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Student Guide Book

Physical Metallurgy 1

(ENMT600006 / ENMT610006)

Guide Book Physical Metallurgy 1 (ENMT600006 / ENMT610006) Prof. Dr. Ir. Bondan Tiara Sofyan, M.Si. Dr.

Prof. Dr. Ir. Bondan Tiara Sofyan, M.Si. Dr. Ir. Myrna Ariati, M.Si. Dr. Nofrijon Sofyan Dr. Wahyuaji Narottama Putra, ST, MT Yudha Pratesa, ST, MT

Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Faculty of Engineering

Universitas Indonesia

2015

Preface

Physical Metallurgy 1 is the basic knowledge in the stream of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering. It covers crystallography, microscopic phenomenon and mechanism which control behaviour of materials. It lays foundation for further subjects related to manufacturing and processing, because it studies the relationship between structure, processing, properties and performance of materials.

This guidebook is intended to provide guidelines for students taking this subject. By reading this guidebook, it is expected that students understand the learning objectives and should be able to prepare themselves prior to each topic. It is also to guide students in working in group so that they may make the most of the group exercises. Any comments, critics, correction to this guidebook are thankfully accepted.

Depok, September 2015

Teaching Team,

Prof. Dr. Ir. Bondan Tiara Sofyan, M.Si. Dr. Ir. Myrna Ariati, M.Si. Dr. Nofrijon Sofyan Dr. Wahyuaji Narottama Putra, ST, MT Yudha Pratesa, ST, MT

Nofrijon Sofyan Dr. Wahyuaji Narottama Putra, ST, MT Yudha Pratesa, ST, MT Student Guide Book Physical

Table of Content

Preface

1

Table of Content

2

Chapter 1. General Information

3

Chapter 2. Learning Objectives

5

Chapter 3. Outlines of Subject

6

Chapter 4: Teaching Methods and Learning Activities

8

Chapter 5: Exercises and Assignments

12

Chapter 6. Assessment

21

References

24

and Assignments 12 Chapter 6. Assessment 21 References 24 Student Guide Book Physical Metallurgy 1 2

Chapter

1

General Information

1.

Subject

:

Physical Metallurgy 1

2.

Subject Code

:

ENMT600006 / ENMT610006

3.

Semester

:

3

4.

Credit

:

4 SKS

5.

Year

:

2015/2016

6.

Type of Subject

:

Basic Competence Subject (Mata Kuliah Dasar Keahlian)

7.

Prerequisite

:

Introduction to Engineering Materials

8.

Relationship between this subject and other subjects in Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Please see Figure 1.

9.

Teaching Team

:

Prof. Dr. Ir. Bondan T. Sofyan, M.Si., bondan@eng.ui.ac.id

Dr. Ir. Myrna Ariati, M.Si., myrna@metal.ui.ac.id

Dr. Nofrijon Sofyan, nofrijon.sofyan@ui.ac.id

Dr. Wahyuaji Narottama Putra, ST, MT, wahyuaji_np@yahoo.co.id

Yudha Pratesa, ST, MT, yudha.pratesa@gmail.com

10.

Description of the subject

 

As a materials engineer, you must have understanding on the structure, the processing /fabrication and degradation of materials which overall determine the performance of the material during application. This is illustrated in Figure 2.

Physical Metallurgy covers the basic of structure of solid materials, including the crystal structure, defects, and how they are determined by many factors, such as: processing routes, type of materials, alloying, etc. The structure of materials will also determine how a material can be utilized and how it reacts to loading and other external factors. So in fact, Physical Metallurgy covers the interrelationship between microstructure materials fabrication, as shown in Figure 2.

Learning activities will be conducted through various methods, which consist of: interactive lecture, question-based learning, discussion, demonstration and unguided structured assignments. Assessment will be made continuously through a set of exercises, group discussion, mid semester exam and final exam.

This guide book will help students prepare for learning activities throughout the semester for this subject. Preparation may include reading, preparation of worksheet and practice. Achievement of students will entirely be due to their activities and preparation. Construction of knowledge will be made through exercises and questions available in this book. Students are expected to do the exercises, and they may move to further stage as they ready for that. Overall, students are expected to be active learners by

ready for that. Overall, students are expected to be active learners by Student Guide Book Physical
acquiring knowledge through thinking and exercising. Students may also use this guidebook to self-assess their
acquiring knowledge through thinking and exercising. Students may also use this guidebook to self-assess
their achievement.
Introduction to
Heat Treatment
Techniques of
Physical
Physical
Engineering
and Surface
Microstructural
Metallurgy 1
Metallurgy 2
Materials
Engineering
Analysis
Static and
Polymer
Mechanics of
Materials Testing
Engineering
Materials
Fracture
Transport
Ceramic
Mechanics and
Phenomena
Engineering
Failure Analysis
Composite
Product Design
Materials
Engineering
Analytical
Thermodynamics
Basic Chemistry
Chemistry
of Materials
Materials Forming
Polymer
Chemistry
Materials Joining
Corrosion and
Electrochemistry
Degradation
Mineral
Extractive
Iron and Steel
Processing
Metallurgy
Making

Figure 1. Relationship of this subject with other subjects in Metallurgy and Materials Engineering

ore/feedstock

in Metallurgy and Materials Engineering ore/feedstock processing atoms, molecules, electrons, crystals

processing

atoms, molecules, electrons, crystals
atoms,
molecules,
electrons,
crystals

microstructure

materials
materials

fabrication

protection against

degradation

materials fabrication protection against degradation recycling components devices structures Figure 2. Scope

recycling

components

devices

structures

degradation recycling components devices structures Figure 2. Scope of metallurgy and materials engineering

Figure 2. Scope of metallurgy and materials engineering

structures Figure 2. Scope of metallurgy and materials engineering Student Guide Book Physical Metallurgy 1 4

Chapter

2

Learning Objectives

2.1. Terminal Learning Objectives

Upon completion of this subject students are expected to establish essential knowledge of crystallography of materials, to understand the imperfection in crystal, how to manipulate the imperfection for material strengthening in order to obtain particular characteristics of materials, and to establish a strong capability to correlate microstructures of materials with their characteristics.

2.2. Supportive Learning Objectives

1. Students understand the concept of crystals and are able to determine types of crystal of selected engineering materials.

2. Students are able to determine Miller indices of planes and directions in various crystal structures.

3. Students are able to project crystal.

4. Students are able to determine crystal classes based on their symmetry

5. Students understand the process of crystal formation and growth and possible defects that may form.

6. Students understand the method to identify crystal structure of materials.

7. Students understand point defects in crystalline materials and how they affect properties of materials.

8. Students understand how dislocations form and move in crystalline materials, and how dislocations affect properties of materials.

9. If the students are given a particular crystal structure (FCC, BCC or CPH) of materials they can examine slip system for dislocation on the structure and how it affects mechanical properties of the materials.

10. Students are able to distinguish fatigue and static fractures in term of dislocation movement and fracture appearance.

11. If students are given a fatigue fracture surface, they can analyze the initial crack and predict the type of loading that may cause it.

12. Students can differentiate movement of dislocations at low and high temperature, which may lead to creep mechanism.

13. Students understand the mechanism of wear in materials and how to design material to have high wear resistance.

14. Students are expected to be able to illustrate mechanisms to hinder dislocation movements in order to increase strength of materials: solid solution strengthening, strain hardening, grain boundary strengthening, dual phase and precipitation strengthening, steel strengthening and composite strengthening.

15. If the students are given various microstructures of materials, they may predict the difference of mechanical properties of each material.

16. If students are given information on processing routes of materials, they may predict the mechanical properties of the materials.

17. If low-strength materials are given to the student, they may design a set of process to increase the strength of the materials.

they may design a set of process to increase the strength of the materials. Student Guide

Chapter

3

Outline of Subject

Supportive

 

Topic

 

Sub-topic

Reference

Learning

   

Objective

1

1. Introduction to Crystal

1.1.

What is crystal?

[1] Chap. 2 [1] Chap. 6

1.2.

Lattice

 

1.3.

Unit Cell

1.4.

The 14 Bravais Lattice

 

2

2. Miller Indices

2.1.

Planes

[1] Chap.2

2.2.

Direction

2.3 Zone equation

 

3

3. Stereographic

3.1. Origin of stereographic projection.

[1] Chap.4

Projection

3.2. The Wulff Net and properties of projection

4

4. Crystal Symmetry

4.1.

Symmetry operation

[1] Chap. 5 [1] Chap. 8

4.2.

Minimum symmetry elements

5

5. Formation of

5.1.

Solidification

Handout

Crystal

5.2.

Dendritic growth of snow

6

6.

Identification of

6.1.

Principles of XRD

[1] Chap.12

Crystal

6.2.

Generation of x-ray

6.3.

Analysis of XRD data

7, 8, 9

7. Crystal Defects

7.1

Introduction

[3] Chap. 6 [3] Chap.3 [3] Chap. 4

7.2

Point Defects (0-dimension)

7.3

Line Defects (Dislocations) (1- dimension):

7.3.1. Edge Dislocations

 

7.3.2. Screw Dislocations

7.3.3. Burgers Vector

7.3.4. Movement of Dislocations

7.3.5. Energy of Dislocation

7.3.6. Interaction of Dislocation

7.3.7. Dislocations in FCC, BCC and

HCP structures

7.4

Planar Defects (2-dimension)

10, 11

8. Introduction to

8.1.

Introduction

[3] Chap.19

Fatigue and Fracture of Materials

8.2.

Fatigue stress

8.3.

Fatigue failure

 

8.4.

Fatigue test

12

9.

Creep of Materials

9.1.Creep and high temperature failure 9.2.Creep testing 9.3.Stress rupture life time behaviour

[3] Chap. 20

9.2.Creep testing 9.3.Stress rupture life time behaviour [3] Chap. 20 Student Guide Book Physical Metallurgy 1

Supportive

Topic

 

Sub-topic

Reference

Learning

 

Objective

   

9.4.Factors affecting creep 9.5.Creep mechanisms 9.6.Materials for high creep resistance

 

13

10. Wear of Materials

10.1.Introduction

 

10.2.Friction

10.3.

Lubrication

10.4.

Wear of Materials:

Adhesive Wear

Abrasive Wear

Surface Fatigue

Corrosive Wear

Erosion

10.4.

Wear Prevention

10.5. Case study

14, 15, 16, 17

11. Strengthening

11.1 Introduction

[3] Chap.7 [3] Chap. 8 [3] Chap. 5 [3] Chap. 9 [3] Chap.17 [3] Chap.18

Mechanism

11.2 Strain (Work) hardening

11.3 Solid Solution strengthening

11.4 Grain boundary strengthening

11.5 Precipitation (two-phase) Strengthening

11.6 Steel Alloys Strengthening

 

11.7 Composite Strengthening

Textbooks:

[1]

Borchardt-Ott, W, Crystallography, Springer, 1995.

[2]

McKie, D and C. McKie, Essentials of Crystallography, Blackwell Scientific, 1986

[3]

Abbaschian, R and Reed-Hill, R.E, Physical Metallurgy Principles, 4 th ed, Brooks Cole, 2008.

Reference Books

[4]

Callister, W.D, Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction, 7 th ed., Wiley., 2006

[5]

Smallman, R.E and Bishop, R.L, Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, 6 th ed., Butterworth Heinemann, 1999.

[6]

Philips, R, Crystals, Defects and Microstructures, Modeling Across Scale, Cambridge Univ. Press,

2001.

[7]

Mangonon, P. L, The Principles of Materials Selection for Engineering Design, Prentice-Hall, 1998

[8]

Hull, D and Bacon, D,J, Introduction to Dislocations, 4 th ed., Pergamon, 2001

Bacon, D,J, Introduction to Dislocations , 4 t h ed., Pergamon, 2001 Student Guide Book Physical

Chapter

Chapter

4 4

Teaching Methods and Learning Activities

Note: The real learning activities may slightly vary from the plan, depending on the class situation.

Week

     

Learning

Media

Assessment

/Day

Supportive Learning Objectives

 

Topic and Sub Topic

Reference

Method

 

1. Students understand the concept of

1.

Introduction to

1.1.

What is crystal?

[1] Chap. 2

Interactive

LCD,

 

1

crystals and are able to determine types of crystal of selected engineering materials.

Crystal

1.2.

Lattice

[1] Chap. 6

lecture

Laptop

Day 1

1.3.

Unit Cell

 

1.4.

The 14 Bravais Lattice

 

2. Students are able to determine Miller indices of planes and directions in various crystal structures.

2. Miller Indices

2.1.

Planes

[1] Chap.2

Interactive

LCD,

Assignment 1, due date in class

1

2.2.

Direction

lecture

Laptop

Day 2

2.3 Zone equation

 

2

3. Students are able to project crystal.

3. Stereographic

3.1.

Origin of stereographic

[1] Chap.4

Interactive

LCD,

 

Day 1

Projection

projection.

lecture

Laptop

3.2.

The Wulff Net and

2

properties of projection

Exercise

LCD,

Assignment 2, due date in class

Day 2

Laptop

3

4. Students are able to determine crystal classes based on their symmetry

4.

Crystal Symmetry

4.1. Symmetry operation

[1] Chap. 5

Interactive

LCD,

 

Day 1

 

4.2. Minimum symmetry

[1] Chap. 8

lecture

Laptop

 

elements

 

Exercise

LCD,

Assignment 3, due date in class

3

Laptop

Day 2

 
LCD, Assignment 3, due date in class 3 Laptop Day 2   Student Guide Book Physical

Week

       

Learning

Media

Assessment

/Day

Supportive Learning Objectives

Topic and Sub Topic

Reference

Method

 

5. Students understand the process of crystal

5. Formation of Crystal

5.1.

Solidification

Handout

Interactive

LCD,

 

4

formation and growth and possible defects that may form.

5.2.

Dendritic growth of snow

lecture

Laptop

Day 1

 
 

6. Students understand the method to identify crystal structure of materials.

6. Identification of

6.1.

Principles of XRD

[1] Chap.12

Interactive

LCD,

Assignment 4, due date in class

4

Day 2

Crystal

6.2.

6.3.

Generation of x-ray

Analysis of XRD data

lecture +

exercise

Laptop

5

EXAM 1

         

EXAM 1

Day 1

 

7. Students understand point defects in crystalline materials and how they affect properties of materials.

7. Crystal Defects

7.1.

Introduction

[3] Chap. 6 [3] Chap.3 [3] Chap. 4

Interactive

LCD,

Assignment 5, due date in class

5

Day 2

7.2

dimension)

Point Defects (0-

lecture +

exercise

Laptop

 

8. Students understand how dislocations form and move in crystalline materials, and how dislocations affect properties of materials.

9. If the students are given a particular crystal structure (FCC, BCC or CPH) of materials they can examine slip system for dislocation on the structure and how it

7.3

Line Defects (Dislocations)

 

Interactive

LCD,

Assignment 6, due date in class

(1-dimension):

lecture +

Laptop

6

Day 1

 

7.3.1.

7.3.2.

Edge Dislocations

Screw Dislocations

exercise

 

7.3.3.

Burgers Vector

   

7.3.4

Movement of

Interactive

LCD,

Assignment 7, due date in class

Dislocations

lecture +

Laptop

6

affects mechanical properties of the materials.

7.3.5

Energy of

exercise

 

Day 2

Dislocations

 

7.3.6.

Interaction of

Dislocations

7

 

7.3.7

Dislocations in FCC,

Interactive

LCD,

 

Day 1

BCC and HCP structures

lecture

Laptop

 

7.4

Planar Defects (2-

Interactive

LCD,

 

7

Day 2

dimension)

 

lecture +

Review

Laptop

8

EXAM 2 ( in UTS Period)

         

EXAM 2

 

10. Students are able to distinguish fatigue and

8. Introduction to

8.1. Introduction

[3] Chap.19

Interactive

LCD,

 

9

static fractures in term of dislocation movement and fracture appearance.

Fatigue and Fracture of

8.2. Fatigue stress

lecture

Laptop

Day 1

Materials

8.3. Fatigue failure

11. If students are given a fatigue fracture surface, they can analyze the initial crack

 

8.4. Fatigue test

Interactive

LCD,

Assignment 8, due date in class

9

and predict the type of loading that may cause it.

8.5. Case study

lecture +

Laptop

Day 2

exercise

 
8.5. Case study lecture + Laptop Day 2 exercise   Student Guide Book Physical Metallurgy 1

Week

     

Learning

Media

Assessment

/Day

Supportive Learning Objectives

 

Topic and Sub Topic

Reference

Method

 

12. Students can differentiate movement of dislocations at low and high temperature, which may lead to creep mechanism.

9. Creep of Materials

9.1.

Introduction

[3] Chap. 20

Interactive

LCD,

Assignment 9

9.2.

Creep and high temperature failure

lecture +

Laptop

exercise

 

9.3.

Creep testing

10

9.4.

Stress rupture life time behavior

Day 1

9.5.

Factors affecting creep

9.6.

Creep mechanisms

9.7.

Materials for high creep resistance

 

13. Students understand the mechanism of wear in materials and how to design material to have high wear resistance.

10.

Wear of Materials

10.1.

Introduction

 

Interactive

LCD,

 
 

10.2.

Friction

lecture

Laptop

10.3.

Lubrication

 

10.4.

Wear of Materials:

Adhesive Wear

10

Day 2

Abrasive Wear

Surface Fatigue

Corrosive Wear

Erosion

10.4.

Wear Prevention

10.5.

Case study

11

EXAM 3

         

EXAM 3

Day 1

11

       

Guest

LCD,

 

Day 2

lecture (TBA)

Laptop

 

14. Students are expected to be able to illustrate mechanisms to hinder dislocation movements in order to increase strength of materials: solid solution strengthening, strain hardening, grain boundary strengthening, dual phase and precipitation strengthening, steel strengthening and composite strengthening.

10.

Strengthening

10.1.

Introduction

[3] Chap.7 [3] Chap. 8 [3] Chap. 5 [3] Chap. 9 [3] Chap.17

Interactive

LCD,

Assignment 10, due date in class

12

Day 1

Mechanism

10.2.

Strain (Work) hardening

lecture +

exercise

Laptop

 

10.3.

Grain boundary

Interactive

LCD,

Assignment 11, due date in class. Assignment 12, due date in the next class.

strengthening

lecture +

Laptop

12

Day 2

10.4.

strengthening

Solid Solution

[3] Chap.18

exercise

 

15. If the students are given various microstructures of materials, they may predict the difference of mechanical

10.5.

Precipitation (two-

Interactive

LCD,

Assignment 13, due date in class

13

Day 1

phase) Strengthening

lecture +

exercise

Laptop

13

properties of each material.

10.6.

Steel Alloys

Interactive

LCD,

Assignment 14, due date in class

Day 2

16. If students are given information on

Strengthening

lecture +

Laptop

students are given information on Strengthening lecture + Laptop Student Guide Book Physical Metallurgy 1 10

Week

     

Learning

Media

Assessment

/Day

Supportive Learning Objectives

Topic and Sub Topic

Reference

Method

 

processing routes of materials, they may predict the mechanical properties of the materials. 17. If low-strength materials are given to the student, they may design a set of process to increase the strength of the materials.

 

10.7. Composite

 

exercise

   

Strengthening

 

10.8. Case study

Interactive

LCD,

Assignment 15, due date in class

14

lecture +

Laptop

Day 1

exercise

 
         

Review and

LCD,

 

14

Day 2

UAS

preparation

Laptop

15/16

EXAM 4 (UAS)

         

EXAM 4

Note:

Lecture time:

Metfis 01:

o

o

Monday 08.00 - 10.00, K.209

Thursday 08.00 - 10.00, K.209

Metfis 02:

- 10.00, K.209 Thursday 08.00 - 10.00, K.209  Metfis 02: o o Wednesday 15.00 -

o

o

Wednesday 15.00 - 17.00, K.209

Thursday 17.00 - 19.00, K.204

Metfis International Program

o

Wednesday 10.00 - 12.00, EC.104

o

Thursday 08.00 - 10.00, EC.104

If students miss a class, they may catch up in other class with prior permission from the lecturer.

they may catch up in other class with prior permission from the lecturer. Student Guide Book

Chapter

5

Exercises and Assignments

ASSIGNMENT 1: MILLER INDICES Please work in pairs.

1. Determine the indices for the planes a and b shown in Figure 1.

2. Determine the indices for the directions shown in Figure 2.

3. In a cubic system, provide a sketch of the following planes and directions:

(243), (0 2 1 ), [11 2 ], [242]

z

½ a ½ b
½
a ½
b
(243), (0 2 1 ), [11 2 ], [242] z ½ a ½ b x Figure

x

Figure 1

y
y

x

z

½ a b c ½ ½, ½
½
a
b
c
½ ½, ½

1/4

Figure 2

y

ASSIGNMENT 2: STEREOGRAPHIC PROJECTION Please work in pairs.

Aim The aim of this assignment is to familiarise students with the concept and applications of the stereographic projection.

Introduction The stereographic projection provides a useful means of representing the planes and directions of a crystal lattice in a two-dimensional diagram, which preserves angular relationships and the distribution of symmetry elements in the crystal. The present experiment is designed to provide an introduction to the basic elements of projection and its application to crystallographic problems.

What to bring Tracing paper, pencil, protractor, compass, ruler, calculator and your Wulff net.

Experimental Procedure Using the Wulff net and tracing paper, complete the following exercises with the aid of your tutor.

paper, complete the following exercises with the aid of your tutor. Student Guide Book Physical Metallurgy

1.

Element of Projection 1

This exercise is to project the planes of an orthorhombic mineral anglesite as shown in Fig. 1.

of an orthorhombic mineral anglesite as shown in Fig. 1. a. Plot the plane c (001)

a. Plot the plane c (001) and b (010).

b.Plot the planes n and m, of which b ^ n = 32.5 o and b ^ m = 52 o .

c. Do the planes b, n and m belong to one zone? If yes, determine the zone axis of the planes. d.Plot the plane o, of which c ^ o = 52 o .

e. Plane d lies in a vertical zone at 90 o to the zone c, o and b. Plot the plane d if c ^ d =

39.5 o .

f. Locate the plane y, if b ^ y = 50 o and c ^ y = 57 o . g.Measure the angle between m ^ y and n ^ y.

2. Element of Projection

On a separate sheet of tracing paper complete the following exercises.

a.

Plot two general directions X and Y, 30 o apart.

b.

Sketch in the plane containing X and Y and find its normal (N XY )

c.

The directions Z 1 and Z 2 are both 40 o from X and 20 o from Y. Plot these directions.

d.

What angles do Z 1 and Z 2 make with the normal to the plane (XY)?

e.

Plot the locus of directions 40 o from Z 1 .

f.

What is the angle between the plane (XY) and plane (XZ)? Check whether this angle depends on which sense of Z is chosen.

g.

Find the normal to the plane containing N XY and N XZ .

3.

Application of Projection

On a separate sheet of tracing paper complete the following exercises.

a. Plot the <100> basis directions.

b. Find the directions D which makes angles of :

57.7 o with [100]; 74.5 o with [010]; 36.7 o with [001]. What are the direction indices of D?

c. Plot the direction A[12 1] and B[221].

d. Measure the angle between these directions and compare with the calculated value, giving reasons for any difference.

e. Plot the position of the normal N 1 to the plane (AB) containing the directions A and B and determine its direction indices. Compare with the exact indices determined by calculation.

f. Draw the planes of which A and B are the normals. These planes intersect at N, as do all planes having normal lying in (AB). What is the name given to the direction N?

having normal lying in (AB). What is the name given to the direction N? Student Guide

ASSIGNMENT 3: SYMMETRY OF CRYSTAL Please work in a group of 3 students.

Aim The aim of this exercise is to investigate aspects of symmetry elements of crystal systems and to carry out simple exercise in crystallography.

Introduction Understanding the symmetry elements is one way to determine crystal structure. Each crystal structure has minimum symmetry, which then defines its crystal classes. The present exercise is designed to provide an introduction to the basic elements of symmetry in determining crystal classes.

Experimental Procedure

1. Draw up a table as shown below. Study the solid objects provided and list their symmetry elements

(mirror planes (m) and rotation axes) in the table. You need to study at least 3 solid objects.

Solid

 

Symmetry Elements

 

Crystal

Point

No.

         

̅

̅

̅

̅

̅

Group

m

2

3

4

6

system

With the aid of your list and the table below, decide to which of the seven crystal systems each solid belongs and define its point group, add this information to your list.

Crystal System

Minimum Symmetry Requirement

Cubic

Four 3 axes parallel to body diagonal of cell

 

̅

Hexagonal

One 6 or 6 parallel to c-axis

Rhombohedral

One 3 or 3 ̅ parallel to c-axis

 

̅

Tetragonal

One 4 or 4 parallel to c-axis

Orthorhombic

Three perpendicular 2 or 2 ̅ axes parallel to a, b, and c axes

Monoclinic

One 2 or 2 ̅ parallel to b-axis (by convention)

Triclinic

none

2. Having had exercise no. 1, try to study the crystal form of Epsomite (MgSO 4 .7H 2 O) as shown below.

a. Draw / sketch the elements of symmetry of this crystal. Please sketch it on this question sheet.

b. By defining the symmetry elements, determine the crystal system which it belongs.

c. Determine the point group of the crystal.

d. Determine which planes of the crystal belong to [001] zone.

e e m a a m s s
e
e
m
a
a
m
s
s
which planes of the crystal belong to [001] zone. e e m a a m s

ASSIGNMENT 4: CRYSTAL IDENTIFICATION Please work in pairs.

Pure Epsomite (as shown in Assignment 3, No. 2) was analyzed by XRD with an x-ray source of MoK= 0.7093 Ǻ, and the results are presented below. Each of diffraction peak on the pattern has been indexed. Determine the lattice parameters of the Epsomite crystal.

Intensity
Intensity

ASSIGNMENT 5: POINT DEFECTS Please work in pairs. A formation energy of 2.0 eV is required to create a vacancy in a particular metal. At 800ºC there is one vacancy for every 10,000 atoms. At what temperature will there be:

a. one vacancy for every 1,000 atoms?

b. one vacancy for every 100,000 atoms?

c. one vacancy for every 1,000,000 atoms?

Plot temperature vs number of vacancy. Please comprehend how number of vacancy exponentially

increases with the increase in temperature.

ASSIGNMENT 6: BURGER VECTOR Please work in pairs.

a. Draw a simple cubic crystal lattice.

b. Find and draw all possible burger vectors in the lattice.

c. Find the slip planes in the lattice.

ASSIGNMENT 7: DISLOCATION INTERACTION

Please work in pairs.

(i)

Using what you’ve learned about dislocation-dislocation interactions, explain in detail which of the two following edge dislocation configurations is more stable, and why.

following edge dislocation configurations is more stable, and why. (ii) Student Guide Book Physical Metallurgy 1
(ii)
(ii)

ASSIGNMENT 8: FATIGUE Please work in pairs. Using the chart of fracture surface appearance, identify the type of load, nominal stress and stress concentration level for the two shaft examples given below.

and stress concentration level for the two shaft examples given below. Student Guide Book Physical Metallurgy
and stress concentration level for the two shaft examples given below. Student Guide Book Physical Metallurgy
and stress concentration level for the two shaft examples given below. Student Guide Book Physical Metallurgy
Student Guide Book Physical Metallurgy 1 17

Student Guide Book

Physical Metallurgy 1

17

ASSIGNMENT 9: STRESS RUPTURE LIFETIME

Please work in pairs.

ASSIGNMENT 9: STRESS RUPTURE LIFETIME Please work in pairs. Using the Larson–Miller data for S-590 iron

Using the Larson–Miller data for S-590 iron shown in this figure, predict the time to rupture for a component that is subjected to a stress of 140 MPa(20,000 psi) at 800°C (1073 K).

ASSIGNMENT 10: STRAIN HARDENING

Please work in pairs.

Propose a series of steps to reduce a rod of copper-zinc alloy from 1” diameter to 0.1”diameter. The maximum cold work allowable for copper is 85%. You will have to draw the copper, then anneal it several times. What is the tensile strength of your final product?

it several times. What is the tensile strength of your final product? Student Guide Book Physical
it several times. What is the tensile strength of your final product? Student Guide Book Physical

ASSIGNMENT 11: GRAIN BOUNDARY STRENGTHENING

Please work in pairs. The following yield strengths were obtained in ferritic steel as a function of grain size. Estimate the two constants in the Petch equation for this material and predict the expected yield strength of the steel in which the grain size is reduced to 1 m.

Grain size (m)

Yield strength (MPa)

250

105

40

180

12

280

ASSIGNMENT 12: GRAIN BOUNDARY STRENGTHENING

This is an individual assignment. Please do it at home and submit in the next class. Open:

Do the virtual experiment there to prove that Hall-Petch equation does work!

ASSIGNMENT 13: PRECIPITATION STRENGTHENING Please work in pairs.

Assignment will be given in class

ASSIGNMENT 14: STEEL STRENGTHENING Please work in pairs.

Assignment will be given in class

STRENGTHENING Please work in pairs. Assignment will be given in class Student Guide Book Physical Metallurgy

ASSIGNMENT 15 Please work in pairs.

ASSIGNMENT 15 Please work in pairs. Student Guide Book Physical Metallurgy 1 20
ASSIGNMENT 15 Please work in pairs. Student Guide Book Physical Metallurgy 1 20
Ref. V. Jun Hu, Lin-Xiu Du, Jian-Jun Wang, Materials Science & Engineering A 554 (2012)

Ref. V. Jun Hu, Lin-Xiu Du, Jian-Jun Wang, Materials Science & Engineering A 554 (2012) 79– 85.

Jian-Jun Wang, Materials Science & Engineering A 554 (2012) 79– 85. Student Guide Book Physical Metallurgy

Chapter

6

Assessment and Code of Conduct

6.1. Instrument

1. Assignments

2. Exams (written test, restricted response essay, extended response essay)

6.2. Assessment

No

Component

Weight

1.

Assignments 1-15

50 %

2.

Exam 1

12.5

%

3.

Exam 2

12.5

%

4.

Exam 3

12.5

%

5.

Exam 4

12.5

%

 

Total

100 %

Notes: No late submission of assignment is accepted.

6.3. Grading

85

80-84.9

75-79.9

70-74.9

65-69.9

60-64.9

55-59.9

40 – 54.9

0-40

A

A-

B+

B

B-

C+

C

D

E

6.4. Code of Conduct

o

No cheating and plagiarism. Cheating and plagiarism will be sanctioned with “E” mark.

o

No sandals

o

No smoking

o

Attendance is required min 75 %. Why? Knowledge can be transferred through handout, but “values” can’t be! So, please come and we may share good values in life.

All of the following are considered plagiarism:

turning in someone else's work as your own

copying words or ideas from someone else without giving credit

failing to put a quotation in quotation marks

giving incorrect information about the source of a quotation

changing words but copying the sentence structure of a source without giving credit

copying so many words or ideas from a source that it makes up the majority of your work, whether you give credit or not

Most cases of plagiarism can be avoided, however, by citing sources. Simply acknowledging that certain material has been borrowed, and providing your audience with the information necessary to find that source, is usually enough to prevent plagiarism. However, “borrowing” a whole paragraph is already considered plagiarism! (http://www.plagiarism.org/plag_article_what_is_plagiarism.html)

( http://www.plagiarism.org/plag_article_what_is_plagiarism.html ) Student Guide Book Physical Metallurgy 1 22

Matrix for Exam

 
 

Cognitive

Instrument

Number of

Weigh

Domain 1

question/problem

 

t

C2

Restricted response essay (Interpret information on a graph and details of phenomenon)

1-2

35

%

(comprehension)

 

C3 (application)

Restricted response essay (Apply a concept on real case in manufacturing)

1-2

25

%

C4 (analysis)

Extended response essay (Analysis of a case)

1-2

25

%

C6 (evaluation)

Extended response essay (Evaluation of a given set of data and condition that possesses the best properties)

1

25%

Total

4-7

100%

6.7. Examples of questions for exams.

Restricted response essay C2 (Comprehension)

1. Briefly explain the differences between recovery and recrystallization processes.

2. What is the driving force for recrystallization?

3. Is it possible for an undeformed specimen to be recrystallized? Explain why.

C3 (Application)

1. When making hardness measurements, what will be the effect of making an indentation very close to

a preexisting indentation?

2. Why a tool steel containing 0.9 % C, 0.5 % Cr, 0.1 % V and 0.5 % W (wt. %) is suitable as wear- resistant material?

Extended response essay C4 (Analysis)

A stainless steel propeller shaft on a large yacht failed after two years in service. The loading conditions were rotating bending. The shaft is made of high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel, and the fracture surface is as shown, which is typical of a fatigue failure. On the fractography, show where the crack initiation, crack propagation and the final failure area.

Picture taken from:

http://www.fract.ses.soton.ac.uk/

1 Bloom Taxonomy

Picture taken from: http://www.fract.ses.soton.ac.uk/ 1 Bloom Taxonomy Student Guide Book Physical Metallurgy 1 23
Picture taken from: http://www.fract.ses.soton.ac.uk/ 1 Bloom Taxonomy Student Guide Book Physical Metallurgy 1 23

C6 (Evaluation)

a
a
b
b

Figure 1 above are TEM micrographs of Al-4Cu-0.3Mg (wt. %) aged at 200 o C for different duration.

a. Based on the size and distribution of the precipitates, compare the hardness of the alloy in Figure 1 (a) and 1 (b). Give reason for your answer.

b. Predict the stage of ageing of the two samples (a) and (b) and evaluate their mechanical properties

c. Which condition will you choose if the materials to be used as fuselage of aircraft. Give scientific

reason for your answer.

be used as fuselage of aircraft. Give scientific reason for your answer. Student Guide Book Physical

References

Textbooks:

[1]

Borchardt-Ott, W, Crystallography, Springer, 1995.

[2]

McKie, D and C. McKie, Essentials of Crystallography, Blackwell Scientific, 1986

[3]

Abbaschian, R and Reed-Hill, R.E, Physical Metallurgy Principles, 4 th ed, Brooks Cole, 2008.

Reference Books

[4]

[5]

Callister, W.D, Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction, 7 th ed., Wiley., 2006 Smallman, R.E and Bishop, R.L, Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, 6 th ed.,

Butterworth Heinemann, 1999. Philips, R, Crystals, Defects and Microstructures, Modeling Across Scale, Cambridge Univ. Press,

[6]

2001.

[7]

[8]

Mangonon, P. L, The Principles of Materials Selection for Engineering Design, Prentice-Hall, 1998 Hull, D and Bacon, D,J, Introduction to Dislocations, 4 th ed., Pergamon, 2001

Related Journals

[1]

Acta Materialia, Elsevier

[2]

Materials Transaction, American Society of Materials

[3]

Journal of Materials Science, Springer

Society of Materials [3] Journal of Materials Science, Springer Student Guide Book Physical Metallurgy 1 25