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Project Description Introduction: Countries are covered by a network of boundaries delimiting properties and of administrative entities. This network is necessarily a dynamic one: itis closely linked to the current legal framework and is dependent on the status of ‘ownership. Both build upon different requirements of the society in different countries. Boundaries and boundary marks define the spatial extent of land rights and restrictions on land for individuals and/or legal persons. The network of bboundaties is to be seen as of extraordinary importance for a respectful and peaceful co-existence of neighbours, for the protection of land ownership, for the economic development of real estate owning citizens and moreover of the entire society. It is a valuable tool for valuation of land, for administrating land related taxation as well as subsidies. Boundaries therefore are more than spatial separation lines: they are closely related to legal, cultural, social, economic and ethical entities; they may be considered as the major part of land administration “The history of boundaries and boundary marks dates back to several thousands of years. Boundary marks have been knovn since the Babylonian period (3° millennium B.C.). Their importance has been documented already in the Old Testament Cursed be he that removeth his neighbour's landmark [Sih Book of Moses 27, 17; around 16! century B.C.]. During the Roman Empire the term Terminus was used for the name of the God over the boundary marks as well as for boundary marks themselves (from 7 century B.C.). Superstition, rituals and traditions were and still are associated with boundaries ‘and boundary marks. ‘Boundaries and boundary marks as well as cadastre and land book, as instruments to register them, have developed from an ‘exceptional idea to make delimitation of rights and obligations on land visible. These boundaries and rights are documented and archived by legally empowered authorities, and based on boundary negotiations, agreed contracts, demarcation on the spot and mapping. The mapping of details of the boundary network requires a super-ordinate, high precision triangulation network. The extraordinary, high level scientific outcome of a land administration system has been built upon a scientific process in geometry, mathematics, geodesy, astronomy, optics, mechanics as well as communication and logistics, and gets continuously improved. The result of such a technical effort is a precondition for a peaceful coexistence between neighbours and is therefore particularly adequate to be listed as UNESCO world heritage. Boundaries separate, clarify and protect. Boundary marks and verified boundaries are fundamental for the welfare of states and their citizens. Boundaries and boundary marks stand as symbols for this project, including cadastre and land register high precision network of triangulation points (network of national triangulation, recently satellite tracking systems) and a reliable legal framework as parts of it. ‘Testimonies of the history of these systems are buildings of the frst central surveying and legal authorities and archives, further origins of coordinate systems, base endpoints, as well as other highly prized monuments. That network of boundaries includes also a great number of historically and artistically valuable boundary marks, being still in foree. Some of these components will make up the physical core ofthis world heritage project. Background: At the ICOMOS Advisory Committee Meeting 2004 in Bergen the analysis about , The World Heritage List: Filling the Gaps - an Action Plan for the Future” has been presented and adopted. It requests the inclusion of technical ‘achievements and technical infrastructure into the World Heritage List. As a consequence the Struve Gsodetic Are” has been Tisted in 2005 as an outstanding technical and intellectual human achievement. The network of boundaries of real property, its representation by visible boundary marks as well as by documents in cadastre and land register are to be considered as an atleast even extraordinary technical and intelectual human achievement, ‘The World Heritage - Application “The Nenwork of Boundaries of Land Property and the Boundary Marks* will bs prepared by Austria, The project is open to further additional states, which run a land administration system and may join at a later stage on their own. The main application will be drafted by Austria following the operational UNESCO guidelines. ‘This application comprises in Part | all facts of international significance, such as history, description of land administration systems, definition of terms and a bibliography. In this part the relevance of “Boundaries and Boundary Marks” as an outstanding human-technical achievement of extraordinary, universal value will be justified, fulfilling the criteria of UNESCO to be accepted for the World Heritage List. Part 2 of this application will focus on the specific items related to ‘Austria. Countries joining ata later stage may refer to Part 1 and use Part 2 as a model for presenting their own system in their own application, * Short working tte: “Boundaries and Boundary Marks” 2 The Struve— Geodetic Arc has been calculated by means ofa triangulation chain, which has been geodetically measured between 1816 ‘and 1855. The Are spans with a length of 2820 km from the Norwegian North Cape tothe Black Sea Coast in Ukraine. This international project was carried out to analyse shape and size of the globe. 10, Oktober 2013 ‘Workt Culturt Heri Boundaries and Boundary Marks™ Page 1 Criteria for the inscription into the World Heritage List: The Operational Guidelines of UNESCO define six criteria as relevant for the inscription into the World Heritage List. At least one of the first five criteria needs to be fulfilled to get an application generally accepted, the sixth eriterion is optional. Boundary and Boundary Marks fulfil all of these criteria at least partly, as to be proofed from the following arguments. In the nomination file the outstanding universal value shall be defined under the most important criteria (i), (iv) and (vi), (A masterpiece of human creative genius: A lack of relevance andior missing appreciation of boundaries impacts ~ as t0 be ‘ean from history ~ disputes and even sometimes wars. The implementation of boundary marks verified by neighbours as a ‘means to visualize boundaries was an extraordinary step to exactly define and document land property under commitment of neighbouring owners. Gi) Important interchange of human values: Well defined boundaries within a wel functioning land administration system ere a (guarantee forthe exchange of human values with respect to social and economic development and for the cultivation of Tandscape, GN) A.unique or atleast exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition: boundaries and boundary marks are remarkable testimonies (ofa tadition which has grown since millennia. (iv) Anoutstanding example ofa type of =. technological ensemble .. which lusirates (a) significant stage(s) in human history: ‘implementation and maintenance of @ nationwide network of agreed boundaries is an outstanding technical and legal achievement, which coatinuously adapts to changing ovnership and to other changing requirements of the human society (») An outstanding example of land-use which is representative of human interaction with the environment: Land administration ‘ystems are fundamental for sustainable use and development of land and of other natural resources. They are indispensable instruments for the protection of envionment against damages from human interaction. Any cultivation of land and any ‘environmental eae could not be managed and organized without yeo-eferencing it to clearly defined land parcels. (oi) Be directly or tangibly associated with living traditions and with artiste works of outstanding universal significance: Boundaries and boundary marks are living testimonies for socal, economic, legal, administrative and technical innovation, as vel as for consistency and trust. Also many trations and rituals ae closely linked to boundaries and boundary mark. Authenticity and integrity as indispensable characteristics of a World Heritage Property are easily to be proved for Boundaries and Boundary Marks; Particularty, importance as well as their outstanding social-cultural value as a tool to prevent from disputes, persist since ever. The boundary monuments, which are often very magnificent and considerable, and have been established at agreed locations, are testimonies of proud ownership. The courses of boundary lines, the rights as defined for the owners and for third parties, and any changes of these are secured by geodetic measurements and documents which had been validated in several stages, and which are permanently maintained, archived, and accessible to the citizens. For the other physical parts, buildings and monuments of this application, the evidence of integrity and authenticity will be provided separately. Management Plan: UNESCO requires the presentation of a management plan, which may guarantee the sustainable protection of the cultural heritage. In case of Boundaries and Boundary Marks this requirement is already fulfilled by comprehensive legal and technical regulations for their secured existence and for changes on demand. For the other ‘monuments the plan of maintenance has to be stated in detail, Benefits from an application: Backing ideals, aims and tasks of UNESCO: Social and international peace in the world. Raising awareness in the society for boundaries and boundary marks. Promoting land administration in the own country (Creating a role model for countries where such institutions are missing or insufficient. Inereasing ethics of professionals and institutions being in charge of land administration Fostering international and interdisciplinary eo-opera Farther Steps: |. Proceed with the application submitted on 17 July 2013 to be inseribed into the Austrian tentative list ‘Selection and compilation af boundary marks of high relevance, and of further objects of interest for nomination Preparation of both parts of the main application by the Austrian team, Discussion of the Austrian draft application in workshops with experts from interested partner countries. Inclusion of the results of the public discussion among experts Submission of an application by Austria according to timetable and Operational Guidelines of UNESCO Improvement and submission of final application by Austria considering the recommendations and constraints given by the World Heritage Centre. ‘The Project Team of the Austrian Society for Surveying and Geoinformation: Gunther Abart Klaus Hanke Michael Hiermanseder Heinz Konig Reinfried Mansberger Gerhard Navratil Gerda Schennach Christoph Twaroch Peter Waldhiius! =< Contact: Prof. Dr. Peter Waldhdusl, Weimarer Strafe 114/2/4, 1190 Vienna, Austria, E-Mail: ‘Vienna, 28 September 2013 10, Oktober 2013, ‘irk Cultral Heri Boundaries and Boundsry Masks Page?