0 Stimmen dafür0 Stimmen dagegen

1 Aufrufe4 Seitenrefrigeracion termoionica

Nov 28, 2018

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT oder online auf Scribd lesen

refrigeracion termoionica

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

1 Aufrufe

refrigeracion termoionica

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- Low Power Energy Harvester IC from Linear Technologies - LTC3108
- MEET310 - Refrigeration System -Research Paper
- Temperature Lab Report 09102019
- advances in high performance electronics cooling.pdf
- The Concepts of Fermi Energy
- Electrical and Gas Sensing Properties of WO3 Semiconductor Material
- z198-201
- Nasa/Tm—2007 214982
- 03-electricalresistivity theory01
- Sag Computation
- nadeem
- Thermocouple
- Advanced Chem EngThermodyn Ppt
- Current Electricity
- Tdem Importante
- Quantum Wells, Supperlattices and bandgap engineering
- phy-2
- Mercerized
- CHAPTER II Keperluan Dapus
- Jet Conductivity

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 4

G. D. Mahan and L. M. Woods

Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-1200

and Solid State Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6030

(Received 2 December 1997)

A new method of refrigeration is proposed. Efficient cooling is obtained by thermionic emission of

electrons over Schottky barriers between metals and semiconductors. Since the barriers have to be thin,

each barrier can have only a small temperature difference s,1 Kd. Macroscopic cooling is obtained

with a multilayer device. The same device is also an efficient generator of electrical power. A complete

analytic theory is provided. [S0031-9007(98)05938-9]

We provide the first detailed theoretical analysis of electric effect. The first idea is to have cooling by a single

a new method of cooling which we call multilayer barrier. For example, in a three-layer sandwich consisting

thermionic refrigeration. The same device can be used of metal-semiconductor-metal, the semiconductor is a bar-

for power generation. We show that the expected effi- rier to the flow of electrons. We explain below why this

ciency is somewhere between one and two. This value idea does not work, and one is forced to go to the multilayer

is similar to freon-based refrigeration, and twice better geometry. Then we analyze the properties of a system of

than thermoelectric refrigeration [1,2]. The need to cool N such barriers, consisting of a device of 2N 1 1 layers

microelectronics, as well as to avoid the freon-ozone which are alternately metal and semiconductors. The same

problem, has spurred the investigation of new methods of analysis also applies to periodic barriers formed from a su-

refrigeration. perlattice of multiple semiconductor quantum wells when

Recently [3] one of us proposed a new method of refrig- the current flow is perpendicular to the layers.

eration based on thermionic emission. For a device with a The reason for a multilayer device is that thermionic

vacuum gap between parallel metal electrodes, room tem- emission is the correct model only when the barrier

perature refrigeration can be obtained with a work function thickness L is less than the mean-free path of the electron

less than 0.3 eV. This value is less than the work func- l in the barrier. We wish to work in the regime where

tion for any known materials. Several groups have noted the electron can ballistically traverse the semiconductor

that such small barriers can be obtained in semiconductor barrier without scattering so that it does not diffuse.

multilayers [4–9]. In these cases, such as GaAs/AlAs, the On the other hand, if L . l, then the electron flow

barrier height can be adjusted by the alloying of Ga and Al through the semiconductor is described by the equation

in the Alx Ga12x barrier. We agree that this is viable ge- for the current due to drift and diffusion [13]. In this

ometry, although materials with low thermal conductivity quasiequilibrium case, transport of heat is described by

such as PbTe would make better superlattices [10]. We the thermoelectric equations. The heat currents in this

also note that the Schottky barriers between some metals case are smaller.

and semiconductors have barriers less than 0.1 eV [11,12]. Since the barrier thickness L is small, then the ordinary

In these cases, a device could be built which had alternate heat flow s2KdTyLd due to thermal conduction is going

layers of metals and semiconductors, where the semicon- to be big for small L unless dT is also small. Since

ductors are the barrier regions. Table I lists some typi- heat conduction lowers the efficiency, this conduction is

cal systems with small barriers which could be used for reduced by insisting that dT is also small. Each thin

multilayer thermionic refrigeration and power generation. barrier can permit only a small temperature difference.

Here we present a detailed analysis of the factors which

make thermionic cooling viable in a multilayer geometry.

TABLE I. Schottky barrier heights in eV, for various barriers

This includes multiple quantum wells, as well as other and electrodes. Fsxd denotes values which are functions of x.

periodic structures such as alternate layers of metal and The first two are metal-semiconductor superlattices, while the

semiconductors. others are semiconductor superlattices.

In thermionic emission, cooling is obtained when the

Barrier Electrode ef Ref.

thermally excited electrons escape over the barrier. Since

hot electrons are leaving, the electrode cools. In equilib- In0.7 Ga0.3 As Au 0.10 [11]

rium, electrons flow in both directions over the barrier, and InSb Au 0.10 [12]

there is no net cooling. Applying a voltage drives more Eux Pb12x Te PbTe Fsxd [10]

Sb2 Te3 Bi2 Te3 0.035 [8]

electrons in one direction, and one electrode cools while

Ge Si 0.10 [8]

the other heats up. It is a Peltier effect, but not a thermo-

VOLUME 80, NUMBER 18 PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS 4 MAY 1998

ef

, (6)

achieved by having N barriers. Hence the need for kB T

the multilayer geometry. Adequate cooling power is

available even for dTi ø 1 K. The energy current from eVJ kB dTfb 1 2g , (7)

thermionic emission is approximately given by JQ ø ∑ ∏

21Z

AT dTf exps2efykB Td. With A 120 Ayscm Kd2 , eVQ kB dT b 1 2 1 , (8)

T 260 K, dT 1 K, and f 0.05 V, the prefactor b12

of this expression is about 2 kWycm2 . The exponential e

will reduce this by about a factor of 10, but there is ample Z Z0 e b , (9)

kB R1 JR

energy current even for small temperature changes.

µ ∂2

Another requirement for thermionic emission is that ekB TR

the electrons do not tunnel through the barrier. They Z0 , (10)

R1 AskB T d2 T T

must be thermally excited over the barrier. Electron

tunneling through a square barrier of height efp and width 2p 2 h̄3

skB TR d2 . (11)

L has a probability with an exponent of 2L 2mp efyh̄ 2 . mkB R1 T

Thermionic emission has a probability with an exponent Equation (2) is the standard Richardson’s equation [13]

of efykB T. For tunneling to be less important than for the thermionic current over a work function ef which

thermionic emission, its exponent must be the largest. in this case is the Schottky barrier height between the

This gives the constraint l . L . Lt on the minimum metal and semiconductor. The factor of T denotes

thickness Lt s the fraction of electrons transmitted from the metal to

h̄ ef the semiconductor. The formulas for J and JQ assume the

Lt . (1)

2kB T mp bias edV is to lower the Fermi level on the hot side, so

that the net flow of electrons is from cold to hot. We have

These constraints are met easily. Most semiconductors introduced the dimensionless constant Z0 which plays

with low barriers have narrow energy gaps, and therefore an important role in the results. Refrigeration requires

high mobilities. Typical numbers are that Lt , 10 nm that dV . VQ . High efficiency requires that Z0 , 4.

while l , 100 nm. There is a wide range of permis- The dimensional constant TR , which is determined by

sible barrier thicknesses. Also note that the tunneling the thermal resistivity, should be less than about 500 K.

and thermionic currents have different prefactors, which For example, if L 50 nm in a material with K

slightly alter the formula Lt . However, the above for- 1.0 Wysm Kd, then R1 LyK 5 3 1028 m2 KyW and

mula is a quick and reasonable estimate. TR 440 K if m is an electron mass and T 1.

First, we solve for the currents over a single barrier. Clearly this constraint limits the values of Z0 and TR

We assume the barrier is constant when the applied which have acceptable efficiency. For larger values of

voltage is zero, but has the shape of a sawtooth with a Z0 the effective efficiency becomes too small to be

nonzero voltage dV. The formulas for the electrical sJd useful. As discussed in Refs. [14–18], the superlattice

and heat sJQ d currents are given in Ref. [3] in terms of the has a thermal resistance about 10 times larger than the

hot and cold temperatures sTh , Tc d and the applied voltage resistance of the materials in it. The scattering from

dV. We add to the heat current the thermal conduction the interfaces gives a large thermal resistance [19,20].

dTyR1 where R1 is the thermal resistance of a single This significant increase in the thermal resistance due to

barrier. We now solve these equations for the case that boundary scattering is an important aspect of getting high

the temperature difference dT Th 2 Tc is small, and efficiency from the multilayer thermionic device.

the voltage dV on a single barrier is small. We will Now consider the theory of the multilayer thermionic

show that for a single layer the optimal value of applied refrigerator. We assume N barriers, with alternate elec-

bias edV ~ dT which is also small. Denote as T the trodes. Denote dTi and dVi to be the temperature and

mean temperature of the layer, and then Tc T 2 dTy2, voltage changes across one barrier. These values change

Th T 1 dTy2. Then we expand the formulas for the substantially from the initial to the final layer. This

currents in the small quantities sdTyT , edVykB T d and get change is due to the generation and flow of heat. At each

JR AT 2 e 2efykB T , (2) barrier, the electron ballistically crosses the barrier region,

and then loses an amount of energy edVi in the electrode.

emkB2 The heat generated at each electrode must flow out of the

A T , (3) sample according to the equation

2p 2 h̄ 3

d dVi

eJR sJQi d J , (12)

J fdV 2 VJ g , (4) dx Li

kB T

where Li is the effective width of one barrier plus one

JQ JR sb 1 2d fdV 2 VQ g , (5) metal electrode. We take Li to be a constant, although it

4017

VOLUME 80, NUMBER 18 PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS 4 MAY 1998

assume that the functions change slowly with i and we can

treat them as continuous variables dT ydx and dV ydx.

These are not thermoelectric devices. However, it

is useful to examine the analogy with thermoelectric

devices. Once we linearize the equations for small

voltage drops, and then make them continuous in a

multilayer geometry, they are identical in form to the

equations of a thermoelectric. This analogy is obtained

with the relationships for the conductivity s, the Seebeck

coefficient S, and the thermal conductivity K.

eJR Li

s , (13)

kB T

kB

S sb 1 2d , (14)

e

µ ∂

kB 1

K 2 JR 1 Li , (15) FIG. 1. The efficiency h of a refrigerator, with Tc 260 K

e R1 and Th 300 K, as a function of barrier height f for several

sS 2 T sb 1 2d2 values of TR . Results are higher than for a thermoelectric

Z . (16) refrigerator which has h 0.70 when ZT 1.

K s2 1 zd

The first term in the thermal conductivity is the electronic

contribution Ke . The last line gives the dimensionless

figure of merit Z. It is known in thermoelectric devices thermoelectric module sh ø 0.7d. The present devices

that one wants to have Z to be as large as possible. have a higher efficiency. We have run many cases of

Varying b to maximize Z gives the relationship cooling with different parameters. The computer predicts

µ ∂2 that one can even cool over a temperature difference of

T

beb 4 , (17) DT 100 from room temperature. We also find that the

TR

estimate (18) is accurate to about 1%.

where T is the mean temperature in the device. We find The same equations apply to the calculation of the

this to be an accurate estimate of the optimal barrier power generator. Then the electrons flow from hot to

height f. Furthermore, the thermoelectric estimates of cold. Equations (4), (5), and (12) still apply but now

the efficiency of the refrigerator shr d and generator shg d, J and JQ are negative. We compare the efficiency of

gTc 2 Th the generator to those of thermoelectric devices with a

hr , (18) dimensionless figure of merit ZT 1. If Tc 300 K

DTsg 1 1d

and Th 400 K, the thermoelectric generator has an ef-

DTsg 2 1d ficiency of h 0.048. Two sets of results are given

hg , (19)

gTh 1 Tc for thermionic devices (“TI”) corresponding to TR

p 200 K sh 0.099d and TR 400 K sh 0.065d. The

g 11Z, (20) thermionic device with TR 200 K has twice the effi-

are remarkably accurate compared to the computer solu- ciency of a thermoelectric one for the same range of tem-

tions. In thermoelectric devices it is rare to have val- perature difference. It is interesting that increasing TR by

ues of Z to be larger than one. However, in modeling a factor of 2 has only a small change in the efficiency.

thermionic devices we find values of Z much larger than This is equivalent to a factor of 4 change in the thermal

one for reasonable values of thermal resistance. The ef- resistance. The optimal barrier height f shifts downward

ficiencies of the thermionic devices are correspondingly in value as TR is increased, and partly compensates for the

much higher than in thermoelectric devices. Ballistic change in thermal resistance.

transport carries more heat than diffusive flow. The cooling power of this device may already have

We have solved numerically Eqs. (4), (5), and (12) been demonstrated. In Ref. [8] the authors report signifi-

using the methods in Ref. [21]. Figure 1 shows the cant cooling along the c axis in a multilayer device. They

numerical results for a refrigerator with Tc 260, Th explain this behavior as due to an increased thermoelectric

300, and several values of TR . This calculation was effect, and interpret it as an increase in the Seebeck coeffi-

done for N 40, but any large value of N gives the cient. Their barrier layers are so thin that we suggest they

same result. These results should be compared to the are observing thermionic emission rather than increased

efficiencies of a freon compressor sh ø 1.4d and a thermoelectricity. For their device with superlattice

4018

VOLUME 80, NUMBER 18 PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS 4 MAY 1998

constant 200 Å we estimate R1 16 3 1028 m2 KyW [6] B. Moyzhes, in Proceedings of the 15th International

which gives TR 246 K. Conference on Thermoelectrics, 1996 (IEEE Service Cen-

We have prepared a longer manuscript [22] where these ter, Piscataway, NJ, 1996), p. 183.

ideas are discussed at greater length. [7] A. Shakouri and J. E. Bowers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1234

In summary, we announce the invention of a new (1997).

[8] R. Venkatasubramanian and T. Colpitts, in Thermoelectric

method of refrigeration and power generation based on

Materials-New Directions and Approaches, edited by

multilayer thermionic emission. We show that this device T. M. Hicks, M. G. Kanatzidis, H. B. Lyons, Jr., and G. D.

could have an efficiency which is twice that of present Mahan (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, 1997),

thermoelectric devices. The efficiency of the refrigerator Vol. 478, p. 73.

is similar to that of freon-based compressors. The present [9] A. Shakouri, E. Y. Lee, D. L. Smith, V. Narayanamurti,

devices have no moving parts, and should last forever. and J. E. Bowers, “Microscale Thermophysical Engineer-

They have no adverse environmental impacts. ing” (to be published).

We thank M. Bartkowiak and J. Sofo for helpful dis- [10] L. D. Hicks, T. C. Harman, X. Sun, and M. S. Dresselhaus,

cussions. Research support is acknowledged from the Phys. Rev. B 53, R10 493 (1996).

University of Tennessee, and from Oak Ridge National [11] K. Kajiyama, M. Mizushima, and S. Sakata, Appl. Phys.

Laboratory managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Re- Lett. 23, 458 (1973).

[12] L. Lerach and H. Albrecht, Surf. Sci. 78, 531 (1978).

search Corp. for the U.S. Department of Energy under

[13] S. M. Sze, The Physics of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley,

Contract No. DE-AC05-96OR22464. New York, 1981), 2nd ed.

[14] X. Y. Yu, G. Chen, A. Verma, and J. S. Smith, Appl. Phys.

Lett. 67, 3554 (1995).

[15] G. Chen, Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS), Dy-

namic Systems and Controls Division Vol. 59 (American

[1] G. Mahan, B. Sales, and J. Sharp, Phys. Today 50, No. 3, Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1996), p. 13.

42 (1997). [16] W. S. Capinski and H. J. Maris, Physica (Amsterdam)

[2] G. D. Mahan, Solid State Physics, edited by H. Ehrenreich 219&220B, 699 (1996).

and F. Spaepen (Academic Press, New York, 1998), [17] S. M. Lee, D. G. Cahill, and R. Venkatasubramanian,

Vol. 51, p. 81. Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2957 (1997).

[3] G. D. Mahan, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 4362 (1994). [18] P. Hyldgaard and G. D. Mahan, Phys. Rev. B 56, 10 754

[4] D. M. Rowe and G. Min, in Proceedings of the 13th (1997).

International Conference on Thermoelectrics, 1994 (AIP [19] E. T. Swartz and R. O. Pohl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2200

Press, New York, 1995), p. 339. (1987).

[5] V. N. Bogomolov, D. A. Kurduykov, A. V. Prokofiev, [20] E. T. Swartz and R. O. Pohl, Rev. Mod. Phys. 61, 605

Yu. I. Ravich, L. A. Samoilovich, and S. M. Samoilovich, (1989).

in Proceedings of the 14th International Conference [21] G. D. Mahan, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 4551 (1991).

on Thermoelectrics, 1995 (A. F. Ioffe Physical-Technical [22] G. D. Mahan, J. O. Sofo, and M. Bartkowiak, J. Appl.

Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia). Phys. (to be published).

4019

- Low Power Energy Harvester IC from Linear Technologies - LTC3108Hochgeladen vonshawnleegabriel
- MEET310 - Refrigeration System -Research PaperHochgeladen vonpipeds
- Temperature Lab Report 09102019Hochgeladen vonEthan Mudd
- advances in high performance electronics cooling.pdfHochgeladen vonRohan More
- The Concepts of Fermi EnergyHochgeladen vonKrishna Ray
- Electrical and Gas Sensing Properties of WO3 Semiconductor MaterialHochgeladen vonHaniffudin Nurdiansah
- z198-201Hochgeladen vonmiki
- Nasa/Tm—2007 214982Hochgeladen vonAethen Lee
- 03-electricalresistivity theory01Hochgeladen vonSuci Handayani
- Sag ComputationHochgeladen vondsananda
- nadeemHochgeladen vontahirabbas920
- ThermocoupleHochgeladen vonM.A. NANTHAKUMAR
- Advanced Chem EngThermodyn PptHochgeladen vonAhmed Fouad Musa
- Current ElectricityHochgeladen vonayapanc
- Tdem ImportanteHochgeladen vonRickyRiccardo
- Quantum Wells, Supperlattices and bandgap engineeringHochgeladen von4ACO
- phy-2Hochgeladen vonMalavraj Bhatt
- MercerizedHochgeladen vonvknk28
- CHAPTER II Keperluan DapusHochgeladen vonJelita Shaleha Sibarani
- Jet ConductivityHochgeladen vonshy_boy
- ResistivityFourProbe.pdfHochgeladen vonRobin Chadha
- HI216Hochgeladen vonKhiêm Nguyễn
- is.191.2007_Cu matHochgeladen vonVivek Chilamwar
- wa500-730_engHochgeladen vonSay Goodbye
- IJEART021105Hochgeladen vonerpublication
- 1.3.1-2 Current & ResistanceHochgeladen vonAriaNathan
- okoHochgeladen vonKrishnendu Talukdar
- VIVA Questions -WPCHochgeladen vonvinay
- Glossary of Physics - Wikipedia, The Free EncyclopediaHochgeladen vondidodido_67
- Gujcet 2012 Syllabus EnglishHochgeladen vonnayan159

- LIC.pdfHochgeladen vonAnonymous h1MDJ7GASt
- The European Soil Erosion Model (EUROSEM) a Dynamic Approach for Predicting Sediment Transport From Fields and Small CatchmentsHochgeladen vonioanciornei
- Performance Characteristics of SensorsHochgeladen vonlinkayess
- Encyclopedia of Research Design-Multiple RegressionHochgeladen vonscottleey
- unit plan transformationsHochgeladen vonapi-377825926
- Advanced Ps SamplesHochgeladen vonStuart Clark
- Polar Decomposition Ref.pdfHochgeladen vonNorman Girma
- lklkHochgeladen vonSarthak Gupta
- Notes-11 csHochgeladen vondeltaserrapapa
- OCT Noise RadiationHochgeladen vonSaadat Rehman
- Active learning of mathematics.pdfHochgeladen vonshaggyxl
- Iglesias Graphic on 99Hochgeladen vonErnesto D. Aguirre
- HMT UNIVERSITY QUESTIONS ME6502 R13 - Unit Wise.pdfHochgeladen vonkannanviknesh086319
- RR621 - Wave Mapping in UK WatersHochgeladen vontheboodler
- 4. Motion in Two and Three DimentionsHochgeladen vonfitri dwi hartati
- 14659.pdfHochgeladen vonJorge Luis Garcia Zuñiga
- FULL-Study of Planar Magnetic Induction Tomography Depth Detection Capability and Its Imaging Quality Evaluation .pdfHochgeladen vonRyris Silaban
- Hooke SLawHochgeladen vonDini Istiqomah
- Foundation Ch.9Hochgeladen vonAmris Tio
- Digital Signal Processing Lab ManualHochgeladen vonvasudevananish
- ZeMax ManualHochgeladen vonかざま よしひろ
- 2014 Dote Annual ReportHochgeladen vonsamlagrone
- What is JavaScriptHochgeladen vonFasc Cruz
- Very Good Examples SAS Before InterviewHochgeladen vonMrigank Tayal
- RF Propagation - 07-Okumura and Hata Macroscopic Propagation ModelsHochgeladen vonkikirn
- Outline History of MathematicsHochgeladen vonFlorie Capales-Pelin
- A Harmonic SequenceHochgeladen vonJericho PN
- LTSpice PresentationHochgeladen vonhaseeb ahmad ch.
- My stat 3.pdfHochgeladen vonKenny
- Ongc Tentative SyllabusHochgeladen vonpriyankce

## Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.

Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.

Jederzeit kündbar.