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Ezekiel S.

Dalisay Transmission & Distribution System


The 43rd IIEE national convention was held at the SMX Convention Center, Mall of Asia Complex, Pasay
City last November 14-17, 2018. The said convention includes the seminars and trainings for those
electrical engineering practitioners. It also have a convention for the students which includes the quiz bee
for bright students, which are joined by different schools and colleges. There are also exhibits of products
which the construction companies and the surveying companies may look forward to. Different countries
around the world are participating the exhibits that’s why it needed a massive space for all of their
products to be placed.

The exhibitors are explaining their products, some are doing their demo when the people are requesting
so. Just like on what we had observed the one company demo their product which is the automatic switch
where there are contacts that automatically open and close when energize or when met a certain setting.
The exhibitors are well familiar with their product that’s why you can freely interview them on how their
product works or just have an idea about it.

The exhibitors also brought with them their brochures so that if you’re interested with their products you
can drop them a call or message to have a transaction. So basically in the exhibit they’re not showing off
but they’re also kind of marketing their products to the electrical engineers that may have companies so
that they can directly get a better supplier of their materials that will be used in their firm.

The engineers can also drop their calling cards and resume if they are interested to work on the company
exhibiting the product. And as stated it is joined by international companies so some engineers are trying
their luck to land on a better job.

One more cool thing about the convention is that they are not only focused on sharing ideas that can
really benefit the practitioners but also they are giving tokens when you log on their attendance or when
you participate on their games.

And in connection to this course, transmission and distribution system there are a bunch of companies
that presented their product that can be used in transmission and distribution system in real life
There are several equipment presented by different companies that are used in electrical transmission
and distribution system and here are the following:

1. Cables and Conductors

Figure 1. Different Types and Sizes of Cable (Picture taken from the convention)

This equipment was presented by Duraflex, it is an American Wire & Cable Corporation. Some of their
products that are used in the distribution system are:

a. TW (Moisture Resistant Thermoplastic Wire) “Lead Free” – This wire can be used as interior house
wiring at circuit voltage up to 600 Volts. Suitable for the type of service where the conductor
temperature does not exceed 60C in dry or wet location. For its conductor, it is a solid or stranded
soft drawn copper conductor. And its insulation is a (PVC) Lead-free. It is a flame retardant and
resistant to moisture.
b. Bare Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced (ACSR) – This wire can be used for overhead
transmission and distribution of electric power. Its conductor is a stranded hard drawn Aluminum
Conductor Steel Reinforced (ACSR).
c. Neutral Supported Secondary and Service Drop Cable – Used as power distribution line 600 Volts
phase to phase from utility’s source to the user’s attachment point (service entrance). The
conductor is one or two insulated hard drawn All Aluminum Conductors (AAC) cabled around bare
Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced (ACSR). Black Polyethylene (PE) is resistant to acid, alkalies,
water, salts organic solvents and oxidizing compounds. Also, it is highly resistant to sunlight,
abrasion and environmental impact.
d. Durapower Cable 5001 – 8000V (XLPE) – Used for circuits rated 5001 – 8000 Volts where
installation is done in conduits, trays, troughs, underground ducts and aerial. Maximum operating
temperature is 90 C. One, two or three stranded soft drawn copper conductors build up this wire.
The individual conductor is extruded with Semi – Conductive compound for strand shielding,
Cross-Linked Polyethylene (XLPE) for primary insulation and Semi – Conductive compound and
copper tape for insulation shielding. Insulation levels are 100 % and 133% grounded and

Duraflex Co. also have what they called line products. So these products are mainly used for
transmission and distribution systems. Some of their equipment are:

a. Armor Rods – it protect against bending, compression, abrasion and arc-over normally at the
support point of the conductor. They can also be used to repair damaged conductor and will
restore full conductance and strength to ACSR conductors where up to 50% of the outer later
strands are damaged.
b. Distribution ties – these are designed and manufactured to secure conductors in the top or side
groove of conductors. They provide an improved methods of securing conductors compared to
hand ties. These ties provide superior abrasion protection including low frequency sway, high
frequency Aeolian vibration and galloping. The neoprene tube component surrounds the bare
conductor with a resilient cushion where the conductor would come into contact with the
c. ACSR Full Tension Splices – it will complete a splice that will hold the full rated breaking strength
of, and provide better conductivity than, the equal length of an unspliced ACSR conductor. Also
recommended to carry out repairs where damage to the conductor’s steel core is suspected.
d. Preformed Aluminum Repair Rods – these are designed to repair damage in midspans of
aluminum conductors. They are ideal in emergency situations. Suitable for use where the damage
does not effect more than 50% of outer strands on 7 & 19 strand conductors or 25% on 37 & 61
strand conductors.
e. Service Grip Deadends – Manufactured from aluminum covered steel, service grips are designed
for the termination of bare aluminum conductors and bare neutral messengers used in making
house service drops.
f. Guy Grip Deadends – used for the termination of steel strand guys used in the construction of
distribution lines. They are rated at 100% of the strand’s published breaking strength.
g. Distribution Grip Deadend – These are manufactured from aluminum covered steel and are
designed for terminating conductors on single pole line construction. They are designed to grip
the conductor uniformly to prevent distortion to the conductor and eliminate the need for bolts,
nuts. Washers and other components that may become lost or damaged during installation or in
h. Spiral Vibration Damper – Made from high impact UV resistant PVC, Spiral Vibration Dampers are
designed to reduce vibration of conductors.
i. Wrap Guy Link – Designed as an alternative to Guy Grip Deadends, Wrap Guy Links can be used
to terminate guy strand on a pole by wrapping the guy strand around the pole. They are
recommended for any size of pole and can be used with a single or double wrap of the guy strand.
j. Plastic Ties – are intended for attaching plastic jacketed conductors to tie top ANSI insulators.
They are suitable for use with plastic covered conductors such as Tree Wire. They are available in
standard PVC and Semi-Con.
k. Splice Shunts – are helical wire repairs designed to restore complete electrical conductivity and a
portion of the mechanical strength to compression splices that have been found to excessively
hot during thermal line inspections.

2. Power Transmission & Distribution Devices

Figure 2. Cast Resin CT, Cast Resin VT and Cut – Out Fuse Series (Retrieved from CHiNT Company Catalogue)

a. Cast Resin CT (Indoor & Outdoor Current Transformer) – application for power, current measurement
and relay protection in voltage up to 35kV AC 50/60Hz power system.

b. Cast Resin VT (Indoor & Outdoor Voltage Transformer) - application for power, current measurement
and relay protection in voltage up to 35kV AC 50/60Hz power system.
c. Cut – out Fuse Series (Fitted into HV Side Transformer) – Protection device specifically for overload and
short circuit protection.

3. Fuse Switch Disconnector

Figure 3. Fuse Switch Disconnector (Retrieved from MODOSFER catalogue)

The Fuse Switch Disconnector is a product of MOSDORFER which is based in Thailand. This Fuse Switch
Dis-connector is a protective switch for LV overhead networks. It serves and protects to disconnect a
section of the network, or consumer, and to short circuit or earth a network section in case of line
maintenance. It can also be equipped with connecting blades. For ease, the switch can be operated from
the ground using an operating rod. The Mosdorfer Fuse Switch Disconnetor comprises a fully insulated
frame made out of impact resistant, weatherproof, high quality glass fiber reinforced Polyamide. The
pivoted removable switching flap and cover hoods for the terminals complete the product. The frame
holds the conductor terminals which are connected to the fuse contacts, featuring mounting the
conductor lugs from above. The switching flap includes the fuse holders for NH type fuses, disconnecting
blades or short circuit devices. The bottom of the switching flap provides the interface to the operating
rod. The design provides a proper air flow to avoid head accumulation.


Figure 4. Caldweld Plus Module (Retrieved from CADWELD)

It is the latest advancement in the continuing evolution of ERICO’s exothermic products. Since it’s
development in 1938, CADWELD electrical connections have become recognized as the ultimate
connection for rail, cathodic, power and grounding applications. It is a simplified methods of performing
exothermically welded electrical connections. The CADWELD PLUS integrated weld metal package has
streamlined the installation process by eliminating ignition materials – reducing set up time.

The tamper proof, integrated weld metal package consists of a steel cup containing CADWELD patented
weld metal alloys and ignition source. This new weld metal package is designed for use in all standard
CADWELD molds including CADWELD MULTI. Once placed in the CADWELD mold, the weld metal is
electronically ignited using a simple battery – powered control unit with six foot lead.

The CADWELD PLUS system:

 Consists of a tamper proof, disposable, moisture – resistant weld metal cup. The weld metal, disk
and ignition source are incorporated into the self – contained package.
 Virtually unlimited shelf life
 Completes welds at distances of up to 6 ft / 1.8 meters
 Requires minimum components – no starting material, no disks, no flint igniters
 Easy to handle, store and transport
 Reduces installation time by 20%
 Has color-coded weld metal containers
 Has electronic ignition with a CE/UL battery powered controller box that is designed for 600
connections with one set of 8 standard AA batteries.

5. Capacitor & Reactor

Figure 5. Capacitor Banks (Picture taken during the exhibit)

And here are the types of capacitors for different use that SAMWHA offers.

a. Capacitor - The capacitors are designed for power factor correction and Harmonic filtration in
power network. They are all-film dielectric and impregnated with an environmentally friendly,
Non – PCB biodegradable insulating oil. In addition each capacitor is provided with an internal
discharge resistor. Capacitor benefits is to improve power factor, reduce line losses and decrease
voltage drop. Through that it helps greater Energy Efficiency.
b. Low Voltage Power Capacitor (Oil Type) – These are intended for the improvement of Power
Factor in low voltage power networks. Used advanced technology consists of metallized PP film
with extremely low loss factor and dielectric system is self – healing. The dielectric system is self
– healing and biodegradable and environmentally friendly. The capacitors have overpressure
protection to disconnect it from the supply in the event of internal failure and at the end of its
operational life.
c. Low Voltage Capacitor (Dry Type) – The dielectric system is self – heating and has no liquid
impregnant. The capacitor is enclosed in cylindrical aluminum cases. The capacitors have
overpressure protection to disconnect it from the supply in the event of internal failure and at the
end of its operational life. The construction described above the use of high quality materials
ensure reliability and longevity.

Capacitor Bank – Capacitor Bank is an economical method of reducing high reactance of high and
extra high voltage lines. And it controls the voltage level supplied by reducing or eliminating the
voltage drop and increase power transfer Power system, Capacitor bank is relatively, inexpensive and
can be easily installed with all accessories anywhere on the network.

a. Harmonic Filter Capacitor Bank – Most type of equipment in electrical systems generate
harmonics. Harmonics is not only found in industrial networks. It can spread into the
distribution system and cause problems for other customers. Each plant is unique and need
its own special technical solution to prevent it. Harmonic filter bank usually consists of a
capacitor which is connected in series with a reactor.
b. Cubicle Capacitor Bank – This is a fixed reactive compensation system for individual motor
compensation. There is a range of metal enclosed capacitor banks for a variety of medium
voltage applications.
c. Open- Rack Capacitor Bank – The Open – rack capacitor banks are primarily used to improve
the power factor in the network. Improving the power factor also means a higher power
transmission capability and increased control of the power flow. They will also improve the
voltage stability and reduce network losses. The installation of capacitors in a transmission
and distribution network.
d. Pole Mounted Capacitor – It provides voltage support, reduce system losses, improve power
factor in the distribution systems.

Capacitor Bank Protection

Figure 6. Capacitor Bank Protection (Retrieved from Samwha Catalogue)

Capacitor Bank is needed to set proper protection systems to protect capacitor bank against faults
occurring within the bank including those inside the capcitor units, and to protect capacitor bank against
system disturbances and faults. Generally, the method of detecting neutral value [voltage or current] is
selected as the protection for capacitor bank system.

NVS is the protection system using voltage unbalance signals to alarm or shut down the capcitor bank in
case of faults that may lead to significant damages. To measure the unbalance of voltage, the neutral
voltage-sensing [NVS] is used.

AC Harmonic Filter

Once Harmonic is generated in system, it moves around and affects on the connected other electricity

• Overheating and loss of transformer

• Influx of over current of capacitor and noise

• Instability of control system

• Voltage variation

• Errors on the operation of circuit breaker

Harmonic Filter

Harmonic Filter is a device which represses and absorbs the outflow of harmonics generated in the
electricity system. It consists of resistor, reactor and capacitor. Basic harmonic filter consists of lower
order [5-13th order] single shunt filter which is synchronized with the harmonic current generated in
Power system. For other higher order frequency, higher order filter shall be installed, if necessary.

Zero Sequence Filter (ZSF)

Increasing use of computer and electric home appliance, the neutral current zero sequence harmonic in
line make variety types of disturbances in system. ZSF (Zero Sequence Filter) is easy to install with
electric accessories and it can reduce this large neutral current up to 90% depending on the installed


Figure 7 Series Reactor (Retrieved from Samwha Catalogue)

Reactor is used in conjunction with the capacitor banks in series. Its main function is to compensative or
produce reactive power. According to the purpose of use, reactor helps to limit inrush or short-circuit
current, filter out harmonics.
6. Diesel Generators

Figure 8. Diesel Generator (Picture taken during the exhibit)

The network structure of the interconnections helps maintain the reliability of the grid by providing
multiple routes for power to flow and allowing generators to supply electricity to many load centers. This
redundancy helps prevent transmission line or power plant failures from causing interruptions in service
to retail customers. Diesel Generators are used in supporting the power plants in providing electricity.

During the exhibit one of the product that was presented by INMESOL Power Solutions is the Diesel
Generator. INMESOL has a very wide range and stock of spare parts for all components and makes that it
installs in its generator sets. They have different types of generator sets one of which is the Mains-
synchronized stand-by set. The set has an electronic control module which, besides carrying out the full
control of the set, also detects when the MAINS electric supply fails and controls the switching, by sending
the command to start the set and closing the contactor which allows the flow of electrical energy from
the set to the charge.

When the mains electric returns, the set synchronizes with it and the control module sends a signal to
close the mains contactor, and the flow of energy starts through this. For a few seconds the 2 contactors
(mains and set) are closed, decreasing the energy supplied by the set progressively, producing a
RESTORATION OF THE MAINS WITHOUT CUTS, until the control module sends a signal to open the set’s
contactor (the flow of energy generated by it is stopped) and then gives the stop command, leaving them
once again in reserve position. Another generator set product was presented by Mitsubishi. Mitsubishi
Diesel Engines ranges in capacity from 0.5 to 56, 400 horsepower Mitsubishi provides a higher generating
power rating and more advanced control systems than ever before, with proven reliability.