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International Journal of Research In Science & Engineering e-ISSN: 2394-8299

Special Issue 7-ICEMTE March 2017 p-ISSN: 2394-8280



Abdur Rehman Chhapra 1, Adil Shaikh 2, Nehal Khan3 , Junaid Shaikh4

Department of Electrical Engineering University of Mumbai, Anjuman-I-Islam’s Kalsekar
Technical Campus, New Panvel

Abstract - 3D printers has certainly revolutionised the world . This paper shows the
simple and practical construction of CNC machine wide application of converting the
CNC machine into 3D printer . The cost , construction , advantages , application are
shown in this paper.

Index Terms - 3D Printer, CNC Machine, Stepper Motor, Arduino , GRBL codes.
3D Printing is a process for making a physical object from a three-dimensional digital
model, typically by laying down many successive thin layers of a material. It brings a
digital object (its CAD representation) into its physical form by adding layer by layer of
materials[9].3D printers when used to only available in science fiction stories is now a
real tangible product that used to create products.3D printers are becoming very popular
nowadays. Recently there had been a craze of 3D printer amongst hobbyists and makers,
but they are very expensive to own. Want to make a 3D printer without having to spend
1000's of rupees?The inspiration for this project comes from the fact that 3D printer are
really innovative and revolutionary idea but along with that they are very costly, one cannot
afford the 3D printer just for fun or to use at home just to create ideas into reality. This
high cost limits the imagination of the ordinary people. The high quality 3D printers
comes at a range of 65000- 140000 rupees.
It all starts with imagination of the object we want to create. One can create a affordable
3D printer by using equipment in their surrounding or probably at home. The technology of
3D printing can be used to create imagination into reality, parts of the machinery of
equipment which are not available in the market, prototypes of new ideas and most
importantly for fun.
Due to the price it's access to world is very limited but through this project there will
be an increase in the access of 3D printers. Obviously this isn't going to be fancy but it
will show the basics of how the 3D printer works. If we can imagine it, we can also
create it. The only limit is our imagination. Want a toy for kids! print it out. Want a
container! do it in no time.

The earliest 3D printers appeared in the 1980s. These machines used lasers to cure light-
sensitive materials into specific designs. The slicing process first appeared during this time
and designers used computer programs to split 3D designs into connected layers in
In 1992, first stereolithographic apparatus (SLA) machine was made by 3D Systems

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International Journal of Research In Science & Engineering e-ISSN: 2394-8299
Special Issue 7-ICEMTE March 2017 p-ISSN: 2394-8280

Charles Hull‟s company , which made it possible to fabricate complex parts, layer by
layer, in a fraction of the time it would normally take. In the same year, start-up DTM
produced the world‟s first selective laser sintering (SLS) machine—which shoots a laser
at a powder instead of a liquid[3].
Throughout the 1990‟s and early stage of 2000‟s a host of new technologies continued
to be introduced, still focused widely on industrial applications and while they were
still largely processes for prototyping applications. Research and Development was also
being conducted by the more advanced technology providers for specific tooling, casting
and direct manufacturing applications. This saw the emergence of new terminology,
namely Rapid Tooling (RT), Rapid Casting and Rapid Manufacturing (RM)
In Medical field, scientists from different institutions and start-ups fabricated a
functional miniature kidney, built a prosthetic leg with complex component parts that were
printed within the same structure and bio-printed the first blood vessels using only human
In 2005, Dr. Adrian Bowyer‟s RepRap Project launched an open-source initiative to
create a 3D printer that could basically build itself—or at least print most of its own
parts. Its 2008 release, Darwin, is a self-replicating printer that‟s able to do just
that[3]. Suddenly, people everywhere had the power to create whatever stuff they could
dream up on their own.
In 2010 Engineers at the University of Southampton design and fly the world‟s first 3D
printed aircraft. The aircraft was only built in seven days with a budget of £5,000[5].
In 2011 at Urbee, the world‟s first 3D-printed car was made. It is sleek,
environmental-friendly and is designed to be fuel-efficient and inexpensive. In the same
year, 3D printing services offer 14K gold and sterling silver as materials, a less expensive
option for jewelry designers[5].

The main principle of 3D printing is stereolithography, proposed by Charles Hull in
a 1984 as “a system for generating three-dimensional objects by making a cross-
sectional pattern of the object to be formed”[6]. The actual meaning of this statement
is that if a 3D object generated using a 3D drawing software , it is initially split into
layers and these layers are then successively printed by the machine on top one another.
3D printer has its 3 principal axes and they are linear(Fig. 2). This means that their axes
are at right angles to each other and that they move in straight lines . Machines which use
this principle are known as linear robots or cartesian coordinate robots[7]. Examples of
linear robots are 3D printers, but also computer numerical control (CNC) machines.

Fig. 2 X,Y,Z axis

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International Journal of Research In Science & Engineering e-ISSN: 2394-8299
Special Issue 7-ICEMTE March 2017 p-ISSN: 2394-8280

3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing (AM), refers to various processes

used to synthesize a three- dimensional object. A simple 3D printer has three axes, X, Y,
Z, each controlled by a stepper motor, plus the extruder mounted on Z axis.
Stepper motors are relatively small motors and move in extremely small movements,
often in millimetre. Cheap stepper motors are less accurate as compared to expensive
models. They are an important part of any printer, as they are responsible for the quality of
the print . During working time, they tend to make quite some noise and cheap stepper
motors can be especially noisy [7].
The extruder is the part that thrusts out and feeds the plastic filament into the „hot-end‟.
Extruders are typically incorporated into the hot-end, however in some types it can be
remote, pushing the filament through a tube(Fig. 3), called a Bowden cable, into the hot-
end. In some types a dual extruder is also used, which provides the ability to print two
different materials at the same time[9]. This result in increased price, as it requires an extra
extruder, and hot end.

Fig. 3 3D pen releasing PLA/ABS filament

3D printer is made from CNC machine . A CNC is a combination of Computer

software and electronics and mechanical structures. The process of CNC starts with
programing on GRBL software and interpretation on microcontroller then stepper driver
and ends in axis movement. Initially all of the GRBL software is identified by Arduino
firmware and it is done by adding the GRBL to Arduino library[8]. After this,
controller software like
„Universal G-code sender‟, „GRBL controller‟, etc. are eligible to be operated.

Fig. 4 Overview of steps of 3D printer


A. CNC Machine Hardware

The 3D printers basically depend on the construction and principle of CNC machine.

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International Journal of Research In Science & Engineering e-ISSN: 2394-8299
Special Issue 7-ICEMTE March 2017 p-ISSN: 2394-8280

Most of the 3D printers are expensive, but there are some recent trends in 3D printer
which causes reduction in the price of 3D printer. Mostly 3D printer are use for more in
hobbies rather than industrial application. Companies have also realized the potential of
a consumer market for 3D printers and as such have been aggressively courting
enthusiasts with cheaper and better models[6].
The first step is to collect all the requirements for the project. The basic equipment
require is stepper motor. The base for the stepper motor. Computer CD ROM hard
drive can also used for the stepper motor along with its base.
 3x stepper motor with driver board or CD and DVD drive
 1x Desktop Computer Power Supply
 3x Stepper Motor Drivers(Easy driver)
 1x Arduino uno
 Wires
 Bread board
 Various screws/nuts/bolts
 Soldering Iron
 2x rectangular casing for printing
 2x metallic square plate
 M-M/M-F wires
 Drill[10]

Fig. 5 Overview of Required Materials

1) Mounting the motor trays: Rectangular casing are required to mount the motor
trays . The motors are mount in X, Y and Z axis. First the mounting of Y-axis is done.
This axis move back and forth. A motor tray is mount on the one of the rectangular casing
with the help of nuts and bolts.

Fig. 6 Required Part of CD-ROM along with stepper motor

For the X-axis mount it perpendicular to the length of another rectangular casing, again
making it close to one end and aligning it as straight as possible. As for the Z-axis motor it

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International Journal of Research In Science & Engineering e-ISSN: 2394-8299
Special Issue 7-ICEMTE March 2017 p-ISSN: 2394-8280

is mounted on top of the X-axis drive with the help of metallic square plate, this will
provide a platform to house the Z drive. Another metallic square is housed in top of the
Y drive to create a platform for printing as show in Fig. 7.

Fig. 7 Mechanical assembling of CNC machine

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International Journal of Research In Science & Engineering e-ISSN: 2394-8299
Special Issue 7-ICEMTE March 2017 p-ISSN: 2394-8280

Now solder all the stepper motor terminals connect this wires to the easy driver or
stepper motor driver. Connect all the stepper motor driver to the Arduino terminals the
connection is given in the circuit as shown in Fig. 8.Arduino is called as the 'brain' of the
mechanism and the easy drivers are hand and legs of the stepper motor.

Fig. 8 Connection of stepper motor and arduino and power supply of CNC

2) Drives And Stepper motor Connections: Now, the CPU power supply is used to
supply power to the easy driver by shorting the ports at 2 points as shown in the
connection. In case of 20 pin and 24 pin (Fig. 9) both the connection remains same, just
short the green colour port to the black one.

Fig. 9 Power Supply

B. CNC Machine Software
The only thing that‟s left to do now is to install the software that will make it run. The
CNC hardware connection runs on a programming language called G-Code. It essentially
tells the X, Y, and Z axis to move towards the specific coordinates. For Arduino to
function properly we need to install a Arduino interpreter name Grbl in the computer.
The steps that need to take to install Grbl on the Arudion (Uno) are as follows:

 Download the Grbl Hex file for specific version of Arduino.For Arduino uno .8c file
is preferable.
 Download the XLoader software.
 Connect Arduino to computer through Arduino cable.
 Using the Xloader software, select the Grbl Hex file which was downloaded (as
shown in step 1), select the

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International Journal of Research In Science & Engineering e-ISSN: 2394-8299
Special Issue 7-ICEMTE March 2017 p-ISSN: 2394-8280

Arduino from the dropdown menu, and select the COM port that the Arduino is connected
 Click “Upload” to upload the Grbl software to the Arduino[10].

Now that the Arduino is set-up and ready to go, we need to install some software that lets
us control the moving mechanism of stepper motor. One of the most used program is called
Grbl Controller. After downloading and installing it, open it up, select Arduino port and
click “Open” to connect(Fig. 10). Now use the arrows on the lower right to test the motors
movement from step 1 to step 10. If any of the platforms are running backwards, go to
Tools > Options and then invert the axis for the backwards motor[10].

Fig. 10 GRBL controller software

C. 3D Printer Hardware
Now that we have an X, Y, and Z axis to mount an extruder and hot-end onto, the next
thing we need is a 3D pen which consist of a compact extruder and heating device. 3D pen
used is cheap so that the overall budget of the project is lowered. Other than that, few
small electronics are also needed to make the switch automatic.
 3D Printing Pen
 22k Ohm Resistor (value may vary depending on the type of 3D pen)
 1k Ohm Resistor (for testing)[17].
 NPN Transistor ( 2N3904)
 Wires

Fig. 11 3D pen overview

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International Journal of Research In Science & Engineering e-ISSN: 2394-8299
Special Issue 7-ICEMTE March 2017 p-ISSN: 2394-8280

Now disassemble the 3D pen. Solder the two diagonal connection with wires.
Before re-assembing everything back together, touch the wires together using a 1k
Ohm resistor to make sure that everything works and is soldered properly(Fig. 12). Make
sure the connection won't come out in order to do so put some hot glue with the help of
hot glue fun on the connections. Now start re-assembling the device. Using a drill bore a
small hole into the back panel of the device to make a place for the wires to run

Fig. 12 Connections to control forward button

Now, connect the Transistor and 22k Ohm resistor to the switch with the Arduino. Its
shown in the Fig. 13. After this all the hardware of a 3D pen is completed.

Fig. 13 Connections to control forward button of 3D pen

D. 3D Printer Software
Before we can run this Gcode through GRBL Controller, a few edits are required to
ensure that it works properly with 3D printer. Opening the file that was saved from in a text editor such as Notepad there are bunch of different lines of
letters and numbers. These are the GCode coordinates that are sent to the machine that tells
it what to do
This last part is easy. Take the 3D Pen on the Z-axis and move it all the way down so
that it barely touches the Y-axis platform. Making sure everything is turned on and heated
up, and making sure that Arduino is connected to the computer , Open up the GRBL
Controller software and open up the link to the Arduino. Click “Choose File” and choose
the file that

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International Journal of Research In Science & Engineering e-ISSN: 2394-8299
Special Issue 7-ICEMTE March 2017 p-ISSN: 2394-8280

was just edited. An image is seen of that file on the right. Then just click “Begin”[17]. If
everything works well, the axis should start moving, and the the 3D pen should begin to
print! We can create our own image, we will just need to convert the image to SVG first.
Then we can go to the website and upload it. Alternatively, the
MakerCam website also allows its users to insert basic shapes by going to
“Insert” and then selecting the desired shape we need.

 Time to market
 Save money
 Clear communication
 Feedback
 Get the feel
 Personalize it
 Build your imagination[13].

Fig. 14 Fast printed , High Quality , Low Cost


With the increase in depends of printers in the market many companies have
merged in huge investments to make their business competitive and profitable so this has
let to new innovations in the technologies. Many shops and vendors were making lot of
printing and photocopy services making lot of money. The competition heated up and
the prices of printers had dropped and when inkjet printers entered the market then the
prices of printers dropped even more. The printers that are used now on regular basis have
the same technology and once the innovation is expired, whatever we use depends on
how we use with the technology.3D printers is the latest technology that in used in many
industries such as designing, production in USA and Europe. As this technology
require minimum labour, less material for production, less labour cost, fast production
and there are many more advantages therefore India is adopting this technology. Many
internet users, sites, newspapers had given the evidence of this fact. 3D printing will
bring back new innovation ideas for us to implements our ideas to clients because model
speaks a lot than wordings and help manufacturing jobs back. 3D printing presently
becoming very popular and many company like make-whale are manufacturing products
from using 3D printers. There is a tremendous scope of 3D printers but the challenge is
to promote and do marketing of the product which is costly[15].

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International Journal of Research In Science & Engineering e-ISSN: 2394-8299
Special Issue 7-ICEMTE March 2017 p-ISSN: 2394-8280

 Maritime industries
 Medical
 Chemical industries
 Mechanics
 Food industries
 Automotive industries[14]
 Aerospace industries.

Fig. 15 3D printed car model

Fig. 16 Artificial 3D printed legs

3D printing is changing the world. It‟s already revolutionized prototyping
medicine and home use. It‟s easy to imagine a future where items manufactured in
China will be complemented with 3D printed customization in stores.Recent
innovations using 3D printers like within the biotech industry provide insight into
both the significant market advantages of high-value 3D-printed products and the
significant initial costs to realize those advantages.Once printers become
commonplace in the home, one can conceive printing custom glasses and plates for
a dinner party. In medicine, hospitals are already printing structural body
components. In labs they are working on printing out organs, though it will be a while
before this becomes common[16].

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International Journal of Research In Science & Engineering e-ISSN: 2394-8299
Special Issue 7-ICEMTE March 2017 p-ISSN: 2394-8280

[1] control.html
[2] printing
[4] guide/history
[6] Siddharth Bhandari,B Regina "International Journal of Computer Science and
Information Technology Research" Vol. 2, Issue 2, pp: (378-380), Month: April-June 2014
[8] Dipayan Dey,Souvik Mondal2,Arijit Kumar Barik "3-Axis CNC Router Modifiable
to 3D Printer" International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and
Technology Vol. 5, Issue 9,
September 2016
[10] machine/
[11] motor
[12] printing-
[13] printing-do-
[14] printing-company-
[15] change-the-

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