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DEFINITION OF BALLISTICS • In its broadest sense, ballistics is defined as is the science

dealing with the motion of projectiles and the conditions governing that motion. Science is a
systematized body of knowledge which has been observed tested and proven. Motion refers to
movement or mobility. • 3 Types of Motion • Direct motion – is the forward movement of the
bullet or shots out of the shell by the action of the expansive force of gases from a burning gun
powder. • Gyroscopic motion – is the action of the bullet passing through a rifled bore barrel
firearm which is either twisted to the left or right. • Translational – is the action of the bullet once
it hits a target and subsequently ricocheted.

4. • Projectile means to metallic and non-metallic object propelled by means of force. In strict
sense, it is the study of natural laws relating to the performance of gunpowder and projectiles in
firearms and the means of predicting such performance. It is also refers to the science of firearms
identification which involves the scientific examination of ballistics exhibits (fired bullets, fired
shells, firearms and allied matters) used in crimes involving scientific equipments such as bullet
recovery box, bullet comparison microscope and others.

5. ETYMOLOGY • The term ballistics was derived from the Greek word “ballo” or “ballein”
which literally means “to throw”. Its root word was also said to have been derived from the name
of an early Roman war machine called “ballista” - a gigantic bow or catapult which was used to
hurl missiles or large objects such as stones at a particular distance to deter enemy forces. The
term ballistics is frequently used synonymously in the press and in police parlance to firearm
identification and investigation.

6. BALLISTICS AS A SCIENCE • Ballistics is classified, formulated and verifiable

knowledge gathered by observation, research and experiment and based on scientific theory and
using scientific equipment and apparatus. Results of firearms identification is an exact science
because it permits an absolute precision in results free from possibility of error normal to human
perception. Therefore, ballistics per se is not an exact science rather it is a branch of physics or
applied science which is subject to changes and development depending upon the demands of the
modern civilization.


identification of firearms by the trained observer was recorded in the criminal investigation by
Hans Gross, the great Austrian Criminologist and considered as the father of criminalistics. This
refers to the French bullet fired by soldier of Napoleon Bonaparte’s Army, which lodge behind
the eye of his grandfather in 1799. The bullet was recovered in 1845 after the death of his
grandfather. When Hans Gross saw it, he observed and found out that it was still with traces of
gunpowder and this would prove evidentiary value. • Another was done by Charles Waite in the
United States of America. He was an employee of New York State who conducted an
investigation involving firearms. In 1915, a farmer was accused of murder with a gun. Waite was
not convinced by the evidence of the firearms’ experts, and his effort showed that the accused is
innocent. Through Waite’s effort, to trace the gun from which the bullet was fired, consequently
identify the manufacturer of the gun.

8. • Alexandre Lacassagne (1844-1921)- was the first to recognize the significance of the
striations etched found on a bullet extracted from a murder victim and its to link to the gun from
which it was fired, thus beginning the science of ballistics. • Edmond Locard (1877-1966) –
established the first forensic laboratory in France. His principles “objects or surfaces which came
into contact always exchange trace evidence”. • Col. Calvin H Goddard (1920) – pioneered the
introduction of science of Ballistics in the different universities in U.S., subsequently it was
universally practiced and accepted in the different courts throughout the world.

9. FORENSIC BALLISTICS • Forensic – a term originated from the Latin word “forum”,
meaning “marketplace where people gather for public disputation or public discussion”. •
Forensic Ballistics – it refers to the science of investigation and identification of firearms and
ammunition used in crimes. • It is a refined Tool Mark Identification where the firearm is made
of a material harder than the ammunition components, acts as a tool to leave impressed or
striated marks on the various ammunition components that come into contact with the harder
surface of the firearm. • Dr. Albert Llewellyn Hall, the pioneer in the field in forensic ballistics,
was an expert in identifying firearm from the fired bullets. Identification of the crime gun is in
the principal purpose and objectives of criminal investigation, to establish the identity of criminal
offender and assist in their prosecution.

10. BRANCHES OF BALLISTICS • 1. Interior (internal) Ballistics • It refers to the properties

and attributes of the projectile while still inside the gun. It covers from the time; the firearm is
loaded with the cartridge, the explosion and the movement of the bullet from the breech to the
muzzle of the gun.

11. ATTRIBUTES OF INTERIOR BALLISTICS • Firing pin hitting the primer • In order
that the primer should explode, the firing pin should hit such. This is due to the theory of friction
wherein there is a resistance to motion created by the firing pin. • Ignition of the priming mixture
• Priming mixture is made up of very sensitive material that is commonly located in the center
portion of the cartridge case. In order to ignite the priming mixture, it must be live and potent
and must be devoid of any moisture. • Combustion of the gunpowder • As the primer crushed
and ignited, the flash passes through the vent towards the gunpowder that provides the
combustion of gunpowder.

12. • Expansion of the heated gas • There will be equal expansion of heated gas inside the
cartridge, after the combustion of gunpowder. The gas expanded in the different direction that
tends the bullet and shell to separate from each other in the cartridge. • Pressure developed •
When the heated gas created by the burning powder charge is developed, a tremendous pressure
is produced in the chamber of the firearm. • Energy generated • Energy refers to the fatal
equivalent of a bullet compared to a pound that is drops from a certain height.
13. • Recoil of the gun • The recoil of the gun is due to the Newton’s third law of motion (law of
interaction) which states that in every action is always equal and opposite reaction. The forward
movement of the bullet after the explosion results to backward movement of the cartridge case.
Recoil of the gun is affected by several things such as tightness with which the firearm is held,
height of the bore above the center of the stock line of wrist for pistols, shape and design of the
butt plate or the pistol’s grip, weight of the firearm and the physical and mental condition of the

14. • Velocity of the bullet in the gun • The bullet will travel the bore of the barrel depending on
the powder load of the cartridges, since it is the powder load that will propel the bullet in the
bore of the barrel of the firearm. • Rotation of the bullet in the barrel • When the bullet is driven
by the heated gas by tremendous pressure towards the muzzle end, the bullet will rotate
following the riflings inside the gun barrel. But if the firearm does not have riflings inside the
barrel, the bullet (shot) would just move forward without rotating inside the bore of the barrel
until the bullet left the gun muzzle.

15. • Engraving of the cylindrical surface of the bullet • The riflings starting from the breech end
up to the muzzle end of the barrel will engraved in the body of the bullet, depending on the
number of lands and grooves as part of the class characteristics of the firearm.

16. 2. EXTERIOR (EXTERNAL) BALLISTICS • It refers to the attributes and movements of

the bullet after it has left the gun muzzle, which includes the condition of the bullets’ movement
and flight up to the target.

17. ATTRIBUTES OF EXTERIOR BALLISTICS • Muzzle blast – it is the noise created at the
muzzle point due to sudden escape of the expanding gas coming in contact with the surrounding
atmosphere. Due to this sound at the muzzle end of the gun, a silencer was invented to minimize
the sound, which the criminal took advantage to conceal the crime. • Muzzle energy – it is an
energy generated at the muzzle point, whenever the cartridge explodes from a firearm. •
Trajectory – actual curve path of the bullet during its flight from the gun muzzle to the target.
There are three stages of trajectory namely, straight horizontal line, parabola like flight and
vertical drop.

18. • Range – straight distance from the muzzle to the target. It is classified into: 1. Accurate
/maximum effective range – it is the distance within a shooter has control of his shots. 2.
Absolute maximum range – it is the farthest distance that a projectile can be propelled from a
firearm. It is based upon the intrinsic accuracy of the firearm and ammunition, size of the target,
marksmanship ability of the shooter, the ability to discern the target, knowledge of the ballistics
characteristics of the ammunition, and the level of power needed to be delivered to the target. •
Velocity – rate of speed per unit time.

19. • Air resistance/aerodynamic drag – resistance encountered by the bullet during its flight
which reduces its speed. There are three parts of drag bullet, the bow resistance, skin friction and
the base drag. • Pull of gravity – downward reaction of the bullet towards the center of the earth,
due to its weight. The pull of gravity will apply only, starting from the parabola, then to the
maximum range and to the final vertical drop. However, in the effective range, the bullet could
withstand the pull of gravity due to its velocity and gyroscopic stability. • Penetration – depth of
entry on the target based on the power and velocity of the bullet.

20. 3. TERMINAL BALLISTICS • It refers to the effects of the impact of the projectile in the
target. The knocking power of particular powder load of the cartridges which makes a
devastating lesion, caused by the bullet.

21. ATTRIBUTES OF TERMINAL BALLISTICS • Terminal accuracy – it is the size of the

bullet grouping on the target. • Terminal energy/striking energy – it is energy of the projectile
when it strikes the target. This refers to the fatal equivalent of a bullet when it struck the victim. •
Terminal velocity – it is the speed of the bullet upon striking the target. • Terminal penetration –
it is the depth of entry of the bullet in the target.

22. 4. FORENSIC BALLISTICS • It refers to the investigation and identification of firearms by

means of ammunition fired through them. This is the real branch of the science which the police
use as their guide in field investigators.

23. ATTRIBUTES OF FORENSIC BALLISTICS • Field investigations – it is conducted the

first responders when they investigate a case wherein firearms have been used. • Technical
examinations of ballistics exhibits – it is conducted by the firearms examiners in the ballistics
laboratory to determine the value of firearms exhibits in the solution of the case. • Legal
proceeding – it includes making of ballistics report and presentation of the result of the
examination conducted before the court.

24. 5. SHOT BALLISTICS • It is the study of shotgun ammunition including its characteristics
spread and trailing. 6. Wound Ballistics It refers to the study of the effects of a projectile on a
target and the conditions that affect them

25. Scientific Equipment Used in Firearms ID Chapter 2

26. INTRODUCTION • By means of these equipment and with qualified men to use them, the
police will be more effective in their drive against crimes involving firearms. At times, an
insignificant fire bullet or shell found at the crime scene will serve as the only “missing link” in
the final solution of a crime wherein a gun has been used. And this is brought out to light only in
the laboratory by the use of different equipment. It includes:

27. 1. BULLET COMPARISON MICROSCOPE • It is designed to permit the firearm examiner

to differentiate two fired bullet or shell, by simultaneously observing their magnified image in a
single microscopic field. Fired bullet and shell are examined and compared in either
INTERMARRIAGE (half of the same image of the evidence bullet/shell and half of the same
image of the test bullet/shell of the same direction, the same magnification, and the same level or
plane are merge into one image to look for the congruency of stations or the same markings) and
in JUXTAPOSITION (critical side by side comparison at the same time, direction,
magnification, image and level or plane to find the same feature, structure of striations to the
specimens under observation).

28. • The forensic examiner can take photomicrographs which are needed for court presentations
as an exhibit to support the ballisticians’ findings he observed under this instrument. The
photomicrograph will give a clue to the judge how the ballistician arrived with his findings and
conclusions. • It was introduced by Dr. Calvin H. Goddard on April 1925. He was the first to
own and use the first bullet comparison microscope, and through his efforts, he is considered as
the father of modern ballistics. He took active participation in the examination of the fired shells
in the infamous General Castañeda and Salgado Ambuscade in Quezon City.


30. 2. STEREOSCOPIC MICROSCOPE • It is generally used in the primary examinations of

fired bullet and shells to determine the relative distribution of the class characteristics or for
orientation purposes. It can also be used in the closed-up examination of tampered serial
numbers of firearms. • In the middle of 19th century, Francis Herbert Wenham of London
designed the first successful stereomicroscope. The first modern stereoscopic microscope was
introduced in the United States by Cycloptic.


32. 3. SHADOWGRAPH • It contains a series of microscopic lenses of different magnifications

that can be used in examining fired bullets or fired shells to determine the class characteristics
and also for orientation purposes. This instrument contains a large circular ground glass, and a
diameter about 14 inches, wherein the observation and comparison of class characteristics is
dome similarly with the bullet comparison microscope.


34. 4. CP-6 COMPARISON PROJECTOR • Similar to bullet comparison micro-scope in which

two fired bullets of shell can be compared simultaneously by projecting the image on a large
screen and is observed at a vertical and comfortable viewing. • The instrument was invented by
William Howard Livens, an engineer and British army.


36. 5. BULLET RECOVERY BOX • It used is to obtain test fired bullets or test fired shells for
examination and comparison to the questioned bullets or shell. Several designs of bullet recovery
box are now adopted, for as long as it could meet the desired result in test firing and retrieved the
fired bullet undamaged. This is commonly filled with cotton but sometimes water tank, sawdust
with oil, sand, waste threads, darak, banana trunks or rubber strips can be used and separated by


38. 6. HELIXOMETER • It is used in measuring pitch of riflings of firearms. This instrument is

generally used in highly advanced ballistics laboratory. With this instrument, it is possible to
measure the angle of twist in a rifled pistol or revolver barrel. It is used in inserting the telescope
and aligning it with the axis of the bore. The scope is mounted in a rotatable bearing, with a
graduated disc which permits reading circular measurements to three minutes of an arc. • This
instrument was invented by John H. Fisher.

39. 7. MICROMETER/CALIPER • This is used in making measurements such as bullet

diameter, bore diameter, barrel length and other important details.

40. 8. ANALYTICAL OR TORSION BALANCE • Used for determining weights of bullets or

shotgun pellets – for possible determination of type, caliber and make of firearms from which

41. 9. ONOSCOPE • A small instrument that is sometimes used in examining the internal surface
of the gun barrel with a tiny lamp at the terminal portion and this is inserted inside the bore for
internal examination.

42. 10. TAPER GAUGE • Used primarily for determining the bore diameter of firearms.

43. 11. SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE • A high powered electron microscope used
to identify left over particles like gunpowder residues and primer residues. This is a computer
system combined with an electron microscope and laser spectrophotometry unit. Its power is so
great that with a mere speck of dust it could identify the elemental components of the particle
under examination.


45. 12. ELECTRIC GUN MARKER/STYLUS • Used in the laboratory for marking fired bullets,
fired shells and firearms submitted for examination.

46. 13. CHRONOGRAPH • It is used to measure the speed of bullet. • It was invented by Alfred
Lee Loomis in 1918.

47. 14. BULLET PULLER • It is used to separate the bullet form the cartridge case.

48. 15. COMPUTERIZED COMPARISON MICROSCOPE • It is similar to the bullet

comparison microscope; the only difference is the magnified image is seen in the monitor. It is
more convenient to use than a manual one.
49. Firearms Chapter 3

50. HISTORY OF FIREARM The development of firearms followed the invention of

gunpowder in Western Europe in the 13th century. Many stories have been told about the
discovery of gunpowder, but most are legendary and have little support facts. It also often that
gunpowder was first invented by the Chinese and that the Arabs, with their advance knowledge
of chemistry at that time, may have developed it independently.

51. One of the earliest recorded uses of firearms in warfare was an attack in Seville, Spain in
1247. History also showed that cannons were used by King Edward III of England in Crecy in
1346 and by Mohammed II of Turkey in his famous conquest of Constantinople in 1453. The
first firearm were inefficient, large and heavy, making it difficult for common soldier to carry;
and later the development of small arms weapons were rampant. It was many years later before
the use of gunpowder was applied to a portable arm which could be operated by single person.

52. MEN BEHIND FIREARM Roger Bacon – an English monk and scientist who credited for
the invention of gunpowder in 1248. Berthold Schwartz – credited for the application of
gunpowder for the propelling of a missile in the early 1300s.

53. COL. CALVIN HOOKER GODDARD (1891–1955) He was a forensic scientist, army
officer, academic, researcher and a pioneer in forensic ballistics. In 1925 Goddard wrote an
article for the Army Ordnance titled "Forensic Ballistics" in which he described the use of the
comparison microscope regarding firearms investigations. He is generally credited with the
conception of the term "forensic ballistics", though he later admitted it to be an inadequate name
for the science. He was considered as the father of forensic ballistics.

54. HORACE SMITH (1808-1893) He was a gunsmith, inventor, and businessman. He and his
business partner Daniel B. Wesson formed two companies named Smith & Wesson, the first of
which was financed in part by Oliver Winchester and was eventually reorganized into the
Winchester Repeating Arms Company Smith was employed by the U. S. Armory service from
1824 to 1842, when he moved to Newton, Connecticut. He was employed by various gun makers
up to the 1840s, when he moved to Norwich, Connecticut. He is then listed as a partner of
Cranston & Smith. It is known that while in Norwich, he engaged in the manufacture of whaling
guns and he is credited with the invention of the explosive bullet used to kill whales.

55. DANIEL BAIRD WESSON (1825 – 1906) He married Cynthia Maria Hawes, May 26, 1847
in Thompson, Connecticut. He partnered with Horace Smith in Norwich, Connecticut in the early
1850s to develop the first repeating rifle, the Volcanic rifle. He is an associate or partner of
Smith in revolver making.

56. JOHN MOSES BROWNING (1825 – 1926) He was an American firearms designer who
developed many varieties of firearms, cartridges, and gun mechanisms, many of which are still in
use around the world. He is the most important figure in the development of modern automatic
and semi-automatic firearms and is credited with 128 gun patents—his first was granted October
7, 1879. Browning influenced nearly all categories of firearms design. He invented or made
significant improvements to single-shot rifles, lever action rifles, and slide action firearms. His
most significant contributions were in the area of autoloading firearms. He developed the
autoloading pistol by inventing the slide design found on nearly every modern automatic
handgun. He also developed the first gas-operated machine gun, the Colt-Browning Model
1895—a system that would surpass recoil operation in popularity. Other successful designs
include the M1911 pistol, the Browning .50 caliber machine gun, the Browning Automatic Rifle,
and a ground- breaking semi-automatic shotgun, the Browning Auto-5.

57. DAVID “CARBINE” WILLIAMS He was the maker of the first known carbine.

58. ALEXANDER FORSYTH (1768-1843) He was a Scottish Presbyterian clergyman who

invented the percussion ignition. He was educated at King's College, Aberdeen, and succeeded
his father as minister of Belhelvie in 1791. While hunting wild duck he was dissatisfied with his
flintlock fowling-piece due to its hang-fire; by the time the bullet was discharged the duck had
time to dive before the shot reached them. He patented his scent-bottle lock in 1807; this was a
small container filled with fulminate of mercury

59. ELISHA KING ROOT (1808–65) He was the inventor, engineer, manufacturer; born in
Ludlow, Mass. In 1849 he became superintendent of the Colt Firearms Company, eventually
becoming president. He remained there until his death. Root invented a drop hammer in 1853,
which was soon used in every forge. He also invented a revolving cylinder firearm and
developed numerous machines for tooling firearms.

60. ELIPHALET REMINGTON (1793 – 1861) He was born in 1793 in the town of Suffield,
Connecticut, to parents whose origins lay in Yorkshire, England. He was a blacksmith, and at 23,
he hand-made a revolutionary sporting rifle using a firing mechanism bought from a dealer,
producing the barrel himself. The gun received such an enthusiastic response that Remington
decided to manufacture it in quantity, and formed the firm of E. Remington and Sons, which he
headed until his death in 1861 . By the mid-1800s the gun had become immensely popular with
American sportsmen and was one of the standard guns used in what has been called "the winning
of the West". The company continued to grow and to develop its product and gradually began the
manufacture of other sporting goods, such as bicycles. At the present time, the company is
known as the Remington Arms Co., Inc.

61. JOHN MAHLON MARLIN (1836 - 1901) He was an American firearms manufacturer and
inventor. Marlin was born in Boston Neck, near Windsor Locks, Hartford County, Connecticut
as the son of Mahlon Marlin and Jennette Bradford. He worked at the Colt plant in Hartford
during the Civil War. Starting in 1863, he made pistols in New Haven, Connecticut, expanding
into manufacturing pistols and then different types of firearms by 1872, then called Marlin Fire
Arms Company, today Marlin Firearms. Initially producing single-shot weapons only, his
company started manufacturing lever-action repeating rifles in 1881.

62. JAMES WOLFE RIPLEY (1794 –1870) He was an American soldier, serving as a brigadier
general in the Union Army during the Civil War. He was instrumental in the early days of the
war in modernizing the artillery's ordnance. However, Ripley also delayed the introduction of
repeating rifles into U.S. arsenals, an act has been widely criticized by later historians.

63. SAMUEL COLT (1804 - 1862) He was an American inventor and industrialist. He was the
founder of Colt's Patent Fire-Arms Manufacturing Company (now known as Colt's
Manufacturing Company), and is widely credited with popularizing the revolver. Colt's
innovative contributions to the weapons industry have been described by arms historian James E.
Serven as "events which shaped the destiny of American Firearms. Colt never claimed to have
invented the revolver, as his design was merely a more practical adaption of Collier's revolving
flintlock, which was patented in England and achieved great popularity there.

64. HENRY DERINGER (1786 – 1868) He was an American gunsmith. He invented, and gave
his name to the Deringer pistol. Further development and copying of his design resulted in the
derringer (note the double-r) pistol that was generically manufactured widely by other
companies. He was born in Easton, Pennsylvania on Oct. 26, 1786 possibly to Johannes Heinrich
(and Maria Catherina) Thuringer. However, no family tree entry indicates that the senior
Deringer had a son named Henry. He may have been born to Henry Deringer, Sr., a colonial
gunsmith who made Kentucky Rifles (and Catherine McQuety Deringer). He married Elizabeth
Hollobush at the First Reformed Church in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on April 5, 1810. He gave
his name to the whole class of firearms (rifles and pistol).

65. JOHN T. THOMPSON • pioneered the making of Thompson SMG.

66. HIRAM MAXIM (1858) built the first fully automatic gun and the silencer.

67. • Richard J. Gatling – patented his design of the "Gatling Gun", a six-barreled weapon
capable of firing a (then) phenomenal 200 rounds per minute. • Oscar Mossberge – maker of
high quality caliber .22 rifle, sporting rifle and pump action shotgun. • Fedor Tokarev – designed
the service pistol for Soviet forces. • Carl Walter – developed a reliable small caliber automatic
pistol in 1866. • George Luger – designed the 9mm parabellum and cartridge. • Eugene Stoner –
designed the M16 assault rifle. • Joseph Laumann – invented the first automatic handgun.

68. DEFINITION • The term “firearm” has two definition – legal as well as technical. • Legal
definition – it may be found in Section 877 of Revised Administrative Code as well as in Section
290 of National Internal Revenue Code and this runs as follows: • • Firearms or arms are herein
used, includes rifles, muskets carbines, shotguns, pistols, revolvers and all other deadly weapon
from which bullets, balls, shots, shells or other missiles may be discharged by means of
gunpowder or other explosives. This term also includes air rifles except such as being of small
caliber and of limited range use as toys. The barrel of any firearms shall be considered a
complete firearm for all purposes thereof.

69. • While Republic Act 10591, it is define as: • Firearm refers to any handheld or portable
weapon, whether a small arm or light weapon, that expels or is designed to expel a bullet, shot,
slug, missile or any projectile, which is discharged by means of expansive force of gases from
burning gunpowder or other form of combustion or any similar instrument or implement. For
purposes of this Act, the barrel, frame or receiver is considered a firearm. • • Technical definition
– a firearm is an instrument used for the propulsion of projectiles by means of expansive force of
gases coming from the burning gunpowder.


71. THE MAIN PARTS A. Revolver C. Rifle 1. barrel assembly 1. barrel assembly 2. cylinder
assembly 2. magazine assembly 3. frame or receiver 3. stock group B. Pistol D. Shotgun 1. barrel
assembly 1. barrel assembly 2. slide assembly 2. magazine assembly 3. frame or receiver 3. stock

72. Hammer Hammer Spur Rear Sight Top Strap Barrel Front Sight Muzzle Ejector Rod Trigger
Guard Trigger Grip Panel Cylinder Release / Thumb Latch Cylinder Frame Chamber Extractor

73. ACTIONS OF REVOLVER • Single-action revolvers - the trigger performs only one task,
when the trigger is pulled the hammer falls, firing the handgun. • Double-action revolvers - as
the trigger is pulled two actions occur. The hammer comes back and falls forward to fire the

74. Hammer Slide Ejection Port Muzzle Mainspring Cap Frame Trigger Guard Trigger Grip
Safety Magazine Front Sight Rear Sight Slide Lock Magazine Release Button Thumb Safety

75. ACTION OF PISTOLS • Semi-auto operation When the pistol is fired, the slide moves to the
rear, ejecting the spent cartridge and usually cocking the pistol in the process. The cartridges
located in the magazine are forced upward by the magazine spring into the path of the slide.
When the slide (under pressure from the recoil spring) moves forward, it picks up and pushes the
next cartridge into the chamber, ready to be fired again. • Automatic operation The firearm can
fire continuously as long as the trigger is pulled. • Selective These fires either on automatic or
semi-automatic by using the selector level of the firearm. Ex. Glock Pistols

76. Charging Handle Rear Sight Drum Carrying Handle Ejection Port Front Sight Assembly
Barrel Bayonet Stud Magazine Release Button Dust Cover Trigger Guard Trigger Forward
Assist Button Rubber Recoil Pad Flash Suppressor Gas Cylinder Upper Sling Swivel Handguard
Bolt Catch Pistol Grip Selector Lever Magazine Slipring Rear Sling Swivel Stock

78. CLASSIFICATION OF FIREARMS 1. According to gun barrel construction a. smooth-bore

firearms – have no riflings inside the gun barrel. b. rifled-bore firearms – firearms that have
riflings inside their gun barrel.

79. 2. According to the caliber of the projectiles propelled a. artillery – can propel projectiles
more than one inch in diameter. b. small arms - can propel projectiles less than one inch in
diameter. E.g. machine gun, shoulder arms and hand arms.

80. 3. According to mechanical construction a. single shot firearms b. repeating arms c. bolt
action type d. automatic loading type e. slide action type (trombone) f. lever type (break-type)

81. 4. According to use a. military firearms b. pocket and home defense firearm c. target and
outdoor men’s firearms 5. Unusual or miscellaneous type – those types of firearms that are
unique in mechanism and construction. a. paltik pistols b. paltik revolvers c. paltik rifles d. paltik

82. Break for 30 minutes!!!

83. Ammunition Chapter 4

84. LEGAL DEFINITION Found in Chapter VII, Section 290 of National Internal Revenue
Code as well as in Section 877 of Revised Administrative Code - It refers to a loaded shell for
rifles, muskets, carbines, shotguns, revolvers, and pistols from which a ball, bullet, shot, shell or
other missiles may be fired by means of gunpowder or other explosives.

85. TECHNICAL DEFINITION It refers to a group of cartridges or to a single unit cartridge –

meaning a complete unfired unit consisting of a bullet, cartridge case, gunpowder and primer.
The term may also refer to a “single round”. Cartridge – is a complete round of ammunition for a
firearm. The term cartridge and ammunition can be used interchangeably.

86. ORIGIN The cartridge evolved about the turn of the 16th century. In 1635, the first cartridge
was invented by King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden. He was credited with this invention. These
were simple packages, which he furnished to his troops during the 30 years of war. The package
was torn, and the content was poured down inside the barrel. Most shooters during those days
had to carry two powder horns, the first is for the powder to be poured in the barrel, and the
second is for the fine grains powder for priming charge. The invention of paper cartridge
eliminated the package of the use of horn in carrying the powder mixture in bottles or tube.

87. The term cartridge evolved about the turn of 6th century. The earliest small arms ammunition
or cartridge consisted of a pre-measured charge of powder wrapped in paper. The term cartridge
is derived from the word “charta”, the Latin word for paper. Later on, it came through the French
word “cartouche”, meaning a roll of paper, which indicates that the original cartridge were not
the brass gliding metal tipped units which we are familiar with today. The paper cartridge
remained standard, for muzzle loading firearms though the middle of the 19th century. The paper
cartridge was designed for combustible cartridge. It was employed in muzzle-loading firearms,
revolving chamber firearms, and in several breech-loading firearms. The casing and enclosing
the gunpowder was made from nitrated paper, collodion, cloth, animal intestine or some other
materials which would not leave a residue in the chamber of the gun barrel after firing.


89. ACCORDING TO LOCATION OF PRIMER 1. Needle-fire cartridge – the primer is placed

in the base of the bullet. A long sharp firing pin is pierced the paper or foil case to reach the
primer. 2. Tit-fire cartridge – a copper case nipple containing the protruding cup, through which
a hole rear the breech block, to the struck and detonated by the falling hammer.

90. 3. Tail-fire cartridge – the opening of the rifle for loading is compressed by spring, once the
rifle has been loaded and the breech is closed, operation of the trigger to crush against the
underside of the block, and detonate a flat percussion tail from the rear of the cartridge. 4. Pin-
fire Cartridge – the first cartridge of self-exploding type developed by Monsieur Le Facheux of
Paris, around 1836. The primer was placed on the sidewall of a copper case and a brass pin was
installed in the opposite side of the case, the intended pin rested on the primer then the hammer
fall on the side of the case, driving the pin into the primer.

91. 5. Rim-fire Cartridge – developed by Louis Nicolas Auguste Flobert of France, around 1845,
the priming mixture is contained or located in the cavity inside and around the rim of the
cartridge which is a very sensitive area. This cartridge is usually applied to caliber .22 firearms.
6. Ring-fire cartridge – it is a type of cartridge used on the sabotage case. This is a special type of
cartridge wherein the priming mixture is placed in a circular hollow ring about 1/3 of the base of
the cartridge.

92. 7. Volcanic cartridge – a system made by Robin and Laurence around 1854. The cartridge
was a mini ball with a base cavity filled with propellant. A paper disc holding a fulminate pellet
is closed at the back of the base, this type of cartridge is similar to needle-fire but the firing pin
can easily damaged. 8. Center-fire Cartridge – in 1858, the Moors cartridge marked the
development of this cartridge. The primer cap is forced into the middle portion of the head of
cartridge case.

93. ACCORDING TO TYPE OF FIREARM USED 1. Revolver cartridge – it has a rimmed

base, which allows the cylinder where the chamber is located to clamp its rim. 2. Pistol cartridge
– extracting grooves are designed to allow easier packaging of the rounds in the magazine.

94. 3. Assault rifle cartridge – longer than a hand weapon and generally bottle necked for larger
powder capacity and increased powder. 4. Shotgun cartridge – the case is generally made up of
plastic or paper designed to fire several projectiles spreading out to create a come of fire. 5.
Caseless cartridge – the powder is the casing itself, of the projectiles. It requires varnishing to
protect it from moisture and moderate shocks. There are few residues left after the gunpowder
had exploded. The cross section is generally fragile to cause for fragmentation.

95. ACCORDING TO TYPE OF CALIBER The caliber of a gun is the diameter of its bore,
measure in fraction of an inch between two opposite lands for barrel with even lands. The caliber
of a firearm designated only as an approximation of the bore diameter, and is usually closer to
the groove diameter. The different systems of measuring caliber of firearm are Metric or
European (millimeter) and English or American (inches) systems of measurement. In converting
millimeters to inches – multiple the millimeters by .03937 or divide by 25.4 while converting
inches to millimeters – multiple by 25.4 or divide by .03937.

96. SHOTGUN SHELL It is the cartridge for shotgun. It is also called a “shell”, and its body
may be made up of metal or plastic or paper with a metal head. The length of a shot shell is
normally given in inches and is based on the length of the spent hull.

97. PARTS OF SHOTGUN SHELL 1. Shot cup – it is a plastic cup that holds shot in pattern as
it leaves from the muzzle of the firearm. 2. Tube or case – prior to 1960, a paper tube were used,
with mouth closed by rolled crimps or with plastic body or hull with mouth closed by die crimp,
eliminating need for overshot wad. 3. Primer – it is the very sensitive part of the cartridge located
in the bottom portion of the case which ignites the powder charge. 4. Propellant – a chemical
compound used in firearms that burns upon ignition. The gases produced by this rapid
combustion propel the pellet down the bore of the firearm.

98. 5. Crimp – portion of the cartridge that is bent inward to hold the shots in place. 6. Wads – it
helps to contain the shot, seal off the shot payload from the ignition gases to prevent deformation
and protects the barrel from lead building up. The four types of wads are base wad, under
powder, over powder and filler. 7. Shot/pellet – small spherical projectiles for shotgun.

99. KINDS OF SHOT/PELLET 1. Buckshot (BS) – consist of a number of lead balls that spread
out as they travel. These pellets are not very effective (in 00 buckshot, each one is .33 inch in
diameter), but collectively they result in large and destructive wounds. At longer distance,
however the shot spreads and fewer pellets hit the target.

100. 2. Slug (SL) – instead of a group of lead balls, the shell contains a single huge bullet with
angled grooves cut into its side to spin it, as it travels down the smooth bore of a shotgun. The
penetration of a slug is better than shot, but the wound channel is not as wide as the shot. 3.
Tungsten-Iron shot – it is formed either powdered tungsten and powdered iron, they are blended
together and pressed into pellet, then sintered or bonded together by heating process. The shot is
coated with a rust inhibitor and it is harder than both lead and steel.

101. 4. Flechette Shot (FS) – a cluster of sturdy steel needles, replaced the shot of the standard
shotgun shell. These flechettes have tiny fins at their base to stabilize them in flight. Air
resistance is greatly improved over shot, than in armor piercing capability. 5. Armor-piercing
Bullet (APB) – the discarding sabot slug processes an aerodynamic shape that keeps it stable
flight even though it does not spin. It is smaller in diameter than a standard slug, and surrounded
within the shell by a tow- piece plastic sabot. After exiting the barrel, the sabot splits in half and
falls away because of air resistance.

102. 6. Steel Shot – it is made by cutting soft steel wire into short lengths, which are formed into
shot. The shot is then annealed and coated with a rust inhibitor. Wads for steel shot ammunition,
are molded from high density polyethylene. It has thick sidewalls to prevent the pellets from
contracting the shotgun bore surface. High velocity steel loads have a cushion to reduce recoil. 7.
Tungsten-Iron and Steel – this shell has a layer of steel over a layer of tungsten-Iron. It gives a
dense combined pattern at longer ranges. It can be used in any shotgun recommended for steel


104. Bullet Chapter 5

105. DEFINITION It is a metallic or nonmetallic, cylindrical projectile propelled from a firearm

by means of an expansive force of gases coming from burning gunpowder. The term may also
include projectiles propelled from shotguns, although strictly speaking, these projectiles designed
for shotgun are called “shots” or “pellet”.

106. ORIGIN The term bullet originated from the French word “boulette”, means “small ball”.
The projectile of most small arms ammunition primarily means a projectile from a rifled arm
which is cylindrical or cylindro-conoidal in shape as opposed to round projectiles which are
commonly called either a ball or shot.