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Welding Processes

Welding Processes

Welding is regarded as a joining process in which the

work pieces are in atomic contact

Solid state processes Fusion welding processes

 Forge welding  Oxy-acetylene
 Friction welding  MMA (SMAW)
 Sub-arc (SAW)
 Electro-slag (ESW)
Manual Metal Arc Processes (MMA)
The MMA welding Process was first developed in the late 19th
century using bare wire consumables.

MMA is a simple process in terms of equipment

The process can by used in AC, DC+ or DC-
The process is a manual process and demands a high skill
from the welder.
core wire The process is widely used throughout the
Electrode welding industry both for shop and site
working conditions
Electric Arc
Gas shield Solidified slag

Molten weld pool Build up of weld metal

Penetration USA: SMAW
Parent material
Manual Metal Arc Basic Equipment

Control panel Power source

(amps, volts)

Electrode Holding oven

Electrodes Inverter power
Return lead
Electrode holder
visor/filter Power cables
Manual Metal Arc Processes (MMA)

Welder controls

 Arc length

 Angle of electrode

 Speed of travel
MMA Welding Electrodes

The three main electrode covering types

used in MMA welding

 Rutile - general purpose

 Basic - low hydrogen

 Cellulose - deep penetration/fusion

Manual Metal Arc Welding (MMA)
Advantages Disadvantages
 Field or shop use  High welder skill required
 Range of consumables  Low operating factor*
 All positions  High levels of fume
 Portable  Hydrogen control (flux)
 Simple equipment  Stop/start problems

* Comparatively uneconomic when compared with

some other processes i.e MAG, SAW and FCAW
Tungsten Inert Gas Welding (TIG)
The TIG welding process was first developed in the USA during
the 2nd world war for the welding of aluminum alloys
The process uses a non-consumable tungsten electrode
The arc may be initiated by a high frequency to avoid scratch
stating, which could cause contamination of the tungsten and weld

The process produces very high quality

welds. Welding Torch

The TIG process is considered as a slow Current Conductor

process compared to other arc welding
Shielding gas
Ceramic Contact Tube
The process requires a high Nozzle
Gas Shield
level of welder skill Tungsten
Filler Wire Weld Pool
TIG Welding Basic Equipment

Power source
Power control
panel Inverter power

Return lead Source control

assembly Power cable hose
Tungsten Flow-meter
TIG Torch Assembly

Tungsten Tungsten
housing electrode

Fitted ceramic Ceramic

shielding cup shield cup

On/Off switch Gas lens

Split collet

Gas diffuser
Torch body
Spare ceramic
shielding cup
Tungsten Electrodes
Metal Tungsten Filler Rod Shielding Flow Rate
Thickness Joint Type Diameter Diameter Amperage Gas L/mm
mm mm mm
Butt 60-70
Lap 70-90
1.5 1.6 1.5 Argon 8
Corner 60-70
Fillet 70-90
Butt 80-100
Lap 90-115 Argon
3.0 1.6-2.4 2.4 8
Corner 80-100
Fillet 90-115
Butt 115-135
Lap 140-165
5.0 2.4 3.2 Argon 10
Corner 115-135
Fillet 140-170
Butt 160-175
Lap 170-200
6.0 3.2 4.0 160-175 Argon 10
Fillet 175-210
TIG Welding Variables
Gas type and flow rate
Generally two types of gases are used in TIG welding, argon and helium,
though nitrogen may be considered for welding copper and hydrogen
may be added for the welding of austenitic stainless steels. The gas flow
rate is also an important
Argon (Ar) Inert Helium Argon mixes
 Suitable for welding carbon  Suitable for welding carbon
steel,stainless steel, aluminium steel, stainless steel,
and magnesium copper, aluminium and
 Lower cost, lower flow rates
 High cost, high flow rates
 More suitable for thinner
 More suitable for thicker
materials and positional
materials and materials of
welding high thermal conductivity.
Tungsten Inert Gas Welding
Advantages Disadvantages

 High quality  High skill factor required

 Good control  Small consumable range

 All positions  High protection required

 Low hydrogen
 Low productivity
 Minimal cleaning
 High ozone levels
Metal Active Gas Welding (MAG)
The MIG/MAG welding process was initially developed in the USA in
the late 1940s for the welding of aluminum alloys
The process uses a continuously fed wire electrode

The weld pool is protected by a separately supplied shielding gas

The process is classified as a semi-

Gas automatic welding process but may be fully

Wire Electrode Contact Tip The wire electrode can be either

Electrode bare/solid wire or flux cored/hollow
Nozzle to Work
Arc Length

Weld Pool
MAG Welding Basic Equipment

External wire External wire

feed unit feed motor
control panel

Power Rectifier
control panel
Power cable &
15kg wire spool hose assembly
Power return Spare contact
cable tips
Welding gun Liner for wire
MAG Welding Torch Assembly
Torch body
On/Off switch
Torch head assembly
(Less nozzle)

Hose port

Nozzles or Spot welding

shrouds spacer
Gas diffuser
Contact tips
MAG Welding Variable Parameters
The gasses used in MIG/MAG welding can be either 100%
CO2 or Argon + CO2 mixes.
 100% CO2: Can not sustain true spray transfer, but gives
very good penetration. The arc is unstable which produces
a lot of spatter and a coarse weld profile.
 Argon + CO2 mixes: Argon can sustain spray transfer
above 24 volts, and gives a very stable arc with a reduction
in spatter. Argon being a cooler gas produces less
penetration than CO2. Argon in normally mixed with CO2 at
a mixture of between 5-25%
Flux Core Arc Welding (FCAW)
Flux core
Insulated extension nozzle

Current carrying guild tube

Wire joint

Flux cored hollow wire

Flux powder
Arc shield composed of
vaporized and slag forming
Flux core compounds

weld Metal droplets covered
Solidified weld pool
with thin slag coating
metal and slag
Metal Active Gas Welding
Advantages Disadvantages

 High productivity  Lack of fusion (dip)

 Easily automated  Small range of
 All positional (dip &
 Protection on site
 Material thickness
range  Complex equipment

 Continuous electrode  Not so portable

Submerged Arc Welding Process (SAW)
Submerged arc welding was developed in the USA: SAW
Soviet Union during the 2nd world war for the
welding of thick sections Filler wire spool
Flux hopper
The process uses amps in the range Power
of 100 to over 2000, which gives a
very high current density in the wire
producing deep penetration and high
- +
A flux is supplied separately via a
flux hopper in the form of either Slide rail
Wire electrode
fused or agglomerated
The arc is submerged beneath the flux
layer and no eye protection is required
The process is normally mechanised.
SAW Basic Equipment

Power return
cable Welding carriage
Power control control unit
Welding carriage

Granulated Electrode wire

flux reel

Submerged Arc Welding Process (SAW)

 Submerged arc welds are difficult to predict as the weld is made

up of three elements. The dilution may be as much as 60%
resulting in a high susceptibility to solidification cracking


Flux elements Electrode Dilution

Submerged Arc Welding Fluxes

Fused SAW Agglomerated SAW

Fluxes Fluxes
Submerged Arc Welding Fluxes
Fused Flux Agglomerated Flux
 Flaky appearance  Granulated appearance
 Lower weld quality  High weld quality
 Low moisture intake  Addition of alloys
 Low dust tendency  Lower consumption
 Good re-cycling  Easy slag removal
 Very smooth weld  Smooth weld profile
profile  High moisture intake
Typical SAW Imperfections

 Porosity: from the use of damp welding fluxes or plate


 Centre line cracks: caused by high dilution and

sulphur pick-up from the parent material or deep narrow

 Shrinkage cavities: caused by deep narrow welds.

 Lack of fusion: caused by the effects of arc blow.

Submerged Arc Welding
Advantages Disadvantages
 Low weld-metal cost  Restricted welding
 Easily automated positions
 Low levels of ozone  Arc blow on DC current
 High productivity  Shrinkage defects
 No visible arc light  Difficult penetration
 Minimum cleaning control
 Limited joints
Electro-Slag Welding (ESW)
Consumable-Guide Non Consumable-Guide

Feed Rolls Electrode Wire
Electrode Wire
Guide Tube Feed Rolls

Drive Unit
Molten Slag
Bath Electrode
Shoe Copper Shoe
Solid Weld Solid Weld
Metal Metal

More suitable for short weld lengths and More suitable for longer weld lengths
mechanically simpler. Can also be used and mechanically more complicated.
in portable models.
Electro-Slag Welding (ESW)
 Electro-slag welds are relatively defect free
 More suited to the joining of thick materials
 No costly joint edge preparations required, square butt
 Minimal distortion
 Minimal pre-heat required
 Low flux consumption
 High deposition
 Vertical up welding position only
 Low toughness values, may require PWHT.
 Timely Set-ups
Welding Process Comparison

Process Electrical characteristic Electrode current type

MMA Drooping / constant current DC+ve, DC-ve, AC

TIG Drooping / constant current DC-ve, AC

MIG/MAG Flat / constant voltage DC+ve,

MAG FCAW Flat / constant voltage DC+ve, DC-ve,

Drooping / constant current >1000amp

Sub-arc DC+ve, DC-ve, AC
Flat / constant voltage <1000amp

Electro-slag Flat / constant voltage DC+ve,