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Think of other specific hazards Nuclear accidents - uncontrolled releases of

that would fall under Geological, radioactive materials at commercial powerplants or
hydrometeorological, or man- other nuclear reactor facilities or during the
made/technological hazards. shipment of materials.

Hazardous materials events - uncontrolled

GEOLOGICAL HAZARDS releases of hazardous materials from fixed sites or
during transport.

Ice jams occur on rivers when floating Which of the hazard are present or
ice accumulates at a natural or man-made feature could happen in the local
that impedes its progress downstream. Ice jams can community and which one are less
significantly reduce the flow of a river and cause likely to happen and why?
upstream flooding—sometimes called ice dams.

A pyroclastic flow (also known as a pyroclastic Hazardous Materials Release. The improper
density current or a pyroclastic cloud) is a fast- leak, spillage, discharge, or disposal of hazardous
moving current of hot gas and volcanic matter materials or substances (such as explosives, toxic
(collectively known as tephra) that moves away chemicals, and radioactive materials) poses a
from a volcano about 100 km/h (62 mph) on average significant threat to human health and safety,
but is capable of reaching speeds up to 700 km/h campus property, and the surrounding
(430 mph) environment.
An avalanche (also called a snowslide) is a Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of
cohesive slab of snow lying upon a weaker layer of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to
snow in the snowpack that fractures and slides create terror among masses of people; or fear to
down a steep slope when triggered. achieve a religious or political aim.

A wildfire or wildland fire is a fire in an area of

HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL HAZARD combustible vegetation occurring in rural areas.[1]
Depending on the type of vegetation present, a
wildfire can also be classified more specifically as a
Drought is a temporary aberration unlike aridity,
brush fire, bushfire, desert fire, forest fire, grass
which is a permanent feature of climate. Seasonal
fire, hill fire, peat fire, vegetation fire, and veld fire
aridity (i.e. a well-defined dry season) also needs to
be distinguished from drought. A tropical cyclone is a rotating low-pressure
weather system that has organized thunderstorms
River Floods: Floods caused by precipitation over
but no fronts (a boundary separating two air
a large catchment‟s area, melting of snow or both.
masses of different densities)
Built up slowly or on a regular basis, these floods
may continue for days or weeks. The major factors Infrastructure is the network of utilities that supplies our
of these floods are moisture, vegetation cover, depth basic needs for mobility, power, water, sewer and
of snow, size of the catchment‟s basin, etc. communications.Computer failure whether accidental or
deliberate (e.g., cyber-attack) is a form of infrastructure
failure.The American Society of Civil Engineers gives the
infrastructure of the United States an overall D grade and
A tropical cyclone is a storm system
estimates it will cost $2.2 trillion to fix. The main concerns for
characterised by a large low pressure centre and
Washington State are roads, bridges and mass transit.Many
numerous thunderstorms that produce strong
problems due to poor infrastructure are individually small but
winds and flooding rain. Tropical cyclones feed on quickly add up, e.g., a vast number of small leaks causing
heat released when moist air rises, resulting in some municipal water systems to lose up to 20% of their water
condensation of water vapour contained in the during transmission.Infrastructure can be damaged during
moist air. construction e.g., a contractor breaking a water main, or fail
when new due to a design flaw, e.g., the collapse of the
MAN MADE/TECHNOLOGICAL HAZARD Tacoma Narrows Bridge in 1940. Not all infrastructure
failures are caused by aging systems and
Fires - uncontrolled burning in residential, structures.Occasionally, what is known about a threat to
commercial, industrial or other properties in rural infrastructure becomes clear only after we build it. This has
or developed areas (not forest and wildfires). occurred with many bridges built in the early 20th century
before Seattle was aware of the earthquake risk here.