and began to diffuse its sweet fragrance to the
fortunate living entities.
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu distributed this pure love of Krishna through
the transcendental chanting of:

Hare Krsna Hare Krsna, Krsna Krsna Hare Hare;

Hare Rama Hare Rama, Rama Rama Hare Hare:

which is the real essence of Bhagavat Dharma.

When the Lord desired to appear for another reason, the time for
promulgating the religion of the age also arose. Thus with two
intensions the Lord appeared with the devotees and tasted the nectar
of prema with the congregational chanting of the holy name. Thus He
spread kirtana even among the untouchables. He wove a wreath of the
holy name and prema with which He garlanded the entire material
world. In this way, assuming the sentiment of a devotee, He preached
devotional service while practicing it Himself.

krsna -varnam tvisakrsnam

yajnaih sankirtana-prayair
yajanti hi su-medhasah

"In the age of Kali, intelligent persons perform congregational chanting

to worship the incarnation of Godhead who constantly sings the names
of Krsna. His complexion is not blackish, He is Krsna Himself. He is
accompanied by His associates, servants, weapons and confidential
companions." (S.B.11:5:32).

"My dear Lord, You are the Maha-purusa, the Supreme Personality of
Godhead, and I worship Your lotus feet, which are the only eternal
object of meditation. Those feet destroy the embarrasing condition of
material life and freely award the greatest desire of the soul, the
attainment of pure love of Godhead. My dear Lord, Your lotus feet are
the shelter of all holy places and of all saintly authorities in the line of
devotional service and are honored by powerful demigods like Lord
Siva and Lord Brahma. My Lord, You are so kind that You willingly
protect all those who simply bow down to You with respect, and thus
You mercifully relieve all the distress of Your servants. In conclusion, my
Lord, Your lotus feet are actually the suitable boat for crossing over the
ocean of birth and death, and therefore even Lord Brahma and Lord
Siva seek shelter at Your lotus feet.
O Maha-purusa, I worship Your lotus feet. You gave up the association
of the goddess of fortune and all her opulence, which is most difficult to
renounce and is hankered after by even the great demigods. Being the
most faithfull follower of the path of religion, You thus left for the forest
in obedience to a brahmana's curse. Out of sheer mercifulness You
chased after the fallen conditioned souls, who are always in pursuit of

the false enjoyment of illusion, and at the same time engaged in
searching out Your own desired object, Lord Syamasundara."

"Lord Sri Krsna Caitanya is the initiator of sankirtana [congregational

chanting of the holy name of the Lord]. One who worships Him through
sankirtana is fortunate indeed. Such a person is truly intelligent,
whereas others, who have but a poor fund of knowledge, must endure a
cycle of repeated birth and death. Of all sacrificial performances, the
chanting of the Lord's holy name is the most sublime." (CC Adi 3.77-78).

Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is the father and inaugurator of the

sankirtana movement. One who worships Him by sacrificing his life,
money, intelligence and words for the sankirtana movement is
recognized by the Lord and endowed with His blessings. All others may
be said to be foolish, for of all sacrifices in which man may apply his
energy, a sacrifice made for the sankirtana movement is the most
glorious. (purport)

"O my merciful Lord Caitanya, may the nectarean Ganges waters of

Your transcendental activities flow on the surface of my desert-like
tongue. Beautifying these waters are the lotus flowers of singing,
dancing and loud chanting of Krsna's holy name, which are the pleasure
abodes of unalloyed devotees. These devotees are compared to swans,
ducks and bees. The river's flowing produces a melodious sound that
gladdens their ears." (CC Adi 2.2)

Despite crying in various conferences of art, culture, politics, sociology,

dry philosophy, poetry and so on, the desert-like tongue continues to be
parched. For this reason, people from all parts of the world must call for
the devotees of Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, who are compared to
swans swimming around the beautiful lotus feet of Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu or bees humming around His lotus feet in transcendental
pleasure, searching for honey.
Lord Caitanya's movement of Krsna consciousness is full of dancing
and singing about the pastimes of Lord Krsna. It is compared to the
pure waters of the Ganges, which are full of lotus flowers. The enjoyers
of these lotus flowers are the pure devotees, who are like bees and
swans. They chant like the flowing of the Ganges, the river of the
celestial kingdom. (purport)

"I shall personally inaugurate the religion of the age - nama-sankirtana,

the congregational chanting of the holy name. I shall make the world

dance in ecstacy, realizing the four mellows of loving devotional
service. I shall accept the role of a devotee, and I shall teach devotional
service by practicing it Myself." (CC Adi 3.19-20).
No one but the Lord Himself can teach this highest form of devotional
service. Therefore, when the Lord took the place of the incarnation of
Kali-yuga to spread the glories of chanting Hare Krsna - the system of
worship recommended in this age - He also distributed the process of
devotional service performed on the platform of transcendental
spontaneous love. To teach the highest principles of spiritual life, the
Lord Himself appeared as a devotee in the form of Lord Caitanya.

"In the Upa-puranas we hear Sri Krsna showing His mercy to

Vyasadeva by speaking to him as follows.

'O learned brahmana, sometimes I accept the renounced order of life

to induce the fallen people of the age of Kali to accept devotional
service to the Lord.'" (CC Adi 3.82-83)

Srimad-Bhagavatam, Mahabharata, the Puranas and other Vedic

literatures all give evidence to prove that Lord Sri Krsna Caitanya
Mahaprabhu is the incarnation of Krsna.

"That Govinda personally appears as Caitanya Gosani. No other Lord is

as merciful in delivering the fallen souls." (CC Adi 2.22)

gaurah sarvatma maha-puruso mahatma maha-yogi

tri-gunatitah sattva-rupo bhaktim loke kasyati.

"Lord Gaura, who is the all pervading Supersoul, the Supreme

Personality of Godhead, appears as a great saint and powerful mystic
who is above the three modes of nature and is the emblem of
transcendental activity. He disseminates the cult of devotion throughout
the world." (Caitanya Upanisad)

tam isvaranam paramam mahesvaram

tam devatanam paramam ca daivatam
patim patinam paramam parastad
vidama devam bhuvanesam idyam

"O Supreme Lord, You are the Supreme Mahesvara, the worshipable
Deity of all the demigods and the Supreme Lord of all Lords. You are the
controller of all controllers, the Personality of Godhead, the Lord of
everything worshipable." (Svet. Up.6.7)

mahan prabhur vai purusah
sattvasyaisa pravartakah
sunirmalam imam praptim
isano jyotir avyayah

"The Supreme Personality of Godhead is Mahaprabhu, who

disseminates transcendental enlightenment. Just to be in touch with
Him is to be in contact with the indestructable brahmajyoti."

yada pasyah pasyate rukma-varnam

kartaram isam purusam brahma-yonim

"One who sees that golden-colored Personality of Godhead, the

Supreme Lord, the supreme actor, who is the source of the Supreme
Brahman, is liberated." (Mundaka Upanisad)

ya eva bhagavan krsno

srstyadau sa jagan-natho
gaura asin mahesvari

The Supreme Person, Sri Krsna Himself, who is the life of Sri
Radharani, and is the Lord of the universe in creation, maintenance and
annihilation, appears as Gaura, O Mahesvari." (Ananta-samhita).


Sri Krishna Caitanya Mahaprabhu empowered His associates

and followers with particular missionary activities and
responsibilities. Accordingly, they prepared, by personal
example and preaching, and through an ocean of Gaudiya
Vaisnava literatures, an absolute foundation for the "Gaudiya
Temple of Love" (Gaudiya Prema Mandir).

Sri Caitanya empowered Sri Nityananda and Sri Adwaita Acarya to

preach the glories of the Holy Name. He empowered Sri Ramananda
Raya to expound the Rasa Tattva; Sri Swarupa Damodar Gosai to write
elaborately on the esoteric methods of Rasa Tattva along with gradual
development of the regulated process. The Lord empowered Srila Rupa
Goswami to elaborate on various subjects, specifically on the science of
Rasa Tattva and these tasks were indeed accomplished by Sri Krishna

Caitanya through the writings of Srila Rupa Goswami.

The Lord empowered Srila Ragunath dasa Goswami to explain

engagement in loving devotional service along with the gradual
development of spontaneous love, with the different levels of Rasa
Tattva, following in the footsteps of Swarupa Damodar Goswami.

Sri Caitanya empowered Srila Sanatana Goswami to write on Vaidhi

Bhakti and explain the inconceivable aspects of `prakata' and
`aprakata' lilas of Sri Krishna in Vraja. The Lord empowered Sri
Vakeswar Pandit to explain the process of regulated devotional service.
Sri Caitanya empowered Sri Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya to explain the
conclusions of His teachings according to Sambandha, Abhideya and
Prayojana. Sri Nityananda Prabhu and Srila Sanatana Goswami blessed
and empowered Srila Jiva Goswami to expound the Sambandha,
Abhideya and Prayojana and he carried out this mission in his writings,
especially through the sad-sandarbhas.

Sri Caitanya empowered Sri Prabhodananda Goswami to explain the

supremacy of the sentiment of Vraja-rasa. The Lord empowered Srila
Gopal Bhatta Goswami to write on many subjects, especially on how to
check the imitation taste of conjgal love and negligence in Vaidhi

Sri Caitanya empowered Srila Ragunatha dasa Goswami to preach the

supreme significance of the glories of Srimad Bhagavatam. Sri Caitanya
also empowered other great acaryas and their unlimited followers, who
were also transcendental poets, to perceive the Rasa Tattva through
Gaura-lila and to perceive Rasa Tattva through Krishna kirtan.
Accordingly, Sri Vrindaban dasa Thakur, Sri Narottama dasa Thakur, Sri
Locan dasa Thakur, Sri Govinda dasa Thakur and many other followers
of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu produced a vast array of literature, epics
and songs. In this way each one of these Acaryas carried out a
particular assignment inducing the flower of love of Godhead to finally
blossom, fulfilling the prediction of the Supreme Lord Sri Gaurahari - "All
over the world, in every town and village" (jaiva Dharma).

Sri Caitanya empowered Sri Nityananda and Sri Adwaita Acarya

to preach the glories of the Holy Name.

Unfortunately, these wonderful teachings of Lord Caitanya were for

some time obscured by apa-sampradayas and the good reputation of
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu's Prema Dharma had been compromised.
"Lord Caitanya, exhibiting His magnanimous pastimes, drove away from

South India all the false doctrines of the apasampradayas, or so-called
disciplic traditions of pseudodevotees, who had gained great influence
by resorting to the atheistic theories of the Buddhists and Jains. Thus
He turned all of India toward the devotional service of Lord Krsna, so
that due to the extensive preaching of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu and
His followers there remained no topic of discussion in the world other
than devotional service to the Supreme Lord. Tridandipada
Prabhodhananda Sarasvati has elaborated on this in his verse stri-
putradi-katham jahur visayinah.
Sri Narahari Sakara Thakur, in his book Krsna-bhajanamrta, has
corrected the improper statements of the gauranga-nagari-vadis, sakhi-
bheka-vadis, and others of the eleven pseudodisciplic chains that claim
to follow Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. These unauthorized persons present
cheating in the guise of religion and advertise their duplicity as katha,
or pure worship of the Lord. Just as Krsna brought about a furious
quarrel to destroy His own family, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu arranged
for the world to be flooded by varieties of Mayavada and karma-vada
philosophies just after His disappearance. He did this to destroy persons
who belonged to the eleven apasampradayas, or unauthorized disciplic
traditions, as well as the many other apasampradayas that would
appear in the future and presume to call themselves devotees of Sri
Caitanya Mahaprabhu or pretend to be descendants in His family line.
At the same time, Caitanya Mahaprabhu arranged for His own men to
be kept away from the pseudodevotion of these cheaters. The devotees
of Lord Gaurasundara, Caitanya Mahaprabhu, can discern the mysteries
of His pastimes that manifest in the pastimes of Lord Krsna. The
activities of the transcendental body of the Supreme Personality of
Godhead cannot be understood in any ordinary mundane way." (S.B.
11:1:24 purport)

a) Srila Bhaktivinode Thakur and His Vision.

Through his prolific writings, Srila Bhaktivinode Thakur, re-established

the real philosophy and practice of the Gaudiya Vaisnavas. He preached
that the teachings of Lord Caitanya were the highest form of theism
and were not intended for a particular sect, religion or nation, but were
for all the people of the world. He prophesied that Lord Caitanya's
teachings would go world-wide. Yearning for this to happen, he prayed
for a son to help him pave the way. Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati is
considered by the vaisnavas to be the answer to his prayer.

b) `sri caitanya mano'bhistam' - Rupa Goswami's Line.

It was Srila Bhaktivinode Thakur who had the vision of carrying on the
mission established by Srila Rupa Goswami, within this material world,
to fulfill the desire of Lord Caitanya.

c) The Organisation of the Gaudiya Mission.

Through this line Srila Gaurakisora dasa Babaji, by his transcendental

chanting of the Holy Names, recreated an all auspicious atmosphere on
the planet to welcome the Golden Age. He instructed Srila
Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakur to "preach the Absolute Truth keeping
aside all other works".
Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakur - the `Simha-Guru' - and
known as a strict `Rupanuga', with the veiw of spreading the teachings
of Lord Caitanya world-wide, succeeded in turning the vision of the
Gaudiyas into an established mission by forming Gaudiya Maths all over

d) ISKCON - "All Over the World" - Srila Prabhupada is the

Empowered Founder Acarya.

Srila Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada being empowered by Srila

Bhaktisiddhanta Saravati Thakur, fulfilled the purpose of the mission
taking it worldwide through his ISKCON Movement. Both in their first
meeting in 1922 and in their correspondence in 1936 Srila
Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati indicated his expectations of Srila
"I am fully confident that you can explain in English our thoughts and
arguments to the people of the world, who are not conversant with the
language of our members. This will do much good to yourself and your
In this way the flower of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu's movement was
protected by Srila Bhaktivinode Thakur from the onslaught of the mad
elephants of `apa-sampradayas'. Srila Gaurakisora das Babaji created
an auspicious atmosphere by his great chanting. Blessed by him, Srila
Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakur gave the first glimpse of the
blossoming of this flower in India while hankering for and making
arrangements through Srila Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada for the
whole world to experience the fragrance of the fully blossomed flower;
the love for Krishna through the chanting of the Holy Names:

Hare Krsna Hare Krsna Krsna Krsna Hare Hare;

Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare.

PART lll


a) Definition and Activities of a Great Founder Acarya.

The Founder Acarya is destinguished from all other acaryas and his
qualities and activites are outlined in the sastras:

`tabhyas sarvajana trata sarvasrestatamo dhruvam

dina abhaya pradanartham visadikrtya bhutale'

"Among all acaryas, certainly he who is the deliverer of all people,

who appears in this world for the purpose of removing the fears of the
fallen souls (dina-abhaya) is the most perfect."

`gitacaryokta tatvartha caramartha prakasanam

rsiproktapramananam krtva vyakhyanamuttamam'

"He sheds light on the ultimate meanining of the philosophical

conclusions spoken by Krishna, Who is the speaker of Bhagavad-gita.
He also gives perfect purports to the evidences given by the rsis."

`divyaprabandhan lokebhya sarakopadibhi paryantam

arthopadesa paryantam vardhayaitva ca sasvatah'

"He propagates everywhere the meanings and purports of the songs

of the previous acaryas."

`natharyadi gurunam ca satakopadi yoginam

ahrtya vyasa sutranam artham lokahitaya ca
sribhasyadi mahagrantham vidhaya karunarnaya
nirjitya sarvasamayan vadena sataso'subhan'

"He, the ocean of mercy, contributes great books for the welfare of
the people that explain the meaning of Vedanta strictly in line with the
previous vaisnava acaryas and devotees. In this way he conquers all,
defeating hundreds of different kinds of inauspicious philosophies by his

`ityadibhir yatisresta karye lokahite rata

nathadidesike tebhya pradhano bhavati dhruvam'

"Because of engaging in the welfare of the people of the world, that

perfect and topmost mendicant is certainly the most important Founder
Acarya, (pradhana)." ...(Prapannamrta Tarpana - 62.47-53).

b) Srila Prabhupada - Founder Acarya of the Golden Age.

The Founder Acarya has a special position for all time to come within
the organised mission. In the Vaisnava line the previous acaryas
selected and severly tested the earnestness and qualifications of their
disciples. But among the special characteristics of the Founder Acarya is
his infinite compassion. He accepts all those who come and commands
his disciples to do the same.
Harinam is the dharma of the Golden Age - `kali kaler dharma nama
sankirtana', and one who preaches that dharma all over the world is the
empowered Acarya - `krsna sakti vina nahi tara pravatana'.
Srila Prabhupada exercised the basic principle of Krishna
consciousness, as envisioned by Srila Rupa Goswami (somehow or
other), to engage everyone in the Hare Krishna movement. The extent
of his efforts are unprecidented in the history of vaisnavism. Thus he is
the Founder Acarya who has accomplished the objectives of the `visva
vaisnava rajya sabha', following in the footsteps of Srila Rupa Goswami.
In the Sri Caitanya Mangal by Locana das Thakur, Lord Caitanya
speaks of a `senapati' (great general), who will come after Him to
accomplish His mission. It is clear that Lord Caitanya's teachings were a
preparation made by Himself for the use of another preacher,
personally empowered by Him, who would launch His Sankirtana
Movement on a global scale.
Srila Bhaktivinode Thakur yearned to see the day when fortunate non-
Indian vaisnavas would perform Harinama Sankirtan in different cities
of the world (Sajjana tosani 4\3,`nityadharma suryodoy'). In this article
he announced that Mahaprabhu's prediction would shortly be fulfilled.
He foresaw that all the vaisnava sampradayas will be unified. "In a
short time, there will be only one sampradaya and that will be the
Brahma sampradaya. All other sampradayas will find there conclusions
in this sampradaya".
"All smaller dharmas will enter like rivers into the ocean of Hari Nama
and there will be only one religion - chanting the Holy Name of Krishna";
(Vani Vaibhava Ch.6).
Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakur spoke of the arising of a self-
effulgent acarya from among his disciples who would demonstrate his
prominence by preaching in a grand style. It is obvious from the
predictions of the previous acaryas mentioned above that Om
Visnupada Paramahamsa Praivrajakacarya astottara sata Sri Srimad
Abhaya Caranaravinda Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada is that self-
effulgent Founder Acarya.

The Acarya

"If one saw the personal characteristics and activities of Sri Caitanya
mahaprabhu, one would certainly be convinced that He was the
Supreme Personality of Godhead. One can ascertain this by following in
the footsteps of the sastric injunctions. This sincere study and
appreciation of Sri Caitanya mahaprabhu is also applicable to His
authorized devotees, ans it is clearly stated in the Caitanya-cariamrta
(Antya-lila 7.11):

kali-kalera dharma - krsna-nama-sankirtana

krsna-sakti vina nahe tara pravartana

In this age of Kali, real religious propaganda should induce people to

chant the Hare Krsna maha-mantra. This is possible for someone who is
especially empowered by Krsna. No one can do thiswithout being
especially favored by Krsna. Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura
comments in this regard in his Anubhasya, wherein he quotes a verse
from Narayana-samhita:

dvapariyair janair visnuh

pancaratrais tu kevalaih
kalau tu nama-matrena
pujyate bhagavan harih

"In Dvapara-yuga, devotees of Lord Visnu and Krsna rendered

devotional service according to the principles of pancaratrika. In this
age of Kali, the Supreme Personality of Godhead is worshiped simply by
the chanting of His holy names." Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati
Thakura then comments: "Without being empowered by the direct
potency of Lord Krsna to fulfill His desire and without being specifically
favored by the Lord, no human being can become the spiritual master
of the whole world. He certainly cannot succeed by mental concoction,
which is not meant for devotees or religious people. Only an
empowered personality can distribute the holy name of the Lord and
enjoin all the fallen souls to worship Krsna. By distributing the holy
name of the Lord, he cleanses the hearts of the most fallen people;
therefore he extinguishes the blazing fire of the material world. Not only
that, he broadcasts the shining brightness of Krsna's effulgence
throughout the world. Such an acarya, or spiritual master, should be
considered nondifferent from Krsna - that is, he should be considered
the incarnation of Lord Krsna's potency. Such a personality is

krsnalingita-vigraha - that is, he is always embraced by the Supreme
Personality of Godhead, Krsna. Such a person is above the
considerations of the varnasrama institution. He is guru or spiritual
master for the entire world, a devotee of the topmost platform, the
maha-bhagavata stage, and a paramahamsa-thakura, a spiritual form
only fit to be addressed as paramahamsa or thakura."

Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu said, "A first-class Vaisnava is he whose very

presence makes others chant the holy name of Krsna."

"Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura says that if an observer

immediately remembers the holy name of Krsna upon seeing a
Vaisnava, that Vaisnava should be considered a maha-bhagavata, first-
class devotee. Such a Vaisnava is always aware of his Krsna conscious
duty, and he is enlightened in self-realization.He is always in love with
the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna, and this love is without
adulteration. Because of this love, he is always awake to transcendental
realizzation. Because he knows that Krsna consciousness is the basis of
knowledge and action, he sees everything connected with Krsna. Such
a person is able to chant the holy name of Krsna perfectly. Such a
maha-bhagavata Vaisnava has the transcendental eyes to see who is
sleeping under the spell of maya, and he engages himself in awakening
sleeping conditioned beings by spreading the knowledge of Krsna
consciousness. He opens eyes that are closed by forgetfulness of Krsna.
Thus the living entity is liberated from the dullness of material energy
and is engaged fully in the service of the Lord. The madhyama-adhikari
Vaisnava can awaken others to Krsna consciousness and engage them
in duties whereby they ccan advance. It is therefore said in Caitanya-
caritamrta (Madhya-lila Ch six, verse 279):

lohake yavat sparsi hema nahi kare

tavat sparsa-mani keha cinite na pare

"One cannot understand the value of touchstone until it turns iron into

One should judge by action, not by promises. A maha-bhagavata can

turn a living entity from abominable material life to the Lord's service.
This is the test of a maha-bhagavata. Although preaching is not meant
for a maha-bhagavata, a maha-bhagavata can descend to the platform
of a madhyama-bhagavata just to convert others to Vaisnavism.
Actually a maha-bhagavata is fit to spread Krsna consciousness, but he
does not distinguish where Krsna consciousness should be spread from
where it should not. He thinks that everyone is competent to accept

Krsna consciousness if the chance is provided. A neophyte and
intermediate devotee should always be anxious to hear the maha-
bhagavata and serve him in every respect. The neophyte and
intermediate devotees can gradually rise to the platform of uttama-
adhikari and become first-class devotees. Symptoms of a first-class
devotee are given in Srimad -Bhagavatam (11.2.45).

When teaching sanatana Goswami, the Lord further said:

sastra-yuktye sunipuna, drdha-sraddha yanra

`uttama-adhikari'se taraye samsara

"If one is expert in Vedic literature and has full faith in the Supreme
Lord, then he is an uttama-adhikari, a first-class Vaisnava who can
deliver the whole world and turn everyone to Krsna consciousness."
(Cc. Madhya 22.65)

With great love and affection, the maha-bhagavata observes the

supreme Personality of Godhead, devotional service and the devotee.
He observes nothing beyond Krsna, Krsna consciousness and Krsna's
devotees. the maha-bhagavata knows that everyone is engaged in the
Lord's service in different ways. He therefore descends to the middle
platform to elevate everyone to the Krsna conscious position."
(Cc. Madhya 16.74)

"Everyone was engaged in material enjoyment, whether sinfully or

virtuously. No one was interested in the transcendental service of the
Lord, which can give total relief from the repetition of birth and death.

"Seeing the activities of the world, the Acarya felt compassion and
began to ponder how he could act for the people's benefit."

(C.C. Adi-lila Ch 3 97-98)

This sort of serious interest in the welfare of the public makes one a
bonafide acarya. An acarya is a confidential servitor of the Lord, his
heart always full of compassion for humanity in its suffering. He knows
that all suffering is due to the absence of devotional service to the Lord,
and therefore he always tries to find ways to change peoples activities,
making them favorable for the attainment of devotion. This endeavour
makes him a very dear devotee of the Lord, who says clearly in the
Bhagavad-gita that no-one in human society is dearer to Him than a
devotee who constantly engages in His service by finding ways to

preach the message of Godhead for the real benefit of the world.
(purport C.C. Adi 3.98)
"Here is an important point. Lord Caitanya wanted to invent a way to
capture the Mayavadis and others who did not take interest in the Krsna
Consciousness movement. This is the symptom of an acarya. an acarya
who comes for the service of the Lord cannot be expected to conform to
a stereotype, for he must find the ways and means by which Krsna
consciousness may be spread. Sometimes jealous persons criticize the
Krsna consciousness movement because it engages equally both boys
and girls in distributing love of Godhead. Not knowing that boys and
girls in countries like Europe and America mix very freely, these fools
and rascals criticize the boys and girls in Krsna consciousness for
intermingling. But these rascals should consider that one cannot
suddenly change a community's social customs. However, since both
the boys and girls are being trained to become preachers, those girls
are not ordinary girls but are as good as their brothers who are
preaching Krsna consciousness. Therefore, to engage both boys and
girls in fully transcendental activities is a policy intended to spread the
Krsna consciousness movement. these jealous fools who criticize the
intermingling of boys and girls will simply have to be satisfied with their
own foolishness because they cannot think of how to spread Krsna
consciousness by adopting ways and means which are favorable for this
purpose. Their stereotyped methods will never help spread Krsna
consciousness. Therefore, what we are doing is perfect by the grace of
Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu, for it is He who proposed to invent a way to
capture those who strayed from Krsna consciousness."
(purport C.C Adi 7.31-32)

yena tena prakarena manah krsne nivesayet

sarve vidhi-nisedha syur etayor eva kinkarah

Rupa Goswami.

"An acarya should devise a means by which people may somehow or

other come to Krsna consciousness. First they should become Krsna
conscious, and all the prescribed rules and regulations may later be
introduced. In our Krsna consciousness movement we follow this policy
of Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. For example, since boys and girls in
the western countries freely intermingle, special concessions regarding
their customs and habits are necessary to bring them to Krsna
consciousness. The acarya must devise a means to bring them to
devotional service. Therefore, although I am a sannyasi I sometimes
take part in getting boys and girls married, although in the history of
sannyasa no sannyasi has personally taken part in marrying his


(purport C.C Adi 7.37)

"The complete path of bhakti-yoga is based upon the process of

becoming humble and submissive.......We are propogating the Krsna
consciousness movement simply by following in the footsteps of Lord
Caitanya Mahaprabhu. We may not be very well versed in the Vedanta-
sutra codes and may not understand their meaning, but we follow in
the footsteps of the acaryas, and because of our strictly and obediently
following in the footsteps of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu, it is to be
understood that we know everything regarding Vedanta-sutra."

(ext, purport Adi 7.148)

"A pure devotee who has firm faith in the words of the Supreme
Personality of Godhead is to be considered a most learned scholar, the
topmost aristocrat and the richest man in the whole world. All godly
qualities automatically exist in such a devotee. In the preaching work of
the Krsna consciousness movement, we, as the servant of the servant
of the servant of the servant of the Supreme Personality of Godhead,
fully believe in the words of Krsna and His servants, the disciplic
succession. In this way we are presenting the words of Krsna
throughout the world. Even though we are neither a rich man nor a very
learned scholar, and even though we do not belong to any aristocracy,
this movement is still being welcomed and is very easily spreading all
over the world. Although we are very poor and have no proffessional
source of income, Krsna supplies money whenever we need it.
Whenever we need some men, Krsna supplies them. Thus it is stated in
Bhagavad-gita (6.22): yam labdhva caparam labham manyate
nadhikam tatah.
Actually, if we can attain the favor of the Supreme Personality of
Godhead, Krsna, we do not need anything else. We certainly do not
need those things which a mundane person considers to be material
(purport C.C Mad. 5.76)

Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu asked Ramananda Raya, " Out of all glorious
activities, which is the most glorious?" Ramananda Raya replied, "That
person who is reputed to be a devotee of Lord Krsna's enjoys the
utmost fame and glory."
(C.C. Mad 8.246)

"In this age of Kali, the fame of one who is known as a great devotee is

very rare. However, such a position is superior to that of the great
demigods like Brahma and Mahadeva. This is the opinion of all spiritual

"It is said that out of thousands of brahmanas, one is qualified to

perform sacrifices, and out of thousands of such qualified brahmanas
expert in sacrificial offerings, one learned brahmana may have passed
beyond all Vedic aknowledge. He is considered the best of all these
brahmanas. And yet, out of thousands of such brahmanas who have
surpassed Vedic knowledge, one person may be a visnu-bhakta, and he
is most famous. Out of many thousands of such Vaisnavas, one who is
completely fixed in the service of Lord Krsna is most famous. Indeed, a
person who is completely devoted to the service of the Lord certainly
returns home, back to Godhead."
(Garuda Purana)

"If one is true to Gaura-Nitai's service in the disciplic succession, he can

even excel Nityananda Prabhu's service. This is the process of disciplic
succession. Nityananda Prabhu delivered Jagai and Madhai, but a
servant of Nityananda Prabhu, by His grace, can deliver many
thousands of Jagai's and Madhai's. That is the special benediction of the
disciplic succesion. One who is situated in the disciplic succession can
be understood by the result of his activities. This is always true as far as
the activities of the Lord and His devotees are concerned.
By the grace of Lord Visnu, a Vaisnava can render better service than
Visnu; that is the special prerogative of a Vaisnava."
(purport C.C. Mad 16.65)
"When someone heard the chanting of the holy name from the mouth
of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, and someone else heard this chanting
from that second person, and someone again heard this chanting from
the third person, everyone in all countries became a Vaisnava through
such disciplic succession. Thus everyone chanted the holy name of
Krsna and Hari, and they danced, cried and smiled."

".........If one is a pure devotee, hundreds and thousands of men can be

purified by this vibration. When a pure devotee chants offenselessly,
another person will become a Vaisnava, and from him another Vaisnava
will emerge. This is the parampara system."
(Cc. Madhya 17.48-49)

c) "For Ten Thousand Years My Books Will Guide the World".

Srila Prabhupada is not just an acarya; not just the founder of a
society; he is the Founder Acarya of the Krihna Consciousness
Movement, which is a dynamic spiritual reality - the Yuga Dharma.
Therefore, Srila Prabhupada is to be appreciated not merely as the
acarya of a few intimate servants or even the acarya of a single
generation of disciples. Rather, as the Founder Acarya of Iskcon, he
established the standard of Krishna consciousness to be practiced by all
sincere followers for ten thousand years to come.
The scriptures predict that although the present age is continually
becoming more inauspicious, unfortunate and degraded, a `Golden
Age' of Krishna consciousness will appear for a period of ten thousand
years, following the advent of Sri Caitanya, despite the force of Kali
Srila Prabhupada should not be limited by describing him as a founder
within the drama or the one who started or only started the Iskcon. He
was empowered by Krishna to do what no other spiritual master has
ever done, or would ever do in the future - `na ca bhuto na bhavisyati
sa ca pujyo Prabhupada: He is the Founder Acarya for spreading Lord
Caitanya's sankirtan movement worldwide, for ten thousand years
within the midst of Kali.
It is important to note that Srila Prabhupada himself, repeatedly
emphasised that he was Founder Acarya. It is noted in the Lilamrta (IV-
p93), that he became deeply annoyed when an Iskcon publication
described him as "acarya of Iskcon", even though at that time there
was no question at all of the existence of another acarya.
There have been many acaryas and there will be many more after
him, but His Divine Grace Srila Prabhupada is the sole Founder Acarya
of the Golden Age, known synonymously as ISKCON.
In his discussion with historian Arnold Toynbee, in London, Srila
Prabhupada said; "I have started this Krishna Conscious Movement
among the Indians and Americans and for the next ten thousand years
it will increase. Then there will be a gloomy picture of Kali-Yuga. Ten
thousand years is not a short time. It is our duty on behalf of Krishna."
(Lilamrta Vol. V Ch. 6 p161).
Anyone who wants shelter from the evil effects of the present Godless
age may have it by taking to devotional service under the guidance of
Lord Caitanya's teachings, as given by Srila Prabhupada in his books.
The dynamic preaching and realisations of Srila Prabhupada reveal the
sublime teachings of Lord Caitanya, which otherwise have been
neglected, misused or kept secret within the confines of India. Srila
Prabhupada prepared his translations and Bhaktivedanta purports on
the essential Vaisnava scriptures - Bhagavad-gita, Srimad Bhagavatam,
Caitanya Caritamrta and Bhakti Rasamrta Sindhu - with the plan for
forming the foundation of the Krishna Consciousness Movement for the

next ten thousand years; (Books Are The Basis).
He says in the Caitanya Caritamrta; "In our Krishna Conscious
Movement we have limited our study of Vedic literatures to Bhagavad-
gita, Srimad Bhagavatam, Caitanya Caritamrta and Bhakti Rasamrta
Sindhu. These four works are sufficient for all preaching purposes. They
are adequate for understanding the philosophy and spreading the
missionary activities all over the world. That is the principle."

d) Krishna Has Taken Shelter in the Womb of ISKCON.

"Krishna has taken birth or shelter in the womb of the Krishna

Consciousness Movement!" - (SB 10.2.20).
When Srila Prabhupada met C. Rajagopal Acarya (known as Rajaji),
who was the first Governor General of `free India' and famous as a
religious politician and friend of Gandhi, in Madras, Rajaji expressed his
only doubt: "Srila Prabhupada has created such a huge institution that
now his disciples might identify with Iskcon rather than Krishna. If that
were to happen, then by identifying with Iskcon they would fall into the
same type of materialism or false identification as before."
Srila Prabhupada replied, "Because Krishna is absolute, Krishna and
Iskcon are non-different. To identify with Krishna's Iskcon was to identify
with Krishna directly. "Rajaji was satisfied; - (Lilamrta Vol. V Ch.2).

e) ISKCON - The Golden Age - Predictions Revealed in the


In the Pratisarga part of the Bhavisya Purana, Chapter 20 verses 71-

73; we find the following prediction:
"Lord Jagannath, the Supreme Lord Sri Hari Himself, spoke these
attractive words for the welfare of all: The mlecchas who are born from
mixed countries ruled by descendants of Kasyapa (demons) and the
sudras will become brahmanas by initiation. They will wear sikhas and
brahman threads and will become well versed in the uncontaminated
fruit of the Vedas (Srimad Bhagavatam). They will worship Me by the
Yajna prescribed by the Lord of Lords, the protector of Saci (Sri Caitanya
Forty-six years before the beginning of Kali-yuga, Visnucittha, one of
the twelve great Vaisnava saints of the Sri Sampradaya predicted:
"There will come a race which will tread the Earth with raised hands and
vertical tilaka on their foreheads, who will chant the names of Hari; this
will destroy the influence of Kali." (Divyaprabhanda 1:10).
Sripada Ramanuja predicted: "The pure devotion to Sri Hari devoid of
karma and jnana will grow and grow like a banyan tree covering the
whole world, teaching everyone who takes shelter." (Prapannamrta

tarpana - last chapter).
It is interesting to note in this connection how Srila Prabhupad's
Iskcon is preaching `jnana karmady anavrtam' to `jare dekho tare' in
every town and village!
Sripad Madhvacarya predicted: "The real knowledge of the difference
between jiva and Sri Hari and the service of Sri Hari will spread all over
the world very shortly." (Anu madhva vijaya - last chapter).
Srila Prabhupada roared, "I am not God! You are not God! We are all
servants of God, Krishna!"

f) Srila Prabhupad's System for the Golden Age.

"If the conditioned soul becomes Krishna conscious by the mercy of

saintly persons, who voluntarily preach scriptual injunctions and help
him become Krishna conscious, he becomes liberated from the clutches
of Maya, who voluntarily gives him up." (CC.M-20-120).
"This is the test by which one can tell whether he is advancing in
devotional service. One must be detached from material enjoyment.
Such detachment means that Maya has actually given the conditioned
soul liberation from illusory enjoyment." (SB 11.2.42 quoted in TLC).
We ordinarily understand `maya' as illusion, but the spiritual master
reveals its more confidential meaning as also `mercy'. (SB 1.13.25).
Thus Srila Prabhupada gave shelter to those who joined by
establishing -
1) SAMBANDHA - their relationship as servants of Krishna;
2) ABIDHEYA - their materially conditioned senses engaged in pure
devotional service;
3) PRAYOJANA - the resultant transformation of material
consciousness into Krishna consciousness, leading them back home
back to Godhead.
The actual essence of all the esoteric knowledge of the vast body of
Vedic literature has been rendered in a simple term by Srila Rupa
Goswami as `yukta vairagya'. Srila Prabhupad's system is strictly in
that line - `Utility is the Principle'. His books teach this as follows:
Bhagavad-gita As It Is - yukta vairagya in Upanisadic form.
Srimad Bhagavatam - yukta vairagya in Puranic and Vedantic form.
Nectar of Devotion - yukta vairagya in Pancaratric form (rules).
Caitanya Caritamrta - yukta vairagya in Final Perfection (prema).
Sri Caitanya gives paramount importance to five out of sixty-four
principles of devotional service:
a) Associating with devotees - Sadhu sanga;
b) Chanting the Holy Names - Nama kirtana;
c) Hearing Srimad Bhagavatam - Bhagavad sravana;
d) Living in a Holy Place - Mathura vasa;

e) Worshiping the Deity - Sri murtira sraddhaya sevana.
Srila Prabhhupada designed his system for Iskcon based on these
principles. In his seven purposes for Iskcon, the first two are Bhagavata
sevana; the third is sadhu sanga; the fourth is Nama kirtana; the fifth is
Sri murtira sevana; the sixth is Mathura vasa; and the seventh is to
preach these five principles to others. In organising these principles,
according to the Nectar of Devotion, Srila Prabhupada institued the
system of initiation in ISKCON. The acceptance of the Holy Name from
the spiritual master is `Bhagavata vidhi' initiation. The second initiation
is both Vedic and Pancaratric initiation: (these mantras are namatmika
mantras; the actual mantra is Hare Krishna).
Srila Prabhupad's ISKCON is the embodiment of these five principles
`in action', given out of his causeless mercy. So if one is surrendered to
the Founder Acarya, his instructions and ISKCON, he is primarily
qualified to carry on the system of guru-disciple (Parampara),
established by Srila Prabhupada, Founder Acarya of the Golden Age -