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Ans 11.

Ans 12. BIODEGRADALE-Biodegradation is the disintegration of materials by bacteria, fungi, or other biological
means. The term is often used in relation to: biomedicine, waste management, ecology, and the bioremediation of the
natural environment.

Non-biodegradable- wastes are those who cannot be decomposed or dissolved by natural agents. They
remain on earth for thousands of years without any degradation.

Ans 13.MRI-Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that physicians use to diagnose medical
conditions. MRI uses a powerful magnetic field, radio frequency pulses and a computer to produce detailed pictures of organs,
soft tissues, bone and virtually all other internal body structures. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical
test that physicians use to diagnose medical conditions. MRI uses a powerful magnetic field, radio frequency pulses and a
computer to produce detailed pictures of organs, soft tissues, bone and virtually all other internal body structures.

NMR- Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy or
magnetic resonance spectroscopy, is a research technique that exploits the magnetic properties of certain atomic

Ans 14. heterogamy is the alternation of differently organized generations, applied to the alternation between
parthenogenetic and a sexual generation. This type of heterogamy occurs for example in some aphids. ...
Forexample, XY males and ZW females are called the heterogamous sex

Ans 15. Okazaki fragments are short, newly synthesized DNA fragments that are formed on the lagging template
strand during DNA replication. They are complementary to the lagging template strand, together forming short
double-stranded DNA sections.

Ans 16. acquired immunity obtained either from the development of antibodies in response to exposure to an
antigen, as from vaccination or an attack of an infectious disease, or from the transmission of antibodies, as from
mother to fetus through the placenta or the injection of antiserum.

Innate immunity refers to nonspecific defense mechanisms that come into play immediately or within hours of
an antigen's appearance in the body. These mechanisms include physical barriers such as skin, chemicals in the
blood, and immunesystem cells that attack foreign cells in the body.

Ans 17. Oogenesis occurs within the embryo sac and leads to the
formation of a single egg cell per ovule. In ascaris, the oocyte does
not even begin meiosis until the sperm touches it, in contrast to
mammals, where meiosis is completed in the estrus cycle .

Ans 18. Darwinism is a theory of biological evolution developed by the English naturalist Charles Darwin (1809–
1882) and others, stating that all species of organisms arise and develop through the natural selection of small,
inherited variations that increase the individual's ability to compete, survive, and reproduce. Also called Darwinian
Ans 11. DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one
original DNA molecule. This process occurs in all living organisms and is the basis for biological inheritance. The cell
possesses the distinctive property of division, which makes replication of DNA essential.

Ans 12. An aerosol is a colloid of fine solid particles or liquid droplets, in air or another gas.[1] Aerosols can be
natural or anthropogenic. Examples of natural aerosols are fog, dust, forest exudates and geyser steam. Examples of
anthropogenic aerosols are haze, particulate air pollutants and smoke.[1] The liquid or solid particles have diameter
mostly smaller than 1 μm or so; larger particles with a significant settling speed make the mixture a suspension, but
the distinction is not clear-cut. In general conversation, aerosol usually refers to an aerosol spray that delivers a
consumer product from a can or similar container. Other technological applications of aerosols include dispersal of
pesticides, medical treatment of respiratory illnesses, and combustion technology.[2] Diseases can also spread by
means of small droplets in the breath, also called aerosols.[3]

Ans 13. parasitism is a non-mutual relationship between species, where one species, the parasite, benefits at the
expense of the other, the host. Traditionally parasite primarily meant an organism visible to the naked eye, or
a macroparasite (such as a helminth). Microparasites are typically far smaller, such as protozoa,[1][2] viruses,
and bacteria

parasite - An organism that lives off or in another organism, obtaining nourishment and protection while offering no
benefit in return. Human parasites are often harmful to the body and can cause diseases, such as trichinosis

host is an organism that harbors a parasitic, a mutualistic, or a commensalist guest (symbiont), typically providing
nourishment and shelter. Examples include animals playing host to
parasitic worms (e.g. nematodes), cellsharbouring pathogenic (disease-causing) viruses, a bean plant hosting
mutualistic (helpful) nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

Ans 14. population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area,
and have the capability of interbreeding.[1][2] The area that is used to define a sexual population is defined as the area
where inter-breeding is potentially possible between any pair within the area, and where the probability of
interbreeding is greater than the probability of cross-breeding with individuals from other areas

A community is a small or large social unit (a group of living things) who have something in common, such
as norms, religion, values, or identity. Communities often share a sense of place that is situated in a given
geographical area (e.g. a country, village, town, or neighborhood)

Ans15. Haemophilia, also spelled hemophilia, is a mostly inherited genetic disorder that impairs the body's ability
to make blood clots, a process needed to stop bleeding.[2][3] This results in people bleeding longer after an injury,
easy bruising, and an increased risk of bleeding inside joints or the brain.[1] Those with a mild case of the disease may
have symptoms only after an accident or during surgery. [1] Bleeding into a joint can result in permanent damage while
bleeding in the brain can result in long term headaches, seizures, or a decreased level of consciousness.

Ans 16. Leydig cells, also known as interstitial cells of Leydig, are found adjacent to the seminiferous tubules in
the testicle. They produce testosterone in the presence of luteinizing hormone (LH). Leydig cells are polyhedral in
shape, display a large prominent nucleus, an eosinophilic cytoplasm and numerous lipid-filled vesicles

Functions- Leydig cells release a class of hormones called androgens (19-carbon steroids). They
secrete testosterone, androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), when stimulated by
the pituitary hormone luteinizing hormone (LH). LH increases cholesteroldesmolase activity (an enzyme associated
with the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone), leading to testosterone synthesis and secretion by Leydig cells.
Ans 17. Spermatogenesis, the origin and
development of the sperm cells within the
male reproductive organs, the testes. The testes are
composed of numerous thin, tightly coiled tubules
known as the seminiferous tubules; the sperm cells are
produced within the walls of the tubules.

Ans 18.Biodiversity, a portmanteau of "bio" (life) and "diversity", generally refers to the variety and variability of life
on Earth. According to the United Nations Environment Programme(UNEP), biodiversity typically measures variation
at the genetic, the species, and the ecosystem level.which seems to be the result of the warm climate and
high primary productivity.Biodiversity is not distributed evenly on Earth, and is richest in the tropics. These tropical
forest ecosystems cover less than 10 percent of earth's surface, and contain about 90 percent of the world's
species.[4] Marine biodiversity tends to be highest along coasts in the Western Pacific, where sea surface
temperature is highest and in the mid-latitudinal band in all oceans.

cause for biodiversity loss. Habitat loss is caused by deforestation, overpopulation, pollution and global warming.
Species which are physically large and those living in forests or oceans are more affected by habitat reduction.
Ans 11. X-linked recessive diseases most often occur in males. ... Because of that, it doesn't protect the
male. Diseases such as hemophilia and Duchenne muscular dystrophy occur from a recessive gene on the X

Ans 12. Only a small sample of cells is needed for DNA fingerprinting. A drop of blood or the root of a hair contains
enough DNA for testing. The original DNA fingerprinting procedure used Variable Number
Tandem Repeats (VNTR), which are repetitive

Ans 13. A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms and ending at apex
predator species, detritivores, or decomposer species organisms through which nutrients and energy pass as one
organism eats another. example-Next come organisms that eat the autotrophs; these organisms are called
herbivores or primary consumers -- an example is a rabbit that eats grass. The next link in the chain is
animals that eat herbivores - these are called secondary consumers -- an example is a snake that eat

Ans 14. Antibodies are immune system-related proteins called immunoglobulins. Each
antibody consists of four polypeptides– two heavy chains and two light chains joined to form
a "Y" shaped molecule.


Ans.16 All humans and many other primates can be typed for the ABO blood group. There
are four principal types: A, B, AB, and O. In transfusions of packed red blood cells, individuals
with type O Rh D negative blood are often called universal donors. Those with type AB Rh D
positive blood are called universal recipients.

Ans.17 Homology in Animals. Organs such as bat's wing, wings of birds, seal's flipper, forelimb of a horse, and
human arm have a common underlying anatomy that was present in their last common ancestors; therefore their
forelimbs are homologous organs.

Analogous organs are the opposite of homologousorgans, which have similar functions but different origins. An
example of an analogous trait would be the wings of insects, bats and birds that evolved independently in each
lineage separately after diverging from an ancestor without wings.
Ans.18 Multiple Alleles-Alleles are alternative forms of a gene, and they are responsible for differences in
phenotypic expression of a given trait (e.g., brown eyes versus green eyes). A gene for which at least two alleles
exist is said to be polymorphic. Instances in which a particular gene may exist in three or more allelic forms are
known as multiple allele conditions. It is important to note that while multiple alleles occur and are maintained within a
population, any individual possesses only two such alleles (at equivalent loci on homologouschromosomes).

Examples of Multiple Alleles-Two human examples of multiple-allele genes are the gene of the ABO blood group
system, and the human-leukocyte-associated antigen (HLA) genes.

Ans.12 PAN (Peroxyacytyl nitrate) C2H3O5N is a toxic chemical that is an important component of smog.

CNG(Compressed natural gas) (methane stored at high pressure) is a fuel which can be used
in place of gasoline (petrol), Diesel fuel and propane/LPG.

Ans.13 Klinefelter syndrome is a chromosomal condition that affects male physical and cognitive development. Its
signs and symptoms vary among affected individuals. Affected individuals typically have small testes that do not
produce as much testosterone as usual. Testosterone is the hormone that directs male sexual development before
birth and during puberty. A shortage of testosterone can lead to delayed or incomplete puberty, breast enlargement
(gynecomastia), reduced facial and body hair, and an inability to have biological children (infertility). Some affected
individuals also have genital differences including undescended testes (cryptorchidism), the opening of the urethra on
the underside of the penis (hypospadias), or an unusually small penis (micropenis).
Turner syndrome is a chromosomal condition that affects development in females. The most common feature
of Turner syndrome is short stature, which becomes evident by about age 5. An early loss of ovarian function
(ovarian hypofunction or premature ovarian failure) is also very common. The ovaries develop normally at first, but
egg cells (oocytes) usually die prematurely and most ovarian tissue degenerates before birth. Many affected girls do
not undergo puberty unless they receive hormone therapy, and most are unable to conceive (infertile). A small
percentage of females with Turner syndrome retain normal ovarian function through young adulthood.

Ans.14 Eutrophication-This process induces growth of plants and algae and due to the biomass load, may result
in oxygen depletion of the water body.[1] One example is the "bloom" or great increase of phytoplanktonin a water
body as a response to increased levels of nutrients. Eutrophication is almost always induced by the discharge of
phosphate-containing detergents, fertilizers, or sewage, into an aquatic system.

Eutrophication can have serious effects, like algal blooms that block light from getting into the water and harm the
plants and animals that need it. If there's enough overgrowth of algae, it can prevent oxygen from getting into the
water, making it hypoxic and creating a dead zone where no organisms can survive.

Ans.15 A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and
can replicate independently. The term was coined by Lederberg and Hays and shortly discovered by Tatum. Plasmids
are closed, circular pieces of DNA that are able to self-replicate and are carried by many bacteria. They provide
unique functions for bacteria by allowing them to sexually replicate and to pass on genetic material between each
other. Plasmids are also responsible for the genetic factors that give resistance to antibiotics, and provide the
enzymes needed to break down poorly metabolised food resources.

Ans.16 acrosome---------------sperm

Graffian follicle-------------- ovary

Leydig’scell ----------------testis

Ans.17 Sex determination. A baby's sex is determined at the time of conception.

When the baby is conceived, a chromosome from the sperm cell, either X or Y, fuses
with the X chromosome in the egg cell, determining whether the baby will be female
(XX) or male (XY).
Ans.18 Incomplete Dominance In nature, sexual reproduction is a process by which organisms increase
genetic diversity in their offspring, where parents donate genetic material for specific traits (genes) to
progeny (offspring). This is done so that the offspring will have a different combination of traits than their
parents. Alternate versions of a gene are called alleles, and they determine what characteristics are exhibited
in the individual.
In dominant and recessive heredity, dominant alleles are those that require only one copy to be
displayed. Recessive alleles, however, require two alleles in order to show up in the organism. So under most
circumstances, an individual with one dominant and one recessive allele (called a heterozygote) will only express
the dominant version. However, this is not the case when it comes to incomplete dominance.
Examples of Incomplete Dominance. ... Pink roses are often the result ofincomplete dominance. When red roses,
which contain the dominant red allele, are mated with white roses, which is recessive, the offspring will be
heterozygotes and will express a pink phenotype

Ans 18 Biomagnification, also known as bioamplification or biological magnification, is the increasing

concentration of a substance, such as a toxic chemical, in the tissues of organisms at successively higher levels in
a food chain

Eg-One of the most famous cases of biomagnification is the one involving DDT (pesticide that was
historically used for mosquito control, as well as on agricultural crops) and bird eggs. ... DDT and other
pesticides have historically caused problems for species high up on the food chain, such as birds.
Ans.11 i) HIV – Human Immunodeficiency Virus

ii) Hepatitis B
Ans.12 PCR (polymerase chain reaction) is a technique in molecular genetics that permits the analysis of any
short sequence of DNA (or RNA) even in samples containing only minute quantities of DNA or RNA. PCR is used to
reproduce (amplify) selected sections of DNA or RNA for analysis

Enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) is a type of test that is used to detect antibodies or infectious agents
in a blood sample (AIDS). When it's done: ... ELISAis most commonly used to diagnose chronic infections with
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

Ans.13A restriction enzyme or restriction endonuclease is an enzyme that cleaves DNA into fragments at or
near specific recognition sites within the molecule known as restriction sites. These enzymes are found in bacteria
and archaea and provide a defense mechanism against invading viruses.


Ans.15 semiculuture--------------rearing of silkwarm

Pisciculture----------------rearing of fishes


Ans.16 Decomposers and scavengers break down dead plants and animals. They also break down the waste
(poop) of other organisms. Decomposers are very important for any ecosystem. If they weren't in the ecosystem,
the plants would not get essential nutrients, and dead
matter and waste would pile up.

Ans.17Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA is a molecule that

contains the instructions an organism needs to develop,
live and reproduce. These instructions are found
inside every cell, and are passed down from parents
to their children.DNA is made up of molecules called
nucleotides. Each nucleotide contains a phosphate group,
a sugar group and a nitrogen base. The four types of
nitrogen bases are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G)
and cytosine (C). The order of these bases is what
determines DNA's instructions, or genetic code. Human DNA has around 3 billion bases, and more than 99 percent of
those bases are the same in all people

Ans.18 adaptive radiation is a process in which organisms diversify rapidly from an ancestral species into a
multitude of new forms, particularly when a change in the environment makes new resources available, creates new
challenges, or opens new environmental niches.[1][2] Starting with a recent single ancestor, this process results in
the speciation and phenotypic adaptation of an array of species exhibiting different morphological and physiological
traits. An example of adaptive radiation would be the avian species of the Hawaiian honeycreepers. Via natural
selection, these birds adapted rapidly and converged based on the different environments of the Hawaiian islands.