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Brown's Gas .

(~._ _B_O_O_KT_W_O -")

Build a high quality

Brown's Gas electrolyzer that
will exceed the performance of
ANY known commercial
machine to date

George Wiseman •
This book is sold for research and/or experimental
purposes only. Therefore the results, which will vary
Eagle-Research is an organization that develops and
according to the user's knowledge and expertise, should be
distributes practical energy solutions.
considered strictly experimental.
George Wiseman, his associates and/or distributors,
We define practical as simple, inexpensive,
assume no responsibility for damage or injury due to the
environmentally-considerate, easy to build, low
reader's use or misuse of information or instructions
maintenance and, applicable to small scale energy
presented herein.
Although care is taken to present accurate information:
We gather information from diverse sources, perform
"If we knew what would happen, it wouldn't be an
comprehensive experiments using rigorous standards,
experiment." Therefore, the author will not retroactively
then publish how-to books to share the results with other
inform or reimburse buyers if (when) there are corrections
researchers and the general public.
or updates to this book. Contact Eagle-Research for the
latest developments.
We believe that writing books insures that these
technologies will be secured public knowledge, and that
If the conditions outlined in the proceeding paragraphs are
our patent-free philosophy promotes increasingly better
not acceptable, the buyer will return the book immediately
energy solutions.
to the seller, for a full refund.
Eagle-Research does not accept government grants.
The money from the sale of our books and devices is
Eagle-Research is a research and development
used to finance on-going research.
organization dedicated to finding the best possible energy
PATENT-FREE TECHNOLOGY Because the nature of research and development is an
"I differ from most inventors in many ways. For one, evolving process, we are continually improving on the
I actually make my living and finance continued research technologies we are working with.
by inventing. Two, I don't hold-back 'secrets' of my
innovations. Three, I do not patent my work. It is Though we're proud of our commitment to constant and
distributed worldwide as public knowledge, so no one never-ending improvement, we do recognize there is an
else can patent it either. unfortunate side-effect: Our 'best' today will pale in
comparison to our 'best' tomorrow.
Someone could attempt to get a patent. And might even
get one! The patent office is very inefficient that way. At any given date, the Eagle-Research discoveries, which
However, in the end, it would be thrown out of court. are distributed in the form of web information; books; videos
Patent law states 'public domain' is not patentable". or devices, are at varying stages of development.
Therefore, by the time our most
FINANCING OUR RESEARCH up-to-date 'best' can be'compiled, organized, produced &
As more work and research gets done, we will write distributed, we've already improved upon the information.
further books in each of our lines of research. By writing We're working as fast as we can.
a series of books in this manner, we can keep you
updated on the latest information on energy saving STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT OF
research. Selling books is how we make money to EAGLE-RESEARCH PROJECTS
continue our research. Therefore, you will not do 1. Concept: I think I have an idea!
yourself or your friends a favour if you copy this book to 2. Research Assistant: compiled research to develop a
distribute to your friends. In doing so, you deprive us of working theory
funds to advance the research that will help us all. 3. Theory: explore research to develop proof of concept
4. Proof of Concept: hands-on; try methods to make
design of prototype possible
CANADA: 5. Initial Prototype Design: to begin experimental prototype
23 Panorama Ridge Rd., Box 21017, 6. Practical spinoff: useful technology developed that is
Penticton, BC V2A 8K8 not the main line of research
USA/INT'L: 7. Experimental Prototype: working experiments; proof of
1306 Main Street, Oroville, WA 98844 technology
8. How-To manual: comprehensive instructions
WEB: 9. Kit: assembly of parts
TECH SUPPORT: 10. Device: including operation manual
FAX: (250) 492-7480

Table of Contents • Through bolts 17
• Drill and tap shell 17
INTRODUCTION 1 • Mixing electrolyte 18
• Fill electrolyzer with electrolyte 18
•A " ' S>peclifi'
• Series-cell 2 • Power supply considerations ..........................•....... 19
• Transformer-less design 3 • J0ltage measurements 19
• Simple power supply 3 • Number of cells in series 19
• Power supply options 4 • Frequency across the electrolyzer 19
• Electrolyte 4 • Voltage threshold 20
• Sealing between cells 5 • Pressure switch 20
• Plate masking 5 • DC power circuit 20
• Plate degreasing 5 1. Capacitor amperage limiting 20
• Plate texturing 5 2. Voltage doubler 21
• Plate material 5 3. J0ltage doubler with capacitive limiting 22
• Plate thickness 5 • Main power circuit 22
• Plate spacing 5
• Pure water 6 1. The 12 VDC power supply 23
• Fail-safe features 6 2. Second circuit group; liquid level and
• Bubbler tank 7 temperature processing 24
• Liquid-vapor separator 7 3. The signaled mosfets, relay and buzzer 26
• Assembly hints 26
SIZING A BG ELECTROLYZER 7 • Circuit adjustments (tuning) 28
• Gas volume needed 7 • 'Balance' the op-amps , 28
• Available power 8 • Set the circuit temperature 28
• Electrolyzer diameter 9 • Circuit tests 28
• Plate spacing 9 • Circuit component list 30
• Kind ofelectrolyte 9
• Electrolyte concentration 9 BUILDING A CONTROL BOX 30
• Power supply option 10 • List of components and materials 30
• Pressure relief valve 31
BUILDING A BG ELECTROLYZER 10 • Pressure switch 31
• Safety tips 10 • Automatic electronic liquid level and
• Electrolyzer list of materials 10 temperature controls 31
• Cut rings from tube 11 • Install gauges 32
• Size rings 11 • On/offswitch 32
• Mark out plates 11 • Indicator lights 32
• Cut plates 12 • Full-wave bridge rectifier 32
• Straighten plates 12 • Main relay 32
• Degrease Plates 12 • Terminal strips 33
• Holes in plates 13 • Duplex receptacle 33
• End plates 13 • Hook main power inlet cord to enclosure box 33
• Liquid level tube 16 • Enclosure box 33
• End gaskets 16 • Install capacitors 33
• End plate assembling... 16 • JVzre control box 34
• Plastic cap on SS bolt 16 • JVzres from enclosure to electrolyzer 34
• Initial cut long shell 16 • Gas pressure hose from liquid-vapor separator 34
• Assemble rings & plates into tube 17
• Final long shell cut 17 DESIGNING AND BUILDING A BUBBLER 34
• Put end caps on 17

Brown's Gas, Book 2 /

Table of Contents (con't) • Atmospheric "over-unity" engine 51
• Power potential ofBG 52
OPERATING A BG ELECTROLYZER 36 • Compare BN 1000 performance 52
• Confirm ready to start 36 • Further notes on testing the BN 1000E 52
• Initial start 36 • The 5 various sensors on the BN1000E are: 54
• Check for leaks 36 • Operation notes 54
• Set pressure switch 36 • Testing data 55
• Set & test the liquid level and temperature circuits 36 • Testing the BN 200 56
• Lighting the torch 36 • Testing Conclusion 57
• Extinguish torch 37 • Conclusion 57
• Shut off electrolyzer 37
• How to avoid backfire 37 BIBLIOGRAPHY 57
• What to do when you get a backfire 38
• Re-filling electrolyzer with water 38 RESOURCES 58
• Adding fresh water to the bubbler 38
• Draining the electrolyzer 39
• Preventing foaming 39
• Over-heating 39


• Electrolyzer theoretical gas production 40 Since writing Brown's Gas. Book 2. George Wiseman
• Actual gas production 40 discovered an additional circuit which he considers to
• Figuring BG proportion ofgas: Gas Efficiency 40 be an even simpler method than those offered in the
• Wattage Efficiency per liter ofBG 41 book.

OUR EXPERIMENTAL USE OF BROWN'S GAS 42 The circuit has been added at the back of the book and
• Modifier tank 42 appears on pg. 59.
• Welding glass 43
• Welding iron 43
• Cutting cast iron 43
• Welding cast iron 43
• Cutting iron , 43
• Welding copper 44
• Welding aluminum 44
• Brazing 44
• Cost to operate compared to oxy.lacet 44


• Jimmy Reed's experiments 44
• Calculations to run an engine on BG 46
• Hyper-gas 47
• Conclusion 47



• Actual BG characteristics 48
• Misconceptions ofBrown's Gas 49
• Heating applications 49
• Cooling applications 50
• Clean water 50
• Energy storage system 51 Gas, Book 2

INTRODUCTION of the process or device. You bought The result of this experimentation
this book so you wouldn't have to detailed in this Book is a design for a
I wish to thank Ross Stanfield, Jim repeat my mistakes. home-build able Brown's Gas welder
Fluri, Kiel Schweizer and Jimmy Reed I've had many people build various (electrolyzer). The Brown's Gas books
for their great efforts helping develop projects from my plans in the past; are based on experimentation that I've
the information contained within this many thinking that they could 'do-it- actually done myself and the data can
book. It would have taken much better' and changing parameters when be assumed to be reasonably accurate.
longer to write this book without their they build the project. Most of the I do advise you not to fall into the trap
help (years perhaps). time, they are making changes that I've most readers fall into, assuming just
already determined to be less efficient. because it is WRITTEN that it is true.
I am working with people around the I can't write down ALL my mistakes Keep an open mind, so you can spot
world to duplicate the Brown's Gas and research, so these people don't mistakes or anomalies in my work and
technology. I co-ordinate research know that I've already been there and in the 'text-books.' I appreciate being
from all sources, giving credit where done that (got the T-shirt). informed of errors or anomalies.
due, plus input my own innovations.
We have made tremendous progress. If you are considering making versions As I write this book I am amazed by
of a project that deviate from my two things: How much I've learned
I have written this book to further add specifications, it is wise to check with since Brown's Gas. Book 1; and how
to the published general knowledge of me first; it may be dangerous to make little I know. Still, I find myself taking
Brown's Gas. I have found that there that particular modification AND I may some things as 'common knowledge'
is a lot of misinformation floating be able to save you much time and in my mind, that I've found most
around about Brown's Gas. I wish to money. Besides, this research is on- people who want to learn about this
try to present accurate information that going, we are always coming up with technology DON'T know. It is
will lead to safe and effective use of improvements. definitely time to write this book to
this technology. Until Yull Brown bring the general knowledge of this
writes a comprehensive documentary, I A large portion of the history and technology up-to-date.
feel experimenters are at risk. I wish development of Brown's Gas research
to reduce the risk, in my life and in the is detailed in my Brown's Gas. Book 1. WARNING BYYULL BROWN
life of any person experimenting with Brown's Gas. Book 1 also gives most Attempts at applications made by
hydrogen and oxygen. of the mathematics needed to unqualified people who do not know
understand Brown's Gas and the theory all of properties of the gas could be
Note that in this book, I often refer to behind Brown's Gas, as far as modem very dangerous and create extremely
Brown's Gas as 'BG'. This Book is Physics and Chemistry allow. In the hazardous conditions leading to the
the second of a series that will allow latter part of this Book, I point out possibility of an explosion. Brown's
anyone to experiment with Brown's some misconceptions about Brown's Gas ElectrolyzerlWelder (as sold by
Gas. I feel it is important to duplicate Gas that I've been able to prove with Yull Brown) is completely safe when
Yull Brown's work because I feel the actual experimentation used as a source of heat for welding.
world needs this technology. Experimentation is not to be attempted
Duplication of his work will verify the This Book details experimentation in with the gas separate from the
technology while making public the progress. I include details on what electrolyzer.
knowledge that will make the we've actually done and what we are
technology safe to use. trying to do. At this time I've done Additional note by Author: Yull
very little experimentation with the gas Brown is very concerned that
Note that I do not refer to an capabilities, I've been concentrating on experimentation with hydrogen and
electrolyzer as a 'generator'. It is creating the most practical and oxygen will cause explosions that will
technically correct to use the term efficient design of electrolyzer I reflect badly on himself and/or the
'generator' but I find it confusing with could. 'Brown's Gas'. He doesn't want a
'electrical generator' (machine that 'Hindenberg Syndrome' attached to
produces electricity). Thus I always Keep in mind as you read this book, him or his technology. In addition, he
use only 'e1ectrolyzer' to describe these that I base these plans on the KISS would like to receive a monetary
gas producing machines. principle (Keep It Seriously Simple). benefit for his technology, in which he
The most practical and efficient design has invested a large portion of his life.
I describe (some of) my mistakes as in the simplest package. There are any It has come to this author's attention
well as my successes and the thoughts number of modifications that can be that Yull Brown is writing a book on
that led to both. As an inventor, I made to this basic design. Be sure to hydrogen. This author would like to
know that failure is just as important as check with me before implementing support that undertaking, because
success. Both are learning experiences improvements of your own. knowledge written down will outlive
and vital to the eventual understanding the author while making future use of

Brown's Gas, Book 2 I 1

the technology safer. This author information to properly interface two in Brown's Gas. Book 1) in series, so
acknowledges Yull Brown as the best fuel systems on the same engine. That that the electricity must flow through
expert on Brown's Gas. information is available in the each cell in tum, the combined
Carburetor Enhancer Manual, 'voltage drops' (about 2 volts pei cell)
Electronic Carburetor Enhancer Notes, added up to a total voltage drop of
DESIGNING A BG ELECTROLVZER HyCO 2A Manual, the HyCO 2A about the number of cells times two.
Manual Update and the EFIE Manual.
To date, commercially available Thus 120 cells in-series requires about
Brown's Gas electrolyzers have been Further details on mobile electrolyzer 240 volts to push electricity through
hard to acquire; very expensive; of designs and applications are available them all. This concept eliminated the
dubious quality; have limited gas in Hyzor Technology. need for the transformer and all it's
capacity and the technical operation waste.
has not been well supported.
But 120 individual cells (depicted in
Brown's Gas. Book 2 presents a simple Sketches shown (Fig. 2 & 3) are for Brown's Gas. Book 1) in series is a
electrolyzer design that can be built our simplest electrolyzer. This is an bulky mess. Further experimentation
quickly, with inexpensive, readily experimental prototype that will put discovered how to build the 'series-
available materials, using standard out commercial quantities of BG. cell.' This allows many cells to be put
workshop tools and abilities. Further, Eagle-Research has been operating this into a compact, simple arrangement
it can be built to huge sizes. design for several months. (Fig. 1).
This Do-It-Yourself version is not only We discovered that if you put several In the series-cell design, (electricity
more efficient than the commercial single-cell electrolysis cells (depicted flowing negative to positive) each plate
units, but will teach you all you need
to know about your
electrolyzer: its design;
assembly and operating
parameters. So, you'll be
able to fix it yourself if
Pressure switch

r;::==v=a=l=ve~2~::::;-;::::::::;l Pee",," eeli~

Pressure Gauge

Valve 1
anything goes wrong. Water fill to torch )"

In addition, Eagle-
Research is happy to offer
technical advise to people Bubbler
building electrolyzers of tank
any design. We welcome
suggestions for /' Liquid-vapor
improvements of our Sensor shroud ---!+--!t:>-,

Application specifications
liquid level sensors --~~ /
Components not shown
The particular BG relative to size, only
electrolyzer design Water level tube ~ to existence and
outlined in this Book is placement
designed to be applied
using ordinary oxy.fact. Fig. 1
Diffuser plate ~ ~.~ ..~;.>~. "~;'>~'.~
welding tips and/or cutting . .. . .. .... ... .... .. ... ...

This design may also be

applied as a combustion
enhancement device for
stationary power plants, Valve 3 ~::::=±=:=:::;-;:= BG electrolyzer
reducing the petrochemical
Liquid level tube ---~c:r
fuel needed to operate.
This Book does not
Valve 4~*:±:*-:=:;
include the specialized

2 Gas, Book 2

actually produces both hydrogen and
oxygen (on opposite sides of the same View of inner SS plate and
plate) because each of the inner plates plastic ring
shares its sides with two cells.

Starting on the negative side of the

series-cell: in the first cell, the first All inner plates
no holes and degreased
plate (fastened to the e1ectrolyzer end
plate) just makes hydrogen. The All inner spacer rings
second plate gives off oxygen on the PVC schedule 40
side facing the negative, and hydrogen
on the side facing the positive end of
the electrolyzer.
Fig. 3 Holes for through-bolts
Thus oxygen and hydrogen are in end plates
generated from every plate in the
Make it 8" in diameter for a 1,000 Traditional electrolyzers use a 'single
series-cell. Oxygen produced on one
Liter electrolyzer. cell'design with lots of plate area to
side and hydrogen on the other. The
handle the hundreds of amps flowing
'electrons'travel through each plate-
Transformer-less design through the cell. Because hundreds of
electrolyte-plate-e1ectrolyte-etc. from
amps (at about two volts) are needed
one end to the other.
The first and most important difference for this traditional design, a huge
in the BG series-cell electrolyzer transformer is used to convert readily
The advantages of a series-cell
designs (and most commercially available 240 VAC at 5 amps to about
electrolyzer design are immense and
available electrolyzers) is that this 3.2 volts at 375 amps (1200 watts
well worth doing the little extra to get
design lacks a transformer of any kind. drawn from the wall).
it right. Series-cell makes an
extremely compact, efficient, low cost,
This modification is brought about by Transformers: are quite noisy; emit a
quiet operating, light weight, and
the theoretical and experimental lot of heat; weigh hundreds of
simple Brown's Gas electrolyzer.
understanding of the electrical needs of pounds; are expensive (cost hundreds
a BG electrolyzer (about 2 VDC per or thousands of dollars); and are big,
At two square inch per amp (actual
cell) and the electrical potentials needing room for their enclosure, as
submerged plate surface area), our
readily available to the general public well.
1,200 watt series-cell electrolyzer is
(120 VAC or 240 VAC).
about 6" in diameter. This design will
The series-cell design allows
make a 500 Liters/hour BG machine.
elimination of the transformer, with its
associated noise, heat, weight, size and
Area cut off top of plates allows additional expense (including the
View of end SS plate free gas mixing and water refill elimination of the fan, to cool the
operation. transformer, and the energy it took to
run). The heat and noise of the
transformer are symptoms of lost
electricity (inefficient electrical
coupling and induction). That
electricity can now be used to directly
Schedule 80 CPVC pipe produce Brown's Gas.

Degrease Plates The series-cell design turns nearly all

the electricity taken from the wall into
Hole in end plate for gas production, silently and with very
stainless steel bolt. little heat wasted. Series-cell design
allows simple, inexpensive, compact
Min. 3/4" thick CPVC size that is light-weight.
end plate

Simple power supply

Stainless steel plates
This efficient, simple power supply
Liquid level sight tube hole design allows our watt-hours per liter
through SS end-plate only.
Fig. 2 of gas produced to be less than
Brown's Gas, Book 2/ 3
commercial e1ectrolyzers that use a needed for electrolyzers using this Brown's Gas, (all three use a full wave
transformer, and safer actually. much amperage. This is in addition to bridge rectifier):
the fan required by the transformer. 1. Capacitive Limiting
No complicated (or expensive) power 2. Voltage Doubler
supply is needed for the series-cell However, a 1200 watt series-cell 3. Voltage Doubler with capacitive
design. In fact, the power is fed in electrolyzer at 240 volts only needs to limiting
through high voltage wires that are draw 5 amps. 1.2 volts times 5 amps
much less expensive (smaller diameter) equals 6 watts heating the diodes. Explore your power supply options in
and simpler to wire than the huge Only a small heat sink is needed to the Power Supply Designs chapter.
cables needed for the traditional cool these diodes - no fan! Then apply your option of choice to
transformer design. the chapter on Sizing Your BG
It should be remembered that Electrolyzer.
If electronic controls are desired (such AMPERAGE makes Brown's Gas, not
as electronic relay instead of voltage. And we've eliminated the Remember: to make a quantity of gas,
mechanical relay), high voltage transformer which allowed us to have you will need a large quantity of
electronics are less expensive and 375 amps to make BG. electricity. Lucky for you, you'll need
easier to install than high amperage less electricity with this design than if
electronics. Again, the series-cell proves superior. you'd bought a commercial unit.
It turns out that the amount of gas
The diodes of a full-wave bridge made by the electrolyzer is the product Electrolyte
rectifier are MUCH less expensive of the number of cells multiplied by
when you only need a low amperage the amperage flowing through all the Electrolyte is absolutely required to
rating. cells in series. So 120 cells times 5 produce Brown's Gas in this
amps gives us 600 amps worth of gas! .. electrolyzer design. The electrolyte is
Oversize the diodes by at least twice, We have nearly twice the gas with the a chemical that acts as a catalyst,
because the amperage surges are series-cell than when we'd used the which means it assists the water
greater than the average amperage. transformer with the traditional short splitting apart (by vastly speeding up
For a 5 amp e1ectrolyzer, you need ten cell. the process) without being 'consumed'
amp diodes. For a traditional 400 amp or changed in the process.
electrolyzer you need 800 amp diodes Power supply options
(VERY EXPENSIVE). Having the electrolyte in the
We strongly recommend that you electrolyzer allows the electricity to
Also, the diodes of any full-wave actually take advantage of the 240 efficiently split the water using only a
bridge rectifier are much more efficient VAC that is available in most any fraction of the power that would be
switching higher voltages at lower home or shop. needed if the electrolyte wasn't there.
amperages. Rectifiers (diodes) each
have a 'voltage drop'across them of Examples of appliances already using The electrolyte (catalyst) does NOT get
about 0.6 Volt (a little more than 112 240 VAC include: electric range; water consumed as the e1ectrolyzer makes
volt). When you multiply this voltage heater; clothes dryer; and electric gas (see Brown's Gas. Book 1 for
by the amperage going through the baseboard heaters. In the shop a lot of details). As the water is split into
diode, you get the wattage wasted in electric motors are 240, arc welders are hydrogen and oxygen, the electrolyte
the diode. This wasted wattage shows 240, etc. stays behind. The electrolyte is put in
up as heat. I explain below: with the first fill of water and no more
With an eight inch electrolyzer at ten should ever be needed for the life of
With a 1200 watt electrolyzer at 2 volts amps @ 240 volts you can actually the electrolyzer. As the solution level
across the electrolyzer, we would have make 1,000 liters per hour. This is the gets low, just add water!
1.2 volts (the voltage required for the rated output of Yull Brown's BN 1000,
electricity to go through two diodes) now (Jan., 1997) advertised retail at There are many electrolyte solutions.
times 375 amps equals 450 watts $10,000. Some are better than others for reasons
(heat) in the rectifiers. More than 113 of compatibility with various materials,
of the electricity going through the The choice you make affects other caustic properties, purchase price,
conventional electrolyzer is wasted as design parameters such as how many availability, etc.
wattage (heat) in the rectifiers. cells you need and the final efficiency
you want out of the electrolyzer. We have been experimenting almost
Further, this heat must be removed exclusively with Sodium Hydroxide
from the diodes (rectifiers) or they will These are the three options that meet (lye or caustic soda) because of it's
fry. A huge heat sink (large, heavy and the basic requirements to make efficiency, low cost and availability. A
expensive) and a fan are usually

4 Gas, Book 2

mixture of four parts water to one have to be glued to seal well enough. texturing process we were using was
part Lye (by weight) works well. A simple press-fit, as described, works simply an inefficient means of
great. Some people may want to put a degreasing the plates. The texturing
WARNING: The electrolyte Oye) tiny (1116") hole in each plate to seems to make no difference, but
mixture is extremely caustic. Animal guarantee even liquid levels in all removing the grease/oil sure does.
fibers (wool, silk...) are readily cells. This is not recommended. Our
dissolved. Vegetable fibers (cotton, experiments show that plate Onginally, we thought that making
hemp..) are not attacked. effectiveness is reduced when a small little 'peaks'on the plates suiface
hole is added. would cause an efficiency increase.
Hydroxides are formed when metallic Plate texturing does not seem to yield
oxides are combined with water It is possible to make an automatic efficiency gains.
(Example: calcium hydroxide filling arrangement. But in our
=CaO+H 20=Ca(HO)2)' We will be prototypes, we try to experiment with Plate material
experimenting with Aluminum as few variables as possible. At this
Hydroxide, Barium Hydroxide, time, we do not have automatic There seems to be no advantage to
Calcium Hydroxide, Lithium filling. Further, you'd fill the going to exotic materials. We've tested
Hydroxide (tested), and Potassium electrolyzer perhaps once a day if you things like iridium and platinum.
Hydroxide (caustic potash) (tested). used it continuously at high volumes. Simple 316 stainless steel (S8) seems
We fill ours about once a week. It is to be fine. Just remember to degrease
Eagle-Research electrolyzers operate good to get down and look over the the plates.
with sodium hydroxide and are not machine once in awhile to see it's
designed to be compatible with any general condition and verify that you Plate thickness
other electrolyte solutions. have no leaks. Thus we recommend
against any kind of automatic filling Plate thickness need only be enough to
Compatibility with other electrolytes arrangement. support it's weight without bending,
would involve careful selection and while holding the plate by it's edge in a
TESTING of different electrolyzer Plate masking horizontal position. In most cases you
materials than we are currently don't need thicker than 0.015 inches.
recommending. We have tested 'masking'the top of For smaller diameters 0.010 inches is
each plate. It seems NOT to be enough. Be very careful the keep the
Sealing between cells needed. Testing many different plate flat. It is very easy to bend this
masking techniques produced no thin sheeting.
Extremely important note: The measurable advantage over not
electrolyte in each cell must be masking the plates. Plate spacing
electrically isolated from the
electrolyte in every other cell. This Originally, we figured that masking the Plate spacing is an extremely vital
'forces'the amperage (electrons) to tops of the plates was needed to avoid parameter. Generally, WIDER plate
travel 'in-series'through each plate and the bare surface of the plates touching spacing is better than narrow. Believe
electrolyte in tum, from negative to the gas. We suspected that voltage and me, this surprised us too. In fact, if the
positive. If the electrolyte is common, electron potential on the plates would plates are spaced closer together, the
the electricity will by-pass all the cells cause the gas to go di-atomic. This voltage between the plates goes down.
except the two end plates and the seems NOT to be the case. We thought the voltage efficiency
'series-cell'will only be a common 2 would be increased. It was but the
volt cell. Plate degreasing total electrolyzer efficiency
A good example of this effect is an EXTREMELY IMPORTANT: if you By 'electrolyzer efficiency', we mean
ordinary vehicle battery. The do not remove the oil (degrease) from the Watt/hr's per liter of gas produced.
electrolyte, in each 2 volt cell, is the plates before installing them in the With 3/32" (± 2 mm) plate spacing, we
isolated from the other 5 cells. In electrolyzer, you will lose a huge used over 5 watt/hr's per liter of gas
series, the six 2-volt cells make 12 amount of efficiency. The oil and got NO BG (± 77% efficiency).
volts. If the electrolyte in an ordinary seriously inhibits the electrolysis
automotive battery was common to all process that makes Brown's Gas. (see With 3/8" plate spacing, we used less
the celis, you'd simply have a 2 volt Degrease Plates) than 3 watt/hr's per liter (± 162%
battery. efficiency). Actually, we noticed a
Plate tex1uring decrease in efficiency at plate spacings
Our experiments show that a slight wider than 3/8".
electrolyte leakage between cells is Texturing the plates is no longer a
acceptable. The cell spacers don ~ serious consideration. It seems that the

Brown's Gas, Book 2/ 5

I currently theorize that the wider plate much amperage you will be putting DON'T use cheap or substandard or
spacing (318") allows atomic gasses to through the electrolyzer. incompatible materials for these items.
escape from the fluid as the ions travel Your LIFE depends on it.
through the fluid, BEFORE the ions Pure water
reach the plates. Maybe the pulses of It so happens that I KNOW some of
electricity help 'shock'the fluid It is vital to add only pure water to you will use substandard parts. I know
(between the plates) enough to allow your electrolyzer. If there are any this because I've been selling plans for
the oxygen & hydrogen atoms to break impurities in the water, they will 'plate various projects for years and I've seen
off, before the atoms reach the plates. out' on the stainless steel plates, or the cost cutting and 'modifications'
create sludge or foam in the cells. that some people apply.
The flame (we've produced so far) Some impurities will cause poisonous
tends to be a bit oxidizing. Perhaps gasses to form. For those ofyou who are tempted to
the atomic oxygen separates before (or cut comers in cost or quality of
easier than) the atomic hydrogen does. If you use pure water for operation construction, I hope you find the next
refilling, it may be years before life interesting. It is only a matter of
Wider plate spacing also helps by cleaning is needed. time before you won't have to worry
storing more water in the electrolyzer, about this one.
making it longer periods between We recommend that you use at least
refills. Note: you only refill with 50,000 ohm 'deionized'water, Worse yet, you might not be killed. You
WATER. The electrolyte stays in the available from your local 'water may be in extreme pain as the caustic
container as the water is split into dealer'. If you don't have access to solution eats your body and you 'lilive
oxygen and hydrogen and leaves. deionized water, use distilled water. a long life scarred, blinded and
Number of cells When buying 'store-bought'water, be
sure that nothing has been added. There'll be no sense in suing Eagle-
The number of cells depends on the ('impurities'are often added to Research for your mistake. Neither
exact voltage that is available to you;, 'improve the taste' of the water.) Eagle nor I have any assets to sue for.
the electrolyte you choose; the All the equipment and assets that we
concentration of electrolyte; the cell Fail-safe features use for research are owned by others
spacing and the power supply design and the use is just donated to the
you choose. The electrolyzer design described in project.
this book is fairly safe. The pressure
As you read more about the above switch allows easy, automatic Personal use of this home-built
parameters, you'll get a better idea of operation. The Bubbler reliably arrests experimental electrolyzer requires
how many cells you want in your backfires. (see 'Designing & Building proper respect. Check the fluid levels
electrolyzer. a Bubbler' to find a proper design) often enough (particularly bubbler) to
prevent a dangerous situation.
Generally speaking, try to reduce your The electronic liquid and temperature
options to 'givens'. Then you can controls help prevent accidents (but Keeping an eye on the pressure gauge
figure how many cells you need. should only be used as assist, not to and listening to the electrolyzer
replace personal monitoring of the 'cycling'on and off works OK to
Example 'Givens': electrolyzer). (see 'Liquid Level and prevent bursting due to over-pressure,
e 240 VAC available from wall. Temperature Controls 'for our design) if the pressure switch fails. You should
e: plate spacing 3/8 inch. notice if the 'cycling'stops. (I did. I
e: Sodium Hydroxide electrolyte. The pressure relief valve (vented to was using a pressure switch that had
e 4:1 (four parts water to one part outside your building, covered and an aluminum piston and cylinder. The
NaOH by weight). placed high, to prevent garbage, insects hydroxide caused corrosion which
e Voltage Doubler power supply. & water from getting in) prevents the prevented the piston from moving.) An
electrolyzer bursting in case the electrolyzerproducing high efficiency
These 'Givens'allow you to figure pressure switch fails. gas on an intermittent basis does not
cells at 1.75 volts per cell (see Voltage over-heat.
Doubler, in Designing Power Supply). DO NOT operate any electrolyzer
240 VAC RMS / 1.75 gives 138 cells. without AT LEAST a PROPER FEAR is a good thing here. You are
pressure switch, pressure gauge and a working with a gas and equipment that
It does not matter how big a diameter bubbler. This can't be stressed often or could KILL you ifyou are not careful.
the electrolyzer is for this calculation. hard enough. This is the MINIMUM Like driving a car, learn proper habits
The diameter is more a factor ofhow operating equipment. Further, it PAYS and adhere to them, EVERY TIME -
much gas you need. Therefore, how to buy or build high quality equipment. even ifyou are in a hurry. This gas

6·s Gas, Book 2

demands respect. Ifyou are not afraid The Bubbler is made of thick Stainless Note: you must keep your check-valve
of the consequences that could happen Steel that can contain a backfire. You clear or it will get debris stuck in the
with this gas, you should stay far away WILL get many backfires, so design seal and will leak. If your check-valve
from it. It will KILL you (or worse). a tank to be very strong. Extra money leaks, it'll drain your bubbler into your
spent here is CRITICAL. electrolyzer. This will over-fill your
This is EXACTLY the fear that Yull electrolyzer and cause dangerously low
Brown lives with everyday (me too), The bubbler in this book is already water levels in your bubbler.
that one ofyou will kill (or maim) designed to be twice as strong as the
yourself. Yull Brown discourages one we use. Our original was already The valve # 2 is in-line coming out of
experimentation. Eagle-Research tries safe. My point is: you do not need to the liquid-vapor separator (Fig. 1).
to make it safe. Only time will tell make the bubbler of thicker steel than This deliberate arrangement tends to
which of our philosophies is best for specified. keep contamination from the bubbler
mankind. tank, getting stuck in the check-valve.
Use a reliable welding shop to weld Contamination tends to drop straight
Remember, you are building YOUR your bubbler tank together. DO NOT down onto the gate valve. If any gets
OWN electrolyzer. You are used to accept shoddy work. Your life depends over to the check-valve, the gas flow
BUYING equipment that meets on it. tends to blow it back over to settle on
government safety and design the gate valve. When you open the
standards. All the government safety Uquid-vapor separator gate valve to put water into the
considerations imposed on electrolyzer, the contamination (bits of
manufacturers are now YOUR To prevent liquid from being drawn dirt and metal from the bubbler tank)
responsibility. It is up to YOU to build from the electrolyzer, take the gas from gets drained to the electrolyzer, where
a safe electrolyzer. Do it right and the highest point possible. This it might contaminate the electrolyzer
you'll enjoy a wonderful electrolyzer. requires a hole in the shell, not the end- but won't likely hurt anything.
Do it wrong, and it won't be pretty. plate.

Ifyou don't have time to do it right In some cases, a liquid-vapor separator SIZING A BG ELECTROLYZER
now, when will you have time to do it (I-v s) arrangement is still needed. (I
over? use one as a matter of course), because Gas volume needed
liquid can be carried by the gas coming
from the e1ectrolyzer. You need to decide how much gas
Bubbler tank
volume you need for your applications.
The bubbler tank prevents a backfire The I-v s is simply a wide spot in the
going to the electrolyzer, by separating For jewelers'-work and electronics,
hose going from the electrolyzer to the
the gas flow into very small bubbles bubbler. We make it out of ordinary you only need a very small flame.
that are each completely surrounded by schedule 40 clear PVC pipe and caps, This is the size of torch that the BN
water. The gas may explode (and 2" diameter X a foot high. 200 was designed to operate. We think
implode) but the explosion WILL NOT the BN 200 was a bit small. An
travel through the water. The bubbler Locate the I-v s above the electrolyzer electrolyzer with less than a 500 liter
tank, as designed here, will contain the so that any liquid it contains can drain per hour capability is not
explosion. back to the electrolyzer. recommended.
Use at least a 1/2 inch inside diameter
The Bubbler is needed. It is the only hose from the electrolyzer to the I-v s , We size our electrolyzers as ER XXXX
thing we've discovered, so far, that will (Eagle-Research). So,an (Eagle-
to allow for easy draining. Don't allow
operate on a continuous basis, any dips in this hose, or the 'liquid Research) electrolyzers ratedfor 1,000
absolutely trouble free, AND reliably puddle'that forms in the dip will Liters per hour would be an ER1000.
stop a backfire (explosion). prevent the liquid-vapor separator from
draining. The series-cell design will operate
Design it properly and maintain a efficiently at any volume up to its total
certain water level in it (about six The hose from the top of the liquid- capacity. If you need only 400 liters
inches above the diffuser). If you vapor separator to the Bubbler can be per hour (LIh), you could use a 2400
don't design it properly, it will explode 3/8". Check-valve and valve #2 can be Lih electrolyzer, but you'll be paying
(killing you or worse). If you don't 3/8". We like to use gate valves. Ball more money than you have to, to build
maintain a proper bubbler liquid level, valves are unreliable for this service. the electrolyzer. In addition, you'd
your e1ectrolyzer will explode (killing Get a high quality check-valve. (see need a 60 amp breaker.
you and blowing your shop into the Resources)
surrounding area). The operating expense would be the
same if you take 400 Lih from a

Brown's Gas, Book 2/ 7

500 Lih electrolyzer or a 2400 Lih than 1/4" gaps between wires) or the Available power
electrolyzer. The 2400 Lih electrolyzer condensed liquid won't drain back
would cost more to build and require a against the gas flow. Don't use too You need to decide how much and
greater amount of amperage from your fine a material for the screen (Jess than what kinds of power you have
power supply during the shorter times 1/16" SS wire) or the backfires will available to operate an electrolyzer,
it is operating (it would switch on for bum it up. before you decide how many cells you
only very brief moments). will put into your electrolyzer.
We've done some testing on torch tip
Note: it is NOT efficient to operate any gas volume requirements. For most As you can see from the previous data,
electrolyzer at low amperage. applications (including cutting 1 " thick a 1,000 Lih electrolyzer will require 16
Operating below a certain amperage steel) a #0 torch tip or a #0-3 cutting amps at 240 VAC. Our actual
causes LESS mon-atomic gas to be tip is adequate. A 1,000 Vh efficiency is better than 4 watt-hours
formed. It is best to have the electrolyzer will support these per liter BUT for figuring out your
electrolyzer operate at it's rated applications. 1,000 Vh requires needed power it is better to deliberately
amperage, then shut off when it's 16 amps @ 240 VAC. figure on the less efficient side.
pressure is reached. Tum it back on
again when the pressure drops a bit. A 2400 Lih electrolyzer will support up A 20 amp 240 breaker would just hold
to a #6 torch tip. This requires this application. Just make sure your
Note: For those people who think of 48 amps at 240 VAC or 11.5 Kwh of breaker is rated for about 30% more
just using a pressure-relief valve to power. You can do some serious amperage than you will be running.
control the pressure in the electrolyzer melting of various materials with this
(instead of a pressure switch and size of tip, but you are virtually It is unreasonable to expect a breaker
relay), consider these points: assured of a backfire when you shut it to continuously hold an amperage near
1. Your pressure relief valve is likely to off. It is very hard to shut off the it's rated capacity. Every time a
fail because of hydroxide film buildup, flame quickly enough. breaker is tripped, it doesn't hold as
which prevents the seal from sealing. well the next time. This is how they
2. You spent money in electricity to Note: to idle a small four cylinder 'wear out'.
make the gas that you are throwing engine (140 cubic inch), you need in
away. excess of 3000 LIh) To figure your needed power
3. Electrolyzers that operate full-on, all requirements for any given
the time, quickly overheat and melt The following chart shows minimum electrolyzer, figure it's MAXIMUM
down. acceptable flame volumes in LIh, and amperage capability. That's what it
4. It is not hard to wire in a switch and maximum possible volume (the volume will do whenever it is on. This is
relay. Further, the switch-relay at which the flame goes out due to another reason not to over-size your
combination allows many more excessive gas velocity). The 'Amps' electrolyzer. You may not be able to
automatic controls to be added easily. part of the chart shows the DC power it. If you do have an over-sized
5. The pressure relief is strictly a final amperage requirements of a 126 cell electrolyzer, there are some tricks to
safety precaution to prevent bursting, electrolyzer, at 240 VAC, to get the make it use less power (of course it
due to over-pressure. (Actually, it MINIMUM gas volume (LIh) required will make less gas too).
should never open.) for the 'Torch Tip'. You can figure the (see Designing Electrolyzer Power
Max. amperage (requires more Supply (Capacitive limiting)
The slight amount of moisture that amperage) in direct ratio to the liters
accompanies the gas presents some Max. Lih produced. If you are using only 200 Lih from a
trouble for small torch tips « #000). 1000 Lih electrolyzer, then you will
The moisture tends to condense in the Tip: Min.: Max.: Minimum use (at 240 VAC) 16 amps for one
torch hose, puddle and flow along to Lih Lih Amps: minute in every five minutes.
the torch tip. The 'slugs'of liquid plug 000 250 300 4.55 The electrolyzer power requirement
a small orifice, for an instant, as they 00 500 1100 9.01 math goes like this: Multiply the liters
go through it. This effect causes your o 550 1200 10.00 per hour times 4 watt-hours (this
flame to go out. It could also cause a 1 600 2000 10.70 equals the total watt-hours required)
backfire. 2 650 2400 11.80 and then divide the total watt-hours by
the voltage to be applied to the
If your application involves very small Remember that as you clean a torch tip electrolyzer; you now have the amps
flames, use a bubbler that is extra high (with little roundfiles) the orifice size required.
(± three feet) with multiple layers of gradually increases. This makes it into
coarse SS screen in the top 16", to help a larger torch tip and it will require *
Eg: 1000 Lih 4 WhIL = 4000 Wh
condense the water moisture. Don't greater gas flow to prevent baclfire. 4000 Wh / 240 VAC = 16.6 amps.
make the screen holes too fine (not less

8 Gas, Book 2

Eg: 1000 L/h * 4 WhlL = 4000 Wh inside-outside diameters, 'out of round extra low liquid levels in the
4000 Wh /120 VAC = 33.3 amps. tolerance'and the wall thickness (with e1ectrolyzer.
min.-max. tolerances) specifications
There is a great advantage to going to from the manufacturer who sells you If the plates are too close together, it is
the higher voltage. Higher amperage the pipe. more difficult to properly fill the
parts are very expensive. Higher electrolyzer. Air tends to get trapped
voltage parts are smaller and less 'Volts'are not mentioned as a between the plates.
expensive. 240 VAC is available most consideration for electrolyzer diameter.
everywhere. That is because the only factor that There is no reason to go wider than
matters here is AMPERAGE per inch 1/2" between the plates. In fact, 3/8"
In North America, some places use 110 of plate surface. Rule of thumb: ± 0.5 shows up as more efficient than 1/2".
to 220 VAC power, others use 115 to amps per square inch of plate surface.
230 VAC and otherplaces use 120 to Further, and actually most importantly,
240 VAC power. This small voltage Pressure is a consideration here. both e1ectrolyzer efficiency and the
difference makes little difference to Larger diameter pipes generally wattage efficiency go down with the
most equipment. It WILL make a operate with less pressure. Our twelve plate spacing too close. Too close is
difference in designing your inch schedule 80 CPVC is still well closer than 1/4".
electrolyzer and power supply. within acceptable pressure limits, as
Measure your wall voltage before long as no backfire EVER goes Kind of electrolyte
designing your electrolyzer. through the Bubbler and reaches the
electrolyzer. I assure you (BECAUSE Unless specified otherwise, this book
Electrolyzer diameter WE'VE HAD IT HAPPEN) that the deals with sodium hydroxide. We've
electrolyzer will pop (burst) like a already tested a variety of electrolytes
Extra plate diameter allows higher balloon if it's pressure rating is and found nothing better than sodium
amperage efficiently. Gas flows exceeded, spreading plastic and hydroxide.
assume 240 VAC wall voltage, 126 electrolyte everywhere in your shop.
cells, 3/8 inch plate spacing, 4:1 NaOH It's not nice. Electrolyte concentration
and voltage doubler power supply.
Plate spacing Unless otherwise specified, use a 4:1
Note: it is more efficient to run higher mixture (by weight) of sodium
amperages (within the ratings) for All calculations in this book are based hydroxide. This is four parts water to
shorter times. on 3/8" recommended plate spacing. one part hydroxide, or a 20% solution.
We've done a huge amount of testing This is not something to take for
Note that the amperages below are for on various plate spacing. 3/8" is the granted, but it isn't really caustic
DC voltage across the electrolyzer; you best we've found! either. If spills are cleaned up
WILL be drawing more AC amperage immediately very little bum will result.
from the wall than you note as DC The plate spacing affects the number of
across the e1ectrolyzer. Example: our cells, and thus the length of the We have done extensive testing with
30 DC amp ten inch electrolyzer draws machine. various solutions and discovered the
48 AC amps from the wall. This is an best results with the stronger solutions.
effect of the voltage doubler. In a practical sense, this means that the Mostly, the strong solutions help
AMPERAGE will increase given a reduce the foaming problem and allow
Min. DC Max. DC certain number of cells, a set wall a lower voltage resistance per cell.
amps amps voltage and making the plates closer
6" 4 amps 7 amps together. It is a great advantage to be able to use
(355 LIh) (673 LIh) leaner mixtures, because of reduced
8" 9 amps 16 amps Of course, the opposite is true too. initial electrolyte cost, and reduced
(799 LIh) (1539 LIh) Given a fixed number of cells and chance of harm during filling, draining,
10" 18 amps 30 amps fixed voltage input; AMPERAGE will leaks and (God forbid) explosions.
(1598 LIh) (2886 LIh) decrease by making the plates farther Leaner mixtures (as lean as 72:1) work
12" 25 amps 42 amps apart. fine in the electrolyzer, but lean
(2220 LIh) (4040 LIh) mixtures reduce your natural amperage
The diameters mentioned are 'nominal' As a rule of thumb, don't go closer flow. To get your amperage flow back,
sizes of CPVC schedule 80, which I than 1/4" plate spacing per cell for any just add a lot more capacitance on the
recommend as the electrolyzer 'shell'. reason. Closer than this causes a voltage doubler (this makes the
The actual inner and outer diameters of severe problem with the foam crawling enclosure larger and more expensive).
the CPVC pipe are different than the up the plates, making a need to keep
'nominal'size. You can get the actual

Brown's Gas, Book 2/ 9

Power supply option electrolyzerparts. see the appropriate • Plastic spacers for around power-
sections in this book. bolts and liquid level tubes, cut out of
The power supply is VITAL to making triangle left by cutting comer off the
Brown's Gas. Straight DC voltage will WARNING; DO NOT USE plastic end-plates.
not produce Brown's Gas. The ALUMINUM ANYWHERE IN THIS
electricity MUST be pulsed. We have ELECTROLYZER DESIGN! • Sodium hydroxide, amount
worked with the natural pulses Aluminum reacts violently with determined elsewhere.
available to us from the wall. Sodium Hydroxide in the presence of
Remember this is a KISS book (Keep water. Aluminum hides in strange Note: Copperpipe fittings are OK with
It Seriously Simple). places, like wetted parts of most sodium hydroxide. Brass is slightly
(see Power Supply Designs) pressure switches and pressure gauges. incompatible (surface turns black),
When purchasing parts, verify which means you can use it in non-
compatibility in writing, so you can critical areas (everywhere except
BUILDING A BG ELECTROLYZER send the parts back if incompatible. If inside the pressure switch and gauge).
purchasing 'surplus'you can get great
Safety tips prices, but 'Buyer Beware'. You get • 3/8" MNPT to 112" barbed fitting for
NO guarantees. 'gas out'hose, with one #6 hose
Protective clothing should be worn at
all times. Coveralls should be
• One shell, schedule 80 plastic pipe.
vegetable fiber, such as cotton.
• 2 of 118" pipe nipples for liquid level
• Two plastic end-plates, 3/4" thick sight tube.
Ordinary shop work can be done with
(height and width depend on shell
leather gloves. Use disposable latex
diameter). Best to use CPVC plastic • 2 of 118" Tee, with male on run; for
gloves to handle sodium hydroxide. for shell and end-plates (CPVC can Tee off liquid level sight tube and
take up to 160°F before it has valve 3 and 4 on run.
It helps to have a full rubber apron problems with these pressures, PVC
while handling sodium hydroxide as can only take 120°F). • 2 of 118" Brass needle valves (or gate
any caustic solution. Boots should be
valves preferred) for valves 3 and 4.
compatible with sodium hydroxide
• Steel end-plates, (all other Be sure to install so the 'valve stem
(lye) solution.
specifications dependent on shell packing'is on the outside, not in
diameter, found elsewhere). contact with the pressurized
Eye protection should be worn at all
times in any shop environment. Keep
• Spacer rings, 3/8" wide, cut from
a spray bottle of vinegar on hand to
schedule 40 PVC (all other • 2 of 118" MNPT to 114" barbed, for
spray on any lye spill, particularly specifications dependent on shell the sight tube.
spills on human skin (lemon juice
diameter, found elsewhere).
works well too). This helps neutralize
• One length of 114" ID clear, braided
the caustic action 'til you can wash it
• Through-bolts, nuts, flat washers, (all PVC hose, with 2 of #4 hose clamps.
with ordinary water.
other specifications dependent on
shell diameter, found elsewhere). • One small HDPE plastic ball, to float
An eye flush station should be installed
inside the sight tube.
in your shop, along with stored fresh
• End-gaskets, two sheets of 118 inch
water, because in the case of a major
thick EPDM rubber, about 60 to 90 Note: There will also be additional
accident your electric power ought to
hardness (all other specifications holes in the electrolyzer (shell or end-
be shut off. Hence, you'll have no
dependent on shell diameter, found plates) for various temperature and
running water. (safety supplies - see elsewhere). pressure sensors, depending on the
type of gauges and controls you
• Stainless steel power-bolts, washers, choose.
Electrolyzer list of materials nuts, (all other specifications (see Building A Control Box)
dependent on shell diameter, found
This list of materials is for assembling
elsewhere) . The following list of components and
a general electrolyzer; no sizes or
fittings is for the special 8" e1ectrolyzer
quantities are given, except where all
• 118" EPDM a-rings for sealing we are building to demonstrate at the
the electrolyzers are the same. This list
power-bolts (all other specifications 1997 Tesla Symposium.
is for the e1ectrolyzer ITSELF. It does
dependent on power-bolt diameter,
not include the Control box, Bubbler or
found elsewhere). These lists (based on our ERXXXX)
any connecting hoses or wires. For
are included to assist you in making a
specific specifications and sizes of the
checklist for your own electrolyzer.

10 Gas, Book 2

The list for the power supply and spacers, shaped to hold the metal plates Note: The cut must be done fairly
bubblers are in the appropriate sections apart all around the outer edges. PVC quickly to preventplastic from
of this book. for the rings because it is less 'cooking'right onto the saw blade.
expensive than CPVC and doesn't have The special saw blade is designed to
Component Quantity to hold pressure. minimize this problem but it still
We like using schedule 40 PVC pipe as happens over a period of time. When a
• 2 1/2'x 8" clear PVC Shell 2x ring-spacers, getting the same nominal residue ofplastic accumulates on the
• 2 1/2'x 7/16" Bolts 20x size as the schedule 80 CPVC chosen blade, just sand off the plastic
• Box of 7/16" Nuts Ix for the outer shell. The schedule 40 accumulation with sandpaper and/or a
• Box of 7/16" Lock-washers Ix has a thinner wall. This works disc sander.
• Box of 7/16" Flat-washers Ix perfectly as spacers. So schedule 80
·10" x 10" CPVC Endplate 4x for the shell, and schedule 40 for the Another method to cut rings would be
• 10" x 10"1/4" Iron plate 4x rings. to use a large band saw of the type
• 1/8" thick Rubber Gasket 4x used to cut steel pipe. Local metal
·5/16" SS Bolt, washers, nuts 2x The thickness of the spacer should be wholesalers would have such saws.
• 5/16" Plastic Bushings 2x enough to cover (by at least 1/8") the
• 7.8" S.S. Plates (disks) 132x edge of the plate and any gap. That's Abrasive 'cut-off'saws work quite
• 8" PVC Rings 130x why we use schedule 40 pipe. The well. The problem would be finding
• 2 ft. 1/4" PVC Tubing Ix rings are cut from pipe that is the same one large enough. This method worked
• 8'of 1/2" Tubing Ix nominal size as the shell. This makes extremely well for our tiny 2" series-
• 8'of 1/4" Tubing Ix it slightly too large to fit inside the cell test electrolyzers.
• 2'of 3/8" Tubing Ix e1ectrolyzer. Then a small section is
cut from the ring so that the ring will Size rings
Fittings Quantity now squeeze to a smaller diameter,
fitting inside the shell with a 'spring After you've cut the rings from the
• 1/4" Panel Mount Valve 2x loaded tension'. pipe, you need to cut a small section
• 3/8" Check Valve 2x out of the ring to allow the ring
• 1/2" Barb-3/8" MPT 6x Assembly tip: Norman Wootan to(squeeze together enough to fit inside
• Tee, 3/8" FPT all ends 2x developed a simple jig to cut narrow the shell.
• 1/4" Barb-3/8" MPT 5x rings from large diameter plastic pipe
• 3/8" Street Tee,MPT on run Ix (6" to 12"). He set up rollers so that Determine the amount to cut out by
• 3/8" Street Elbow Ix the pipe could be rolled while over a test cutting one 'til it fits. Insert the
• Tee, 1/4" FPT all ends 5x table saw. He set up another roller to rings in a clamp-jig and cut several at a
• 1/4" Close Nipple 4x act as a stop. We modified this to be a time with a saber-saw. It doesn't
• 1/4" Barb-1/4" MPT 16x piece ofplastic, screwed to the table matter if there is a slight gap (£ 1/8")
• 1/4" Barb-1/8" MPT Ix saw fence. when the ring is inserted into the shell.
• 1/2" Close Nipple 2x
• 1/2" Cap 2x The procedure is to lower the table saw Ordinary pipe-style wood clamps will
• 1/4" Barb-1/4" FPT Ix blade, slide the pipe sideways to the work to hold the rings in place while
• 3/8"-1/4" Bushing Ix stop (saw fence set, for example 318" you make the two cuts that remove the
• 1/4" Bulkhead Ix ring, after saw kerf) and then raise the section out of all the clamped rings.
• 1/8"x1-1/2" Long Nipple 4x table saw blade with the saw running.
• 1/8" Barb-1/8" MPT 6x The saw would cut upwards into the Mark out plates
• 1/8" Street Elbow 4x pipe. When the saw has cut fully into
• 1/4" Barb-1/4" F. Flare Swivel 4x the pipe, you rotate the pipe to finish Contact a laser-cutting or abrasive
• 1/8" MPT-Flare Needle Valve 4x cutting off the n'ng ofplastic. (note; water cutting service, to have your
• 1/4" Hex Cored Plug Ix rotating the pipe one way may be plates made for you. Most cutting
• 1/4" x1-1/2 Long Nipple Ix better than the other, try both ways). companies will do small runs at very
• 1/4" Street Elbow Ix Then lower the saw blade again so that reasonable prices.
• 1/4" FPT-MPT Needle Valve Ix the pipe can be advanced (slide
• 1/4" MPT- Acet. Ix sideways) to cut off the next ring. It is possible to have the plates
'stamped out'too, but you'll have to
Cut rings from tube Mr. Wootan used a special plastic table pay an 'up-front'fee (at least $1,500)
saw cutting blade (available from US for the stamp made to your
Note: No spacers, to separate the plates Plastic Corp.) to assure a smooth cut specifications, and then about $1.31 in
in the e1ectrolyzer design, are depicted on the plastic. quantities of 1,000.
(Fig. 1). They are there, just not
shown. We used PVC plastic 'ring'

Brown's Gas, Book 2/ www.eagle-research.com11

An alternative is to find someone who Note: the pipe (shell) WILL NOT be But if you cut your own, you may have
can stamp plates in round circles and perfectly round, careful measuring to flatten bends or wrinkles in your
then you just cut off the flat edge. One (with calipers) will show you an oval plates. Try to do so without hitting
such company (for six inch disks) is shape. I think this is from storage them with a hammer (straighten by
Bokers, Inc. (see Resources). They stacking or some such reason. In any hand). A hammer blow causes the
have a 'standard'stamp that will cut case, your plates will have to fit on the metal to stretch at the point of impact,
0.015" thick of 316 stainless steel at inside of the thinnest diameter. causing a tendency to bulge that is very
5.603 inches in diameter +/- 0.010". hard to remove from the steel.
They will charge about $2.40 per plate Also note: that the pipe has a
for quantities as low as 250. 'tolerance'of a few fractions of an Lightly hammering on some edge
inch, so it may be wider or narrower wrinkles should be OK.
One of my readers stumbled onto a real than the nominal specifications. When finished, every plate should be
find. He found a range manufacturer Further note: different manufacturers flat enough that the entire plate
that is using stainless steel for their of the same pipe WILL have slightly disappears behind its edge when
range lids. They were throwing the different diameters. So it is best to get viewed edge-on.
circles they cut out (for the elements) your pipe before cutting your master
away. Perhaps with a bit of looking plate. If a plate is too badly bent, working on
you can find a manufacturer that it more will not straighten it past a
stamps circles out of their product and You lay your stainless steel sheet out certain point. You will have to decide
get a deal too. Then you just choose on a large table, then (using a carbide if that point is straight enough or you
the pipe diameter that fits your plates. tipped scribe and a long straight edge) discard the plate. Remember that the
you scribe a line across the steel sheet. plate is held in place around its entire
But, assuming you want to do it This line is the height of the plates. In edge (except top) and this holding will
yourself, like we did, here's how we this case we scribe a line 4.85 inches hold a slightly bent plate straight.
did it. (which is the height of the plates) from
the sheet edge. Degrease plates
First you make a 'Master Plate' (out of
steel); which is a plate that is exactly Once we've scribed the line, we take There are several good degreasing
the way you want every other plate to our 'master' plate (make one perfect solutions. All of them are dangerous.
be. You will measure your pipe and plate first) set it against the line and Take extreme care handling these
make the plates so they fit inside scribe out the plate outline for all the solutions. Containers containing
easily. plates on that strip, defined by the solutions and plates are VERY heavy.
original scribe line and the edge of the Keep solutions in warm but well
Plate height (from flat top to bottom of sheet. If you have extra room, leave as ventilated area, the gasses that come
plate) is important, we want as high as much space between the plates as off these mixtures are toxic (smell bad
possible without impeding gas flow. possible, to help with the rough cut. too).
And we want to be low enough for
easy liquid filling. Cut plates At this time we just use sulfuric acid of
1.26 specific gravity (buy in local
Rule of thumb would be: We cut off the original scribed strip automotive supply store, for use in
Six inch electrolyzer, 5.6" diameter from the sheet with the electric sheers. filling lead acid batteries). We soaked
circle, cut off at 4.85" Cutting one way will leave the metal the freshly cut out plates overnight in
Eight inch electrolyzer, 7.5" diameter straighter than cutting the other. Try the sulfuric acid, periodically
circle, cut off at 6.5" both for yourself and use the best. separating the plates with a plastic
Ten inch electrolyzer, 9.4" diameter Don't use hand sheers, they make a comb to assure acid wash everywhere.
circle, cut off at 8.15" mess of the steel and it is hard work.
Twelve inch electrolyzer, 11.2" When the reaction stopped (makes
diameter circle, cut off at 9.7" Once the strip is cut off, rough cut all bubbles and the solution turns dark)
the plates out of the strip (make we'd take the plates out of the acid
For example: the six inch diameter squares). Then cut them out exactly. (wearing disposable latex gloves) and
schedule 80 CPVC pipe has an inner This is the method that we've found to wash them in fresh water, using a
diameter of about 5.657 and so we home-make the flattest plates. brush to wipe off the oily residue.
make the plates 5.6 inches in diameter,
with the flat side 4.85 inches. Note the Straighten plates It is important to handle the plates only
shape of the plates in figures two and by their edges or you'll push the oil
three in the first chapter of this book. An advantage of having the plates right back into the surface of the plate;
professionally cut is that you won't also brush the oil off the plate surface
have any wrinkled plates. using a sideways motion, again to

12 Gas, Book 2

prevent pushing the oil back into the Note: Preparation of saturated per square inch times the square inches
plate. Brushing the plates while under solution of Sodium bichromate: Heat of end plate exposed to the gas.
running water is a good idea. the appropriate quantity of distilled
water to 50°C (l20°F). Add, with All plastic end plates are 3/4 inch
Note: we are still experimenting with stirring, powdered sodium bichromate CPVC plastic.
various degreasing techniques. until it ceases to dissolve. Allow to
cool to room temperature and then Below is a chart of the total force of
Recommended de-grease procedures stand for one hour before pouring off the end plates pushing against the
by Master-Bond: saturated solution. through-bolts at an operating pressure
of 70 psi:
1. Sand blast or sand with machine Mixing procedure: Add the sulfuric
sander to remove surface deposits and acid to the saturated sodium Electrolyzer Force on through-
to break surface tension. Then bichromate solution in a slow steady bolts
preliminary degrease with stream while continuously stirring. 6" 3,690 pounds force
trichorethylene, then immerse for ten The precipitate formed will mostly 8" 6,390 pounds force
minutes at 70-85°C (160-185°F) in a dissolve as the acid is added. 10" 9,890 pounds force
solution of; 12" 14,225 pounds force
Holes in plates
Sodium metasilicate 2 kg (2 Ib) This is why we use iron re-enforcing
Tetrasodium pyrophosphate Fluid equalization holes in the plates plates over the plastic end plates. The
............................................. 1 kg (lIb) are not recommended. Our flat plastic could not hold these
Sodium hydroxide 1 kg (lIb) experimentation has shown several pressures by itself. And the steel
Nansa S 40/S powder problems that make this a bad idea. allows a safety range.
............. 300 grams (5 oz) We achieve fluid equalization by
Water 100 liters (10 gal.) tipping the electrolyzer. The round shell has no trouble at these
pressures; but you can see that a
Wash with clean cold water, followed We would put fluid equalization holes sudden pressure increase would burst
by clean hot water, dry with hot air. in the plates of very large electrolyzers an electrolyzer of this design. We have
that will also have automatic designed the electrolyzer so that there
2. Sand blast or sand with machine pressurized water filling. will be no sudden increases in pressure
sander to remove surface deposits and in the electrolyzer, even under backfire
to break surface tension. Then But in small portable electrolyzers, it is IF your Bubbler tank is designed
preliminary degrease with NOT a good idea. Some of the many properly and used properly.
trichorethylene, then immerse for ten reasons include and are not limited to;
minutes at 85-90°C (185-195°F) in a 1) the loss in efficiency as electrolyte These pressures are also why we use
solution of; 'shorts'through the plate, 2) the loss of progressively larger through-bolts to
Oxalic acid 9.25 kg (18.5 Ib) efficiency as a significant area around hold the end plates onto the
Sulfuric acid (S.G. 1.82) the hole doesn't produce gas, 3) the electrolyzer. Check out under
....................................... 5 liters (l gal.) possibility of one end of the 'Through-bolts' .
Water 75 liters (15 gal.) electrolyzer becoming flooded if the
Wash with clean cold water, brush off electrolyzer is not perfectly level, 4) The thickness of the iron end plates
black deposit, followed by clean hot and the other end of the electrolyzer varies with the diameter of the
water, dry with hot air. having too little solution for the same electrolyzer:
reason. Diameter Thickness of plate
3. Sand blast or sand with machine Six inch 1/8 inch
sander to remove surface deposits and End Plates Eight inch 1/4 inch
to break surface tension. Then Ten inch '" 3/8 inch
preliminary degrease with The pressure inside an electrolyzer Twelve inch 1/2 inch
trichorethylene, then immerse for pushes outward by the force in pounds
fifteen minutes at 50°C (120°F) in a
solution of;
Sodium bichromate (sat. sol.) Nominal CPVC Pipe Estimated Estimated Number Center
............................. 0.35 liters (0.35 gal.) Pipe Outside Through-bolt Through-bolt of to center
Sulfuric acid (S.G. 1.82) Diameter Diameter Circumference Radius Bolts of bolts
................................... 10 liters (10 gal.) 6" 6.625" 22.100 3.518" 8 2.782"
Wash with clean cold running water, 8 8.625 28.574 4.550 10 2.857
brush off black deposit, dry with hot 10 10.750 35.639 5.675 14 2.545
air. 12 12.750 42.115 6.706 16 2.632

Brown's Gas, Book 2/ www.eagle-research.com13

To discover the measurements needed So space your bolts so that you have a plastic. Be sure to silver-solder both
for your endplate dimensions and for space at the 12 o'clock position. power-bolts to the SS endplate. In any
hole placement, see below: case it is a good idea to use more than
Below find a typical chart of CPVC one bolt whenever you expect to have
You will measure the outer diameter of pipe specifications: higher amperage.
your plastic shell, add the diameter of Select the number of bolts you want to
ONE of your through-bolts, add a use and divide your through-bolt Remember that the power-bolts don't
1116" (for 1132" clearance between circumference (found by multiplying have to be in the center; you can have
shell and bolts, mostly to allow for the the through-bolt diameter times 3.14) them anywhere it is convenient for
oval shape of the pipe) and this will be by that number of bolts (as per the you.
the centerline diameter of your above chart). Set your compass for
through-bolt holes (check with size of that exact measurement (Center to Pre-drill the holes for the sight tube;
through-bolts later in this chapter). center of bolts). The above chart is an don't go all the way through the first
Then you add 2.5 inches (for flange estimate only, your pipe may be plastic (don't drill into the second
width) to get the square outside slightly larger or smaller than the plastic plate with these holes) unless
dimensions of the end plates diameter indicated. So be sure to do you want to have sight tubes on both
(remember you need two iron and two your own measuring and figuring as ends of the electrolyzer. Note that the
plastic of this size). per these instructions. sight tube holes are off-set so that you
have room for a curve in the hose, or
After you've cut out the four squares Proceed to mark intervals around your (in the larger endplates) so the clear
(two iron and two plastic), take one of through-bolt circumference with your sight tube will miss the center bolt.
the iron plates, scribe and center-punch compass, where you want your
the appropriate spots to drill your through-bolts to be. Remember NOT Center power-bolts for six inch are 1/4
holes. It helps to use machinists bluing to put a bolt through at the top, space inch in diameter, eight inch
or masking tape where you are your bolts so 12: o'clock position is in electrolyzers are 5/16 inch in diameter.
marking. the middle of a space. Center punch Ten inch electrolyzers should have 3/8"
the intervals. power-bolts. Twelve inch electrolyzers
You find the center of a square by should have two 3/8" power-bolts (or
scribing from comer to opposite comer Assembly Tip: It helps to clamp both more of smaller bolts).
(45 0 angle), center-punch this spot to your steel end plates and your plastic
hold one end of your compass. Set end plates in a sandwich (two plastic I repeat Note: I recommend two 3/8"
your compass with the radius (112 the plates between the iron ones) before power-bolts through the endplate for
centerline diameter) of your through- you start to drill the holes; then you any amperage greater than 30 amps.
bolts (it helps to make a bit of a line only have to mark one plate and drill Or the bolt will get too hot and melt
first and measure it with a ruler to only one set of holes (and all the holes your plastic. Be sure to silver-solder
make sure your compass is set right). will line up perfectly). both power-bolts to the SS endplate.

You want a through-bolt to go through I advise to use a drill-press whenever The a-rings around the center bolts
about every 2.5 inches on your possible. Remember to wear gloves can be compressed to 113 of their
through-bolt circumference. We put and goggles. Always clamp your work diameter. Use about 50 hardness
several bolts around the circumference to the press before drilling. Make sure EPDM material for the a-ring. Drill
to have an even pressure on the gasket the drill bit won't drill into your press- the appropriate sized counter-sink in
(helps to seal) and to spread the end table. Set the press to the appropriate both sides of the plastic endplates. The
plate pressure to several points (helps speed for the bit you are using. a-ring will make an oval, about 113
prevent warping). wider than it's original diameter; so
Assembly Tip: Pre-drill all your holes you need to make the counter-sink a bit
The 'cage'of bolts also breaks up the with a smaller drill bit that is about the deeper than that; NO MORE!!!!!. The
plastic pieces if you happen to burst size of the web on the tip of your washer on one side and the plastic
your electrolyzer, thus only smaller larger drill bits. Holes up to 114 inch spacer on the other will hold the 0-
pieces of plastic fly. They still hurt don't require pre-drilling. rings in place.
when they hit you.
Drill the center hole for your power- To give an example of the countersink
You do NOT want a through-bolt to go bolt size. Drill the through-bolt holes. hole size: Assuming a 5/16 SS bolt that
through dead center of the top (12: we are sealing with 118" O-rings. The
o'clock position) because this is where Note: I recommend two 3/8" power- O-ring is normally a fraction less than
your gas-out tube will go (in about the bolts through each endplate for any 5/16" ID (0.309"). 118" (0.130) less
middle of the shell, not the end plate). amperage greater than 30 amps. Or the 30% equals 0.09. 0.309 + 0.09 + 0.09
bolt will get too hot and melt your = 0.48 inches. Find a drill bit

14·s Gas, Book 2

extremely close to 0.48
inches. Drill to a depth of
0.18 inches (0.13 + 0.04 +
0.01). ©
Assembly tip: Use a drill
press when drilling a shallow
hole in plastic so you can
© ©
control the exact depth of the
hole (set the depth stop).
Fasten the plastic securely to
the press table so that the
Liquid level
tubes, 1/8 © ©
drill won't suck it up. NPT, copper. ---- ::::;::;:~
Assembly Tip: Take extra
care to mark all your plates Fig. 4
for their direction and
orientation before un- center-bolt). Example: Bolt Bolt
clamping them after drilling. There are 6" electrolyzer has 1/4" power-bolt Electrolyzer size length
several very important reasons for this. which requires a 3/4" hole in the IRON 6" 1/4" 2-1/8"
Your holes will not be exact and this end plate for the insulating spacer. 8" 5/16" 2-1/4"
will assure that they always line up. 10" 3/8" 2-3/8"
Also it is VITAL to make sure the Different sized electrolyzers should 12" 2 x 3/8" 2-1/2"
endplate 'tip'angles are cut correctly. have different sized power-bolts.
Power-bolts are stainless steel (SS) and Now drill the appropriate holes in the
Cut tip angles: These are the flat you'll use SS washers and nuts too. appropriate iron and plastic end plates
spots that assure you've tipped over to The size of the power bolts has to do for the sight tube assembly. You
45° for electrolyzer filling. You will with the amount of power required to previously pre-drilled these holes.
cut one bottom comer of the iron plates flow through the bolts without heating
off. Which bottom comer is important; them up. The plastic end plate (for the liquid
you may have some preference as to level tubes) will be threaded to 1/8"
which way your electrolyzer will tip in Six inch electrolyzers can use a 1/4" NPT; so use an 'R'drilI.
your shop. bolt, 2-1/8" long.
Cut the comers off the steel plates with Eight inch electrolyzer should have The iron end plate will be drilled (or
a cutting torch. I cut so that the 5/16" bolt, 2-1/4" long. cut) out to allow at least 1/4 inch space
distance from the shell to the floor Ten inch electrolyzers use 3/8" bolts, around the 1/8" pipe stem (about 1
would be the same when the 2-3/8" long. inch total); to allow an insulating
electrolyzer was rolled 45°. With Twelve inch electrolyzers use two 3/8" spacer to be inserted (the fittings will
heavier electrolyzers (10 and 12 inch) bolts, 2-1/2" long. be in contact with electrolyte and will
it helps to SLIGHTLY round the carry a charge).
resulting comer to assist the rolling.

Take Care to get the angles cut into 3/4" CPVC plastic end-plate
the appropriate comers of the steel
(and plastic). If you accidentally flip
l!i!]~!OO~~!f"f;""~"~"f;""~"~"<E-- 9/16" iron through-bolt
1/2" Iron II- <E-- CPVC schedule 80 pipe
the plates, your through-bolt holes end-plate
won't line up anymore. <E-- 1/8" EPDM gasket
1/8" x 1" SS washer under
As you cut the steel, think how much SS electrolyzer plate
easier it'll be with the Brown's Gas. I 3/8" Stainless ~ mm~~~1 ~ Thick plastic cover over SS bolt
do not use oxy.lacet. to cut with any Steel bolt Silver- solder bolt to plate
more. BG cuts iron so fast and clean.
Plastic electrical / 1/8" EPDM O-rings around SS bolt
Now, you'll drill out the IRON (not insulating ring
plastic) end plates to allow room for <E-- SS electrolyzer plate
the insulating spacer around the
power-input bolts (Drill so that you
have about 1/4 clearance around the
Fig. 5
Brown's Gas, Book 2/ www.eagle-research.com15
Uquid level tube End gaskets commercial BG electrolyzer would
have automatic liquid level monitor
Notice that the liquid level tube is 'off- Note: if you are not clean about and shut down. It can be built on
set', meaning that the two holes going building and filling the electrolyzer exactly the same circuit design as the
into the electrolyzer end-plate are not and/or if you use components or automatic liquid level control for the
on the center line. This is to sealing materials that are not bubbler, shown elsewhere.
accommodate the length of the copper compatible with the sodium hydroxide,
fittings and still allow the liquid level then you'll get FOAMING. The foam The SS plate on the 'sight tube' end-
to be visible. is un-desirable because it 'shorts out' plate assembly needs an additional hole
the plates as the electricity travels on drilled in the stainless steel plate.
We fasten Tees (liS" FNPT to FNPT to the foam instead of through the plate-
MNPT on run) on the copper tubes pack (causing wasted electricity). And Plastic cap on SS bolt
(liS" NPT) coming through the the gas flow carries the foam up into
electrolyzer end-plate. Then we put the Bubbler, through the bubbler and The stainless steel bolt head is covered
barbed fittings (liS" MNPT to 114" out to the torch, where it contaminates by a piece of plastic to prevent the bolt
barbed) on the Tee's to install the level the flame (causes it to tum yellow). from participating in the electrolysis.
tube. We put liS" valves sticking The piece of plastic covering the bolt is
straight out on the 'run'of the Tee. We cut a round circle of lISth inch just thick enough to just reach the next
These valves assist filling and draining thick Neoprene or EPDM 'rubber'. plate, which holds the plastic cover in
of the electrolyzer. The circle to fit past the edges of the place (the plastic cover is there to
shell. We cut the holes for the center prevent the bolt from participating in
This arrangement allows us to position washer, fittings and (if we make it that the electrolysis process). Make the
the clear hose in a 'C'(or reverse C) wide) through-bolts with regular gasket plastic bolt covers from CPVC scrap.
around the center bolt. Allowing us a hole punches.
clear reading of the electrolyte level in Initial cut long shell
the smaller electrolyzers. Otherwise End Plate Assembling
the barbed hose fitting would be For the electrolyzer shell; I've used
covering the spot where the liquid level Note that in this sketch I've shown PVC pipe and been happy with it, it's
should be. how to get the power into and out of less expensive, more readily available,
the series cell. I put the electrical input comes in all the same sizes as CPVC;
Note that I use clear braided PVC hose under the electrolyte. You can put the BUT it can only go to 120°F before it
for the sight tube. I choose this bolt anywhere under the electrolyte; I is too hot to handle the pressure in the
because it is compatible with the just find it convenient to put it in the electrolyzer. CPVC can go to 160°F
sodium hydroxide and has a reasonable center of the electrolyzer. before it is too hot.
pressure rating. The hose does need to
be replaced every so often, you'll The two end plates have a hole in them I choose schedule SO CPVC pipe for
know when. to accept a stainless steel bolt. We the outer wall of the electrolyzer
then silver solder the SS bolt to the SS because I want the strength and the
We have found it extremely helpful to plate to assure a long term sure ability to handle a higher temperature
put a small dark plastic floating ball contact. than regular PVC pipe.
inside the PVC sight tubes
(electrolyzer and bubbler). We make The stainless steel bolt extends through Cut the pipe on the same jig you built
our own ball by heating a bit of dark the electrolyzer end plates and the to cut the rings. When cutting the
HDPE (hot air gun) and rolling it into a electrical wires are attached to them. electrolyzer pipe to length, cut it a little
ball. The ball must be big enough to long at first; because your rings and
not go through the copper fittings but Stack SS washer/s between the SS plates may not measure EXACTLY as
small enough to travel easily through plate and the plastic end-plate; the SS you figure and even a small error adds
the hose. washers to be the same thickness as the up when multiplied over a hundred
liS" thick end-gasket. This will times.
In the larger electrolyzers (ten and prevent the SS plate from becoming
twelve), you can just run the sight tube warped as it is bolted. Later you'll finish trim the shell after
straight down. This is helpful to the the plates and rings are inserted into
floating ball, because there won't be a The two electrolyzer end-plates are the shell.
bend (kink or flattened spot) that tends totally assembled before they are
to catch the ball. bolted onto the CPVC pipe. Note: Instead of cutting the shell, you
can just add or subtract a ring/plate
You can use a sight tube to monitor the combination or two, it will make little
liquid level in the electrolyzer. A difference to the actual result. Don't

16·s Gas, Book 2

put in a thinner ring to make the shell Assembly tip: Insert a round piece of Pipe diameter Bolt diameter
the right length. I do not recommend cardboard into the shell after removing six inch 5/16 inch
having a thin cell because it will use up some of the plates/rings and before you eight inch 3/8 inch
it's liquid quicker than the others, cut the pipe, to keep the plastic dust ten inch 1/2 inch
causing problems. It's OK to have a from getting into your electrolyzer. twelve inch 9/16 inch
THICKER ring for one or two cells,
just so the end cell is the proper 3/8 Remember to figure so that the end Once you know the length of your total
inch wide, so that the liquid level cells will be just as wide as all the assembly (shell and endplates), you
indicator (sight tube for sure, and center cells; this will allow accurate can cut your through-bolt rods to
electronic sensors if used) will be gauging of the center cells fluid level length. Give yourself at least an inch
measuring a representative liquid level. by monitoring the end cell with the on both ends past the total length of the
sight tube. It's OK to have a couple of electrolyzer. This will allow easy
Assemble rings & plates into tube the center cells a bit wider, if needed to assembly and allow the addition of
make the shell the right length without 'carrying'brackets if you want them.
I've found that the plates and spacers having to cut it.
do not need to be glued in place. Tighten the through-bolts fairly lightly
Friction holds them in place quite well. Put end caps on and evenly. You don't want to cut your
Just be sure they are each tight as you gasket material or crush the
go, because it is hard to tighten them By this time you've made and electrolyzer shell. The recommended
later. assembled the end caps. Putting them through-bolt torque specifications
on will seem pretty easy after all that. (based on electrolyzer design as
In long electrolyzers, I insert the plates It takes time to manufacture something previously discussed) are:
and spacer rings into the tube from the correctly, but once done you'll be able six inch about 6 ftllbs
center out, this means I only have to to assemble and dis-assemble the eight inch about 8 ftilbs
reach in from both sides only half way electrolyzer quickly. ten inch about 10 ftllbs
down the tube. Be sure to make a jig twelve" about 12 ftllbs
to fill the bottom half of the tube while To assemble, put some of the lower
you fill the top half (round wooden through-bolts in place, running through The through-bolts can exert
plate mounted on a 2x4) so that your the end plates. Assembling around the tremendous pressure on the plate-pack
plates and spacers remain square to the electrolyzer or setting the electrolyzer and electrolyzer shell. If your plate-
tube. Make your jig so that you can in the 'basket'formed by the bolts. pack sticks out of the shell a bit, the
see past it on the top, so that you can through-bolts will compress them into
shine a light in the bottom of the tube Tighten the through-bolts evenly, the shell.
so that you can see to line up the plates taking care to see that the SS end
exactly (all flat tops exactly lined up). plates actually go inside the shell. You If you eventually notice a leak, in the
can loosen and tighten the bolts as end plate shell gasket, just tighten the
In longer electrolyzers I've had to often as you wish. bolts a bit more. You may find that
make a 'plunger' jig to push the they were loose, which can happen if
spacers down (plastic or wood disk on Through-bolts you over-heat your electrolyzer; the hot
a rod). And wrap the end of another shell is soft and will compress. I've
rod with sticky tape (regular tape I bought my iron rods at a local iron only had them leak for that reason, no
turned backwards) so that I could insert supply dealer. The rods are bought in other time; and I SERIOUSLY over-
it to move the plates around. twenty foot lengths. They rough cut heated the electrolyzer just to see what
them so that they fit in my car. I still would happen. The automatic
Final long shell cut needed to do the final trim after I knew temperature controls will prevent that
the exact length of my electrolyzer. from happening.
For the finish trim, cut the shell so that
you actually have the end most ring The diameter of the through-bolts is Drill and tap shell
sticking out of the electrolyzer 1/8 to important because of the amount of
1/4 inch. The through-bolts will pressure these bolts are required to You'll drill and tap all the holes into
compress the rings into the shell and handle. the shell after you assemble the rings
tighten everything up. and plates into it and you have the end-
They don't have to be huge, because plates clamped on. You will get some
Assembly tip: You will want to remove we use several of them around the plastic in the electrolyzer, but it is
a few of the rings and plates when you circumference of the shell. harmless if you have a liquid/vapor
make the final cut to length, so that the separator.
saw doesn't cut any of the rings or The following is a guide to the
plates. appropriate through-bolt diameters:

Brown's Gas, Book 2 I www.eagle-research.com17

The key thing I want to mention here is Electrolyte is mixed in 'ratios'by It helps to occasionally tip it further
that you don't want to tap the threads WEIGHT. So if you see a mixture than 45° during initial fill-up to assure
too deep. Go about 2/3 the depth of such as '4:1'; this means four parts of that all the cells get equal electrolyte.
the tap and then tap a little at a time 'til water to one part electrolyte, by
your fitting screws in hand tight to weight. For example; four pounds You must leave valve 3 open for the air
about 2/3 it's threads (without sealing water to one pound electrolyte. Or to exit the electrolyzer as the
tape). four Kilograms water to one kilogram electrolyte enters. I usually put a slight
water. vacuum on the electrolyzer on the
Seal your fitting threads with 'tape valve 3, this starts the gravity feed
type' Teflon thread sealant. I have A 4: 1 mixture is a 20% solution; solution delivery.
found NO paste sealants that are because in five total parts, we have one
compatible with hydroxide in an part electrolyte. This is 20% Remember to fill slowly or you'll get
electrolysis situation. electrolyte; actually quite lean as liquid coming out the valve 3.
electrolyte mixtures go. But you can
If you want to use another kind of make the mixture quite a bit leaner and DO NOT suck on the hose with your
sealant; DON'T just assume it will still work, you just have to (or anyone else's) mouth. If you get
compatibility. TEST by putting the spend more money on capacitors for electrolyte in your lungs or stomach, it
sealant on plates of an open (operate in your voltage doubler. will eat you from the inside out,
well ventilated area) 'short-cell' and causing severe pain until you die.
actually running an electrolysis test, if Mix your electrolyte in containers that
ANY foam occurs it is incompatible. will allow you to easily stir the mixture I use a hand held vacuum pump, an
The tiniest contamination can cause the and then to pour into the electrolyzer. electric vacuum pump, the input for an
WHOLE electrolyzer to foam because Pour electrolyte outside or in extremely air compressor, or (my favorite) the
all the cells will become contaminated. well ventilated area. Use safety inlet for a 'shop'vacuum cleaner.
equipment previously described.
Do not tighten fittings more than 1/2 to Tip the electrolyzer back to the
two turns past hand tight in plastic. If Do I need to say that the containers operating position every so often as
you tighten them too much you'll need to be compatible with your you fill it, to determine the liquid level.
break the plastic, or cause a stress that electrolyte? Each electrolyzer will take different
will break the plastic later. amounts of electrolyte solution
Fill electrolyzer with electrolyte depending on the internal volume of
Mixing electrolyte the shell.
Once I've mixed the electrolyte; I
The initial filling of the electrolyzer usually fill the electrolyzer through the Assuming that you have a shell with
involves mixing the electrolyte with 1/2 inch 'gas out'hose, by siphon 138 plates spaced at 3/8"; you'll find a
water and then pouring the mixture gravity feed. This is for the initial fill general idea of the electrolyte volume
into the electrolyzer. up only, because I don't want any (in US gallons) below:
electrolyte in the bubbler tank (you 6" , 3.5 gallons
Mixing electrolyte correctly is don't either). It helps to have the 8" 6.5 gallons
EXTREMELY important. electrolyzer on the floor and your 10" 11 gallons
electrolyte jug on a chair. Having the 12" 16 gallons
Safety is absolutely critical. It is electrolyte jug too high (like on a
absolutely critical to pour the table) will fill the electrolyzer too fast. An example of the general calculation
electrolyte into the water, slowly while to get the volume of electrolyte: Figure
stirring the water. Take care with spilled electrolyte; for each ring width, 3/8" (0.375") times
example don't use a chair that the 138 rings equals 51.75 inches (forget
Mixing electrolyte and water causes caustic solution will dissolve and clean the width of the plates in this
heat and if mixed too fast, the up any mess by first soaking it up on a calculation). In a twelve inch
electrolyte will explode. cotton cloth (which you can wash in electrolyzer, we have an inner diameter
the clothes washer) and then of the rings of about 10.25 inches. So
This explosion is EXACTLY what will neutralizing the rest of the spill with we have an inner area of (((l 0.25/2)
happen if you pour water onto an vinegar, then finish wiping it up. squared) times 3.14) 82 square inches.
electrolyte (always pour electrolyte We subtract the area that we do not
slowly into water). An explosion will The electrolyzer should be tipped at it's want filled (about 11 square inches) to
splatter caustic solution everywhere. I 45° filling position to fill all the cells get 71 square inches. We multiply 71
assure you that this will cause you a with electrolyte. square inches by 51.75 length to get
'bit of inconvenience', like bum your
face right off your skull.

18·s Gas, Book 2

3674 cubic inches. A US gallon is 231 The electricity MUST be pulsed to an rectifier and reading the DC voltage
cubic inches. So 3674/231= 15.9 electrolyzer to produce Brown's Gas; across the positive and negative of the
gallons. 120 cps is sufficient to produce full wave bridge rectifier (be sure to
Brown's Gas, even 100 cps will work; install the capacitor).
Note that this calculation is even easier so regular wall cycles will work.
using the metric system, but I'm Peak voltage is used to size your
writing this book mostly for average The oxygen and hydrogen 'want'to be various electrical and electronic
United States of America readers. I di-atomic even though they have to components. For example, the diodes
apologize to the rest of the world for 'give up' energy (which shows up as and capacitors in the power supplies.
the archaic measurements. I expect heat) to reach that state.
that the USA will step into the modem Peak voltage also gives you an
world someday. In the meantime Unfortunately it is fairly simple to indication of the MAXIMUM number
you'll find this book a mish-mash of trigger the di-atomic action and there of cells you can add in series in the
both systems. are many factors that can cause the series-cell electrolyzer design. There is
trigger to di-atomic. So our challenge no advantage to going to an extreme
Remember that as you operate the is to prevent the oxygen and hydrogen number of cells, because you'll end up
electrolyzer, you want your liquid level from devolving from their high energy with almost no amperage.
to be well below the top of the plate mon-atomic state to their lower energy
for two reasons: di-atomic state. Number of cells in series
First, there will be some rise
in the liquid level as the bubbles of We are working on various ways to Different plate spacing will affect the
hydrogen and oxygen take up some prevent di-atomic formation. number of cells in your electrolyzer.
room; increasing volume and reducing This is important because the number
density of the solution between the At this time we just use wall voltage of cells is also affected by your power
plates. and signals for our electrolyzers. The supply option.
Second, there will always be power supply designs just discussed
some foam and you don't want the are still in our future, but mentioned For more on actual calculations of
foam to rise above the top of the plates here for those of you that are number ofplates, see appropriate
or the foam will allow a portion of the experimenting. power supply option. 1) Capacitor
electricity to by-pass the plates. Amperage Limiting; 2) Voltage
The power supplies outlined in this Doubler and 3) Voltage Doubler with
It is better to have the electrolyzer fluid book are simple and effective (they Capacitive limiting.
level a bit low than too high. The will make commercial quality Brown's
distance below the top of the plate I Gas). Frequency across the electrolyzer
usually recommend for each diameter
of electrolyzer: Voltage measurements The AC voltage is rising and falling at
6" 1/2" sixty times a second.
8" 3/4" You will need to understand the
10" 1" meaning of RMS voltage (no need to Rectification with a 'full wave'bridge
12" 1 1/4" learn the mathematics). RMS stands rectifier (four diodes set in a square)
for Root Mean Squared. RMS voltage will produce about twice the gas of
This is why I curve the liquid level is the 'calculated effective voltage'of single diode rectification because we
sight tube mounted on the end plate of the sine wave of your 60 cycle wall get 120 pulses per second from 60
the smaller electrolyzers. The liquid voltage. Most AC voltmeters are cycle sine wave.
level would otherwise be covered by automatically tuned to give you aRMS
the hose fittings. voltage reading. Full wave rectification (120 pulses) can
be used with the Capacitive Amperage
You measure RMS voltage by putting Limiting.
DESIGNING ElECTROlYZER an RMS voltmeter across your two
POWER SUPPLIES power leads. This is the voltage that The Voltage Doubler power supply
you use to figure the number of cells. option allows 240 or more pulses per
Power supply considerations second, because the bridge rectifier
You also need to understand Peak doubles the original 60 cycle (to 120)
If we apply straight DC current to the voltage. You can measure Peak and the capacitor 'legs'double the 120
electrolyzer, we find the oxygen and voltage by putting a full wave bridge to 240 pulses per second (when the
hydrogen devolving to their di-atomic rectifier across the AC wall power, capacitance of the voltage doubler is
state. We get NO Brown's Gas. putting a capacitor across the positive correct). This is my power supply
and negative of the full wave bridge option of choice at this time.

Brown's Gas, Book 2 / www.eagle-research.com19

Capacitive Limiting circuit for "short" series-cell BG electrolyzer. If you are pulsating from a battery
pack you would need to make a very
short pulse width (for the spike)
Diodes rated at 2 times VRMS and because of the square wave nature of
at least 1.5 times ARMS. such pulses.
Power from main
relay. Example 240 Positive output
VACRMS. To find the number of cells for an
electrolyzer on DC, I use the rule of
thumb of:

Volts per cell Plate Spacinl:
2.0 112 inch
1.9 3/8 inch
" Nega'we output 1.75 1/4 inch

Put extra capacitance in parallel with first capacitor; which is NOTE: these 'rules of thumb' are
in series with the load on the AC POWER line. Fig. 6 generated from extensive testing of
actual electrolyzers using different
Note, I've reached as high as 500 hertz high to most efficiently make Brown's numbers of cells, types of electrolyte,
(pulses per second) using this method. Gas. Then use a voltage doubler to electrolyte concentrations, power
The capacitance is raised or lowered bring the voltage (and thus the supplies, etc. These 'rules of thumb'
'til there is a 'resonance'effect. amperage) up to whatever I require. will get you into the 'ball park'and
give you an operational electrolyzer. I
Voltage threshold Pressure switch can't guarantee any particular
performance. You will notice slight
Most of the time the AC voltage is A pressure set-point switch differences.
below the 120 volts needed to push any (mechanical or electronic) on the
current across the 60 series-cell. The electrolyzer will operate a relay-switch 1. Capacitor amperage limiting
brief moments that the sine wave goes (mechanical or electronic) to tum on
above 120 volts, reaching about 170 and off the power to the electrolyzer Note that this is the 'basic'power
peak volts, is the only time amperage when needed. supply circuit for the e1ectrolyzer only,
actually goes through the 60 series- without all the controls that tum the
cell. Assuming that your electrolyzer can main relay on and off. This is the
make more gas than your torch needs circuit starting from the output side of
The amperage that can travel in a 60 (which MUST be the case), this the main relay.
series-cell is limited by the 'voltage pressure set-point switch prevents gas
threshold'potential of the cell. After loss out the pressure relief valve. You use capacitive amperage limiting
that threshold is reached, the amperage if you have too few cells to use Voltage
more or less just shorts across the Gas loss out the valve is bad because Doubler.
electrolyzer. of inefficiency (you paid for the
electricity to make the gas and you are Capacitive Limiting is also used if you
With sodium hydroxide, at 1.8 volts throwing the gas away) but also simply want to reduce the amperage
per cell, the amperage can barely flow; because it could cause wild pressure through any electrolyzer at any time
at 2.4 volts per cell, a lot of amperage fluctuations in the pressure of the gas (even if you have a voltage doubler).
can flow. in the bubbler tank, which is likely to For example, if you have a heating
cause backfire from your torch. problem (and/or amperage runaway),
The voltage 'threshold'can be raised you can limit the amperage through
by adding more cells in series, which DC power supply your electrolyzer.
would further limit amperage through
the electrolyzer. Or the 'voltage It is possible to make Brown's Gas When an electrolyzer gets too warm,
threshold'can be lowered by using from a DC voltage source, such as a the warm electrolyte allows more
fewer cells in series, which would battery, but you must pulse the current amperage flow and may cause too
cause more amperage to flow from the battery. much amperage to flow. Too much
Amperage is then limited by the amperage could over-heat your
capacitive limiting type power If we apply straight DC current to the electrolyzer and/or toss electrolyte
supplies. e1ectrolyzer, we find the oxygen and right out of your e1ectrolyzer and/or
hydrogen always devolving to their di- 'pop' your fuse or breaker.
Generally speaking I recommend atomic state. And your electrolyzer
keeping the 'voltage threshold'fairly will heat up.

20 Gas, Book 2

You can use Capacitive Limiting with Voltage Doubler circuit for extended series-cell BG electrolyzer.
Voltage Doubler. But usually the
Capacitive Limiting is simply added to
a series-cell that has too few cells to Diodes rated at 4 times VRMS and
at least 1.5 times ARMS.
qualify for any other power supply Power from main
option. relay. Example Positive output
Capacitor Voltage rating =
You can use Capacitive Limiting from
2 times VRMS (ex. 480V)
one cell to as many cells as you want
up to about line power VRMS. The
Capacitors will allow about
amperage will be limited to whatever 1 amp flow for each 7.5 uF
will 'pass' though the capacitor at the on each leg
voltage applied. For example; at 120 Fig. 7
VAC, 25 uF (microfarad) will pass Negative output
about one amp; at 240 VAC, about 7
Again, because this is important, you voltage'. For any given wall AC
uF will pass one amp.
will notice that a slight additional voltage, you'll find that the actual
voltage rise across each cell allows a 'peak'voltage is about 40% higher
2. Voltage doubler
much greater amperage current to flow. than the 'RMS'voltage that most AC
This is why the voltage doubler circuit voltmeters read.
Note that this is the 'basic'power
increases amperage.
supply circuit for the electrolyzer only,
Thus you can operate your 120 VAC
without all the controls that tum the
The voltage doubler does an additional electrolyzer at 220 VDC or your 220
main relay on and off. This is the
thing, it increases the FREQUENCY of VAC electrolyzer at 290 VDC.
circuit starting from the output side of
pulses. With the voltage doubler you
the main relay.
will usually get at least 240 pulses per Also you'll find that you can limit
second. In certain cases (combinations amperage WITHOUT capacitive
You use a voltage doubling circuit if
of capacitors on the legs of the voltage amperage limiting. The high number
you have too many cells for Straight
doubler) it is possible to get up to 500 of series-cells automatically limits your
Capacitive limiting.
pulses per second using this circuit amperage, because as your electrolyzer
plugged into normal 60 cycle AC. requires more voltage to operate, NO
The voltage doubler circuit has several
amperage will flow 'til the higher
advantages that the over Capacitive
When I am going to use a voltage voltage is reached.
doubler as my electrolyzer power
1. It uses very little additional
supply, I usually figure the number of And the higher voltage (required by the
cells at the rule of 1.75 volts per cell, electrolyzer) cannot be reached until
2. It increases the frequency of pulses.
figured on RMS voltage. For the voltage doubler kicks the voltage
3. It allows you to add extra cells that
example; operating on 240 VAC, I up (twice each half cycle or 240 Hz).
limit amperage, yet allows additional
would have 138 cells.
amperage capacity to be added at
With the 138 series-cell e1ectrolyzer on
In this way you can actually take more straight line power, you'll note only a
4. It allows additional gas production
advantage of something called 'Peak limited amperage 'til you start adding
by increased number of cells at the
same DC amperage (AC amperage
Voltage Doubler circuit with Capacitive Limiting
is increased, TANSTAAFL).
5. It allows an electrolyzer designed to
operate on a higher voltage to Diodes rated at 4 times VRMS and
operate on a lower voltage; for at least 1.5 times ARMS.
Power from main
example a 220 volt electrolyzer to
relay. Example Positive output
operate on 110 VAC source.
Capacitor Voltage rating =
Voltage Doubler doesn't actually 2 times VRMS (ex. 480V)
double the voltage; (it would if there
was no load), the voltage only rises a Capacitors will allow about
little across each cell (to the threshold 1 amp flow for each 7.5 uF
voltage) and the amperage can be on each leg
raised quite a bit.

Fig. 8

Brown's Gas, Book 2 / 21

Main Power circuit

N--------- ..
P-----------+< ~
...- ....------4l,..- Positive

Cf ~ V DC Voltmeter

~4 t
Fig. 9
t Pressure shut-off
Electronic shut-off
Main shut-off
DC Ampmeter

capacitance to the 'legs'of your without all the controls that tum the side of your transformer that provides
voltage doubler. As you add main relay on and off. This is the the low voltage for the electronics,
capacitance on each leg of the voltage circuit starting from the output side of gauges, buzzer and relays.
doubler (equal on each leg): the main relay.
You'll note that the DC ammeter is on
You'll note that the amperage will rise Same as Voltage Doubler, only you the line going into the electrolyzer; it
at the rate of one amp per 50 uF per have capacitive limiting in series on doesn't matter which one, just so you
leg with 120 VAC RMS. the input common with the center of get the polarity correct. Although I
the voltage doubler capacitors. depict a capacitive limited, voltage
And the amperage will rise at one amp doubler power supply here, the
per 11 uF per leg with 240 VAC RMS. Main Power Circuit ammeter is installed in the same place
on all the power supplies.
IMPORTANT NOTE: 'There ain't We have the main power coming in on
no such thing as a free lunch'. When an ordinary 240 Volt cord, using You'll note that the DC voltmeter is
you increase the voltage using a properly rated receptacles, wire sizes mounted between the lines going into
voltage doubler, the 'extra power' and plugs. The 'P'is power or hot; the the electrolyzer, you have to get the
comes from AMPERAGE from your 'N'is neutral, where you wire to when polarity correct. Although I depict a
RMS source. you want 120 VAC. capacitive limited, voltage doubler
power supply here, the voltmeter is
When using a voltage doubler circuit, Note that our electrolyzer draws about installed in the same place on all the
the amperage being drawn from the 50 amps, so I use a main relay rated at power supplies.
wall is about TWICE the amperage 90 amps. The relay is normally open,
you see across your electrolyzer. You three pole, single throw. The relay has There are any number of 'extras'that
must be sure your wall fuse or breaker a 120 volt coil to activate it. can be applied to this circuit, like
can handle the amperage you will be indicator lights and receptacles (120
adding. Remember that the Note the three shut-off switches wired volt and 240 volt); but I left them out
MAXIMUM continuous operating in series, in series with the main relay of this schematic because I'm trying to
amperage of your breaker or fuse will coil. This is so that if anyone of the keep it seriously simple. What you see
be only 80% of the 'rated'amperage. switches is open (off) then the main will work just great! The electronics
For example; a 20 amp breaker should relay has no power and is off! The has status indicator lights and you can
hold 16 amps. Pressure switch is normally closed, see when the power is on (to the
open on pressure rise (could be a
Further Note: When a breaker 'trips', it relay). The Electronic switch is a
will not again hold as much amperage relay that is normally open, held
Low voltage
as before. After each 'trip'the actual closed by the electronic circuit. Power Supply
amperage that the breaker will hold is a The Main switch is normally 7812
bit less. open, closed only when you want
the electrolyzer operational (this
3. Voltage Doubler with capacitive could be a relay too), I usually
limiting just use an ordinary light switch.

Note that this is the 'basic'power The points marked 'a'and 'b' are ~
supply circuit for the electrolyzer only, where you connect the primary Fig. 10
22 Gas, Book 2
electrolyzer) by looking at the volt and 'til the electrolyzer either has water The electronics are arranged in three
amp gauges. added or cools down. groups to make it easier to understand.
Power supply, electronic processing,
I have designed a simple circuit that and signaled mosfets.
UQUID LEVEL AND TEMPERATURE even a novice can build. Novices have
CONTROLS already built my circuits using my 1. The 12 VDC power supply
instructions. Don't be concerned if
I designed electronic circuits to act as you don't know how to do it now; you The low voltage, 12 VDC power
sentinels, monitoring critical CAN learn how. You can buy all of supply is for the electronics, the buzzer
parameters of the electrolyzer 's the electronics at your local Radio and the relay. It could also be for 12
performance. The electrolyzer can Shack and the peripherals at local volt electric or electronic gauges if you
work quite adequately without these hardware and automotive stores. use them. The low voltage could also
circuits but I don't recommend that be used across a pressure switch to
you do so. I have these controls on my power a relay instead of
the pressure switch having
to take the full amperage
Bubbler liquid (the amperage would then
level control go across the relay).
J a) We have a transformer
to step the voltage down
from 120 VAC to 12.6
VAC. The transformer

must be rated about 50%
above the actual amperage
you'll be using. You can
get a good idea of the
• D J amperage by hooking up
your circuits to a 12 Volt
battery and measuring
(with an ammeter) your
Fig. 11 amperage flow with
everything turned on.

own electrolyzers, because I often I sincerely recommend that you buy b) Then we add a full wave bridge
don't pay enough attention to the Getting Started in Electronics by rectifier, which is just four diodes
operation of the electrolyzer; my Forrest M. Mims, III. I and many arranged in a square (note that the band
attention gets concentrated on the job others have self-taught ourselves on the diode is the negative end, diodes
at hand. electronics from this simple book. are polarity sensitive). The full wave
What the book will tell you is how to bridge rectifier turns the AC
The two most critical things to monitor get 'in the ballpark'on simple (alternating current) into DC (direct
are liquid level in the bubbler tank electronic circuit design and to current) needed by the electronics.
(backfire arrester) and the temperature understand the electronic language.
of the electrolyzer itself. You will have You will learn how to put electronic c) Then we add an electrolytic
sight tube and a temperature gauge but components together to make circuits capacitor, rated at least 35 VDC (50
that is not enough, you must remember do what you want them to do. VDC is better) and 1000 uF (uF is
to look at them. The electronics are a micro-Farad) for each amp that will
fail safe for those people, including Next, I recommend that you get the flow through the transformer; in this
me, who fail to ALWAYS check the 'data sheets'on any electronic case about 1,000 uFo The capacitor
bubbler liquid level and watch the component (particularly the chips) that allows voltage to be 'stored'in the
e1ectrolyzer temperature. you buy, so you will understand their circuit, which smoothes out the pulses
working parameters. Since (in this that would otherwise occur direct from
The electronics are designed to be two- circuit) I use all electronics from Radio a full wave bridge rectifier.
step. First, you'll get a warning Shack, they'll be able to make you
buzzer, then if the problem gets worse, copies from their Semiconductor d) Then we add a 7812 (in a TO-220
the electronics will actually shut off the Reference Guide. During this chapter, case) voltage regulator, for those parts
electrolyzer and will not allow a restart I will be assuming that you have this of the circuit that the voltage must stay
information. very stable. You will want to put a

Brown's Gas, Book 2/ 23

• the electronics and positive voltage
(from the electronics) going to the
{ Electrolyzer sensors.
S .
control When the water covers the sensor tip,

circuit the positive voltage is 'grounded'

f-------'" ',.I:~ '"~~-_ -41. :.~-1 i ~ !: ~-'=:I·:~~~_-_-'~-:-'-""""'"

(which means no voltage) and this tells
the electronics that you have enough

g,een~ r YeIlO~~t '~---:'-bl

water. When the water DOES NOT
cover the sensor tips, the positive
voltage rises in the wire to the sensor
.,.. 4
and the electronics 'knows'that you
Fig. 12 don't have enough water.
We use two sensors in the bubbler tank
heat sink (special piece of aluminum
• The op-amps each have two inputs;
so that we can sense the liquid level at
two points (Which requires two op-
made to radiate away excess heat) on called an inverting and a non-inverting
amps). The highest point being a
this regulator, to keep it's temperature input. When used as a voltage
warning buzzer and the lowest point
stable or the circuit will go out of comparitor, if the non-inverting input
being where the electronics actually
calibrated adjustment. Also remember (indicated by a '+') is of greater
shuts off the power to the electrolyzer.
to calibrate it after it has warmed up, voltage than the inverting input
minimum of 1/2 hour. (indicated as a
I made the sensors by drilling out a
'- ') then the output of the op-amp is
1/8" brass pipe nipple (the kind with
2) Second circuit group; liquid level high (on to nearly full chip voltage). If
hex flats that you can hold with a 7/16"
and temperature processing the inverting input is of higher voltage
open end wrench) and inserting a #4
than the non-inverting, then the op-
stainless steel bolt through it. The #4
a) We use op-amps (operational amp output is low (off to ground state
bolt being held in the center of the
amplifiers) wired as voltage or negative). So we only need to
nipple by special epoxy 'JB Weld'or
comparitors. In this case, we use two provide a reference voltage to the
'Lock-tite Weld.' The #4 bolt sticking
1458 op-amp chips (two op-amps on appropriate input and make sensors
out both ends by about 3/8." On one
one chip). that vary the voltage to the other input
end I tapered the epoxy to a point over
and 'Poof'; we have an electronic
the #4 bolt and on the other end I kept
Or you could use one 324 chip, (has monitor that can 'make decisions.'
the threads clear of epoxy so that I
four op-amps on one chip). Using one
could thread on nuts to hold the
chip saves board space and slightly The op-amps each have a special
electrical terminals. I made spacers to
simplifies the circuit. I show the two 'balancing'circuit between the
hold the #4 bolt in place 'til the epoxy
1458 chips in my schematic here inverting and non-inverting inputs (and
dried and then I filed the epoxy off the
because that's the way I actually built positive) that allows maximum
end that I had covered as I tapered the
my first circuit, so I know it will work reliability and sensitivity, but do make
epoxy onto it. Finally, after tightening
for you. My next circuit will use a 324 the circuit look more complicated than
the sensor in place (using a bit of
chip. it really is.
Teflon tape to seal it), I put a couple of
plastic washers on the #4 bolt to
We use the op-amp 'voltage The op-amps circuits also have
prevent my terminal end from shorting
comparitors'to provide a 'snap action' 'testing'switches and circuit
between the #4 bolt and the brass
tum on or tum off signal to our monitoring LED's (Light Emitting
mosfets (which are electronic Diodes) that should be mounted on
switches). The op-amps allow us to your main control panel. This will
The bubbler tank ground wire can be
monitor a voltage, compare it to a set allow you to test the circuitry for
clamped onto the outside of the sensor.
voltage and when the monitored function at any time; also the LED's
I fasten mine onto the bottom support
voltage reaches a certain level (very give a constant status report and
precise) to send a full voltage indicate what the problem is, should an
switching signal to the appropriate alarm go off or the electrolyzer shut
c) The temperature sensor is a
mosfet. The op-amps, as I have them down.
'thermistor'; which is a fancy name for
wired here, can monitor a voltage with
a sensor that changes it's electrical
a very tiny amount of electric current b) Two of the inputs for the liquid level
resistance as it's temperature changes.
and can sense a difference of 2 part of the circuit are sensors located
millivolts. on the bubbler tank. The bubbler tank
itself being grounded to the negative of

24 Gas, Book 2

A quick and easy way to get a you don't want huge amp flowing). I turned off the electricity and allowed
thermistor is to go to your local What matters is the ratio of the the water to cool, getting these
automotive supply store and get a resistors. readings:
'temperature sensor.' You will have to
convince the parts person that you are The op-amps are signaled by very little Temp. OF ohms AM time
NOT buying it for use in an amperage, so you can use 10K 121 85 9:30
automobile, so you don't have a part resistors and the op-amp will not 'load' 114 99 9:38
number; and to please just bring out a the circuit. 91.5 156 10:25
selection, or allow you to look in the 80 200 11:32
catalog to choose some to test. The 'comparing'voltages of the
voltage dividers that the op-amps use Note that there is a slight thermal lag,
You want a sensor that is a thermistor are set and do not change. But the the temperature inside the thermistor is
and not a switch; so take along your thermistor does change it's resistance not the same as the temperature outside
ohm-meter and measure the electrical and thus the voltage between the two if the outside temperature changes
resistance of the various samples that resistors (a fixed one and the suddenly.
the parts person brings out to you. If it thermistor) does change and the op-
measures open (infinite ohms) or amp gets signaled. The reason we want to know the
closed (near zero ohms), then it is a resistance of the thermistor as the
switch. If it measures over 300 ohms The sensor I got was a 'TS1Tat my temperature changes is so that we can
resistance then it is a thermistor. It is local automotive supply store, Car figure the resistance value of the
best to get a thermistor that is 1,000 or Quest. It had 289 ohms at 61°F (store voltage divider potentiometers. In this
case we use 0-500 ohms. A voltage
divider potentiometer allows us to
quickly and accurately set any
o o reference voltage we wish when
87 calibrating our circuit (more about
M1 calibration later).
shut-off M2
relay As I said before, the circuit actually
30 works better if your thermistor is
10,000 ohms at room temperature, in
that case you'd use a 10,000 ohm
< (lOK) potentiometer. The reason the

1 circuit works better is because the

thermistor resistance changes a lot
more ohms per degree F; making it
easier to be very exact with the circuit
Fig. 13
temperature calibration settings.
10,000 ohms, because it is easier to temperature). I tested the resistance by
make accurate temperature sensing; but putting a thermometer in water with It is possible to buy thermistors with
even 300 ohms will work with this the thermistor and an ohm-meter across 1/8" NPT threads, 10,000 ohm at 75°F,
circuit design. the thermistor. I heated the water with and long wire leads, check out the
an electric heater (I used a soldering Thomas Register of Manufacturers.
The op-amps use the thermistor in a iron) and got the following readings: You can even make a thermistor using
'voltage divider' arrangement, which is a pipe plug and the Radio Shack 10 K
a very common electronic circuit. Temp. of ohms AM time @ 70°F thermistor.
When you have a certain voltage, say 62.1 289 8:42
12 volts and you want less voltage at a 79.0 205 8:47 NOTE: you can use adjustable
certain point, say 2 volts, then if you 84.5 189 temperature switches to signal the
arrange two resistors in series between 90.0 168 8:51 buzzer and e1ectrolyzer shut-down.
positive and ground (negative), the first 95.0 158 8.54 There are a lot of suppliers of such
(closest to positive) being 10 K ohm, 100 134 8:58 switches, just look in the Thomas
and the second (closer to the negative) 105 125 9:00 Register of Manufacturers located in
being 2 K ohm. The voltage measured 110 109 9:05 most city libraries.
between the middle of the two resistors 115 100 9:09
and ground will be 2 volts. It doesn't 120 90 9:16 Have the (normally open, close on
matter how large the value of the 127 78 9:26 temperature rise, snap action, with less
resisters are (that just matters because than 5°F temp difference off to on,

Brown's Gas, Book 2/ 25

adjustable range from lOO°F to 160°F) shorted (with conductive foam) 'til just choose a loud Pizo because it doesn't
temperature switches (one for warning before the mosfet is inserted in the use much power.
and one for shut-off) allow positive circuit. Then, before taking the mosfet
voltage to go directly from the full out of the conductive foam, ground the Assembly Hints
wave bridge rectifier to the appropriate circuit, the soldering iron, yourself and
mosfets, through these switches. the mosfet to ground (by touching a 1. I use chip sockets when I build a
Testing buttons are redundant but ground). Then solder the mosfet in circuit like this, then I can insert the
you'd still want the indicating LED's. place. Mosfets should be among the chips after the entire circuit is soldered
last things soldered onto a board and onto the board. Also, if a chip goes
These temperature switches are more it's still a good idea to ground the bad, I can replace it quickly and easily.
expensive but a bit simpler to wires leading to a mosfet (with test I've found I can do this for mosfets
understand for some people. If you clips) 'til the board is operational. too.
use temperature switches, you can use
just the 1458 (dual) op-amp that goes Mosfets come in N channel and P 2. All chips have numbered pins, the
to the liquid level sensors, eliminating channel. pin numbers go down one side and up
the 1458 op-amp and the circuitry that N channel is the type we use, in a TO- the other (as you can see in my
would have gone to the temperature 220 case. N channel mosfets must schematic). The top of the chip is
sensing part of the electronics. have nothing between them and ground indicated by a little indention, and/or
(negative). The source or'S' pin must pin #1 is indicated by a small dot next
3) The signaled mosfets, relay and go directly to ground. Thus we switch to it.
buzzer on the negative or 'low side'of the
load; the positive voltage going first to The chip socket will also have an
a) the signaled switches are mosfets, the load, then to the rnosfet and then to indication on them (usually a notch on
short for Metal Oxide Semiconductor ground. the top edge) as to which way is up or
Field Effect Transistor. Now that I've top, so you can wire it correctly and
scared you; please believe me that We put a resistor on the wire leading place your chip in it correctly.Some
these little babies are really easy to from the gate, to drain the gate when times the only indication is a small dot
work with, and super efficient. You the voltage stops. In this case, we use by pin #1.
just have to know a few things not a resistor of the value that would allow
usually told to novices on the street. a proper amperage flow in the 3. Remember that the chip pin numbers
indicating LED. are reversed on the back side of the
First, the mosfet is a diode and board. This is a common cause of
therefore polarity sensitive, it will only When turned on, the Ml mosfet allows failure to get a circuit working; it was
allow electricity to flow through it one the electrical flow to the relay (which wired wrong.
direction without destroying it. So pay is normally off, but the electronics
attention to how I have the circuit turns it on and holds it on 'til there's a 4. I show the TO-220 case 7812
wired. Think of it as a 'switch able' problem). I call this the 'electronic' voltage regulator and mosfets as front
diode. It won't conduct any electricity shut-off relay; this relay allows the view in my schematic, so you can put
when off, and will conduct only one electrical flow to the 120 VAC coil of the right wires to the right pins.
way when on. the electrolyzer main relay.
5. Soldering can be a bit of an art.
The mosfet is signaled by voltage, not When turned on, the M2 mosfet allows use a 30 watt soldering iron with a fine
amperage. So a sourceOike an op- electrical flow to activate the buzzer. tip for circuit board work (bought at
amp) that can't put out much Radio Shack). You need to clean the
amperage, but can put out a voltage Both the liquid level circuits and the tip (use a fine metal file) and to 'tin'
signal, can tum on a mosfet to it's full temperature circuits can activate the the tip with a bit of solder before using
potential and allow several amps to Ml and M2 mosfets. it to solder; do this as often as needed.
flow through the mosfet. The mosfet Use thin, rosin core solder.
needs at least 10 volts to the gate to b) The relay is a 30 amp 'auto'relay
fully tum on, and more than 20 volts to bought in Radio Shack, made by Bosch 6. Be sure to heat both areas to be
the gate will puncture the super thin and one of the best on the market. soldered and have just enough solder
oxide layer. Radio Shack sells them at $5, which is flow onto each of them to make a good
$2 cheaper than I can get them join. If you get too much solder, it can
Warning: This means that the mosfet wholesale. flow over to areas where you don't
is extremely sensitive to static want it, making connections with the
electricity, 'til it is soldered into a c) The buzzer is sold by Radio Shack, wrong parts of the circuit. If this
circuit. All the leads (gate, drain, nearly any buzzer will work but I happens, just re-melt the solder and
source) of a mosfet should remain take it off with the soldering iron,

26 Gas, Book 2


Liquid level and over-temperature circuit

using two 1458 "dual" op-amp chips.

Bubbler liquid


j ?~( +l




r~ ~
1 f f i87 ,

t ~IIs: ?~/


"""""1-5 R2
~ I • " j
~====~ I

control circuit
ground to
'~--;-------:--I 2
V~--:----'-I 3
R3 -fL...:.4_...::;.I

D3~ Thermister
green mounted on

ground to

Fig. 14

Brown's Gas, Book 2 I 27

shaking the soldering iron clean each wise). Lowering the reference voltage when energized. Rising temperature
time after sucking up some solder. raises the temperature at which the op- will tum it on.
amp will signal the mosfet to tum on
7. A 'cold'solder join is also a (or off). Remove the ground from R6 (and
common cause of circuit failure. A liquid level probe grounds if you used
cold join is where the solder flowed 'Balance' the op-amps them). Adjust PS and P6 all the way
around a pin or onto a place, but didn't left (counter-clockwise).
actually join with that place (it looks The potentiometers PI, P2, P3, and P4
good but there is no connection). are 'balancing'potentiometers; they Set the circuit temperature
Solder flows too hot, so you should make the op-amps very sensitive and
heat the area that you want to solder precise. It doesn't matter which of the As pointed out before, the circuit can
and then have the solder flow onto it. end pins go to the chip inputs. Always be adjusted to signal at any e1ectrolyzer
warm up the circuit for at least an hour temperature you desire.
8. You have to balance too cold with before making sensitive adjustments.
too hot. If you heat a place too hot, the To set the Buzzer or warning circuit;
solder won't want to flow there. Also To adjust PI; you ground the lower have the P6 adjusted all the way left
too much heat will bum out liquid level sensor probe (if fully and operate the electrolyzer 'til it
components. After soldering, I usually installed, just add water to the bubbler reaches the warning temperature (max.
blow on a join to cool it quickly. tank) and then adjust PI to the right 110°F), then tum the P6 right 'til the
You'll quickly learn the correct and/or left 'til the shut-off relay turns alarm comes on.
technique. off; then carefully tum PI 'til the shut-
off relay just turns ON. You want this To operate the e1ectrolyzer
Circuit adjustments (tuning) circuit to be normally on when continuously, I put my torch outside (or
energized; lowering water level will run a hose from the torch tip to
IMPORTANT: PS and P6 are the tum it off. outside); then tum on the torch valve
potentiometers that you will use to set so that I'm demanding more gas than
the temperatures you want the warning To adjust P2; you ground the upper the electrolyzer can produce, then the
buzzer and the shut-off to occur. liquid level sensor probe (if fully pressure switch never shuts off the
installed, just add water to the bubbler electrolyzer. I don't bother to ignite
During initial wiring of potentiometers tank) and then adjust P2 to the right the gas.
PS and P6, you want to make sure that and/or left 'til the buzzer turns on; then
you wire the 'end'pins in the correct carefully tum P2 'til the buzzer just To set the shut-off circuit; have the PS
order so that the final adjustment turns OFF. You want this circuit to be adjusted all the way left and operate
rotation will match my instructions. normally off when energized; lowering the electrolyzer 'til it reaches the shut-
The center or 'sweep'pin goes to the water level will tum it on. off temperature (max. 120°F), then tum
chip. the PS right 'til the electrolyzer shuts
To adjust P3; you ground the wire off. Note that the warning buzzer will
PS is the shut-off adjustment; you want going to the thermistor from R6 and be buzzing all this time, wear ear plugs
to wire this pot. so that when it turned adjust PS all the way to the right if it bothers you (it's supposed to
all the way to the left (counter- (clOCk-wise); this will bring the PS bother you). It is important that the
clockwise) the pin that shows sweep pin to reference near zero ohms buzzer be buzzing when the shut-off
maximum ohms goes to ground. to ground. Then adjust P3 to the right circuit is set because of the way the
and/or left 'til the shut-off relay turns two set-points share the same
P6 is the buzzer adjustment; you want off; then carefully tum P3 'til the shut- thermistor.
to wire this pot. so that when it turned off relay just turns ON. You want this
all the way to the left (counter- circuit to be normally on when Circuit tests
clockwise) the pin that shows energized; rising temperature will tum
maximum ohms goes to ground. it off. You will see I've included green diodes
(DI and D3) to indicate when the
The thermistor lowers it's resistance as To adjust P4; ground the wire going to water level and temperature levels are
it gets hotter, thus effectively lowering the thermistor from R6 and adjust P6 acceptable; these diodes are mounted
the voltage being sensed by the op- all the way to the right (clock-wise). next to 'momentary on' switches on the
amps. So higher temperature is LESS This will bring the P6 sweep pin to control panel (Sl and S3). When you
resistance. reference near zero ohms to ground. push these test switches, the
Then adjust P4 to the right and/or left electrolyzer should shut off, and the
Wiring PS and P6 as above will cause 'til the buzzer turns on; then carefully appropriate green diode should go out.
the 'reference'voltage (and ohms) to tum P4 'til the buzzer just turns OFF. If the electrolyzer shuts down when
lower as you tum the pot. right (clock- You want this circuit to be normally off you are using the torch, and you don't

28·s Gas, Book 2

7812 Liquid level and over-temperature
circuit using a 14 pin 324 "Quad"
op-amp chip. Note that the chip is
depicted "split" to show the similarity to
using two 1458 chips.

Bubbler liquid
level control

R1 ,..--";-.;--f1 R1
'v"'-~-+--;--12 14
'v"'---':-""':"--..-13 131-.,:----:..--:-..."........
4 121--1;"---+-"'~
yellow otT 81

4 control circuit R4
ground to
R3 .9-

i--.~~/'-.~~ 5 -511
I .- R3 v ---T
I· R3
~ ~ 1 ~1-"----~-'--:"""""""'R3

04 ~
yellow'tl' 83
~!4 Thermister
mounted on

a a
M1 M2
ground to

R5 R5
Fig. 15

Brown's Gas, Book 2 I 29

notice the lack of gas volume, you equal or slightly exceed the value of 1 of 120 VAC to 12 VAC @ 1.2 amps
WILL get a backfire when the torch the thermistor at 70°F; R4 should limit transformer, Radio Shack # 273-1505.
drops to a low enough pressure. the amp flow but not be so large as to
Backfires are nasty. make it hard for the op-amp by leaving 1 of 4 amp full wave bridge rectifier,
a tiny voltage drop across P5 and P6. 400 PIV, Radio Shack # 276-1173.
You will see I've included yellow R6 should be at least 1.3 times R4, 1.5
diodes (D2 and D4) to indicate when times is OK. 1 of electrolytic capacitor, 1000 uF,
the water level and temperature levels working voltage at least 35 VDC,
are getting close to shut-off; these My example using the 200 ohm Radio Shack # 272-1032.
diodes are mounted next to (automotive) thermistor would use P5
'momentary on'switches on the and P6 of about 200 ohm, R4 of about 1 of 30 amp 'auto'relay, Radio Shack
control panel (S2 and S4). When you 2.2 K and R6 of about 3 K. # 275-226.
push these test switches, the
e1ectrolyzer should buzz, and the 2 of Yellow LED's, T-l 3/4 size, Radio Breadboard, Radio Shack # 276-168.
appropriate yeIlow diode should light Shack # 276-021. If you're very good at circuit design,
up. This warning allows you to shut you can use a smaller board.
off the torch in a controlled manner, 2 of Green LED's, T-l 3/4 size, Radio
preventing a backfire. Shack # 276-041. PCB stand-offs, Radio Shack # 276-
Circuit component list 1 of Pizo Buzzer, operating voltage 12
VDC, internal frequency; Radio Shack Three colored rolls of stranded 22
Note that I include notes for those # 273-60. gauge wire, to use as connection wire
changes to use a 324 chip. If you have and as wire to parts of the main circuit
any questions about substitute 4 of Mini SPST 'momentary'push that don't require much amperage flow.
component values, get in touch with button switches, Radio Shack # 275- Radio Shack # 278-1307.
myself or any other competent 1547.
electronics engineer. A resistance
variance of up to ten percent is allowed 1 of thermistor, acquire as explained BUILDING A CONTROL BOX
in these circuits, but whatever value before. Actually it is possible to make
The control box is more than just the
you use, you should have all that one from a Radio Shack # 271-110;
box (which I call the enclosure). The
category of resistors match fairly just mount it in a blank 1/8" NPT plug;
control box houses and includes all the
closely. make sure the thermistor is contacting
gauges and controls (electrical and
the actual metal and then fill in the
mechanical) for the electrolyzer. The
Resistors: hole with a non-conductive metal
only parts of the controls outside the
Rl= 33 K 2X epoxy like JB weld or Lock-tite Weld.
box will be some valves and sensors,
R2 = 100 K 2X
which I will detail here too.
R3 = 220 K 12 X 2 of mosfets, TO-220 case style, IRF
R4 = 10 K 2X 510, Radio Shack # 276-2072.
R5 = 470 ohm 2X Ust of Components and Materials
R6 = 13 K 1X 2 of 1458 dual op-amps, 8 pin dips,
Radio Shack # 276-038. (Or a single Be particularly careful about choosing
your pressure gauge and pressure
Circuit-board-mounted 324 Quad op-amp, Radio Shack # 276-
1711.) switch (and pressure relief valve). The
potentiometers 6X
materials inside the gauge and switch
Be sure to mount so that you can adjust 2 of 8 pin chip bases (IC sockets), may not be compatible with your
Radio Shack # 276-1995. (Or one 14 electrolyte. Check with your
the pots when the circuit is in operation
manufacturer. In general, it is best to
but once set, you don't want people to pin socket for 324 chip, Radio Shack #
276-1999). get stainless steel. If there are rubber
be able to re-adjust them.
PI, P2, P3, and P4 are 47 K, Radio seals, get ones that are more to the
natural rubber.
Shack # 271-283. 2 of sensor probes for liquid level. We
P5 and P6 are fifteen turn, 10K, Radio haven't found a part that will work yet;
Of particular importance is that
Shack # 271-343. build your own as per the instructions
aluminum is not compatible with any
earlier in this chapter.
of the electrolyte solutions that I've
The value of P5, P6, R4 and R6 are all
dependent on the value of the 1 of 7812 voltage regulator, Radio
thermistor. The values given here are Shack # 276-1771.
for a thermistor that is 10 K (10,000 1 of TO-220 heat sink, Radio Shack #
ohms) at 70°F. P5 and P6 should about 276-1363.

30 Gas, Book 2

researched, including sodium Seals can be natural rubber or Teflon. Electronic switching using transducers
hydroxide. (see Resources) The seals must positively seal against is an option I don't cover here.
200 psig (don't buy components that Personally I'm not yet satisfied that
You can also pick up components will be used at their maximum ratings). there is a transducer that will work in
surplus at the surplus suppliers listed in Set valve to relieve at 90 psig. Put in long term with sodium hydroxide. I
Brown's Gas. Book 1. Just remember hoses that route any released pressure found that the sodium hydroxide packs
when buying surplus, it's buyer out of your shop. Hydrogen dissipates into the tiny orifice and the transducer
beware. However, by buying in air very quickly. starts giving a false reading.
components in this way, I and
associates of mine have built these Pressure Switch Automatic Electronic Uquid Level
electrolyzers at less than $500 USD. and Temperature Controls
This doesn't include the torch itself. The pressure switch should switch on
and off with a maximum of 5 psi Build according to the instructions in
Below find a component list for the pressure difference (a switch set to tum this book. It is also possible to
power supply of a 1000 L/h, 8 inch off at 70 psig will tum on again at 65 purchase such controls but you'll likely
electrolyzer that has a Capacitive psig). pay a lot for them.
Limited power supply. The
electrolyzer is split into two 65 series- You want the switch to be normally I show you how to build the sensors
cells that are operated in parallel from closed (on) and to tum off (open) as you'll need to signal the liquid level
a 50 amp, 240 volt wall receptacle. the pressure rises. circuit. And I tell you how to select
and test a thermistor to signal the
We've found this type of electrolyzer You want the switch to be able to temperature controls. See previous
design to be the most consistently handle at least five amps (inductive) at chapter.
efficient (for several reasons) and it is 120 VAC. It helps if the switch is
inherently prevented from run-away by rated to handle explosions (I've found Note: It is a good idea to have the
the capacitors. We will be some that are) but this shouldn't be too electronic circuit indicator lights (and
demonstrating this electrolyzer design much of a problem as you take your test switches) mounted so that they are
at the 1997 Tesla Symposium. pressure reading on the electrolyzer visible on the control panel, along
side of the bubbler. with the appropriate test switches.
Component Quantity You'll note that I show how to wire it
Note: You could use the main pressure this way in the schematics.
• Diodes, 80 amp/ 500 VDC 4x switch to signal a 12 volt relay (30
• Heat Sinks 4x amp lighting relay bought in Radio Low voltage power supply; 120 to 12
• Pressure Switch Ix Shack) the relay then being the switch volt transformer/full wave bridge
• Pressure Gauge Ix that actually cuts off the power to the rectifier/capacitor (all set up as low
·110 VAC on/off switch Ix main relay coil. This arrangement voltage power supply). Needed if you
• Indicator Lights 2x would allow your pressure switch run any low voltage devices, like the
• 90 amp Main Relay Ix contacts to last a very long time, Automatic Electronic controls, various
·50 mf/330 VAC Capacitors 20x because they'd only have to handle the relays and/or 12 VDC temperature and
• 50 amp Range Cord Ix amperage of the relay coil. And when pressure switches.
• Short Terminal Strip 2x the relay wears out, it's easy and
• Long Terminal Strip Ix inexpensive to replace (much easier Test all your low voltage devices on a
• Box of Spades Ix than replacing the main pressure 12 VDC battery (measure the
• Spool of 14 gauge wire Ix switch, and less expensive too). . amperage with them all on at the same
• Box of 10/32 -1/2" bolts Ix time) and build your low voltage
• Box 1/4" ring terminals Ix Further Note: a simple electronic power supply from Radio Shack parts.
• 50 ft. 8 Gauge wire Ix switching circuit can make your main Get a transformer rated just above your
• Box of 1/4" bolts Ix pressure switch contacts last for many amperage requirements; size the full
• Plywood for Power Box Ix decades. Simply use the switch wave bridge rectifier to handle at least
• Volt Gauge Ix contacts to signal a mosfet that would twice the amperage of your transformer
• Amp Gauge Ix allow current to flow to the relay coil, and size the capacitor (can be
• Casters 4x which would tum on the power to the electrolytic) for 1,000 micro-farads per
main power relay coil. In this case amp, working voltage rated to at least
Pressure Relief Valve your switch contacts only have to 35 Volts.
handle a couple milli-amps at very low
The pressure relief valve needs to be voltage.
compatible with sodium hydroxide; can
be stainless steel, copper or brass.

Brown's Gas, Book 2 I 31

Install gouges much amperage is actually going level and temperature controls mounted
across your electrolyzer. right on the control panel where they
The Pressure Gauge should read are easy to see (It's a good idea to
about 100 psig, not too much less If you're going to put one in, get a place the 'test'buttons there too, beside
because you don't want it to burst if good one, either electronic (expensive) the appropriate lights). Another option
you get a slight over-pressure; not too or analog (not too bad). If analog, get is to use diodes for the indicator lights,
much more because you want to be one that reads a wide sweep (so you simply add another high PIV diode and
able to read it easily. can see detail), full sweep just over the appropriate resister in series.
your maximum amperage. I have one
Pressure gauge must be compatible on my electrolyzer. Full-wave bridge rectifier
with sodium hydroxide, hydrogen and
oxygen. Several good ones can be AC Amp meter: optional, to see how Four heavy duty diodes; (rectifiers)
found in the Cole-Parmer catalog. much amperage you are actually rated at twice the voltage and about
drawing from the wall. I don't use one twice the amperage that your
You'll note that I mounted the pressure on my electrolyzer. electrolyzer requires. Get heat sinks
switch and gauge hose connections appropriate to the size of your diodes
above the liquid-vapor separator. This DC Voltmeter: optional and handy to and the wattage they will have to
is to help prevent liquid from reaching see how much voltage you are using dissipate.
the actual working components of the across your electrolyzer. Gives
pressure switch and gauge. It is also a diagnostic capabilities, high voltage For example 30 amps at 0.5 voltage
good idea to mount these components would indicate plates that are coated drop is 15 watts, your diode only has
so that if any liquid does get in them, with gunk or perhaps low electrolyte to dissipate about the same heat as a 15
that it will drain out. The problem is level or cold electrolyzer, etc. Again, watt light bulb. Rectifiers and heat
that all liquid in this system becomes digital is nice (and expensive) but sinks are an area where you can save
contaminated with sodium hydroxide analog works great. I have one on my money buying from surplus sources.
and eventually the sodium hydroxide electrolyzer. The surplus sources list all the
can form deposits that may interfere parameters you need to know and you
with the switch operation. AC Voltmeter; optional, to see how don't have to worry about things like
much volts you are actually drawing compatibility with sodium hydroxide.
There are pressure' isolator' systems from the wall. I don't use one on my
that you can install, to prevent switches electrolyzer. For power tests I have a You'll be wiring these four diodes into
from becoming contaminated but I special watt-meter into which I plug a 'full-wave bridge rectifier' as per the
don't think this is really needed in my electrolyzers. I just use portable schematics shown elsewhere.
most applications the components (if (clip or clamp on) amp and volt
compatible and installed correctly) will meters. Mostly, for actual operation, Arrange the heat sinks so that cooling
give decades of trouble free service. I'm concerned with the amperage and air can flow freely through them.
voltage across the electrolyzer itself.
Be sure to mount the pressure gauge in Main relay
such a way that the fittings are easily On/off switch
reached for assembly, dis-assembly and Get a mechanical one rated for a higher
testing. I just use a standard 120 volt light amperage than you'll be using. This'll
switch. You also need to get the help make it last longer. It is nice to
Temperature gauge: optional but electrical box that it goes into. get a three pole single throw (but a two
recommended. Should read from OaF Another option is to use a low voltage pole single throw will work). Coil
to 212°F; although a range from 70°F switch that signals a relay; this option operated by 120 VAC (even though
to 140°F is all that is needed for most allows you to have your entire control there is 240 VAC going through the
use. A good electronic one can be panel wired all low voltage, all the main contacts to the high voltage
found in the JC Whitney catalog. switches would look similar. electrolyzer power supply). I like to
see Resources Also there are various use mechanical rather than electronic
electrical and mechanical temperature Indicator lights because I LIKE to hear when the
gauges that you can use. Whatever electrolyzer is operating (you'll hear
style you choose, make sure the Two Indicator lights; 120 volt, can be the contacts tum on and off and you'll
sending unit is compatible with sodium different colors. Allows operating hear the slight buzz of the main relay
hydroxide and can be effectively sealed status confirmation of main switch on coil when it is activated). Also,
against the pressure in the electrolyzer. and main relay on, at a glance. mechanical relays are rugged,
Optional but recommended. Also, I dependable and it's less likely that one
DC Amp meter: recommended but recommend that you have indicator of you will mess it up. My experience
optional and handy to see exactly how lights for status of the electronic liquid with electronic relays shows they can

32·s Gas, Book 2

be sensitive under certain conditions. Hook main power inlet cord to more than one pressure gauge if you
enclosure box want to see the pressure from different
Note: some mechanical relay coils are angles.
excessively loud, mostly because they Power Cord and plug: you'll get a
are loose and vibrate at the 60 cycle proper sized cord and plug for the As I mentioned before, it's helpful to
frequency. I just used a 'hot glue'gun amperage you will be drawing. Don't have the indicator lights (LED's) and
and glued my coil down; it worked get one too small or you'll bum it up. test switches for the automatic
great! Cords and plugs are amperage rated, so electronic liquid level and temperature
a hardware person will be able to help switches mounted on the control panel
Terminal strips you get the right ones. On my ten inch as well.
electrolyzer (30 amps DC, 48 amps
I just made my own, using strips of AC) I use a 50 amp power cord meant And you want your main onloff switch
copper 1/16 inch thick and 3/4 inch for electric ranges. You may already where it can be reached very easily.
wide. I screwed the copper onto a strip have a heavy duty outlet rated for the
of Teflon plastic (could use PVC or amperage you will have and you'll just I advise you to build your unit so that
HDPE as well) 3/4 inch wide and 1/2 get a cord and plug for it. Remember you have easy access to all of your
inch deep. Then I drilled and tapped to rate your breaker about 30% higher interior components, and particularly
(10/24 thread) holes every 1/2 inch. I than your AC amps. the components that need adjusting,
use these terminal strips to attach all like the pressure switch and the
the capacitors to the main power cables Power Receptacle: while this isn't a automatic temperature controls.
(they work great). Make them long component for inside your enclosure,
enough to handle all the capacitors you'll need to plug in your I advise you to build, and particularly
that'll fit in your enclosure. electrolyzer, if you don't already have to wire your control box so that you
a receptacle, wiring one in is straight- can remove any component easily. Use
You can buy terminal strips in Radio forward electrical work. of terminal blocks and ferrules is
Shack, item # 274-670. For connecting advised, so each component can be
all the capacitors to a #8 wire, you'll Just wire the receptacle to code in your removed separately.
also need a 'jumper terminal strip', area. Make sure your wires from your
Radio Shack # 274-650. The jumper breaker box can handle the current you It really pays to take a little extra time
terminal strip makes all the terminals expect to draw. to plan how you'd remove each
on one side of the terminal strip component. From the top, front, back
common (connected together) with a If you use an extension cord, make or sides and have the appropriate doors
piece of metal thick enough to handle sure it is rated for the amperage and or fasteners so that you can remove the
the high amperage. If you were to just has the proper ends. I recommend covers easily. It may take a little
run a 14 gauge jumper wire from one Teck (armor-covered) cable. longer to build it right, but you'll be
terminal to the next, the first 14 gauge proud of the result and appreciate the
jumper would have to handle all the Enclosure box effort you put in if you ever have to
amperage less the first capacitor and it take it apart. In particular, you'll
would bum up. The enclosure box will look different notice if you didn't design it properly.
for every home built application,
Again I note; it's wise to use because most people will use Install capacitors
connectors or terminal strips for components that aren't the same.
everything, so that every component Several power capacitors are needed
can be removed independently for To design your own enclosure, you for capacitive limiting or voltage
maintenance, testing or service. first need to acquire all the components doubler. You must rate the capacitors
for your control box and then 'lay them at above the peak voltage you'll be
Duplex receptacle out'. drawing from the wall. You are best
off with oil filled capacitors. Note, this
I don't show a duplex receptacle in the By measuring the components and is again a good item to look for in the
main wiring schematic. It is optional figuring out where you want them in surplus area. Capacitors mostly either
but recommended. I can't tell you how relationship to each other, you will work or they don't. Oil filled
many times it's come in handy with my determine the size and shape of your capacitors tend to be 'self healing'.
electrolyzer. It's handy to have 120 enclosure box. Just find enough capacitance to do the
VAC right there. It's not a bad idea to job for you as per the information
wire in a 240 volt outlet as well. Certain things are obvious, like you given previously.
want your pressure gauge where you
can glance at it from anywhere you are Note: At 4:1 electrolyte concentration
using the torch. It is no problem to add you'll need a lot less capacitance than

Brown's Gas, Book 2/ 33

72:1. For example, at 4:1 my 126 cell, all your control box components DESIGNING AND BUILDING A
10 inch electrolyzer needs only 20 uF together, even mounted them in the BUBBLER
on each leg to get 28 DC amps from enclosure.
240 VAC; but using 72:1 I need 250 uF This list is for an ER 1000 electrolyzer
on each leg to get my 28 DC amps. When cutting length of wires, don't cut (which we will demonstrate at the 1997
Obviously the DC voltage is much too short or too long, route the wires Tesla Symposium), having a bubbler
higher across the electrolyzer with the neatly and together. Remember that tank and a modifier tank. The valves
thin (72:1) electrolyte. you want to be able to get at and fittings are listed in the
components to remove them. Use 'electrolyzer fitting'component list.
Wire control box cable holders and wire ties to make the
installation neat and to keep the wires Component Quantity
All wire should be STRANDED, from rubbing against anything that will
because this is a mobile application. cut them. S.S. Tank as depicted 2x
Generally speaking you'll be buying 1 ft. 1/4" PVC Tubing 2x
three sizes. Wires From Enclosure to Electrolyzer Little Plastic Ball 2x
1. A heavy gauge for your main high Oxy.lAct. Hoses Ix
voltage/amperage circuit (exactly how You have to plan on how your wires Torch with tips Ix
heavy gauge depends on the amperage will be fastened onto your electrolyzer
you'll be drawing). I'm drawing up to sensors and how they will be routed Note: the bubbler tank in the drawing
50 amps AC for my ten inch into your control box. is NOT to scale, pay attention to the
e1ectrolyzer. I'm using six gauge wire; sizes given on the drawing.
I can get away with it because my Some sensors already have a ground
wires are short but I really should be wire, some were meant to be grounded This bubbler is designed for up to a
using four gauge (the smaller the through their case to the metal in 1,500 liter per hour e1ectrolyzer. A
number, the thicker the wire). which they're screwed. But since this 4,000 liter per hour bubbler would be
2. About 14 gauge for the main relay design has a plastic shell, it does not identical height, and it would be 5.5"
control circuit, this will handle from 4 allow grounding; for the ground on ID diameter, 3/16" walls, 3/8" down-
to 6 amps. these sensors, I just clamp the ground tube and 1/2" end plates.
3. And 22 gauge for the electronics; wire onto the sensor with a screw
these wires need only handle fractions clamp. The bubbler tank must have a sight
of an amp. tube to allow visual monitoring of
Use proper wire ties and strain relief liquid levels. The sight tube is meant
All wires should be color coded and devices. Route your wires so that they to go between the 1/8" FPT hole 1 inch
the color codes noted in your Brown's are unlikely to be caught or snagged on above the diffuser plate and the 1/8"
Gas book, for reference later. I do not anything (out of the way and neat). FPT hole 1 inch below the top of the
recommend that you use only one color bubbler.
for everything; you'll regret it if you Gas pressure hose from liquid-vapor
do. You can buy a nice wire separator The bubbler tank has two liquid level
assortment from JC Whitney. sensors in it. The highest to warn of
This hose will go to the pressure relief low liquid level by turning on a buzzer,
Generally speaking for AC, Black is valve, pressure switch and the pressure and the lowest to actually shut off the
power, White is neutral, Red is usually gauge. Use the appropriate fittings, electrolyzer. The lowest is mounted 6"
power and Green is usually neutral. remembering that you may want to above the diffuser plate and in our
remove anyone of these devices for shop this is known as the 'Line Of
For DC, Black is negative and Red is service at some time. Death.' The upper sensor can be
positive, white, green, yellow etc. are anywhere from 1/4" to I" above the
used as 'in between' wires, color coded Route the hose so that if any liquid lower sensor.
to make tracing circuits easy. gets into the line, the liquid will drain
back to the liquid-vapor separator. Note the sensor shroud. This can be
Use proper terminal ends for every Route the hose neatly but without any shape of stainless steel, welded to
wire, and where using ferrules, solder sharp bends and without loops that the side of the bubbler, just so it
the ends of the wires (individually) collect liquid. encloses the liquid level sensors (must
before twisting them together. I be at least 3/8" away from the tip of
recommend soldering the terminal ends the sensors as they stick out into the
onto the wires. bubbler). The sensor shroud doesn't
have to be sealed, in fact needs about
You'll determine the length of all the (no more than) an 1/8" hole in the
wires (and hoses) after you've brought bottom and needs at least an 1/8" hole

34·s Gas, Book 2

in the top (the top can be completely to solidly mount the bubbler on a if you want to move around your shop.
open) . The reason for the shroud is to frame that will not tip over, EVER. This would keep the backfire distance
provide a calm level of water around short. You would need only one hose
the sensors. The main bubbler area is I mount my oxygen bottle right on my coming from your main bubbler to the
way too agitated for the sensors to frame for my bubbler, because it needs portable bubbler.
operate properly. to be right there and I don't want it
tipping over either. It is my sincerest recommendation that
Note that I have a 3/8" bolt welded unless you really know what you are
onto the bottom of the bubbler. This is You can make up a second bubbler to doing, to commission a professional
mount on a cart with an oxygen bottle welding shop to make your bubbler.

Threaded 1/4 MPT - - . 1/2" FPT

Bubbler Tank for ER 1000
1/4" FPT
1/S FPT --J
1" below top
plate. Take care
not to tap
threads too
deep, tap so that
fitting goes in
finger tight with
1/2 it's threads.

1/S" SS Pipe
4" diameter
20" high

ea-- Sensor
1/S FPT shroud
<I- 1/4" (nominal)
1/S FPT jJ SS Tubing
6" above 20.5" long,
diffuser extending
plate 0.25" below
1/S" hole
diffuser plate.

Diffuser plate;
16 gauge SS plate,
with 3/32 holes
about every 1/4";
fastened 1" above 1/8 FPT

bottom. + 1" above

Instead of drilling the diffuser
plate by hand, it should be
possible to buy predrilled plate. 3/S" SS Bolt in
center of plate

3/S" SS Plate
Fig. 16

Brown's Gas, Book 2 1 35

Don't mess around with this item, it is D Preliminary pressure switch setting, prolonged shut-off is usually enough to
your sole defense against an near zero. find out if you have very small leaks
uncontrolled explosion. D Adequate size of breaker on circuit (your pressure will drop).
wall receptacle.
The bubbler tank must be designed to D Torch hose connected to bubbler set pressure swi1ch
be strong enough to withstand an tank, torch turned off.
explosion. The problem with D All valves turned off. Using a pressure switch allows you to
designing a strong container is that if it D Have soapy solution ready to test set any pressure you desire and keeps
is not strong enough, then the force of fittings. (Dish soap mixed in water, the electrolyzer fairly inexpensive,
explosion when the container bursts is to make floating soap bubbles.) easily built, simple, safe and compact.
much greater than it would have been D Plug in main power cord to wall
if the container had burst easily; so receptacle. Adjust the pressure switch up a few psi
make it extra strong, your life depends at a time, 'til you reach your operating
on it! Initial start pressure. I recommend 65-70 psi. You
want a high enough pressure to help
Note: the containers I've designed for D Tum on main breaker. prevent backfire, yet low enough to not
you here are already extra strong, D Tum on electrolyzer main power stress the electrolyzer.
stronger than the one I use in my own switch.
shop. Making it even stronger is, in D Watch for gas or liquid leaks as gas set and test the liquid level and
my opinion, a waste of money; and pressure builds to the low pressure temperature circuits
you'll quickly see how much money you've first set the pressure switch
that is. at. Even though I list these circuits as
optional, I seriously recommend them.
Generally speaking, gas enters the Check for leaks It is possible to operate the electrolyzer
bubbler tank through the 3/8" tube safely without these circuits, but they
(recommended) or the 114" hole in the Check for and fix leaks before offer that slight degree of extra safety
bottom (not recommended, because proceeding. Test for leaks with soapy that may save your hide. If it means
contamination can drop down the 114" solution, use paint brush. The soap anything, I have these circuits mounted
hole). The gas then rises through the makes a film over anything you paint it on my electrolyzer.
diffuser plate and goes out of the on; thus gas leaks will make soap
bubbler through the 114" FPT hole in bubbles. If you see ANY bubbles, Ughting the torch
the top. The 1/2 FPT hole is for filling even very small ones, you have a gas
the bubbler; this is where you mount leak. Note: the act of brushing the In the past it has been recommended
valve 1, which I recommend be a brass soap on, will make some bubbles. that Brown's Gas electrolyzers be
gate valve (I recommend all the valves Wait to see that new ones are being purged of the contaminated gasses in
to be gate valves, they seal best). made by gas before assuming that you the electrolyzer. It was thought that
have a leak. Do I have to tell you the contaminated BG would be
I've also designed this bubbler tank to NOT to test for leaks with an open explosive, and it is.
double as a modifier tank. You can flame?
drain the modifier fluid through the Actually, I've found a purge to be un-
114" FPT hole in the bottom. In this TIP: Unless you have a very bad leak, needed. I just tum the electrolyzer on
case you'll just plug the liquid level check all your fittings at the same time and allow it to come up to pressure and
sensor holes and depend on the sight while under pressure. Then you can then light the torch normally. I've
tube. Most modifier fluids won't de-pressurize to fix all the leaks at found that the gas bums fine regardless
conduct electricity, so the sensor once. if it is mon-atomic or di-atomic.
wouldn't work.
You must de-pressurize before fixing Besides, unless the gas is totally mon-
leaks, be sure to vent the gas outdoors atomic, it is EXPLOSIVE. As I've
OPERATING A BG ELECTROLYZER (using your torch). explained before, any di-atomic gas
will EXPLODE before it implodes.
Confirm ready to start Be sure to re-check ALL your fittings
after fixing any leaks. And check them Light the torch only with the
D All hoses & wires properly at full operating pressure for a couple electrolyzer pressurized. I operate
connected. of days after final assembly. between 65-70 psi. This higher
D Proper concentration and level of
pressure allows me to operate with
electrolyte in electrolyzer. Periodically check your fittings as you larger torch tips. If you don't have
D Water in bubbler to start.
operate the electrolyzer. A visual enough pressure, the gas will backfire
inspection of the pressure gauge after a to the bubbler with a loud BANG.

36·s Gas, Book 2

Light the torch as you would any other All electrolyzers have some gas How to avoid backfire
torch. Tum on the BG a bit, not too storage, so are able to momentarily
little or you'll backfire (because the maintain a higher gas volume; but this Keep gas pressure up, too low of
gas velocity out of the torch tip will be must be done quickly or your pressure electrolyzer pressure can't maintain gas
less than the velocity of the flame and will drop too far and you'll backfire. velocity at speeds faster than the
the flame will travel back into your Note: this works only if your combustion of the fuel.
torch. Don't open the valve too much electrolyzer has enough pressure to
or the torch won't light because the gas create a gas velocity far exceeding the Larger torch orifices require higher
velocity is too high (it blows the flame flame velocity. pressure to maintain the gas velocity at
out). higher speeds than the combustion
You'll want to extinguish the flame velocity.
Note: the actual operating gas pressure whenever you're not actually using it
at the torch tip is determined by your (it re-lights easily and cleanly). Not Do NOT allow the e1ectrolyzer to run
valve setting. It doesn't matter that only is this safer, but you use less out of water. If the e1ectrolyzer runs
you are feeding the torch with 70 psi, if electricity and water to get your job out of water, you'll lose gas pressure
the torch valve is mostly closed, the done. Further, the electrolyzers do and you'll backfire.
actual gas pressure at the torch tip is tend to heat up as they are used; by
much less and you can vary the tip extinguishing the flame, you give the Again: the electrolyzer system
pressure at will by adjusting the valve. electrolyzer a chance to cool. MUST be high enough pressure to
keep the gas velocity at the nozzle
Turning the torch valve on enough so Shut off electrolyzer above the combustion velocity of the
that you can clearly hear the gas gently flame, or the system will backfire,
hissing is usually about right. You'll It is my sincere recommendation that causing implosion or explosion,
know if it is too little because you'll you shut otT your electrolyzer depending on the characteristics of the
have a backfire. You'll know if it is whenever you are not using it. By gas at the time (usually explosion).
too much, because the torch will be this I mean shut off the main power Larger nozzles require higher pressures
hard to light. switch. This will give you two to prevent backfire.
Light the torch with any ordinary This is a very good point to bring up at
method, match, lighter, striker, etc. First, you'll be able to tell if you have this time: If you had pure Brown's
You have to hold the striker quite close a gas leak because the pressure in the Gas (200% gas) then you'd only have
to the torch tip or the torch won't light. electrolyzer will drop overnight. an implosion. If you have anything
close to di-atomic gas, then you'll have
Note: It will be hard to light the torch Second, you'll still have a shop in the a BIG explosion. then an implosion.
with a match, because the gas velocity morning. Imagine this; your pressure The END result of burning mon or di-
will tend to extinguish the mach before switch fails and your electrolyzer atomic hydrogen and oxygen is always
the torch lights. DO NOT tum down builds pressure (doesn't shut off) 'til a vacuum, because the gas turns to a
the gas velocity too far or you'll the electrolyzer tank bursts (say around liquid (water). You'll always get a
backfire. 300 psi), releasing a huge amount of vacuum in your bubbler tank,
flammable gas into your shop, some regardless if you had mon-atomic or
You will quickly learn the things that arc or flame in your shop ignites the di-atomic gas.
cause a backfire and learn to avoid mixture and the resulting explosion This is because the di-atomic gas must
them. The backfire is loud and can levels your shop and any nearby first split into mon-atomic gas (which
make you jumpy; and you'll have the buildings. is Brown's Gas) and this splitting
chore of emptying the water out of the (breaking of atomic bonds) causes an
hose after every backfire. Even with a pressure relief valve you explosion; then the newly split atoms
are not completely safe, running the recombine directly into water, going
Extinguish torch electrolyzer for extended periods from a gas to a liquid just as Brown's
causes it to overheat, if your Gas does (because at that point it IS
The usual and quickest method is to temperature controls fail (or you don't Brown's Gas).
suddenly shut off the gas adjustment have any); then your plastic Gas with mostly di-atomic explodes
valve. If you shut it off too slow, you electrolyzer shell gets soft, causes violently (sounds like a 'bang'). Gas
WILL get a backfire. leaks, puts flammable gas in your shop with a lot of mon-atomic explodes too
and it blows up. but not as hard, because you're getting
Another way to extinguish torches is to an explosion and implosion at the same
quickly open the torch adjustment until Shut off your electrolyzer when not in time (sounds like a 'poo!').
the flame is extinguished by the gas use. If it has no major leaks it'll hold And Gas with mostly mon-atomic
velocity. Then shut off the gas flow. it's pressure for days. mostly just implodes, (making a

Brown's Gas, Book 2/ 37

'ping'). So the QUALITY of the gas is The procedure to put water into the we've put it in various places on the
vital; at least as far as avoiding electrolyzer involves: electrolyzers we've built. Valve 3
explosions. MUST be in a different spot than the
1. Pressurizing the entire system with gas outlet/water inlet.
What to do when you get a backfire gas (doesn't have to be high pressure),
shut off the main power switch. Adding fresh water to the bubbler
Before you change your underwear 2. Rotate the electrolyzer 45° (to alIow
(due to spotting fore and aft), you free electrolyte flow between all the A person could fill the Bubbler tank
SHUT OFFYOUR TORCH. Then cells (through the gas space at the top with a pressurized water supply or
you check to see if any damage of the plates). pump (must also have a shut-off valve
occurred to any part of the electrolyzer. 3. Open valve 3 a crack to reduce the and/or check valve). This would be an
pressure in the electrolyzer (alIow only automatic water filling arrangement
The shock wave will usually knock gas to escape, no liquid). You don't and could easily be done. I do NOT
anything flying that is just laying on need to have total pressure loss; about do this on my own electrolyzer and do
the bubbler. My funnel gets knocked a 10 psi pressure difference between not recommend automatic filling of the
off. the bubbler tank and the electrolyzer is bubbler (or the electrolyzer) on these
plenty. I just vent this little bit of gas small electrolyzers. I WANT operators
The electrolyzer should immediately into my shop, but if you want to be to occasionally look their electrolyzers
start re-filling the bubbler container truly safe, you should vent this gas over and water filling time is good for
with gas stored in the electrolyzer, and outdoors. that.
then building the pressure up from 4. Open valve 2 to allow water to flow
there. into the electrolyzer from the bubbler I am now designing electrolyzers that
tank. The higher pressure in the will put out an excess of 100,000 liters
Don't use your torch again 'til you've bubbler tank (10 psi difference) will per hour (2,400,000 Liters/day). These
verified no leaks and proper operation quickly fill the electrolyzer. will have automatic water feed
of the electrolyzer. Usually a quick 5. When you think the electrolyzer has systems. I've designed some nice
visual check while it rebuilds pressure enough water; close valve 2 and rotate simple and effective ones. I can easily
and shuts itself off. the electrolyzer back to it's operating design electrolyzers for a million liters
position. Check the liquid level in the per hour. If you need such gas
When you open the torch gas electrolyzer to make sure you've added production, then contact me.
adjustment valve, you'll find copious enough and not too much.
amounts of water in your torch hose. Personally I've found no problem
This is normal, due to the oxygen and If you've added too much (electrolyte shutting down to add water; I only
hydrogen having converted to water in is higher than recommended in have to add water once every few days.
your hose. And perhaps some water previous text) then you tum the Obviously, whenever you move some
that got sucked up from your bubbler. electrolyzer 45° again and drain water from the bubbler to the
electrolyte out valve 4 (electrolyzer electrolyzer, you need to refill the
You must carefully drain the water must be tipped or you'll only drain the bubbler back to it's operating level.
from your hose. Turning on the gas end cell). Then the next time you need
flow and slowly raising the hose along water, you put this electrolyte back in; Step 1 is back filling the electrolyzer
it's length will get most of it. After the BUT you don't put it through the as mentioned in previous text. Tip
main draining, small drops will still bubbler, you have to open the 'gas out' electrolyzer 45°, reduce pressure in
occasionally come out your tip as you hose at the liquid-vapor separator and electrolyzer by opening valve 3, open
operate the torch but they usually pour the water containing electrolyte valve 2 to move water from the
won't cause a problem. DIRECTLY into the electrolyzer. It is bubbler to the electrolyzer, close valve
never a good idea to put electrolyte in 3, tip electrolyzer back up-right, check
Re-filling electrolyzer with water your bubbler, this will cause water level.
contaminated flame and foaming Step 2 is bleeding off the entire gas
Note that I have arranged this system problems. pressure in the bubbler and the
so that I can 'back-fill'the electrolyzer electrolyzer (vent torch to outside with
with water from the bubbler tank. This Note: During assembly, be sure to electrolyzer main switch shut off).
is because the water in the bubbler tank mount the valve 3 so that the Step 3 is filling the bubbler with a
eventualIy becomes contaminated with electrolyzer gas output will be above funnel (fill through valve 1). Don't
sodium hydroxide carried over from the liquid level both during normal fill too much (you'll get water in your
the electrolyzer with the gas. 'Back operation and during refill. If your torch hose) or too little (a backfire may
filIing'alIows me to put most of the liquid level output isn't high enough, go back through it).
sodium hydroxide back into the then mount valve 3 elsewhere. Mine is Step 4 is close valve 1 and tum on the
electrolyzer. actually mounted on the shell, but electrolyzer again. Allow the

38·s Gas, Book 2

electrolyzer to re-pressurize and you're Note: I put the electrolyzer on blocks electrolyzers but if they are not making
on! when I tum it over, so that the gas out 200% gas (pure Brown's Gas) then
fitting doesn't get knocked off and to they will have some heat to get rid of.
NEVER operate the electrolyzer with allow the solution to flow without the
less than six inches of water above the hose being kinked. There are several ways of dealing with
diffuser plate. Less than this and you the heating problem:
risk a backfire going back to your Once the electrolyzer is drained, you
electrolyzer, blowing it up and can completely dis-assemble it if you The first is to design the electrolyzer to
destroying your shop. We developed wish, just undo the end plates and it produce as much BG as possible, thus
electronics that help prevent you from comes right apart (again, use safety not making the heat in the first place.
making that mistake. equipment) examine the components We're trying this method as much as
and clean them further if needed. possible.
Visually check your liquid level often;
DON'T depend on the electronics to Re-fill the electrolyzer with fresh (de- The second way is to passively get rid
save your ass. If your check valve ionized or distilled) water and of the heat, designing the electrolyzer
leaks (perhaps because of a bit of electrolyte solution. Dispose of the so that it absorbs the heat from the
foreign matter stuck in the seal) then contaminated solution in an electrolyte and radiates the heat away.
your bubbler fluid could drain into environmentally friendly manner. The Also, a goodly amount of the heat
your electrolyzer. Then when you sodium hydroxide can be recovered. leaves the electrolyzer as water vapor
went to start up again you'd be (steam) along with the BG.
operating an un-safe unit. Preventing foaming
The third way is to design an active
Draining the electrolyzer If you've got a foaming problem, you cooling system, likely using a water
likely have incompatible materials in cooling coil or a standard refrigeration
You shouldn't have to totally drain your electrolyzer that are reacting with system. I've designed such systems
your electrolyzer very often, perhaps the electrolyte. We had such problems for the huge commercial applications,
never. Mostly if you've got dirty for MONTHS. if you need a lot of gas on a continuous
plates from bad water, or you didn't basis, get in touch with me.
de-grease your plates well enough and We have found very few fitting thread
you're not getting the performance sealants that are compatible with For this electrolyzer design, designed
from your electrolyzer that you should. sodium hydroxide. I've found it NOT for home shop experimental use; I've
helpful to phone the manufacturer. In made the BG production reasonably
Before totally draining the electrolyzer, my experience, they'll feed you efficient, so not much heat is produced.
reverse the polarity of the electricity misinformation. ('OH we're SURE Then I depend on a slight amount of
going into the electrolyzer for about that it's compatible'. Yeah, right ) radiation (plastic is a pretty good
ten minutes. This will knock the insulator) and steam (going out with
impurities off the plates and into the Take my recommendation and use only the gas) to get rid of heat.
electrolyte solution, so they will drain Teflon TAPE. If you feel you want to
out with the solution. If you reverse use liquid or paste sealant, you just If you operate the electrolyzer for
the current for too long, the impurities have to TEST IT in a small test cell hours at it's full possible capacity, it
will travel over and stick to the built in a mason jar. If you see any WILL heat up enough to cause a
opposite plate. foam AT ALL, it is incompatible and problem with the plastic. As the
will give you troubles. I've found plastic gets warmer it loses it's ability
To drain the electrolyzer, I pressurize it even the oils in my skin to be to hold pressure. With PVC the limit
with compressed air through valve 4 incompatible; so I use rubber gloves is 120°F. With CPVC the limit is
when the electrolyzer is turned after I've degreased the plates. 160°F. This is why I recommend
completely upside down, so that the CPVC even though it is twice as
electrolyte can drain out the gas-out EPDM end gaskets and o-rings are expensive and harder to get than PVC.
hose. I direct the gas-out hose into good to seal the end plates and power
buckets to gather the electrolyte. bolts. Teflon TAPE is good for fittings Still, my personal electrolyzer is PVC
DON'T put too much air pressure into (TAPE, not paste). and I've only had a temperature
the electrolyzer 2 to 5 psi is plenty. problem when lover-drove it for hours
Have someone hold the hoses, because Over-heating just to see what would happen. I've
the pressurized electrolyte will come also designed, installed and tested
out FAST. Take care not to have it All electrolyzers heat up because of the temperature controls that buzz if the
splash on you; use appropriate eye and di-atomic gas formation (see electrolyzer is getting warm, and shut
skin protection, have vinegar or lemon Brown's Gas. Book 1). Brown's Gas off the power if the temperature
juice ready to neutralize spills. electrolyzers heat up less than 'normal' reaches 110°F.

Brown's Gas, Book 2 / 39

Note: when you shut down the Actual Gas Production Brown's Gas and if so, what is the
electrolyzer, you'll note that the 'quality' rating of your Brown's Gas.
temperature will rise a few more My standard volume measurement
degrees before it starts to cool off. You technique is to take a plastic 'gallon' So let's do an actual calculation to see
can cool off the electrolyzer quicker by (four liter) jug, fill the jug, measure the how much Brown's Gas Mario LeBell
draining the pressurized gas out of it, amount of water it holds completely and his brother Ray were making in
then you take out the steam, which full (please do all measurements in Vancouver, BC. Using the volume
contains a lot of heat. liters and grams if you can), measuring technique described above
they measured one liter every 22
For normal operation you'll never have Refill the plastic jug with water and seconds using 3.5 amps at 128 volts
to worry about a heating problem. My hold the jug upside down in a five coming out of their 60 series-cell
electrolyzer has never exceeded 90°F gallon bucket of water, Insert a hose electrolyzer (with capacitive power
during normal cutting-welding- from your electrolyzer into the gallon supply).
experimenting. jug. As the gallon jug fills up with gas,
water will be displaced (pushed out of Remember, voltage doesn't matter to
the jug), measure the speed at which the actual electrolysis, only to the
BG ELECTROLVZER EFFICIENCY water is displaced with a stopwatch. overall wattage efficiency of the
MEASUREMENTS AND For example; four liters (one of my machine (discussed later).
CALCULAnONS jug-fuII) every 22 seconds (or one liter
in 5.5 seconds), Mario measured 3.5 amps going into
Electrolyzer Theoretical Gas his 60 series-cell. Theoretical
Production Be sure to hold the plastic jug so the maximum production of 2H z:Oz is:
liquid level inside and outside the jug ((3.5/26.8) * 16,8) * 60 = 131.64
Refer to Brown's Gas, Book 1. Note remain about level, or your liters 2H z:Oz.
that it is AMPERAGE (not voltage) measurement will not be as accurate.
that causes electrolysis to happen, If the gas has to work against water
They measured one liter every 22
pressure, it will pressurize the gas and seconds. There are 3600 seconds in an
To calculate the theoretical maximum you won't get as much measured
production of 2H z:Oz per hour, use this hour, so they are making (3600/22)
volume as you actually produced at 163.63 liters per hour of gas; which is
formula: atmospheric pressure. greater than 131.64 liters, so they were
* *
((A/ 26.8) 16.8) C = Liters of making 'super-efficient'Brown's Gas.
2H z:Oz These kind of tests must be made with 131.64 liters / 163.63 liters shows that
the electrolyzer at constant pressure.
they were making about 80% 2H2:02
A = Actual DC amps flowing through When I test an electrolyzer under
and 20% Brown's Gas.
your electrolyzer. pressure; I tum it on and adjust my
26.8 = amps per hour (one Faraday). torch 'til the pressure remains constant
163.63/123.36 = 1.24% 'quality' gas.
16.8 = molar volume (in liters) of di- for some time (which means I'm This means 24% more gas than 2H z:Oz
atomic hydrogen and oxygen gas producing as much gas as I'm allowing
to escape), and then I test the volume could possibly have given. We
produced per Faraday.
flow. therefore assume (because we have no
C = Number of cells in your series-cell
other explanation) that some of this gas
I've found this volume displacement is mon-atomic as per the explanation in
Brown's Gas, Book 1.
Example, if we have 10 amps flowing method to be fast and accurate. Using
through a 60 cell electrolyzer. Our gas flow meters has not worked well;
Note: 26.8 amps per hour would make
formula looks like this: ((10/26.8) * the slight amount of liquid that
33,6 liters of mon-atomic Brown's Gas.
16.8) 60 = 376 Liters per hour of condenses on the hoses tends to make
This is what I call 200% 'quality'gas,
2H z:Oz (ordinary di-atomic hydrogen flow meters inaccurate. Also, the gas
because it is twice the volume of the
and oxygen). is much lower density than air, causing
the calibration of 'baJl'type flow di-atomic gas. Pure Brown's Gas
would be 1866 liters per hour per
Note: Theoretical maximum production meters to be inaccurate.
liter of water.
of 2H z:Oz per Faraday is about 933
Figuring BG proportion of gas: Gas
liters at Standard Pressure and Yull Brown leads people to believe that
Temperature. This means if we his gas is 1866 liters of gas to one liter
produce more liters than that, we are of water, But it is NOT so; I've
Once a volume test has been made, a
doing something that needs explaining. actually tested a BN 1000E and found
simple calculation will determine if
Scientists are having trouble explaining the electrolyzer produces what I call
you are making 'super-efficient'
this phenomenon, 120% gas (at best). So the electrolyzer
design in this book produces identical
40 Gas, Book 2
or HIGHER quality of gas. This horsepower is equal to 745.7 By the way, you can see that a
design is superior to the BN 1000E in joules/sec. Kilowatt-hour is 3,600,000 joules,
every way (see Details in Comparison because there are 3,600,000 watt-
chapter). Power can be defined as the 'rate-of- seconds in a Kilowatt-hour. This is
doing-work' important for later.
The actual volume of mon-atomic to
di-atomic is still somewhat unknown If you measure the time it took to raise We put electricity into the electrolyzer
because we don't know if we have the weight mentioned above, then you as Kilowatt-hours (Kwh). This is the
exact ratio's of 2:1 Hand 0 or if there are measuring POWER, because power actual WORK that you pay for as
is somewhat more 0 than H or vice- is work over time. registered by your utility's electric
versa. It could be (and actually seems meter. Now this is the confusing part.
to be so) that the H is more likely to If it took one second to raise the A large part of our technical society
form Hz than the 0 to form 0z, so we weight five feet then you have a has accepted Kilowatt (power) and
could have a ratio of H:O that is not POWER of five foot-pounds per Kilowatt-hour (work) as one and the
2: 1. Determination of the exact second. If you divide 5 ft/lb/sec by same; it's even stated so in some
constituents of the gas have not yet 550 ft/lb/sec, you get 0.009 dictionaries.
been done by us (May, 97). horsepower.
For example, a Kilowatt is power,
Wattage Efficiency per Liter of BG If it took you five seconds to raise that representing 1000 watts; this is a 'total'
one pound five feet, then you have a power figure; representing a certain
This is a vital ratio to know because it POWER of one foot-pound per second. number of electrons (coulombs)
determines the amount of gas you get flowing at a certain pressure (volts) in
for the electricity you put into the You'll still end up doing five foot- a certain time (seconds). If we use 10
electrolyzer. pounds of work, it just takes five times amps at 100 volts, we have 1000 watts.
longer because you are using only a If we use 100 amps at 10 volts, we
I will first clarify a 'technical'point fifth of the power. We'll divide 1 have 1000 watts.
that sometimes confuses people. It ft/lb/sec by 550 ft/lb/sec to get 0.0018
confused me for some time. This is a horsepower. Just to check, 0.0018 A Kilowatt-hour is work, because we
vital point that not only makes this times 5 = 0.009; how about that? have the work of 1000 watts divided
section clearer; but explains a by the period of one hour, canceling
misconception about Brown's Gas Now back to WATTS. A watt is a the time. Example: 1000 coulombs per
'atmospheric motor' that I will explain measurement of power (volts times second (amps) times 3600 seconds
later. amps), because an amp is a (time power applied) , times 1 volt,
measurement of coulombs per divided by 3600 seconds (time power
Watts are a measurement of power. SECOND; so we have work over time applied).
Watts are volts times amps. W = V x which is power.
A Now for the part that confuses people.
One volt times one amp is one watt. A watt-second is a measurement of Kilowatt power can be 'accumulated'
Two volts times one amp is two watts. work!! Because we have work per in a 'power' meter like is installed on
One volt times two amps is two watts. time divided by time; so time cancels, most homes. The meter is actually an
leaving only work. 'accumulated work' (total Kilowatt-
If you measure work per time you get hour) meter. It can be used to measure
POWER. Work and power are not the A 'joule'is a watt-second. That the 'rate of work' (power), which is
same, this is a common misconception. means one watt for a duration of one how fast the meter wheel spins, (I use
second. So a joule is a measurement of these meters for this function all the
Work tells the total work done; for work. I mention this now because time). BUT, the meter actually records
example raising a one pound weight we'll be back to it later. 'total accumulated work'in Kilowatt-
from the floor to a height of five feet hours (NOT Kilowatts). The 'power'
would be five foot-pounds of work; it Another measurement of work that we meter mounted on most homes is
doesn't matter how long it took (it commonly hear is the Kilowatt-hour actually used as an 'accumulated work'
could take a second or a year, either (Kwh). A Kilowatt is a 'rate-of-work' meter; thus the meter is misnamed and
way the same work gets done). of one thousand watts (volts times causes confusion.
coulomb/seconds). An hour is 3600
A horsepower is a measurement of seconds. So we have a power of 1,000 To make the situation a touch clearer:
power, because it is defined as raising watts continuously for 3600 seconds, Imagine a home using a power of 5000
a certain amount of weight in a certain which equals total work because the watts per hour (5 Kwh) for four hours.
amount of time (550 ft/lbs/sec). A seconds (time factor) canceled in the The meter wheel has been spinning
equation. madly, indicating a power (rate of

Brown's Gas, Book 2 / 41

work) of 5 Kw, but because the answer. To be meaningful, both Modifier Tank
household used 5 Kw for four hours factors (watts and liters) needed to
the 'accumulated work'done was 20 have a common TIME. Watts!hour I'll mention that it is fairly common
Kilowatts and THAT is what is and Literslhour. practice when using oxy.!hydrogen to
recorded on those cute little dials. use what's called a 'modifier.' A
Note: if the house had used 20 This need to measure different factors modifier tank is another bubbler tank,
kilowatts for one hour, we still would against a common time to get shaped like the first but having a
have seen 20 Kwh recorded on the meaningful data is why the 'joule'was combustible liquid (like benzene, all
'accumulated work'meter, but the defined. Any measurement of work types of alcohol, gasoline, diesel,
meter wheel would have been spinning can be converted into joules. For acetone, or any other flammable fluid)
much faster, indicating a power of 20 example (you already know watt- inside instead of water.
Kw. seconds) 1,980,000 foot-pound-seconds
or 1 horsepower-hour is converted as Note: Adding a modifier will change
Let's further assume that everyone 2,684,000 joules. the characteristics of the flame. The
went to bed and the house is now using first thing you'll notice is the clear
only 500 watts per hour (0.5 Kwh). In As a matter of interest, the wattage (transparent) center cone of the pure
ten hours the meter would have efficiency of our first ten inch Brown's Gas flame will tum white,
'accumulated'the work of 5 Kwh electrolyzer Faraday gas efficiency like a normal oxy.lacet. flame. With
(5000 watts), registered on it's little depends on the actual amperage most modifiers you'll also have to add
dials. flowing through the electrolyzer; which additional oxygen (from a bottle) to get
(126 cells and voltage doubler power them to bum properly.
Now to clear up a final point. The supply) is 28 DC amps at 270 volts
'accumulated work'recorded by the DC. «28/26.8) * 16.8) * 126 = The modifier tank is identical to the
meter is BASED on an hourly rate 2211.58 liters!hour total theoretical bubbler tank, except you'll have to
(because the gears are sized so that a electrolyzer gas volume 2H z:Oz. take care to use components (like the
certain number of turns of the wheel Actual measured gas volume was clear PVC tubing) that are compatible
will record one Kilowatt-hour. How 3,000 Liters!hour, thus 3000/2211.58 = with the whatever modifier fluid you
fast the meter turns indicates the 136% efficient. «28 amps * 170 choose.
power or 'rate-of-work'. VDC) /3000 Llhr). (It's wattage
efficiency is 2.52 WhlL). The modifier tank mounts in series
Now on to e1ectrolyzer efficiency: after the water bubbler and before the
Not bad; it beats the BN 1000E by torch. You'll want to have a check
As we apply certain amount of 16% in gas quality. The BN 1000E got valve and shutoff valve mounted in
electricity (watts) into the electrolyzer only 120% while making 1837.35 series (not parallel) going into the
for one hour; in one hour we would get liters!hour when we bypassed the modifier tank because you'll have to
a total of gas volume, which could be controls. Note: With the controls in fill the modifier tank occasionally
measured as liters per second (or cubic place the BN 1000E would only (with the modifier fluid) and remove
feet per second). produce 900 liters!hour at about 112% the excess water that eventually builds
quality and wattage efficiency of 4.9 up in the modifier tank (from liquid
If we are using in 48 amps DC at 220 WhIL. carry-over and water formed by
volts DC then we are using 10,560 backfires) that displaces the modifier
watts or 10.56 Kilowatts. If we keep OUR EXPERIMENTAL USE OF fluid.
the electrolyzer turned on at that 'work
rate'for one hour, then we've used Note that I have a 1/4" hole in the
10.56 Kilowatt-hours. bottom of the 'bubbler' tank, to be
We haven't actually done much
experimenting with the gas. And no used as a drain if you wish to change
Now if we are producing 0.83 liter of modifier fluids.
experimentation using a modifier tank.
gas per second, then we are making
Our main purpose to date has been to
3,000 liters per hour. If we divide You will also want a valve arrangement
design and build a simple and efficient
10,560 (total watts for one hour) by so you can bypass the modifier tank
BG electrolyzer. But we have
3,000 (total liters for one hour) we get anytime, allowing you to use the 'pure'
performed a few basic experiments.
3.52 watt-hours per liter (WhIL). Brown's Gas. The pure BG will
Note: unless specifically specified certainly have different properties than
Our example shows a total the modified gas and it will be an
otherwise, all the experiments
WKITAGE EFFICIENCY of 3.52 advantage to readily switch from one
mentioned in this chapter are using the
watt-hours per liter. Note that this is a Brown's Gas in it's 'pure'form (about to the other.
measurement of work; because we are
130%) and with no modifier.
including TIME as a factor in the

42 Gas, Book 2

You might even want more modifier work is fluxed in the conventional Welding cast iron
tanks, each with a different fluid, so manner prior to fluxing.
that you can switch between them at A welding torch (#3 tip) was able to
will, changing the flame characteristics Methyl alcohol bums at 3992°F make a nice puddle and easily welded
as required. (2200°F). cast iron. I was just melting it together
Methyl alcohol bums at 3500°. with no flux of any kind. In fact I
It's also possible to use modifier tanks didn't even clean the parts. I would
in series, thus putting the gas through M.E.K. bums at 3362°F (l850°C). have made a nicer weld if I'd had some
two or more modifiers, this could cast iron welding rod to feed into the
further modify the flame. Acetone bums at 1300°F (705°C) and puddle. I then took the glowing cast
aIlows the repair of white metal iron that I'd just welded and DUMPED
Note: the level of the fluid in the jewelry. it into water (room temperature). It
modifier tank DOES make a difference Acetone bums at 2192°F (l200°C). DID NOT BREAK. After it had
to how much the gas is modified. cooled down, I broke it to look at the
A flux (borate) can be added to weld; it looked perfect!
It's also easy to put plain water in the modifier fluids to help prevent
modifier tank/s, simply to act as oxidation of material being welded. I've also been able to weld cast iron
additional backfire arresting bubblers. with an oxy.facet. torch, nearly as
Welding glass easily as with the hydrogen torch.
MYTH, a backfire will blow up a
modifier tank that has gasoline (or BG works great to weld glass and fuse Cutting iron
some other modifier fluid) in it. it around various materials.
FACT, a backfire to a modifier tank is I hooked the BG to the red hose,
extremely unlikely, because most If the torch is directed directly upon normally the acetylene hose and I
flammable vapors have a very narrow cold glass, it shatters. I've found that I hooked the oxygen hose to an air
range of flammability, mixed with must heat the glass from an edge compressor set at 30 psi. I was using a
oxygen, and the vapor mixtures in the slowly with the torch at some distance 1-3 cutting tip. When the iron was hot
modifier tank are far too rich to bum. 'til the glass heats up; then I can direct enough to cut, I depressed the lever
FACT, in the unlikely event that a the flame around on the glass to and shot compressed air onto the
backfire does go to a modifier tank; (a perform whatever welding or shaping I metal. The metal immediately cooled,
hydrogen explosion is 16 times more wish. did NOT cut. I suspect that there is too
powerful than a gasoline explosion) a much nitrogen in the compressed air,
tank designed to contain a hydrogen If you do glasswork, you'll have to let preventing the oxidation by cooling the
explosion wiIl easily contain the the glass cool very slowly, putting it in iron.
explosion of any flammable fluid that an oven or hot sand, or it will shatter
you are likely to find. OK, OK, not do to the stress of cooling unevenly. I hooked the BG to the red hose,
nitro, but anyone fooling around with normaIly the acetylene hose and I
that kind of fluid won't be around to Welding iron hooked the oxygen hose to a
teIl me I was wrong. compressed oxygen bottle, with
I found the flame tended to oxidize the regulator set at 20 psi. I was using a 1-
We have not experimented much with iron, cutting it instead of welding it. It 3 cutting tip. When the iron was hot
modifier fluids to date, but here's some was difficult to form a 'puddle'to weld enough to cut, I depressed the lever
information from the torches listed in with. In short, my experiments with and shot oxygen onto the metal. IT
Brown's Gas. Book 1. Note that I just welding iron have been un-successful WORKED GREAT. The hydrogen
list the information, which is to date. torch cut thick iron smooth and clean.
sometimes contradictory; I haven't Further, when I missed my cut from
tested it to find the truth. Note: I was able to weld iron using traveling too fast, I was able to pick up
gasoline as a modifier fluid. the cut right where I left off; the
Water bums at 5972°F (3300°C). oxidation layer was absolutely no
Water bums at 6000°. Cutting cast Iron problem for this torch. In fact, I
discovered I could start a cut faster if I
Alcohol makes a green flame, bums Our BG cutting torch cuts cast iron started it on the oxidation layer.
around 3000°F (l650°C); results in clean and fast. It is my understanding
oxide free precious metal soldering. that cast iron is hard to cut with an Remember, the flame itself is cold.
oxy.facet. torch; though I have been The flame directed against a material
Methanol makes a blue flame which able to cut cast iron with an oxy.facet. causes that material to go to it's
wiIl oxidize soldered work unless the torch. melting temperature. Oxidized iron

Brown's Gas, Book 2/ 43

has a lot higher melting temperature I was able to weld copper with included). This would be 96% less
than non-oxidized iron. oxy.facet. too. Also get the copper di- operating cost.
I finally learned the trick of cutting At least in this respect, Yull Brown
steel with the hydrogen. Don't turn the Welding Aluminum actually understates the advantages.
flame up too high, or it blows itself out He states that it costs seven times less
as you cut. Only cut as fast as the I have gotten good welds with to operate the BG torch. Of course, it
puddle forms, this will assure that the aluminum, using the type of rod that is possible that he could get his
metal is always ready to cut. Turn has the flux inside it. I need more oxy.facet. at much less cost than I pay.
your oxygen pressure up enough to cut practice before I can describe a good
right through the thickness of steel you technique. But, when I'm actually cutting steel,
are cutting. Use about the same I'm still using oxygen; but ONLY
oxygen pressure as you'd use with Brazing when I'm actually cutting. I use no
oxy.facet. oxygen to maintain my flame. And
I have had no troubles using brazing at remember, the oxy.lhydrogen cuts iron
Do NOT hold your cutting torch too any time. The Brown's Gas seems to faster than oxy.facet.
close to the metal. If you hold your braze as well as oxy.facet.
torch too close, you'll be touching the
metal with the 'transparent' cones, Cost to operate compared to COMMENTS ON USING BG WITH
which are vacuum and DO NOT heat oxy.lacet. INTERNAL COMBUSTION
the steel. I've noticed that proficient ENGINES
torch users have a hard time learning The electrolyzer is extremely
this; to cut steel, you must keep your economical to operate compared to Jimmy Reed's experiments
torch at LEAST 1/4 inch off the steel. oxy.facet. torches.
I cut 1 inch thick steel cleanly (using a Jimmy Reed in Texas has actually
tiny 1-3 tip) holding the torch nearly Here we are paying about four cents idled a Dodge 225 'slant six'engine at
1/2 inch off the steel. I mean it when I per Kilowatt Hour O. 700 rpm on water as it's only fuel. The
say this flame is 'laser-like.' experiments lasted for fifteen to twenty
Our 2500 Literlhour electrolyzer draws minutes each and have been performed
Watch to make sure the steel is cutting about 10. So in one hour would use three times to date; July 4, 1996.
right through, I've lots of times cut a 10. Which is $0.40. At present, this Jimmy brought the electrolyzer to the
slice in the steel only part way through; electrolyzer uses about one liter per 1996 Tesla Symposium and it Did Not
this effect could be used in certain hour of water when producing gas at run his engine on water, though it did
applications. Not cutting all the way 2500 liters per hour. I buy my water at produce more gas than it should have.
through is an indication that you do not about $0.25 per Liter. Total cost per We brought Jimmy and his electrolyzer
have enough oxygen pressure. hour $0.65. up here (Canada) and with a month of
experimentation were not able to get it
Use the smallest torch tip you can get I bought my own little oxygen (50 to do anything special. All Jimmy's
away with, it seems to actually work cubic feet) and acetylene (40 cubic experiments to date (May, 97) have not
better and your cuts will be very thin. feet) bottles years ago. The deal is; I resulted in running an engine on water.
This splashes a lot less steel onto your exchange these bottles for full ones
boots and allows the cut to proceed whenever I need more gas, paying for But this spontaneous huge gas
faster. the gas but not paying rent on bottles. production with limited power did
This arrangement has worked well. happen, not only to Jimmy but in our
Welding Copper own (and others) research. So far no
It so happens that if I use my bottles one we know has been able to
The Brown's Gas easily welded down to dangerously low pressures, I duplicate it consistently.
copper, using plain copper rod. I just can get 2500 liters of volume out of
used the 'puddle'method. Copper them. So if I use gas at 2500 LIh, I Jimmy Reed's electrolyzer was a
sheds it's heat so quickly though that can get one hour of use. It costs me 'short' cell design of 60 3.5 x 1 inch
you need a fairly good sized flame, or $52 to fill those bottles. So total cost plates (30 neg. and 30 pos.), built into
insulate the areas of the copper that per hour is $52. a horizontal tube. The electrolyzer
you are not actually welding. The drew 2.5 volts at 14 amps (35 watts)
surface of the copper turns black Thus MY cost to operate the hydrogen directly from the alternator. Jimmy
(copper di-oxide) but otherwise seems torch is nearly 99% less. bypassed the alternator diodes and
great! normal vehicle battery circuit on one
If I was paying $0.18 per; it would cost 'phase'of the alternator.
$2.05 per hour to operate (water

44·s Gas, Book 2

The 225 ci engine is started on show a few of anomalous results that 'impossible'effect, because the
gasoline, (idling at 650 rpm) then the were interesting. amperage into the electrolyzer is fixed.
gasoline shut off and when the fuel in I do not deny that it happened to
the carburetor was exhausted and the First, during my first test (of two) the Jimmy; actually it just confirms reports
engine would start to stumble, the BG #8 actually COOLED DOWN during I've gotten from other sources. What
was turned on (the rpm would rise to operation. This cooling effect was not we need to do is find out how to do it
700). The BG was controlled with a measured with a thermometer, because on a consistent basis, because this is
very small needle valve on the end of a we didn't have one handy; but the the effect that allows an engine to run
1/4 inch hose. The 1/4 inch hose was coolness was easily determined by efficiently on water. Also, this seems
just inserted into the top of the placing a hand on the electrolyzer to be a different gas than Brown's Gas.
carburetor along-side the choke plate. (which several people did during the Brown's Gas is really consistent in it's
three hours of the test). The coolness nature, and never produces mega-
The experiments were shut down each was much more noticeable on the quantities of gas with minimum (and
time when the electrolyzer pressure underside of the electrolyzer than on fixed) electrical input. Also Brown's
would reach 50 psig. The electrolyzer the topside, indicating that the actual Gas, while more powerful than
had no pressure relief valve or pressure electrolyte fluid was doing the cooling, 2H z:Oz, doesn't seem to be as
shut-off switch; the only venting being not the stored and pressurized gas. powerful as this 'new' gas. As a result,
though the needle valve feeding the Further, the probes going into the I'm calling this new gas 'Hyper-Gas.'
engine. The electrolyzer actually was electrolyzer were quite warm, again
producing more gas than was being indicating some kind of actual We actually ran Jimmy's Dodge 225 ci
vented through the needle valve ACTIVE cooling in progress (or the engine on the gas that we stored up in
(running the engine), thus the electrolyzer would have heated up the #8 electrolyzer. It took about one
electrolyzer internal pressure would from that alone). A normal hour (idling the engine to use the
rise, causing the experiment to be electrolyzer would have gotten quite engine's alternator to produce the gas)
terminated; because he didn't want to hot with the wattage we were putting to store 60 psi worth of gas in the #8
burst his electrolyzer. There was no in over an hours time. This test took electrolyzer. The stored gas ran the
other reason to shut down the engine. place inside the van, which was over engine for 'about'45 seconds. I was
85°F. Note: during this time we were operating the needle valve to allow the
Note: he could not speed up his engine only building pressure, we DID NOT BG into the engine. I found that just
because his needle valve was several remove any of the gas from the cracking open the needle valve at 60
feet from the carburetor and he electrolyzer; so all the energy we psi was plenty to operate the engine at
couldn't open the throttle plate and pumped into the electrolyzer was still 650 rpm.
manipulate the needle valve at the there and should have made it hot.
same time. Second, the #8 seemed to become As the electrolyzer pressure dropped I
more efficient as the electrolyzer needed to open the needle valve farther
The results given in the first pressure increased; because the to maintain the engine's rpm at 650
paragraphs of this chapter were pressure of the electrolyzer increased at Gust as one would expect). During one
obtained with electricity taken directly exactly 1 psi per minute regardless of test (the first) I kept feeding in too
from one of the altemator windings of the pressure already in the electrolyzer much BG and killing the engine by
his engine's regular alternator. (operating at full wave rectification, 'flooding'it (too much gas). During
14.5 amps at 2.4 volts). We noticed that test we repeatedly started the
Jimmy Reed's 'experiment #8'did not that as we increased the engine rpm, engine using BG (no gasoline).
perform as expected at the Colorado the actual gas production went down.
Springs International Tesla Frequency of pulses during full wave At no time during any of the tests did
Symposium. It did not produce rectification at about 650 rpm were we notice a knock, backfire or
enough gas to idle the engine about 800 hertz. detonation in the engine; the engine ran
continuously on water as the engine's Third, calculations showed that #8 was smoothly on BG when the mixture was
only fuel. Jimmy described the actual producing about 20 times more volume correct; the engine stumbled and died
effects that he had done four times in than it should have; still well under when the mixture was too rich or lean,
Texas and from that I've concluded what it would take to idle the engine just as it would have on gasoline. At
that something fundamentally different but very significant anyway. all times while I was testing it,
was happening in Jimmy's #8 (see Jimmy's #8 showed typical Brown's
Hyper-Gas). According to Jimmy's explanation of Gas behavior.
the effect he was getting in Texas,
Actual examination and testing of #8 somewhere between 30 and 40 psig he I tried to keep track of the pressure
(my testing in Sheraton Hotel parking expected the pressure gauge to drop as the engine was running on
lot during the Tesla Symposium) did suddenly start rising 'like the second Brown's Gas in the Sheraton Hotel
hand on a watch.' This is an parking lot. When the electrolyzer

Brown's Gas, Book 2 / 45

pressure was high (over 40 psi) we need to electrolyze 3699.64 grams or per gram-mole compared to 57.85 Kcal
dropped 6 psi in 23 seconds, as the 3.7 kilograms of water in an hour. per gram-mole for Hz) this means that
pressure dropped, the rate of drop a leaner mixture will still explode with
increased; so that when the pressure A Faraday will electrolyze 18 grams of an acceptable force.
was low (under 10 psi) we dropped 6 water in one hour. A Faraday is 26.8
psi in 9 seconds. This was for the amps for one hour. 3700 grams/18 Fourth, Brown's Gas WILL explode at
engine running on Brown's Gas. grams = 205.55 Faradays required to leaner mixtures than 2H z:Oz. We don't
make 2303 liters of Hz. 205.55 how much leaner yet.
To operate on Hyper-Gas, the Faradays/hour x 26.8
electrolyzer would have had to produce ampslFaraday/hour = 5508.74 amps Fifth, Brown's Gas also explodes faster
about 60 times the gas AT THE SAME continuously for one hour. At 2.1 than 2H z:Oz; this means little in open
WXfT AGE; to keep the pressure up in volts, this would be 11,568.35
the electrolyzer as the gas was being air where the energy of velocity is
watt/hour (or 15.5 hp/hr). No
bled off to run the engine. This HAS mostly wasted, but in a closed
automobile alternator could make that
BEEN DONE, not only by Jimmy but combustion chamber it means we can
kind of wattage continuously. In
by another inventor whom I may not take advantage of the Kinetic Energy
addition, the 'load'of 15.5 horsepower
disclose at this time (due to a promise I equation, KE = one half Mass times
would require more hydrogen in the
made to him). I have not personally Velocity squared. A faster flame gives
engine than the bare minimum I've
duplicated this effect. more energy by the SQUARE of the
done in this calculation. Thus I say, it
increased velocity.
is not possible to operate an engine on
Further details of Jimmy Reed's work 2Hz:0z, when the engine's alternator is
will be detailed in future publications. All this means is that it is possible by
making the Hz to operate the engine. theory to operate an engine on BG.
We know we can in practice too,
Calculations to run an engine on BG
However, we (the research because we've done it, but it is always
For electrolyzer efficiency testing cooperative) have two situations where comforting to be able to prove we can
methods and calculations, see the WE HAVE operated an engine on the with numbers too.
appropriate chapter in this book. electrolyzed gas made from water
where the engine was making enough A specific example comes back to
We now have enough experimental gas to operate itself; thus effectively Jimmy Reed's experiment #8. We
evidence to put some mathematical operating on water as it's only fuel. were using 14.5 amps at 2.4 volts at
figures on some of the results. These Just remember that we haven't been the time in a 'short-cell'type of
calculations will also point out how able to consistently do it. electrolyzer. In one hour we should
much more evidence needs to be have made 17.038 liters of BG.
acquired. The first method is with Brown's Gas. Ordinary Hz would require 0.639 liters
There are several reasons why Brown's per second (using previous
First, let's see how much 2H z:Oz Gas can operate an internal combustion calculations); and at 17 liters of Hz the
engine only on water:
(normal electrolyzer hydrogen/ engine would run for 26 seconds,
oxygen) would be required to operate a leanest possible conditions. Note that
First, Brown's Gas takes up twice the 14.5 amps for one hour would only
Dodge 225 engine at 650 rpm. It is
volume of 2H z:Oz (because it is H &
given that normal Hz requires a have made 5.61 liters of Hz (ignoring
0, see Brown's Gas, Book 1), thus less
minimum of 4% in air by volume volume of 0z).
than half the electricity is required to
before it is a combustible mixture. A
make a combustible mixture.
225 cubic inch engine will pump We ran the 225 ci engine (twice) for
«225/2) x 650 rpm x .8 volumetric about 45 seconds on the BG we
Second, Brown's Gas has a huge
eff.) = 58,500 cubic inches of air per accumulated for one hour.
advantage over 2H z:Oz; Brown's Gas
minute or 3,510,000 cubic inches per We were making actual Brown's Gas
doesn't need energy to break any
hour or 2032.29 cubic feet. 2032.29 but I don't know the actual percentage
atomic bonds before it can recombine
cubic feet times 0.02832 =57.55 cubic of BG to ordinary 2H z:Oz because we
(combustion) with other materials.
meters/hr. 57.55 x 0.04 = 2.302 m 3 or Because of this BG doesn't require a didn't make volume measurements.
2303 liters of H 2 to operate the engine 'self-propagation'temperature and that
for one hour at 650 rpm at the leanest However, it doesn't stretch the
means less BG is required to make a
possible combustible ratio. combustible mixture (particularly in a imagination too far to see that if we'd
compressed gas situation). used another alternator on the engine,
18 grams of water makes 11.2 liters of set up to operate at 120 volts (modify
Hz. To make 2302 liters of Hz, we Third, Brown's Gas is also a higher regulator); we would have been able to
energy gas than 2H z:0z, (442.4 Kcal power a 60 cell series-cell electrolyzer
at 14.5 amps and produce the gas
46 Gas, Book 2
needed to operate that engine. I realize Timothy Trapp, from Anchorage, the wattage of the alternator without
that the alternator would put a load on Alaska has just joined our BG research increasing its heat. Amps make heat,
the engine, requiring a richer mixture team. He mentions that iron resonates not volts. Actually, the work involved
of BG/air but I think it would work! at about 400 Hz, so the stainless steel seems to heat the alternator anyway.
And in fact, this is exactly what Reed plates (that contain a lot of iron) could
Huish's experiment proved can work! have been resonating. Timothy is Jimmy has a good idea to add an
somewhat of an expert on electrical additional alternator to his engine to
The second method that we've actually materials resonance, so we will be act as the electrical supply for the BG
used to operate an engine on water is asking for more information from him generators. He intends to have three
Hyper-Gas. Hyper-Gas is so new I in that area. Timothy has built a BG generators; hooking one up to each
have very little clue as to it's 'square'series-cell BG electrolyzer out phase of the alternator. My
characteristics. It is proven that less of clear PVC, having mitered grooves recommendation is to use the series-
than 40 watts of power from the for the plates and gluing the whole cell design for each of the BG
ordinary engine's alternator can cause arrangement together with Master generators and to make an external
this Hyper-Gas effect. The Hyper-Gas Bond epoxy. He has achieved the regulator to cause the BG alternator to
is not Brown's Gas; it is a much higher continuous operation of a torch with a go to at least 120 VAC. The electrical
energy gas. Hyper-Gas is somehow 22 gauge tip at 25 psi, using 8 amps at insulation in most alternators will
made in an electrolyzer at much greater 120V. He deliberately caused an handle at least 600 VAC.
volume than any existing theory I implosion in his bubbler container to
know of can explain or account for. see if he was getting BG, it imploded You are perhaps aware that there are
do not know any more at this time. with a 'poof'. He then verified the devices already on the market that will
vacuum by sticking the hose into water convert an alternator to operate 120
Hyper-Gas and having water suck up into the volt hand tools (usually Universal
bubbler container. I pointed out to him wound motors and resistive loads).
To produce Hyper-Gas, my favorite that a 'ping' indicates a high This type of circuit is what I'd try to
theory at the moment involves percentage of BG, a 'poof' indicates use to power the BG Generators from
'ionization.' I think the Hyper-Gas is that there was a slight explosion before the BG alternator. An excellent source
ionized 0 and H, it doesn't matter (as the implosion indicating a lower for this type of circuit is Alternator
far as I can tell) which way the gas is percentage of BG. Timothy will make Secrets, by Lindsay Publications Inc.,
charged, just so it all has the same some volume measurements to PO Box 12, Bradley, IL, 60915.
charge. Like particles repel, so the determine the efficiency of his
same gas will want to take up a much electrolyzer. Note: Never operate an alternator with
greater area and/or make pressure the output wire open (not connected to
faster if in an enclosed container. I Conclusion a battery or load) or the internal
think ionization negative will give voltage could rise high enough to short
different flame and explosion results When operating a series-cell with an out the alternator windings.
than ionization positive. ordinary automotive alternator, it is
much simpler for the alternator (to be For those of you who are powering
A second theory is 'harmonics.' It's modified) to produce 120 volts at high stationary power units that already
been postulated that specific frequency and 10 amps than it is to have a 120 VAC alternator attached,
frequencies will split water with produce 100 amps at 12 volts. Amps you simply hook up your BG
minimal input of power. I haven't cause an alternator to heat, and 100 Generators to that.
(yet) been able to verify this in a amps causes a lot of heat. Jimmy Reed
practical way. was using the 'short'cell design; I For those of you that wish to apply the
recommend using the series-cell design BG generator design depicted in this
I've known for a long time that we because it is easier to modify an report to a gasoline engine (not diesel
MUST get the gas away from the alternator to produce a higher voltage yet, we are using spark plugs to ignite
plates as quickly as possible to prevent than to produce a higher amperage flame), DO use the bubbler.
it from becoming 2H z:Oz, due to extra (simply increase the rpm while
electron activity. It may be that Jimmy maintaining amperage through the Remember that this is an experimental
lucked onto the exact conditions rotor windings). design. Automatic water filling and
needed to achieve a harmonic mobile application designs are not yet
resonance in his electrolyzer that Modem auto alternators are amperage finalized and depend on the results
actually vibrated the plates themselves. limited by the cooling capacity of the obtained from this design.
The vibration knocking the bubbles off alternator (and the stator winding
the plates while they were still just H design) but can actually increase their
and 0 in their very highest energy voltage quite high, at the same
state. amperage as ever; thus we can increase

Brown's Gas, Book 2 / 47

OVER-UNITY HEAT Please DO NOT use ordinary di-atomic Second, Brown's Gas flame
logic for Brown's Gas; such logic temperature changes when it is applied
Everyone is looking for over-unity could get you hurt. to various materials. The Brown's gas
using Brown's Gas. I haven't yet flame is about 27soF (13S0C) in open
confirmed any over-unity (more energy The first Brown's Gas characteristic air. Without any torch adjustment,
out than put in) from Brown's Gas that astonishes anyone familiar with di- applying the flame to aluminum causes
directly. I have some ideas but haven't atomic hydrogen and oxygen is the aluminum to heat to 129soF
tested them. Brown's Gas IMPLOSIVE nature; (702°C). Applied to brick, the
when bumed in it's pure mixture, temperature reaches 3, lOO°F (1704°C).
However, as noted in Brown's Gas. Book Brown's Gas forms a VACUUM of
1, we found (by error) a possible over- high purity. Of course a diatomic Applied to tungsten, the temperature is
unity heating method by building an mixture will make a vacuum too, but over 10,200°F; the tungsten melts and
electrolyzer that DID NOT make there'll be an explosion and then an then vaporizes. NOTE the tungsten is
Brown's Gas, or much 2H z:Oz either. implosion. Brown's Gas has only NOT sublimating, as Yull Brown says.
Instead it made STEAM (boiled implosion. Sublimation is conversion directly
water). And the apparatus heated from solid to gas. The tungsten first
water MUCH faster than an electric NOTE: Di-atomic hydrogen and melts (goes liquid) THEN boils (turns
resistance heater (totally submerged) oxygen will also cause an implosion, to gas). You can verify this yourself by
could; using the same electricity (volts, AFTER they explode. First the break putting on a welding helmet and
amps and watts). their atomic bonds (which we see as an observing the effect of the BG flame
explosion) and become atomic gas on a tungsten rod, you'll see the rod
(like BG). Then they tum into water, actually melting; NOT turning directly
BROWN'S GAS CAPABIUTIES which we see as an implosion. So from a solid to a gas. Use a welding
exploding normal 2H z:Oz in a sealed helmet with a dark glass because the
Actual BG characteristics container WILL cause a vacuum to light generated is very bright. By the
form in that container. way, an oxy.facet. torch will melt and
Brown's Gas is an exact mixture of boil tungsten just about as fast as the
two hydrogen and one oxygen in their This effect makes some people think hydrogen torch!
atomic molecular form, written 2H:0. they have Brown's Gas when in fact
I often call this mon-atomic to they do not. You do not have pure Third, Brown's Gas torch flame is
differentiate from 'normal'hydrogen Brown's Gas unless there is NO extremely directional. The Brown's
and oxygen gas in their di-atomic explosion, which you would hear as a Gas flame bums through a block of
form, written as 2H zz :Oz. Atomic (or slight 'ping'. If you hear a 'poof' you wood or a ceramic fire brick 'like a
mon-atomic) Hand 0 gas is have mostly Brown's Gas and if you laser' (I've done this). This should
COMPLETELY DIFFERENT from hear a 'bang'you have little or no allow precision welds, but I haven't
di-atomic Hz and Oz. Brown's Gas. With 130% gas we still welded anything yet. I've tried but my
hear a bang. welds don't stick. It could just be my
It is very important for experimenters technique.
to realize that Brown's Gas has NOTE: Our (Eagle-Research)
properties and operating characteristics e1ectrolyzers put out a mixture of di- Brown's Gas is supposed to allow
completely different from 'ordinary' di- atomic (100%) and atomic (200%). (when combined with the vacuum
atomic hydrogen and oxygen mixtures. The more atomic portion in the gas characteristic) the two materials being
I cannot express the DIFFERENCE volume, the less hard the explosion, 'til welded to actually be different
enough times, because it is a common at 200% we have only implosion. temperatures. Thus, the heat required
mistake for people looking at Brown's to melt steel is less likely to vaporize
Gas to use 'ordinary'hydrogen Because of the implosive characteristic the copper being bonded to it. I
formulas and logic to interpret Brown's of the Brown's Gas flame (even with a haven't succeeded in welding
Gas properties and characteristics. substantial component of 2H z:Oz) the dissimilar metals together, but am still
Using 'ordinary' di-atomic calculations actual welding takes place in a exploring the possibilities.
will give the wrong answers for this vacuum. Anyone who has welded with
mon-atomic gas. a TIG or MIG welder knows how Fourth, Brown's Gas can cut materials
important an inert (oxygen free) gas that ordinary torches couldn't touch,
Brown's Gas, 2H:0 is COMPLETELY environment can be to a weld. like iron oxide, because the Brown's
DIFFERENT than 2H z:Oz mixtures. Welding in a vacuum is considerably Gas flame instantly causes the material
Some of the DEMONSTRABLE better, but previously required to raise IT'S OWN temperature 'til it is
properties and characteristics of equipment beyond the means of the sufficient to melt or bum itself.
Brown's Gas cannot be explained with average shop. Welding in a vacuum is
'accepted' Physics and Chemistry. now possible for everyone.

48 Gas, Book 2

Fifth, Brown's Gas can cause changes I have offered to Yull Brown, the electricity to make your Brown's Gas
in the molecular structure of some option of getting a book written about and have electricity left over. My
materials. For example, melting a chip Brown's Gas, by Yull Brown, with my experimentation has shown this to be
of ordinary fire brick creates a stone technical and writing assistance; so far bunk! (Hyper-Gas is a different story,
with a hardness of 9.5; almost as hard he has refused. His patents have now but we can't do it consistently yet)
as diamond (I haven't repeated this run out and it is up to people like us to
experiment yet). Brown's Gas can be bring the truth to light. And to get this The third problem with the 'home
used to glaze surfaces (I have done technology out into general use. This power outlines'is that they show
this). is a technology that is needed NOW! serious ignorance of Brown's Gas
actual characteristics and that will at
Yull Brown says that Brown's Gas that People, including Yull Brown, persist least cause loss of research time and
is not in a perfect ratio of 2H:0 in using 2H z:Oz calculations to money and at worst loss of an entire
becomes EXPLOSIVE! This includes determine the performance of Brown's home and lives. PLEASE refer to the
pure mixtures of Hand 0, mixtures of Gas. While you can get away with this Brown's Gas. Book 1. All my
Hand 0 that have a bit of in most cases because the gas is not comments have been experimentally
contaminating gas in them (like the usually pure enough to demonstrate the verified.
addition of a bit of air), and mixtures difference (even from Yull Brown's
of air that have a bit of Hand 0 in own electrolyzers). It must be pointed You will also note that nowhere in the
them. Personally, I haven't made ANY out that Brown's Gas in it's pure form world is Brown's Gas being used to
mixture which I'd call purely is significantly different, requiring actually power a home. That's because
implosive, (though I've gotten close, some new thought and calculations. it can't. Yull Brown was great for
the 'poof' stage) including the mixtures saying the gas could do this and that,
that came directly out of a BN 1000E. I agree that Brown's Gas is a viable but in a lot of cases, it simply can't, or
option to apply to a self-sufficient if it could, there are a lot better
I say again, it is my experience that air home, BUT not in the ways that are 'conventional'ways of doing it.
becomes highly explosive when Hand usually presented. I will explain:
o are introduced as a fraction of one Heating applications
percent by weight. Experimental I agree that BG can be made to work
verification of just how lean the without what I would call major Usually 'Brown's Gas home power'
mixtures can be has not yet been done. modifications, replacing normal outlines base cooking elements and
But demonstrable experiments show hydrogen and petro-gasses. BUT space heating on existing hydrogen
extremely lean mixtures will explode if definitely not as usually outlined. technology, not on Brown's Gas. It is
compressed about 8:1 (We've run a true that hydrogen in it's di-atomic
gasoline engine on BG). The biggest problem I've seen with BG form bums at 400-800°C with a
'home-use'outlines is the lack of catalyst, BUT Brown's gas in it's pure
Misconceptions of Brown's Gas understanding of the concept of a form would quickly bum up your
practical power system. First, why use catalyst (usually nickel/platinum, I've
I will now make some comments on Brown's Gas at all, for 'home-use'? burned up a lot of it). And if you mix
misconceptions being spread about Brown's Gas REQUIRES a huge Brown's Gas with air before using it in
Brown's Gas. amount of electricity to make. If the catalyst, you would have a gas with
you've got the electricity to make an explosive potential many times
I wish to present to the world accurate Brown's Gas, just use the electricity greater than normal di-atomic
information. It has come to my directly to power your home hydrogen, the catalyst could still be
attention that Yull Brown is appliances. destroyed, along with the house. Also
misrepresenting his own gas. He has mixing BG to bum with normal air will
been spreading misinformation for Or use your excess electricity to pump cause oxides of nitrogen to be formed.
decades, which is fully documented water up into a storage container (using
and easily proven wrong. Don't get a conventional pump) to recover with a As for using pureBrown's Gas in a
me wrong, I have the greatest respect turbine later. Why bother with the normal burner, so that you won't
for Yull Brown's work and expense, maintenance and danger of an produce oxides of nitrogen, that is just
developments. Personally I think Mr. explosive gas? as bad. Even Yull Brown will tell you
Brown has done his technology a great two things:
dis-service, by not explaining fully The second largest 'home power
about the technology and also by outline'problem I've seen is the First, unlike any other flame, BG bums
telling people things that are just not assumption that you can somehow get in open air at 127°C, which isn't hot
true. more work out of the flame that the enough to use for heating, so forget
electricity you've put in, so you can using BG in any heating application
run an engine to make enough like water heaters, clothes dryers, space

Brown's Gas, Book 2 / 49

heating furnaces, etc., you'll just be Let's do some math. To make cold by a pressure of 0.02 kp/cmz and would
wasting huge amounts of electrical reducing pressure of BG, we contain 0.01729 kg/m 3 . One liter of
power to make the BG and getting electrolyze a liter of BG by adding 3 of water turned to pure BG would occupy
practically no heat from the flame, power, which in an hour is about about 3.7 m 3 of volume. We introduce
UNLESS you tum it di-atomic but then 10,242 Btu worth of electrical energy. the water vapor to the vacuum created
you no longer have Brown's Gas, you We fill a container of about 0.54 m 3 to by the imploded BG; which at .01
have normal 2H z:Oz and just treat it as about 6.8 atmospheres (l00 psi), at kp/cm z and 20°C, water vapor density
such. 20°C. If we do a pressure drop to get
is 0.0072516 kg/m 3 . Thus, one liter of
maximum temperature change at
BG (imploded) would recover a
Second, BG causes different materials atmospheric pressure, we find that TI =
maximum of 0.037 liters of water (less
to change to their melting (or * *
(PI VI Tz) / (P z Vz) = (l 3.7 293) / because BG water already occupies
vaporizing) temperature and with laser- (7.8 * .54) = 15°C. We can cool about volume and as gas from the
like accuracy. If you set a cooking pot
3.7 m 3 of air by 5°C; this is about contaminated tank rushes into the BG
on a pure BG flame, the BG flame will tank, BG tank pressure rises).
10 Btu. So we throwaway 10,232 Btu
bum right through the pot in seconds
of electrical energy.
(or less), even if the material has a
Each liter of water takes about
melting point of greater than 6,000°C. A four horsepower compressor uses 10,800,000.00 joules to create 3700
about 3 worth of electrical energy to liters of BG, recovering a maximum of
Cooling applications compress 52 cubic feet per minute to 0.037 liters of water. Assuming
100 psi. In an hour this is 115 cubic temperatures remain the same. If we
Again, it takes huge amounts of
meters of compressed air. If we let this assume this process took one hour,
electricity to make BG. Releasing
air cool and release it as per above, we then we use a constant of 3 Kwh to
pressurized BG to make cold would
get 312 Btu of cooling. purify 37 grams of water per hour
work, but is an extremely inefficient
using this BG technique.
way to use high grade electricity
If we used an 'off the shelf' heat pump
(making compressed BG gas), better
at 3:1 CoP, we would get 30,726 Btu If we use a simple vacuum pump, we
by far to use a normal air compressor,
cooling for the same 3 electrical move water vapor from an
you'll get the same refrigeration effect
energy. environment of 0.01 kp/cm z to 1
with a fraction of the power (about
thirty times less power) AND you're kp/cm z (vacuum to atmospheric
So releasing compressed BG WILL pressure). Increased pressure at the
not releasing combustible gasses into
COOL as Yull Brown says, but hey same temperature causes the excess
the atmosphere (or
folks's like un-practical. moisture to condense out. The
exploding/imploding them in an
enclosed system). moisture holding capacity of vapor per
Clean water cubic meter is fixed by temperature,
Better yet, simply use an 'off the shelf' not pressure. Thus pumping 3.7 m 3 to
If you ignore Yull Brown's method of atmospheric pressure recovers about
refrigeration system. You have to have
imploding the BG over the 0.024 liters of water. Our pump would
electrical power anyway to make the
contaminated water (this would cause use about 0.1 Kwh of power.
BG, so just run a refrigerator. Then
an explosion) and use instead a
you can get many many times the
separate chamber to implode the BG If we use a simple evaporation system,
refrigeration effect that you can get
and then allow the already existing working at atmospheric pressure and
releasing pressurized BG or air.
water vapor in the contaminated heating the contaminated water (with
chamber to be sucked into the BG solar is best, but we'll assume using
Secondly, using BG as per the pioneer
container, to be condensed; YES it will electric) to 30°C, then we could
frigidaires to create refrigeration by
work, BUT again the electricity recover 0.024 liters of water with 0.02
making heat; it wouldn't work. I grew
required to produce enough vacuum by Kwh of power.
up with that type of refrigeration
this method would be much better
because my father's ranch had no
spent driving a conventional vacuum Why purify water with BG when a
utility power. It wouldn't work for the
pump, you'd get several times more simple evaporation system is simplest
reasons mentioned previously; first a
water without the possibility of and least expensive to operate? The
BG flame has no real heat unless
explosion. evaporation system is simple and
directed on something and second if
directed on something BG will bum inexpensive to build, is not dangerous
Let's do some math. We'll assume we and uses only a very tiny fraction of
right through it in short order. These
have excluded all air from a container the power used by the Brown's Gas
refrigerators require a steady or
containing contaminated water and that technique. Of course, evaporation
intermittent heat to be applied to a bulb
container is at 20°C. Water vapor in systems using solar power do require
or tank of refrigerant. Burning through
the contaminated container would be at some space and are not really portable.
the bulb will release the refrigerant.

50 Gas, Book 2

Are you starting to get a picture here? and many other scientists. His own inches). Atmospheric pressure is one
Yes, Brown's Gas can do a lot of published specifications on his bar (14.7 psi at sea level). The
things, but can it do those things in a machines say that! I don't know why working area of the piston is 31.4
more practical manner than other he persists in perpetuating this square centimeters (12.56 square
(already existing) options? misinformation. But I do know that inches). 12.56 * 14.7 * one foot per
anyone building an engine based on second (one stroke of engine per
Energy storage system Yull's figures is doomed to failure. I second), equals 184.63 foot lbs per sec
base this opinion on actual or 0.34 horsepower (184.63/550). It
We use electricity to create Brown's experimentation, to back up these takes 2729.25 joules «192960/18) 1
Gas. So if you are trying to 'store' calculations. 3.7) to make the BG that pushed the
energy by raising water, or if you are piston down against atmospheric
trying to run an 'atmospheric'engine; Note: Most accurately, I just tested Yull pressure. (At two volts this is 1364.63
you end up using huge amounts of Brown's electrolyzer BN 1000E (May, amps or 2729.25 watt-seconds or 3.66
electricity for little result. In this case 97) and it draws 4.9 watt-hours per horsepower (2729.25*0.00134). It
I'll do the math for you: liter of gas. See the 'comparison' takes over ten times the electricity to
chapter run the 'atmospheric engine'than if
To raise water, the working parameters you'd simply ran an electric motor
are: 1 gram-mole of water (18 grams of I refer you back to my Wattage without worrying about Brown's Gas.
water) requires about 192,960.00 joules Efficiency calculations, my mention of
to turn it to BG (26.8 amps at 2 volts joules and my careful explanation of I did witness a demonstration by
for 3,600 seconds = 192,960.00 watt- meaningful factors by using common Dennis Lee in Missoula, Montana
seconds). 1 gram of water will turn TIME for all factors. What Yull during August of 1996. One of the
into 3.73 liters of (pure atomic) BG. Brown has done here is measure a technologies demonstrated was a
Dropping one liter of water 10 meters Time of only one second for the cycle Brown's Gas BN 1000. The gas did
in one second generates 98 watts of of his 'implosion' machine versus the EXPLODE, then implode in the
power. 98 watt-seconds is 98 joules. Time of one hour to generate the gas to cylinder; just as I said it would.
So we spend 192,960.00 joules to store do that one second's work. Dennis was trying to prove that the
3281.04 joules of power (1.86 * 18 * 'implosion engine'was viable; and
98). Note that the head pressure of the It has become a secondary part of my succeeded quite well in proving that it
water being raised causes the volume inventing in the alternative energy field was not viable as per the above
of BG to reduce by about half. As you to point out when someone is wrong information.
can see, this is a very inefficient way to and I've become quite good at it. This
store excess electrical power (requires comes from continually critiquing my The problem is that the general public
58 joules to store one joule and this OWN work. Note that I'm also careful can be fooled by these demonstrations
doesn't count the inefficiency of to point out when I believe someone is because they are ignorant of some
turning the raised water back into RIGHT, regardless of the blind basic facts of Physics. This is not the
electricity) . opinions of most 'conventional' public's fault, no one can be expected
scientists. to know everything. That's why
Atmospheric 'over-unity' engine people like myself are needed, to
I (and many others) have pointed out balance out the education, expose
This is one of the biggest this time factor to Yull Brown himself incorrect statements and tell people the
misrepresentations Yull Brown allows (and he'll get a free copy of this book) truth.
to exist. The figures as shown seem to but he refuses to change his statement.
indicate over-unity energy storage and Personally I APPRECIATE it when I noted with a grin (but didn't say
the possibility of an atmospheric driven people point out my bad thinking; so I anything at the time because I trying to
engine. In fact, the energy storage by can get on with right thinking. My life be polite) that Dennis closed a valve
pumping water using the pressure and is too short to persist in wrong which isolated his pressure gauge from
vacuum created by Brown's Gas is thinking. the cylinder BEFORE igniting the gas
severely under-unity. You need to in the container. This was to prevent
convert the figures you have into a An atmospheric engine based on the explosion from blowing out the
common language to understand the implosion would be grossly gauge. If he truly got a vacuum
proper relationship ( I choose joules or inefficient. The math goes like this: without an explosion, then he could
watt-seconds). Yull Brown is saying One horsepower is 550 ft/lbs/sec. One have used an absolute pressure gauge
that it takes four watts-seconds (four horsepower is 746 watts. Assume a and not needed to isolate it with a
joules) to make a liter of BG; in fact piston of ten centimeters (four inches) valve.
his electrolyzers take four watt- in diameter that travels 30 centimeters
HOURS (14,400 joules) per liter of (about one foot). This displaces 942 Dh, ... an additional note: Dennis Lee
BG. He has been told this by myself cubic centimeters (about 150.72 cubic is an exceptional speaker and can hold

Brown's Gas, Book 2 / 51

an audience mesmerized. In my (April, 97) still has not delivered a Gas Production (LIh) 1,000
opinion, it might actually be dangerous single unit to those people who have ............................ (can go to 1600 LIh)
to point out the 'little'facts that Dennis paid for one. The list of excuses I've Operating Pressure (Mpa) 0.45
'forgets'to mention about the various heard is impressive.) Further note: I .......... (operate between 65 and 70 psi)
technologies he is presenting. have just heard (May, 97) of a BN Maximum Input Power (kW) 3.3
2000 being delivered to a Dennis Lee Max. Water Consumption (LIh) 0.42
After the explosion/implosion (as I've customer, he paid $6000 wholesale. ......... (I 259 liters of gas/liter of water,
explained before) the cylinder raised based on 135% eff.)
about a hundred pounds of weight Now, we have had the opportunity to Weight; all components (Kg) 95
about one foot in one second, easily actually test a BN 1000E, bought .................................... (about 210 Ibs)
demonstrating that there was a vacuum directly from Yull Brown himself. Cost about $1,000; home built.
in the cylinder. Dennis would just First I'll give you the direct test results
have you believe there was no as per above (you'll see some Note: we have achieved intermittent
explosion first. Typical Dennis Lee differences). Then I'll give you the results as high as 188% gas efficiency
presentation. data on the electrolyzer YOU can build at LESS than 2 watt-hours per liter of
from THIS book (you'll see how you gas. Note that this STILL won't allow
If one of you see such a demonstration, can BUILD a better electrolyzer than the 'atmospheric'engine to work.
ask that he put a pen on top of the you can BUY, and for a fraction of the
cylinder before igniting the gas. An cost). Further notes on testing the
explosion will cause the pen to jump BN 1000E
off the cylinder, an implosion will not. Actual test results of a BN lOOOE
Of course, he'll likely read this before (May, 97): This report is by George Wiseman,
you do and will not allow it. Gas Production (LIh) 907 intended for public release to increase
............... (we could not get 1,000 LIh) the awareness for buyers and operators
Power Potential of BG Operating Pressure (Mpa) 0.06 of BN 1000E Brown's Gas machines.
(about 8 psi, obviously something I (George Wiseman) have fully and
Brown's Gas energy level is much wrong with the pressure controls. The independently duplicated the
greater than 50,000 Btu/lb. 50,000 digital readout would go to 0.6 Mp (87 technology needed to create Brown's
Btu/lb is the power of normal 2H z:O z. psi) but the actual pressure measured Gas and this is the first time I will have
See Brown's Gas. Book 1 to see why only 8 psi (0.06 Mp» been able to operate a 'commercial'
BG has so much more power potential. Brown's Gas machine. I am uniquely
Power Supply Voltage (V) 235 (VAC)
qualified to test this BN 1000E, having
Maximum Input Power (kW) 4.5 independently duplicated the
We have not yet done comprehensive
Max. Water Consumption (LIh) 0.89
tests on BG power potential. technology from scratch, I know what
(based on 112% eff. = 1045 liters of I'm looking at, what should be there
Compare BN 1000 performance gas /liter of water. Greater water and what should not be there.
consumed because only 907 Lih
Yull Brown, in his sales literature for produced) Kiel and I arrived at Ben Missler's
the BN 1000, (found in ExtraOrdinary Weight (Kg) 225 shop (7402 SW Macadam, Portland,
Science issue OCTINOVIDEC, 1993, ......................................... (± 495.9 Ibs) Oregon), May 18,97 at l:PM. Ben
PAGE 20) specifies (actual Cost $5,500 USD direct from Yull Missler and Gary Robinson were there.
measurements on next page) Brown.
Gas Production (LIh) 1,000 We talked, had lunch, set up some
Operating Pressure (Mpa) 0.45 Note that Yull Brown's own equipment and started examining the
....................................... (about 65 psi) specifications show inconsistency. I BN 1000E. After getting somewhat
Power Supply Voltage (V) 220 further note that all the above figures familiar with it (and having read the
............................... (assume 220 VAC) that we tested and found to be true, I cryptic operation instructions), we fired
Maximum Input Power (kW) 3.3 later noticed that the original it up and figured out the controls. We
Max. Water Consumption (LIh) 0.55 specifications had been changed (to our had a backfire (not really loud) when I
figures) by hand written notes in the was shutting off the torch. We saw the
(this assumes 1700 liters of gas/liter of
BN 1000E operating manual. I was flash in the clear tubes (plastic).
told that Yull Brown himself wrote
Weight (Kg) 200 Note: the China torch is (in my
those notes when the electrolyzer was
.................................. (about 440.8 lbs) opinion) really rinky-dink. The tip
sold to Ben & Co.
Cost retail $5,500. would be nearly impossible to clean
(Dennis Lee is now (Jan., 97) and it has a knob to add oxygen instead
We have built (and you can too, with
promoting this electrolyzer for $10,000 of a lever (it would be hard to hold the
this book) a 1,000 Lih electrolyzer
and to the best of my knowledge torch still while twisting the oxygen
with the following specifications:

S2·s Gas, Book 2

knob to begin your cut). I recommend gas to separate properly, yet keep the tower simpler and cutting out the surge
changing the torch to an American cells as full as possible of electrolyte. tube entirely. But I will qualify my
model. I use a Victor 100C on my opinions by saying I don't know
electrolyzer in my shop. For our tests All four cell hoses go up to the first exactly all the plumbing arrangements
of the BN 1000E we used (after transverse container, that I'd call a inside these various tubes. My
initially trying the China torch) my liquid-vapor separator. The two hoses electrolyzer designs are simpler, more
Victor 100C. Fittings to adapt the BN from the top of the cells go to the mid versatile and fully documented so that
1000E hose to the American standard level of the liquid vapor separator (on people aren't guessing about their
are available in most welding supply the left and right) and the two bottom function.
stores. hoses from the cells go to the bottom
of the liquid vapor separator (left and The gas seems to go up the two hoses
Note: Main power in wiring code is right). The liquid-vapor separator is on the top of the cells (connecting all
Brown and White Power (240 AC) and about four inches in diameter and 17 the cells together), through the liquid-
purple is neutral (note, BN 1000E inches long; it is located at the back of vapor separator, through the modifier
manual has different colored wires). the machine just above the end cell. tank first, then go back down (with
Neutral is hooked to the electrolyzer some sort of inner V-tube) and up
full wave bridge rectifier heat sink The liquid-vapor separator has three through the back arresting tank, then
bracket, which is grounded to the towers on it. The first (Jeft when out the hose to the torch.
entire frame of the machine. There is a facing front of machine) is 8 inches
30 amp main relay that most of the high and has the pressure and liquid Water for the electrolyzer cells is put in
electrolyzer power goes through (there level sensors on it. The second is 13 the back arresting tower, where the
is a small pair of wires that routes 240 inches high, and is the 'flame modifier' water is poured through a down tube
VAC directly to the electronics (has tank. The third is also 13 inches high directly to the liquid-vapor separator;
smaller transformer dedicated to the and is designated as the 'back bypassing the back arresting apparatus
electronics), so the ON button can arresting'solution container (backfire in the back arresting tower.
activate the relay coil. container, or bubbler in my electrolyzer
design). The water level probes in the sensor
All the main transformer power (one tower indicate that the maximum liquid
lead of the 240 AC from the main The two end towers (left and right) are level in the liquid-vapor separator to be
relay) goes through what seems to be further connected at their bottoms Gust about mid level, lowest about 1 inch
an SCR; which seems to be controlled above the liquid-vapor separator) by a off the bottom.
by the electronics. second transverse container 4 inches in
diameter and 17 inches long. The Water for the back arresting tank is
The main transformer drops the AC actual connection is by two short 4 supposed to be filled by disconnecting
voltage from 240 AC to about 24 VAC, inch tubes. I'd call this tube a 'surge' the gas-out hose (found at the top-
which is then rectified by huge diodes tube, I think it is meant to allow backside of the tank) and using a small
in a full wave rectifier set up. These storage space for pressurized gas flexible hose to pour water into the
diodes are mounted on a heat sink that and/or to prevent serious over-filling of tank. Top cover of the machine must
is cooled by a large fan. The fan turns water from affecting the gas quality too be removed to do this. We were
on as soon as the main relay is turned much by allowing water/electrolyte to unable to get our hose past the fitting;
on and stays on 'til the main relay is be carried over into the torch hose. so we drilled and tapped an 1/8 inch
shut off (main power to machine is plug in the top of the back arresting
shut off). Personally, I see the surge tube as way tank. We then filled the back arresting
too large, or un-needed altogether. In tank 'til water came out the drain (was
There are six tubes mounted my opinion the whole arrangement about 1/2 quart), then closed the drain
transversely in the bottom of the box; could have been simplified and/or and added 1/2 quart more (0.5 liter)
they are about four inches in diameter modified to be more versatile and that the manual specified. It was
and 17 inches long. Each tube has effective. For example, it would be unclear whether this second 0.5 liter
TWO 'short cells'mounted in it; nice to be able to switch between pure was needed, so we added it anyway.
welded together in the middle. Thus and modified gas with a valve (without
the six tubes are each two cells; and having to drain the modifier tank to Advise for operators of BN 1000E
the electrolyzer consists of TWELVE eliminate the modifier from the flame); operators; drill new filler plug to the
cells. All twelve cells are connected or even to be able to run pure and left of main water filler facing from
on the top with a hose (left and right) modified gas at the same time (with front of machine), so water being
and on the bottom with a hose (left and two torches). Also, I see no reason that poured into the plug hole (for the back
right). These hoses seem to be there to the water fill for the electrolyzer arresting tank liquid level) doesn't
allow the electrolyte solution and the couldn't have been mounted on the drain into the gas-out hose (water in
sensor tower, leaving the back arresting your torch hoses is a bother, causes

Brown's Gas, Book 2 I 53

your flame to spit and go out). And Different modifiers will give different immediately shut off the machine, the
always drain your back arresting tank flame characteristics, and I discovered panel of LED's does go out.
before re-filling it, or it will be it may be necessary to add oxygen to
impossible for you to know what the get the best performance out of the Note that in our testing of this BN
liquid level is (need only 0.5 liter modifiers. Some examples of 1000E, we found one LED to be
above filler). modifiers include; gasoline (will 'blown' and the three probes of the
change it's characteristics as the 'light liquid level probe to all be shorted to
I think it'd be a good idea to drill and ends' evaporate first), diesel, acetone, each other; thus I assume the liquid
tap a 'sight tube' (with a floating ball) benzene, white gas, all types of level probes to not be working as
on the side of the 'back arresting' alcohol, and many other flammable originally designed or intended. At the
tower; then you could see at a glance liquids. You could just use water in moment, when the liquid level goes to
your back-arresting water level. Don't this tank too, and it'd work as a second below the bottom probe, all but two of
drill the lower hole too low or you'll backfire arrester. the LED's go out, and the 'low water'
be below the bottom plate and cause light comes on (which is good).
the gas to by-pass the backfire arrester. The five various sensors on the BN
You want your liquid level to be well lOOOE are: Note: we operated the machine with
above the diffuser plate; you'll see the the liquid level 2 inches higher than the
diffuser plate (has holes in it) when 1. A temperature sensor (resistive?) on highest set point with absolutely no
you drill the new hole in the top of the the fourth electrolysis cell from the problem.
gas-out tower. But you don't want front. Disconnecting this sensor causes
your liquid level to be too high or you the temperature readout to go to 'DO' 4. A current sensor, which seems to be
will get water splashing up and out into and doesn't immediately shut down the a calibrated resistance on one of the
your torch hose. machine. The temperature seems to be DC leads coming out of the full wave
shutting off at about 35°C. The bridge rectifier. The wires to it from
Although the BN lOOOE has proven temperature readout is in °C even the electronics are yellow and blue.
that it can take a backfire without though the button you press to check
blowing up (we accidentally backfired the temperature is labeled 'F'. 5. A voltage source, which seem to be
it by turning the torch off too slow and the blue wire (same one from the DC
we discovered that we had no water in 2. A pressure sensor (transducer?) on amps) and a red wire going to the other
the (separately filled) back arresting the third tower, (back left of machine). DC side of the full wave bridge
tank) I notice the fittings in the plastic Disconnecting this sensor doesn't rectifier.
hoses are now seeping a bit of fluid immediately shut down the machine,
(even though this machine has not the 'actual' pressure reading goes to Operation notes
reached pressures over 8 psi); this '00'. When this sensor is disconnected
seepage could have been caused by the the pressure continues to rise past the 1. The BG 1000E makes significant
backfires that this machine has had it computer set maximum. The pressure noise during operation, mostly from
the past, with no water in the back rises VERY fast and may rise enough the fan; it is so loud that we can't even
arrester. My recommendation is to to burst the BN 1000E even with the hear the noise of the transformer. The
keep water in the back arresting torch running. problem is noise pollution, making
container to prevent the e1ectrolyzer normal conversation difficult and
and hoses from having to deal with the 3. A liquid level sensor, which is three making stress.
shock of a backfire. probes put down into the solution.
They seem to be simple copper rods, The noise also covers the sound of the
Note: my design does not have the which form some sort of on/off switch. gas hissing out of the torch tip, which I
dozens of fittings that this electrolyzer Examination of the LED's on the front use on my electrolyzer to know if I've
has. Every fitting is a potential leak of panel indicate that they are arranged in got a 'just right'torch adjustment to
fluid or gas. three groups. So I expect that as each prevent backfire during lighting the
probe (three different lengths) touches flame (my e1ectrolyzer operates nearly
The modifier tank is to be filled with the solution, the appropriate group of silently). With the BN lOOOE, lighting
water first, to above the drain level, LED's light up. I note that the liquid the torch is a guessing game, though I
then drained, plugged and modifier level is supposed to be about even with will admit I never had a backfire
added (no more than about 1/2 liter or the hoses coming in from the cells; lighting the torch. Which was
1/2 quart). To be sure that all of the highest level about 2.5 inches off the surprising, because the gas pressure
modifier has been removed, it may be bottom of the liquid-vapor separator, was so low (due to the electronics
necessary to add water after draining lowest level about 3/4 inch off the problem), the torch must have been on
the modifier, let sit for at least 1/2 hour bottom of the liquid-vapor separator. the verge of backfiring at any time.
and then drain it again. Most Disconnecting this sensor does not
flammable fluids float on water.

54·s Gas, Book 2

2. To check the main water level, you anything and just press 'start'to start the China torch; 1 forgot to tighten one
start the BN 1000E by pushing the the gas production. 1 personally can of my hose connections).
green button (make sure that you're on see no reason why anyone would want
at least a 30 amp breaker). You can to set the machine to less than it's As the pressure is rising, you'll see the
have the power turned on to the maximums, since it automatically voltage and amperage readouts
electronics and NOT have the power regulates itself to the actual gas volume fluctuating as the computer keeps the
turned on to the electrolyzer. The you're using anyway. gas production within the parameters
power to the electrolyzer is only turned you've set. 1 think the gas production
on when you push the 'start'button on If you want some other setting than the is 'inferred'from the amperage and
the control panel. While the BN electrolyzer maximums, the control voltage (I see no gas metering device),
1000E is in this 'stand-by'mode, you panel has to be set every time you tum so it's possible that the actual gas
can release any residual gas pressure the machine on, the electronics have no production could be different than the
by opening your torch valve; and check memory. This is a bit of inconvenience readout says. When the electrolyzer
your liquid level. because you tend to shut the machine operating pressure is reached, you'll
off instead of letting it set in 'stand-by' note the amperage drop off quickly and
If all the LED's are lit up, you may mode because the fan is so loud. the voltage to drop off more slowly.
have too much water in the Besides, it is just good practice to shut This is the electronics cutting off the
electrolyzer, if you drain some out off electrolyzers when they are not in power to the main transformer, using
(save it to put back in when you've use. the SCR as a switch.
used up some water) and be careful,
the solution you drain out is caustic, it Note: my electrolyzer design can be 5. Light the torch as you would a
will bum your skin and eyes if you used at any volume or pressure as well, normal oxy.lacet. torch; except that you
spill it on you (use safety equipment to much easier than setting electronics hold the striker very close to the torch
protect skin, eyes and clothes). Have each time. tip or the gas won't want to light. If
vinegar and fresh water available to you have too much gas volume, it also
clean up spills. By the way, we find There are two parameters to set on the won't want to light. If you have too
the water (electrolyte solution) drain control panel; the maximum desired little gas volume, it will backfire.
(in fact all the drains) to be operating pressure and gas production.
inconvenient, as they are just plugs on If you just push 'start', the computer Testing data
the ends of pipes; this is messy and will assume you want the maximum
causes solution to get on your hands. values of 1,000 liters per hour and I. 1 found the flame characteristics to
0.5Mp. be identical to my electrolyzer gas.
Note: if you look down the water-fill See my Brown's Gas. Book 2.
tube in the 'back-arresting'tower, You push 'P'to tell the computer that
you'll see liquid at the bottom. If you you're wanting to set the maximum 2. Preliminary testing of total wattage
fill 'til the water you are pouring in operating pressure. The computer will efficiency showed close to 5 watt hours
just touches the end of the water fill ignore any setting above it's maximum to a liter of gas. This is total machine
tube, you'll not have too much water in of 0.6 Mp (which is about 90 psi). So power draw to make a liter of gas;
the main electrolyzer. You'll have too to set 0.5 Mp (about 75 psi) you'll includes the fan and computer power
much according to the electronics, but push 'P', then 'O'and '5', then 'enter'. as well as the transformer and diode
I've found no problem with an even (Actual maximum at this time is losses. These kind of losses are fully
higher liquid level. 0.06 Mp) explained in this book as are the
reasons I choose to have an
Note: the water in the back-fire arrester You push 'GP'to tell the computer that electrolyzer design that doesn't have a
is filled SEPARATELY from the main you're wanting to set the maximum transformer.
electrolyzer. You can also use the operating Gas Production. The
'modifier' tank as a second backfire computer will ignore any setting above We put a 100 amp watt-meter (Kh =
arrester, just by putting water in it it's maximum of 1,000 L/h (liters per 7.2) in line, to measure the watts drawn
instead of some other fluid. hour). So to set 1,000 L/h you'll push from the wall.
'GP'then '1', '0', '0', '0', then 'enter'.
3. After you have a proper level of We first measured the 'stand-by'
liquid in all three places (back fire 4. Then press 'start'to actually start the wattage, used by the fan and
arrester, modifier (if used) and main gas production. Watch the pressure electronics with no gas production. It
electrolyzer) You shut off your torch rise, if the pressure doesn't rise took 145 seconds to make one
valve, so you'd have no gas leaks and quickly, within a few seconds, then revolution of the watt-meter wheel. So
you set your control panel. The control shut off the machine and check all your (7.2 x 1 x 3600)/145 = 178 watts
panel will automatically choose it's hose connections for a leak (1 had a 'stand-by'power. (Very efficient fan!)
maximum settings if you don't set leak when 1 switched to my torch from

Brown's Gas, Book 2 / 55

The wall power available is nominal we installed 40 of 4 uP @ 440 VAC added), vaporize tungsten and weld
240 VAC and the electrolyzer was capacitors in series with the main copper; also did brazing on iron.
pulsing about once a second, drawing transformer. We disconnected the main Adding gasoline as a modifier (l/2
up to 36 AAC then settling down to a relay from the computer's control and quart) allowed us to weld iron, but
steady 30 AAC 'til the computer shut tum it on with our own switch. We left only when we added oxygen to the
off the SCR. This made the watt-meter the fan in the circuit, to cool the flame.
move fast, then nearly stop and it was transformer and the diodes. This
difficult (but not impossible) to get an allows us to test the BN 1000£ in a We used the same torch tips and
accurate reading. 'steady state'condition; allowing more duplicated all the above feats with
precise measurements. This test normaloxy.facet.
To measure total machine efficiency, allowed 8 amps AC @ 235 VAC into
we used our regular technique of filling the transformer, which allowed about Neither torch was able to weld
a 4.082 liter plastic container with the 52 amps DC through the electrolyzer stainless steel, aluminum or weld
gas; displacing the water out of it. @ 24.2 VDC. We filled our 4.083 different metals together.
With the BN 1000E set at 1,000 Liters Liter container in 35.3 seconds. It took
per hour, we filled the container with 14.4 seconds to make one tum of the The BG torch did cut thick steel faster
gas in 16.2 seconds. We used 280 watt-meter wheel. This works out to and cleaner than the oxy.facet. torch
marks of the watt-meter wheel to do about 106% gas. Wattage efficiency = did.
this (2.8 revolutions of the watt-meter 4.322 WhlL
wheel). We did this several times and Testing the BN 200
were very close each time. (7.2 x 2.8 x The next test was to remove the
3600}/16.2 = 4480 watts. 4.082/16.2 = capacitive amperage limiting and run These poor people bought this tiny
0.2519 Llsec. 0.2519 x 3600 = 906.84 the electrolyzer in a 'steady state' at electrolyzer at $2500 from Yull Brown
liters per hour. So 4480/906.84 = 4.9 full power. We drew 35 AAC @ 230 himself (twice retail value). We took it
watt-hours per liter of gas. VAC from the wall and had 203 ADC out of the box (cut the seals ourselves)
@ 26.4 VDC across the electrolyzer. and discovered that it had been used
We are now experiencing a shut-down We filled a 4.083 liter container in 8 (hydroxide spills and rust) and that it
problem in the machine (started during seconds and it took 29.4 seconds to had no power cord.
testing yesterday), and it's getting tum the watt-meter wheel ten
worse. The electrolyzer will only run a revolutions. The electrolyzer Faraday We went to town and bought the
few minutes (Initial shut-off happened efficiency was 120%. Wattage components to make a power cord (l2
after about an hour of continuous use) efficiency was 4.798 WhlL. gauge all weather stranded wire, a 240
and then it shuts itself off by turning VAC plug to fit the outlet we are using
off the main relay; which, as I The electrolyzer pressure kept building for the BN 1000E and a heavy duty
understand it, it isn't supposed to do as the gas production increased as the 'computer' cord with female plug (that
until the red shut-off button is pushed. electrolyzer slowly 'ran away'; using being the power outlet for the
All computer controlled shut-downs more amps as the cells heated up, and BN 200).
are only supposed to tum off the SCR heating up the cells faster as the
(electrolyzer itself) leaving the amperage increased. The BN 1000E I wired the cord (soldered all
computer and fan running. uses a calibrated resistance to form a connections) and it looked and worked
'current sensing' device, which causes great. I put electrolyte @ 5:1 in the
The shut-down gets progressively the computer to shut down the electrolyzer and turned it on. Nothing
worse as you continue to try to operate amperage to the electrolyzer (by happened; well, OK, the power light
the machine, first shutting down after shutting off the SCR) if the amperage came on.
fifteen minutes of operation, then (after exceeds about 180 ADC.
immediate start-up) shut-down after Quick testing shows that the
five minutes and then (again after NOTE: The pressure on the BN electronics are not turning on the
immediate start-up) shut-down after 1000E read at 0.5 MP and an actual electronic switch to allow the
one minute. Combine this problem pressure gauge (we tried two) read at 8 amperage to go through the
with the 'water' light coming on when psi. Since a Mp is about 145 psi, there electrolyzer. I think the electronic
you first start up the electrolyzer and 1 is a serious problem with the pressure switch is good, but some other
suspect that the main computer PID coming out of the BN 1000E. The parameter (like malfunctioning
chip is malfunctioning; perhaps heating pressure is too low; I don't know why pressure transducer) is causing the
up and causing the shut-down it didn't backfire as we were using the problem. Don't have time to fix it at
condition. torch. this time; though the electronics
seemed simple enough and could be
To test the BN 1000E at a lesser Testing the torch with BG allowed us reverse engineered.
amperage and with capacitive limiting, to cut and weld cast iron (with oxygen

56·s Gas, Book 2

Testing Conclusion Report by George Wiseman As I've stated before, "I agree that
Brown's Gas is a viable option to
The Brown's Gas BN 1000E makes Conclusion apply to a self-sufficient home, BUT
lower quality gas (about 120%) not in the ways that are normally
compared to our current electrolyzer Quite a few people mistake or confuse outlined".
design (136%), and our design takes Brown's Gas with normal 2H z:Oz. I will explain:
almost exactly 1/3 LESS electricity to Brown's Gas can only be created with
make the same volume of gas. electricity in special designed We can already run normal internal
electrolyzers. Brown's Gas has combustion engines with Brown's Gas
Operation of the BN 1000E is simple completely different operating assist, reducing the actual cost of
enough, once you know how to do it. characteristics than 2H z:Oz and operation while making the engine last
In my opinion, the instruction manual CANNOT be thought of in the same longer. It is absolutely valid to use the
and technical support from Yull Brown way. heat generated by the IC engine to heat
are not adequate to assure safe the home and to use the IC engine to
operation for a novice user (this I have experimentally proven many of run an electrolyzer. The electricity
includes someone knowledgeable as Yull Brown's statements to be wrong! generated can run the Brown's Gas
myself). This report will assist users of Why he has allowed these mis- electrolyzer, refrigeration systems,
the BN 1000E to operate the machine statements to continue, I don't know, charge batteries and power the home.
safer. My own electrolyzer designs are BUT I do know that if you try to In my opinion, purifying water should
fully documented and we give design machines and/or processes primarily be done with direct solar
enthusiastic technical support to around that information, you will be power but can be done with
anyone using ANY (but particularly very disappointed, perhaps even hurt. distillation. This type of home power
ours) electrolyzer. Please take this advice to heart, at least system (based on an IC engine, usually
enough to check it out. diesel) has been proven many times
The BN 1000E is quite presentable, and is very practical. The only major
looks good. And I'd consider it well Yull Brown has little actual lawful difference is that we are partially
designed, just not designed as well as it rights left, due to the patents having burning water instead of only petro-
could be. I'd suggest several changes run out and the information having chemicals.
to make it safer and easier to use, but become public knowledge through
then we'd end up with my design. independent efforts such as mine. In addition to powering a home; we
Second, you must be aware that Yull can help all automobiles this way,
The BN 1000E seems to suffer from a Brown has been spreading either as direct conversion (adding
'China syndrome'of quality control. misinformation, I do not know why, Brown's Gas to gasoline), or by using
We found several problems, but must assume he doesn't want electric autos charged by BG driven
particularly in the electronics, that others duplicating his technology and electrolyzers, or quite a few other
could be traced directly to inadequate uses misinformation as a tool to options.
quality control. In short, the machine accomplish this. I find it nearly
barely functioned, crippled by faulty impossible to believe that he is actually I wish to freely support you in your
electronics; for which there are no so ignorant of his own technology that attempt to implement BG technology,
wiring schematic or technicians on this he BELIEVES the misrepresentations as I support anyone who is willing to
side of the Pacific. he has told. try. I feel that a world-wide grass-roots
development MAY be the way to get
The BN 1000E is made of mild iron, Again I tell you, we've independently this technology implemented. At the
and already shows rust both inside and duplicated virtually all Yull Brown's very least, public distribution of
out. Personally I don't expect long life work with Brown's Gas. The things I practical information will make a huge
spans for these (expensive) machines. tell you are based on ACTUAL difference.
It will be particularly important to
experimental proof, not only by myself
make sure the backfire arrester has but by people who are independently
adequate water in older machines, duplicating the technology from the
because the rust will eventually cause BIBLIOGRAPHY
information I've made publicly
the electrolyzer to weaken and it will available. The things I've told you so
not be able to contain a backfire. Several articles from ExtraOrdinary
far have been done by others besides Science Magazine. Published by the
myself, at several locations around the International Tesla Society, PO Box
The BN 200 suffers from the 'China world! You MUST take my comments
syndrome'too. In my opinion, the 5636, Colorado Springs, Colorado,
seriously if you truly intend to get 80931, USA. OctINovlDec, 1990.
torch tips are also too large a diameter Brown's Gas technology out into the
for the electrolyzer capabilities. AprlMay/Jun, 1991. AprlMay/Jun,
world 'in every home' as it were. 1992. Jul/Aug/Sep, 1993.
Backfires assured.

Brown's Gas, Book 2/ 57

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Littleton, CO, 80162-0820. - Brass needle valves #H-68831-00 Recommendedfor sight tubes (put a
(have 1/4 NPT(F) openings) small dark HDPE ball in the tube to
• Wiseman, George, © 1995, - Check-valves, #H-98676-02 is a float on the liquid level).
Brown's Gas. Book 1. Published by 318 multi-position brass
Eagle-Research - Diaphragm seals are recommended to prevent eventual clogging
- Electrical Multi-meters
- Hose and pipe fittings
- Liquid level sensors and controls
RESOURCES - Pressure reliefvalves
- Pressure switch #H-07355-43 has a
Though some Resources are listed, be 316 stainless steel diaphragm and
advised to :'Let your fingers do the
stem (112" FNPT); and a pressure
walking'. Try to locate various
range (field set able) from 10 to 100
alternative suppliers and options.
psi, with 1.5% set-point repeatability
Doing this may save you a great deal
- Safety equipment (A huge amount oj).
of money. You'll also learn a lot about
- Stopwatches
the available options on components
- Temperature shut-offswitches three
you are trying to locate.
wire design allows you to shut-off the
electrolyzer and ring an alarm from
The Thomas Directory of
the same switch. #H-93880-54 is a
Manufacturers is a GREAT resource,
stainless steel, 125°F (52°C) snap
available in most Public libraries. You
action switch rated at 3 amp
can go looking for a component, like a
inductive at 120 VAC. Note: Install
pressure switch and find pages of
capacitor across mechanical relay
coil to reduce inductive arcing.
- Torch set (Little)
In addition, check out the Resources
listed in Brown's Gas. Book 1. You
• Harvel Plastics, Inc.,
can often get great deals on
Box 757, Easton, PA, 18044-0757.
components that are described weIl
Phone: 610-252-7355.
enough that you'll be safe using them;
- CPVC plastic pipe.
like heavy duty relays, diodes, heat-
sinks, capacitors, etc. Be careful with
• Industrial Safety Co.,
components that have 'wetted parts'
1390 Neubrecht Rd., Lima, Ohio,
like pressure switches and pressure
45801. Phone: 1-800-537-9721.
gauges, because they could have
- Safety supplies (A full range of).
material compatibility problems.

58 Gas, Book 2

P Z ) - - - - - . - - - -.....
Electrolyzer Main Circuit
Negative - - - - ,
to electrolyzer I tftGMd g
-11--------.----7----:--..:.,{ W

Control circuit
DZ ":...
T1 gree~

Copyright George Wiseman February ZOOO. I consider this to be the absolute bare bones simplest circuit.
The control circuit tells the Mosfet when to feed power to the electrolyzer in the main circuit.

See Brown's Gas Book Z for specifications not mentioned here. Main current is limited by C1. Rate C1 as
per Brown's Gas Book Z. Main Bridge Rectifier should have an amperage rating as per Brown's Gas Book Z;
use a heat sink and thermal paste.

Mosfet M1 0 is rated at higher than the main power supply peak voltage. Be sure to use a heat sink with
thermal paste and voltage isolator kit (if needed). If one mosfet has too low of an amperage rating, mosfets
can be placed in parrallel to increase amperage rating of the circuit, all Gates connected to DZ with ZO ohm
resistors. Note that the Source of the mosfet needs to be connected to the negative of the control circuit.

S1 is simply to manually shut off the electrical circuit. Mosfet turns on when voltage is applied to it's Gate.

SZ (mounted off board) is a normally closed (open on pressure rise), direct acting pressure switch, made of
stainless steel with a teflon diaphram. It should have at least a ZO watt rating and either be adjustable or
factory set at your desired electrolyzer pressure.

Add an S3 (mounted off board), temperature switch (not shown above) if you need to limit the electrolyzer
temperature. Make the switch normally closed (open on temperature rise) and pre-set at your maximum
temperature. I'd put the switch between SZ and DZ.

The T1 needs to be 10 volts (rated) on the secondary. The voltage can go up to 15 volts with no damage to
the mosfet; which is very likely to happen because it may be hard for you to find a transformer small
enough for this circuit's requirements, so the secondary voltage will rise above it's specified rating. The
primary of T1 should be rated for whatever the main circuit voltage is.

The control circuit bridge rectifier can be tiny, half amp at SO volts is more than needed. CZ is an
electrolytic capacitor minimum rating 100 uF and SO volts. D1 is a red LED, to indicate when the control
circuit is turned on. DZ is a green LED, put there to see when the power is being fed to turn on the mosfet;
it will flash very quickly as the SZ keeps the pressure to within 0.001 psi. R1 and R2 are liZ watt 400
ohm resistors.

T1, CZ and the control circuit bridge rectifier can be replaced with a 1Z VDC battery.

Brown's Gas, Book 2/ 59

You can use Capacitive Limiting with Voltage Doubler circuit for extended series-cell BG electrolyzer.
Voltage Doubler. But usually the
Capacitive Limiting is simply added to
a series-cell that has too few cells to Diodes rated at 4 times VRMS and
qualify for any other power supply at least 1.5 times ARMS.
Power from main
option. relay. Example Positive output
You can use Capacitive Limiting from Capacitor Voltage rating =
2 times VRMS (ex. 480V)
one cell to as many cells as you want
up to about line power VRMS. The
Capacitors will allow about
amperage will be limited to whatever 1 amp flow for each 7.5 uF
will 'pass' though the capacitor at the on each leg
voltage applied. For example; at 120 Fig. 7
VAC, 25 uF (microfarad) will pass Negative output
about one amp; at 240 VAC, about 7
Again, because this is important, you voltage'. For any given wall AC
uF will pass one amp.
will notice that a slight additional voltage, you'll find that the actual
voltage rise across each cell allows a 'peak'voltage is about 40% higher
2. Voltage doubler than the 'RMS'voltage that most AC
much greater amperage current to flow.
This is why the voltage doubler circuit voltmeters read.
Note that this is the 'basic'power
increases amperage.
supply circuit for the electrolyzer only,
Thus you can operate your 120 VAC
without all the controls that tum the
The voltage doubler does an additional e1ectrolyzer at 220 VDC or your 220
main relay on and off. This is the
thing, it increases the FREQUENCY of VAC electrolyzer at 290 VDC.
circuit starting from the output side of
pulses. With the voltage doubler you
the main relay.
will usually get at least 240 pulses per Also you'll find that you can limit
second. In certain cases (combinations amperage WITHOUT capacitive
You use a voltage doubling circuit if
of capacitors on the legs of the voltage amperage limiting. The high number
you have too many cells for Straight
doubler) it is possible to get up to 500 of series-cells automatically limits your
Capacitive limiting.
pulses per second using this circuit amperage, because as your electrolyzer
plugged into normal 60 cycle AC. requires more voltage to operate, NO
The voltage doubler circuit has several
amperage will flow 'til the higher
advantages that the over Capacitive
When I am going to use a voltage voltage is reached.
doubler as my electrolyzer power
1. It uses very little additional
supply, I usually figure the number of And the higher voltage (required by the
cells at the rule of 1.75 volts per cell, electrolyzer) cannot be reached until
2. It increases the frequency of pulses.
figured on RMS voltage. For the voltage doubler kicks the voltage
3. It allows you to add extra cells that
example; operating on 240 VAC, I up (twice each half cycle or 240 Hz).
limit amperage, yet allows additional
would have 138 cells.
amperage capacity to be added at
With the 138 series-cell electrolyzer on
In this way you can actually take more straight line power, you'll note only a
4. It allows additional gas production
advantage of something called 'Peak limited amperage 'til you start adding
by increased number of cells at the
same DC amperage (AC amperage
is increased, TANSTAAFL). Voltage Doubler circuit with Capacitive Limiting
5. It allows an electrolyzer designed to
operate on a higher voltage to Diodes rated at 4 times VRMS and
operate on a lower voltage; for at least 1.5 times ARMS.
example a 220 volt electrolyzer to Power from main
relay. Example Positive output
operate on 110 VAC source.
Capacitor Voltage rating =
Voltage Doubler doesn't actually 2 times VRMS (ex. 480V)
double the voltage; (it would if there
was no load), the voltage only rises a Capacitors will allow about
little across each cell (to the threshold 1 amp flow for each 7.5 uF
voltage) and the amperage can be on each leg
raised quite a bit. Negative output
Put extra capacitance in parallel with first capacitor; which is Fig. 8
in series with the load on the AC POWER line.
Brown's Gas, Book 2 I 21
Main Power circuit

NI--------- ..
p---------~ . . .r. .- - , I
...._ .... .... Positive

cp (§
V DC Voltmeter

~~ t
Fig. 9
t Pressure shut-off
Electronic shut-off
Main shut-off
DC Ampmeter

capacitance to the 'Iegs'of your without all the controls that tum the side of your transformer that provides
voltage doubler. As you add main relay on and off. This is the the low voltage for the electronics,
capacitance on each leg of the voltage circuit starting from the output side of gauges, buzzer and relays.
doubler (equal on each leg): the main relay.
You'll note that the DC ammeter is on
You'll note that the amperage will rise Same as Voltage Doubler, only you the line going into the electrolyzer; it
at the rate of one amp per 50 uF per have capacitive limiting in series on doesn't matter which one, just so you
leg with 120 VAC RMS. the input common with the center of get the polarity correct. Although I
the voltage doubler capacitors. depict a capacitive limited, voltage
And the amperage will rise at one amp doubler power supply here, the
per 11 uF per leg with 240 VAC RMS. Main Power Circuit ammeter is installed in the same place
on all the power supplies.
IMPORTANT NOTE: 'There ain't We have the main power coming in on
no such thing as a free lunch'. When an ordinary 240 Volt cord, using You'll note that the DC voltmeter is
you increase the voltage using a properly rated receptacles, wire sizes mounted between the lines going into
voltage doubler, the 'extra power' and plugs. The 'P'is power or hot; the the electrolyzer, you have to get the
comes from AMPERAGE from your 'N'is neutral, where you wire to when polarity correct. Although I depict a
RMSsource. you want 120 VAC. capacitive limited, voltage doubler
power supply here, the voltmeter is
When using a voltage doubler circuit, Note that our electrolyzer draws about installed in the same place on all the
the amperage being drawn from the 50 amps, so I use a main relay rated at power supplies.
wall is about TWICE the amperage 90 amps. The relay is normally open,
you see across your electrolyzer. You three pole, single throw. The relay has There are any number of 'extras'that
must be sure your wall fuse or breaker a 120 volt coil to activate it. can be applied to this circuit, like
can handle the amperage you will be indicator lights and receptacles (120
adding. Remember that the Note the three shut-off switches wired volt and 240 volt); but I left them out
MAXIMUM continuous operating in series, in series with the main relay of this schematic because I'm trying to
amperage of your breaker or fuse will coil. This is so that if anyone of the keep it seriously simple. What you see
be only 80% of the 'rated'amperage. switches is open (off) then the main will work just great! The electronics
For example; a 20 amp breaker should relay has no power and is off! The has status indicator lights and you can
hold 16 amps. Pressure switch is normally closed, see when the power is on (to the
open on pressure rise (could be a
Further Note: When a breaker 'trips', it relay). The Electronic switch is a
will not again hold as much amperage relay that is normally open, held
Low voltage
as before. After each 'trip'the actual closed by the electronic circuit. Power Supply
amperage that the breaker will hold is a The Main switch is normally 7812
bit less. open, closed only when you want
the electrolyzer operational (this
3. Voltoge Doubler with capacitive could be a relay too), I usually
limiting just use an ordinary light switch.

Note that this is the 'basic'power The points marked 'a'and 'b' are
supply circuit for the e1ectrolyzer only, where you connect the primary Fig. 10
22·s Gas, Book 2