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THE TARGUM TO CANTICLES ACCORDING TO

SIX YEMEN MSS. COMPARED WITH THE


'TEXTUS RECEPTUS' (ED. DE LAGARDE)

By RAPHAEL HAI MELAMED, New York.

INTRODUCTION.

i. THE Targum, in its stage of oral transmission


antedates the destruction of the second Temple,1 but it
was not until the third or fourth century that some of the
books were committed to writing,2 and certain versions
received the sanction of the Synagogue. The time and
place of the final redaction of the various versions in the
several parts or books of the Scriptures, and their relation
to one another, are still mooted questions. This much
is certain, that the texts as we have them to-day, bear in
1 Cf. Meg. 3 a, where tradition ascribes the origin of the institution of
oral translation of the Scriptures into Aramaic, to Ezra. Cf. also Ned. 37 b,
Jer. Meg. 74 d, Gen. R. 36, Sanhed. 2I b.
2 The earliest official written
Targum may probably be traced to Babylon,
where the Onkelos T. was the first to receive the authority of the Rabbis.
This Targum must have been written about the third century, since its
Masorah dates from about this time. Cf. Bacher, JE., XI, 58; A. Berliner,
Die Masorah zum Targum Onkelos, Leipzig, 1877; S. Landauer, Die
Massorah zumn Onkelos, Amsterdam, I896. There are, however, traces of
a written Targum earlier than that, although not officially sanctioned.
In the time of Gamaliel I, a Targum to the book of Job was brought to him,
which he ordered withdrawn from circulation. This same Targum made its
reappearance in the time of Gamaliel II. Cf. Shabbat I15 a, Tosephta
Shabbat XIV, Jer. Shabbat 15 c, Maseket Soferim V, I5; see also Gratz,
MGWJ., 1877, 87, who maintains this to have been a Greek translation.
Further, the statement made in the Mishnah, Yad. IV, 5 refers no doubt also
to a written Targum.
VOL. X. 377 Cc
378 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

their content the impress of successive ages and traces


of varying linguistic influences.
2. The official Targum on the Torah, called by the
name of Onkelos,3 is Palestinian in origin and dialect,4 but
its final redaction and authorization took place in Babylon
about the third century,5 where, as some believe, its
vocabulary and grammar were slightly influenced.6
3. Parallel to the Onkelos, is the unofficial Jerusalem
Targum I,7 of a mixed Palestinian and Babylonian
3 This name, which is based on the passage in
Meg. 3 a, arose in the
post-Talmudic period, through confusion of the Aramaic translation of
Scriptures with the Greek version of Aquila. Cf. PRE.3, III, Io6; JE.,
XII, 58; Buhl, Kanon und Text, 189r, p. I73.
4 Cf. Noldeke, Manddische Grammatik,
p. io8; F. Rosenthal, Beth
Talmud, II and III; Berliner, Targum Onkelos, p. I07. See also F. Hommel,
Theol. Littbl., 1902, col. 206, who maintains it to be a product of Babylon.
5 According to Berliner, Onkelos was compiled by the second
century;
Volck, however, places it in the fourth century, at the earliest. Cf. Berliner,
Targum Onkelos,passim; PRE.3, III, Io6.
6 NOldeke, Die semitischen Sprachen, I887, p. 32; Die alttest. Lit., 1868,
p. 257; Manddische Grammatik, p. xxvii; Dalman, Aram. Gram., p. 13;
Bacher, JE., XII, p. 59.
7 This Targum is now known generally as Jerusalem Targum I. It also
bears the name of ' Pseudo-Jonathan '. It was not universally known during
the early Middle Ages, the following apparently being the only ones who
knew of its existence: Sar Shalom Gaon (Sefer Sha'are Teshubah, 1858,
29 c), Hai Gaon (Harkavy, Teshubothageonimn,124 f., 6 f., Berliner, Targum
Onkelos, II, I73 if.; RA~J.,XLII, 235). Citations from it are to be found in
the Aruch (cf. Dalman, Gram., 29 and 30), while Judah ben Barzillai and
R. Meir of Rothenberg also speak of it (cf Dalman, ibid., and Bacher, JE.,
XII, 60). After the fourteenth century, this Targum was erroneously called
Targum Jonathan, Menahem Recanati being the first to ascribe it to
Jonathan ben Uzziel (cf. JE., XII, 60). This mistake arose no doubt from
a wrong analysis of the abbreviation "n' (=D?'wI' Dlnl). Cf. also the
Zohar (I, 89 a) which contains the statement that 'Onkelos translated the
Torah, and Jonathan the Mikera'; it is most probable that 'Mikra' here
means the Prophets (Bacher, I.. ; REJ., XXII, 46), but that it was
misinterpreted to mean the entire Bible, and hence the Pentateuch also
(cf. Ginsburger ' Pseudo-Jonathan ', p. vii). Cf. also Zunz, Gott. Vor., 80 ff.;
TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED 379

dialect,8 the nucleus of which originated in Palestine,


probably earlier than the Christian era,9 but whose final
redaction did not occur before the seventh century.10
4. Linguistically very similar to Jerusalem Targum I,
are two other Targumin on the Torah, the fragmentary
Jerusalem Targum II,11 and the Jerusalem Targum III in
glosses.'2

Dalman, 1.c. We have the evidence of Azariah dei Rossi (Meor Enayim,
ed. Wilna, p. I27) that he saw two manuscripts of a Targum on the Pentateuch
that agreed in every detail, named respectively 'Targum Jonathan ben
Uzziel' and 'Targum Jerushalmi'. The editio princeps (Venice, I59I) of
this Targum was printed from the first mentioned manuscript, which bore
the wrong title and perpetuated the wrong name.
8 Cf Dalman, Gramm., p. 32. There is evidence, likewise, that the
Targum Onkelos exercised some influence over it.
9 Diverse opinions prevail among scholars as to the
age of this nucleus.
On the one hand it is claimed that there are elements antedating the Christian
era and representing a Palestinian recension independent of the original of
Onkelos. Cf. NOldeke, Die alt. Lit., p. 256; F. Buhl, Kanon und Text,
p. I8r; M. Ginsburger, Jud. Monatsschrift, XLI, p. 349, note 2; Schuirer,
Geschichtedes jad. Volkes, I, p. 150; Bacher, JE., XII, 6i; E. KOnig,
Einleitung in das AT., I893, p. Ioo; Bacher, ZDMG., XXVIII, 59 f. On
the other hand, it is maintained that these elements are to be traced back to
the original source of Onkelos, which was the parent of both, and further-
more, that the redactor of the Jerusalem Targum, while he used a recension
of Onkelos current in Palestine, did not have access to a version of this
Targum specific to Palestine. Cf. Dalman, 1.c., and Worte Jesu, I, 68 f.;
Bassfreund, Jid. Monatsschrtft, XLIV, 481 ff.; ibid., Das Fragmenten-
Targum zum Pentateuch, Breslau, 1896; Lerner, Anlage und Quellen des
Ber. R., 64.
10 The Christian and Muhammedanreligions are mentioned several times,
and also the names of a wife and daughter of Muhammed. An African
manuscript mentions the fall of Constantinople, 1453, but this must be an
addition by a later scribe. Cf. Dalman, Bacher, &c.
11 Dalman, Gramm., p. 33; cf. Bassfreund, Das Fragmenten-Targum
zun Pentateuch, sein Ursprung und Charakter und seini Verhiiltniss zu den
anderen pentateuchischen Targumim, Breslau, 1896; Ginsburger, Pseudo-
Jonathan, I903.
12 Dalman, Gramm., p. 29. These glosses bear tne superscriptions,
CC 2
38o THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

5. Corresponding closely in vocabulary and grammar to


the Onkelos Targum,l3 is the Targum to the Prophets,
which received official sanction only in Babylon, where its
final redaction occured in the fifth century.14
6. An official Targum to the Hagiographa never existed,
but there are Targumic versions to most of the books,l5
which are independent in origin and character. In content,

' These have been published in


'nDiln, 'lnm nDl:, and 2IF 'In.
early editions of the Pentateuch (Lisbon, I49I; Salonica, 1520; Constantinople,
1546; Venice, 159I. Passages parallel to Exod. 13. I7 and 14. 2i are also
found in the Mahzor Viiry, I67, 305 ff.) and more recently by Ginsburger
from manuscript sources (M. Ginsburger, Das Fragmenten-Targum, 1899,
pp. 71-74; J. Bassfreuld, Das Fragmenten-Targum zum Pentateuch, 1896,
pp. 40-44 (reprints from the earlier editions); cf. further, H. Seligsohn,
De duabus Hierosolymitanis Pentateuchi Paraphrasibus, I, i858, p. 37 ff.;
Perles, Jud. Monatsschrift, 1876, p. 368 f.; A. Epstein, REJ, XXX,
pp. 44-51).
13 Dalman, Gram,n., p. I6. This Targum was traced back by tradition
to be the work of Jonathan ben Uzziel (Megillah 3 a). Luzzatto identifies
this Jonathan with Theodotion, as Onkelos is identified with Aquila. As
early as the time of the Babylonian Amora, Joseph bar R. Hiyya, it was
generally accepted, and quoted with great frequency in the Academies
(cf. Bacher, Ag. Bab. Amor., p. 103). Hai Gaon apparently considered
R. Joseph to be its author, but he was probably its earliest redactor (cf.
Aruch, II, 293 a, 308 a). Cornill views this Targum as of greater antiquity
than that of Onkelos, since it is more paraphrastic in character and free
from anti-Christian polemics (Cornill, Einleitung in das AT., 1893, p. 308).
But this view is untenable since these qualities issue from the nature of the
prophetic books which are more didactic than the Pentateuch, and from the
total absence of anti-Christian polemics in the Babylonian schools (cf.
Dalman, 1.c.).
14 It seems probably certain that the redactor of this Targum had before
him the Targum Onkelos (cf. the translations in Judges 5. 26 with Deut.
22. 5; 2 Kings 14. 6 with Deut. 14. 6; Jer. 48. 45, 46 with Num. 21. 25, 29);
but opinion is divided as to whether the redaction is the product of one
hand. There are numerous parallel translations and obviously later inter-
polations to be found (cf. Eichhorn, Einleitung, I, sec. 217; Berthold,
Einleitung, II, p. 580).
15 There is naturally no Targum to Ezra, Daniel, and Nehemiah.
TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED 38I

they vary from strict literalness to amplified Mid rash,


manifested on the one hand in the Targum to Proverbs,'6
and on the other, in the Targum to the Five Scrolls.17
Linguistically, they are composite in character 18 and their
sources likewise are a mixture of very ancient material
combined with later matter drawn from Palestinian and
Babylonian literary compilations.19 Their redaction took
place sometime between the fifth and eighth centuries.
The Targum to Canticles, which is here published, was
probably written in the latter period, there being traces of
Arabic influences.
7. Finally, a Jerusalem Targum to the Prophets and
Hiagiographa also seems to have existed at some time,

16 This Targum agrees in major part with the Peshitta version, with
which it probably shares a common source, cf. NOldeke, in Merx's Archiv,
II, 246 ff.; Baumgartner, lCtude critique sur l'Itat du texte du livre des
Proverbes, Leipzig, I890, 267 ff. ; Geiger, NachgelasseneSchriften, IV, I I2.
17 It is interesting to note that there are three Targumim
(cf. Catal.
Codd. MSS. Bibl. Bodl., I, p. 432; Eichhorn, p. 437) on the Book of Esther
and that the Targum to this book is the only one of the Hagiographa books
which is recognized by the Halakah, cf. Masek, Soferim, XII, 6. Some believe
that Targum II on Esther is a Palestinian parallel to the first. Cf. Merx,
Chrest. Targ., ix; Bacher, JE., XII; Dalman, I.c.
18 Psalms, Job, and Chronicles are linguistically similar to the Jerusalem
Targum to the Pentateuch, that is, they are of a mixed character and were
produced about the same time Cf. Bacher, Jiid. Monatsschrift, XX, 208;
XXI, 408, who seeks to make these Palestinian in origin and of about the
fourth or fifth century; see also Baethgen, Jahrb.f. Prot. Theol., VIII, 447,
455 ff. Rosenberg and Kohler show that the ground-work of the Targum on
Chronicles is as early as the fourth century, although its redaction did not
take place until the eighth century'; cf Geiger's Zeitsch., VIII, 72 f., I35 f.,
263 f. It is interesting to note that Jerusalem Targum I and II are quoted
in this Targum; cf. PRE.3, III, p. no.
19 Dalman, p. 35. Cf. 5. I4, where the names of the precious stones in
the breast-plate of the High Priest are mostly Arabic. Cf. also below, ? 36.
See further, S. Landauer. OrientalischeStudien, pp. 50o ff.
382 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

of which at present only fragments and glosses are


known.20
8. With the invention of systems of vocalization,21 the
consonantal text of the Targum, as in the Hebrew original,
was provided with symbols fixing the pronunciation in
accordance with the tradition locally prevalent. Three
distinct types of vocalization are now known to have
existed; (i) the so-called Tiberian 22 system, or the sublinear,
the only one known prior to 1839; (2) the Babylonian23
system, or the superlinear, discovered in I839; and (3) the
Palestinian 24 system, also superlinear, which was discovered
in 1894.
20 Lagarde published marginal glosses of the Prophets from the Reuchlin
Codex. Cf. Prophetae Chald., 1872, pp. vi-xlli; fragments from Joshua,
Judges, Samuel, Kings, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Amos, Jonah, and Zechar., are
found in this Codex. Some corrections from a manuscript are to be found
in Baer-Delitzsch, Liber Jerem., p. vi, note i ; cf. further, Bacher, ZDMG.,
XXVIII, iff.; Dalman, Aram. Dialektproben,p. 12. According to Kohut,
the Aruk quotes from a Targum Jerushalmi to the Prophets and Hagiogr.
Cf. Zunz, Gott. Vort., p. 8o ff. But these are not always dependable and
they may be only variants of the current Targumim. See Dalman, p. 29 f.
21 Cf. C. Levias, JE., XII, 446 ff.
22 It is by no means settled that the names used for the vowel systems
are accurate. They indicate at most the place of their usage rather than of
their origin. Cf. Neubauer, JQR., III, pp. 604-22; Margoliouth, Transactions
of the Ninth Congress of Orient., II, London, I893; NOldeke, Mand. Gramm.,
Introd., p. 5; Barnstein, Targum Onkelos, pp. 6-7; Kahle, Massoret. des
Ostens, Leipzig, 19I3, pp. 204, I57 if.
23 Three distinct types have been distinguished in the development of
this system: (I) the simple type as shown in Targum MSS. and Neo-
Hebrew texts; cf. Merx, Chrestomath.Targum, p. xv; MIargoliouth,Proceed.
Society Bibl. Arch., XV, p. I65 ff.; Praetorius, ' Uber das Babylon. Punkt.
des Hebr.', ZDMG., LIII, 181-96; Friedlander, Monatsschr., I894, 215.
(2) The complex or composite type found in Codex Petropolitanus dated
916, Berliner, Festschrift,pp. i8, 30. (3) The type exemplified by the Berlin
MS. Or. qu. 680; Friedlander, JQR., VII, 564 ff.; Proceed. Soc. Bibl. Arch.,
i896, pp. 86 ff.; Kahle, 'Beitraige zur Geschichte der Hebr. Punkt.', in
Stade's Zeitschr., XXI, 273 ff.
24 Until all material shall be made available, the varying stages of
TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED 383

9. It is probable that these various systems of vocaliza-


tion influenced one another to some extent, and that in
the form we now know them, do not represent the original
character of their respective types.25
o1. The Tiberian system of punctuation, it seems, was
not originally adaptable for Aramaic texts.26 Hence it is
quite probable that in the earliest texts of the Targum
supplied with vowels, the superlinear system was used, and
that with the more universal usage of the sublinear system
the former was transposed into the latter.27
II. Some internal evidence as well as external testimony
points to this fact. A comparison of the text of the
Targum, as contained in the Sabbioneta edition,28 with
the genuinely Babylonian MS. Or. qu. 680, strikingly reveals
their common source of origin. Notwithstanding the many
corrupt forms it contains, the Sabbioneta text shows all the
ear-marks of a Babylonian or superlinear punctuation.29
The same may be said of the Parma MS. de Rossi, No. 7.30
12. Furthermore, an explicit statement is found in the
Codex de Rossi, No. I2, of the Parma Library, that it was
transcribed into the sublinear system from a copy pointed
with superlinear vowels.31

development in this system cannot be definitely fixed. It may be assumed,


however, that the still unpublished Genizah Fragments are of the oldest
type. Kahle, Der MasoretischeText, p. 29, note I. An intermediate stage
was published in C. Levias's article in the AJSL., XV, and in the text of
Neubauer, JQR., VII, 36I and Kahle, Stade's Zeitschrift, XXI, 273. the
third stage is presented.
25 Kahle, pp. 157, 158. 26 Ibid., p. 204. 27 Ibid.
28Berliner, Targum Onkelos, I.
29
Kahle, p. 205 ff., Berliner, Targum Onkelos, II.
30 Ibid., Berliner, p. 132 f.
31 Cf. Kahle, 205, H. L. Strack, Zeitschriftf. d. Luth. Theol u. Kirche,
XXXVI, 1875, p. 622. Berliner, Targum Onkelos, 134.
384 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

13. Thus it appears that the superlinear vocalization


is probably the oldest known in the Targum texts, and
that this system, due to its gradual disuise, was changed
into the one common now.32
I4. This transposition of the Targum vowels led naturally
to inaccuracies and mistakes, which multiplied in pro-
portion to the number of new manuscripts written and new
editions published. Elias Levita, in his Introduction to the
Meturgeman, laments the confused state of the Targum
texts, and the multitudinous variations in vocalization which
then existed. He, as well as Buxtorf and others, proposed
to bring some order into the chaos by correcting these
texts on the basis of Biblical Aramaic.33 This was done
to some extent,34 but the method possesses no scientific
value.35
15. Such was the state of Targumic texts until the
discovery of the Yemen MSS. threw a flood of light upon
this department of Semitic learning, and stimulated active
research therein. These MSS. have proved of invaluable

32 It is at
present impossible, with the evidence available, to come to
a final judgement in this matter. It may be that the Tiberian system of
punctuation was originally employed for Targum texts in those localities
where it prevailed for Hebrew, and that we have to-day an independent
Tiberian tradition in these texts. But this cannot be settled, as Lagarde has
pointed out, until all the pure Tiberian manuscripts shall have been carefully
studied and compared. Cf. Lagarde, Mitteilungen, II, I74. And even if
this should be conclusively established, which seems dubious (cf. Kahle, 204),
nevertheless, the worthlessness of the current Tiberian Aramaic texts is
established beyond doubt.
33 Berliner, p. 185 f.; Merx, Chrest., viii; idem, 'Bemerkungen uiber
die Vocalisation der Targume , Verhandlungen des Fiinften Internationalen
Orientalisten-Congresses,I88i, 1, p. r59 ff Mercier and others corrected the
Targum on the basis of Syriac.
34 Idem.
35
Merx, Chrest. T., viii ff.
TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED 385

aid in the reconstruction of the Targumic text and its


grammar, which Levita despaired of producing with the
material then available.
I6. Numerous works have already been published upon
the basis of these Yemen MSS.
(1) Merx published a goodly number of excerpts from
MSS. in the possession of the British Museum, covering
sections of the Pentateuch, the Prophets, and the ' Dream
of Mordecai'.36
37
(2) Pratorius has published the Targum to ,Joshua
and Judges 3 after Berlin codices.
(3) Dalman used for his Grammar, Aramaic Dictionary,
and Specimens of Aramaic Dialects, Prof. Socin's MSS.
and codices in the British Museum.39
(4) Barnstein used for his work on the Onkelos to
Genesis a MS. of the British Museum, a Montefiore codex,
and a MS. belonging to Dr. M. Gaster.40
(5) The complete Targum to Onkelos was published by
the Yemenite Jews, with vowels transposed into the
sublinear system.41
(6) Wolfson published from a Berlin MS. the first
twelve chapters of the Targum to Jeremiah.42
(7) Silvermann issued the first ten chapters of the
Targum to Ezekiel from the same source.43
(8) Alfred Levy published the Targum to Koheleth
based upon British Museum MSS. and a Gaster codex.44
36 Porta Linguarum Orientalium, VII, Merx, Chres. Targumica, Berlin,
r888.
37 Das Targum zu Josua in Jemenischer Oberlieferung,Berlin, 1899.
38 Das Targum zum Buch der Richter, Berlin, i900.
39 AramSiisch-NeuhebrdischesWorterbuch,Frankfurt a. M., 1897-1901.
40 The
Targum of Onkelos to Genesis,London, I896.
41 The Torah,
Jerusalem, 1894-1901.
42
Halle, 1902. 43 Strassburg, 1902. 44 Breslau, 1905.
386 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

(9) Kahle issued numerous extracts of the Targum


based upon codices in Cambridge, Oxford, and Petrograd.45
17. The following edition of the Targum to Canticles
is based on six manuscripts of Yemen origin, and on the
text contained in Paul de Lagarde's Hagiographa Chaldaice.
The texts, hitherto current, were reprints of the Editio
princeps, issued by Bomberg in Venice in 1517, into which
numerous errors and corruptions have naturally crept.
While the Lagarde edition re-established the original
Bomberg consonantal text, no attempt has yet been made
to compare this with the text current in Yemen, nor has
any effort been made to establish its vocalization.
The following manuscripts have been used in the
preparation of this work:
A.
18. MS. A is part of Or. 1302, in the possession of
the British Museum. The Targum of Canticles covers fols.
154 a-i86 b. A photographic reproduction, three-quarters
of the original size, is in the possession of the Dropsie
College.46
The writing is in clear square characters, twenty-
four lines to a page, and measures, without margins,
5s"x34". The Hebrew,verses are each followed by the
Targum, an Arabic translation of the Hebrew verse, and
45 Kahle, Masoretendes Ostens, Leipzig, I913.
46 I take this opportunity of thanking Dr. Cyrus Adler, President of the
Dropsie College, for securing and placing at my disposal the photographs of
MSS. A, B, E, and F. I also wish to express my indebtedness to the
authorities of the British Museum, and of the Bodleian Library for their
kindness in permitting these photographs to be made. I am likewise
under obligation to the Rev. G. Margoliouth of the British Museum, and to
Dr. A. E. Cowley of the Bodleian Library, through whose kindness I secured
these reproductions.
TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED 387

by an Arabic commentary. In the Hebrew text both the


Raphe sign and the dagesh are employed, while in the
Aramaic the Raphe sign usually occurs over the letters
n .: m. w is diacritically marked.

B.
19. B is an Oxford MS., 2333 MS. Opp. Add., a photo-
graph of which is in the Dropsie College. There are
thirty-eight leaves in the photograph, the last seven of
the original MS. having been omitted since they contain
only the Arabic commentary.
The writing which is in square characters, covers
42' x 24", and contains generally twenty-six lines to a page.
The Hebrew verse is followed by the Targum, and by
an Arabic translation and commentary. There are generally
Raphe signs over the letters n f '7 i :, as well as a dia-
critical mark over the w. In the Hebrew text both the
Raphe sign and the dagesh is used.
The MS. contains many marginal notes which cannot
be deciphered from the photograph. On the margin of 13r,
20r, and 21' some Rabbinic explanations of the text are
found.

C.
20. MS. C, which dates from the sixteenth century,47
belongs to the Jewish Theological Seminary of America,
and came from the collection of Judge Mayer Sulzberger,
who presented it to the library of that institution. It
consists of thirty-one heavy paper leaves, 8" x 45",written
on both sides.48
47 Cf. A. Marx, JQR., New Series, I, 65, 66.
48 I take this opportunity of thanking Prof. A. Marx, the librarian of the
388 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

The writing which is in clear square characters covers


6 x 4X" of each page, thus allowing ample margins on all
four sides, except on the inner, where the binding materially
reduces it.
There are generally seventeen lines to a page, oc-
casionally, however, eighteen or nineteen. The edges are
considerably worn out and crumbling, while the corners
have been rounded off by wear. Leaves 25-8 inclusive
were bound in reverse order.
The MS. ends at 8. 8 after giving two lines of the
Targum. On 29a some later hand wrote the concluding
Hebrew verses of the book, 8. 9-14, with a massoretic
note on the margin. One leaf in the middle, which con-
tained the Hebrew and Targum of 7. 9-12 inclusive is also
missing. The Hebrew and Targum of 3. 2 having been
omitted in their proper place are inserted after 3. 5. Some
later hand, however, wrote the Hebrew -of 3. 2 in the
margin after 3. I.
Pages la, Ib, and 2a contain an Arabic introduction
written by a different hand. Each Hebrew verse is followed
by its Targum and a literal Arabic translation of the
Hebrew.
There are numerous marginal readings and super-
scriptions by two or three different hands, one of which
is in a bad scrawl. A number of the marginal readings
coincide with L, and appear to be corrected from it.
The inner margins in a number of places, and the
upper left-hand portion of the last page, are so worn out
that the writing cannot be deciphered.
The Hebrew text generally has a Raphe sign over the

Jewish Theological Seminary of America, for placing this manuscript and


the following one at my disposal.
TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED 389

letters n m . 'i 2. W both in the Hebrew and the Targum


is diacritically marked. A dagesh lene and dagesh forte
are frequently found in the Hebrew words. These were
inserted, sometimes by the original scribe, and sometimes
by a later hand. A later hand pointed with sublinear
vowels, and also inserted musical signs over many of the
Hebrew verses.
In the Targum, the letters n ' frequently have the
diacritical Raphe sign, while occasionally a dagesh is
also found.

D.

21. MS. D,49 likewise belongs to the Jewish Theological


Seminary of America. It is fragmentary in character, con-
taining only eleven leaves, measuring 8" x 5',, written on
both sides of heavy paper. Each side contains fifteen lines
in a hand that is clear, but neither as fine nor as firm as C.
The fragment begins in the middle of the Targum of
I. I, and continues to 2. 2. Only a few words of the
Targum to this verse are given, when it breaks off to
resume in the middle of the Targum of 7. 9. Continuing
from this point until it reaches the Hebrew verse of 8. 2.
the fragment ends.
Each Hebrew verse is followed by its Targum. Except-
ing an occasional dagesh in a Hebrew word there are no
diacritical points of any kind. Some Hebrew words are
pointed with sublinear vowels, and supplied with a few
musical accents. Several words omitted in the text are
placed in the margin.
49 Cf. JQR., New Series, I, 65.
390 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

E.

22. MS. E, is part of Or. 2375 in the possession of the


British Museum. The Targum covers foll. I68b-I84b. A
photographic reproduction, three-quarters of the original
size, is in the library of the Dropsie College.
The writing is in clear, square characters, in double
column, twenty-four lines to each, and measures 7X"x 5".
On the margins is a massora parva, and at the bottom of
each page a massora magna.
The Hebrew verses are pointed with sublinear vowels,
and supplied with musical accents. A horizontal line over
the letters n 3 u IT n indicates the Raphe sign, which line
is also found over the letters n and K. e is likewise dis-
tinguished by a diacritical point. The dagesh is ccnstantly
used both in the Hebrew and Aramaic text.
The Hebrew verse is followed by the Targum, and by
an Arabic translation of the former. The MS. frequently
begins a word at the end of a line, and repeats the word,
or part of the word, on the line following.

F.

23. MS. F is part of Or. 1476 of the British Museum,


and covers foll. Ib-27b. A photographic reproduction is in
the library of the Dropsie College.
Except that this MS. is poorly written, and in many
places blurred and illegible, it is almost identical with E.
The writing measures 4'" x 3M",and contains seventeen or
eighteen lines to a page.
24. An analysis of the various texts reveals an essential
difference between all the Yemen MSS. on one hand, and
TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED 391

the Lagarde text on the other. Apparently there are two


underlying recensions, both of which have attained their
present form independently of one another. These varia-
tions include independent readings, morphological and
syntactical differences.
25. While it must be admitted, at the outset, that, on
the whole L preserves a superior consonantal text, there
are numerous independent readings and constructions in
the MSS. which establish beyond question a different
archetype and origin.
26. While all the MSS. form one group among them-
selves as opposed to L, they are by no means uniform in
their readings. Indeed, a casual analysis of their respective
texts reveals special affinities among several of them.
The six MSS. divide themselves into four distinct
groups, all bearing the characteristic stamp of their common
origin, but each possessing features peculiarly its own.
Thus, A and B bear characteristics distinctively their own,
and form one family group, while E and F are likewise
especially and peculiarly related one to the other. Of
course differences exist between A 'and B and E and F
respectively, but most of these are traceable to individual
peculiarities of their scribes. C stands apart, representing
a group all its own, while D, though fragmentary, likewise
possesses features distinctive to itself.
The frequency with which C contains readings peculiar
to EF would indicate that it is more intimately related
to that group than to AB. And likewise D possesses
stronger affinities with both C and with EF than with
AB. The fragmentary character of D, however, precludes
any positive conclusions.
If we represent Y as the original Yemen text, as
392 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

distinct from the text of L, the following diagram would


portray the various groupings of the MSS.:
y

AB

C D EF
And if T1 is made to represent the original Targum of
Canticles and L1, the original archetype of L, the following
diagram would represent the grouping:
Tl

L C D EF

1,1
AB C D EF
TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED 393

CHAPTER I

TEXTUAL VARIANTS

A. INDEPENDENT READINGS.

27. Convincing testimony for two independent recen-


sions of the L(agarde) and Y(emen) texts, mentioned
above, is to be found, for example, in the independent
readings in 4. 12, in which the variants are scarcely to be
accounted for, save on the ground of independent, original
versions. L, j;tr yi31 pa ij^,nnl;'5P3za l'nilnn
j,'Il ;r-u
pm11n 4n nW m^ wN nDn Kb6K ninnnmpDr pm'n. While all
of the Yemen MSS. are not uniform in their readings, their
differences are only slight, and such as would be expected
in MSS. coming from the hands of different scribes.
28. In 4. II, we also have what appears to be inde-
pendent readings of L and Y. wnntly Krn,r ti5Y Ipfnl
4njinz KNn 4w
D:3'liWi va1 nym
mpnnisD inVr KwnipU
p33^iN nnn p
rsDn lviz nni wzi =in: pp,n ^nn lnl p4vw.
Apparently the reading of L jnrt 'to distil' is better than
1iln in Y.
29. In 5. I3, curiously enough, the same variants are to
be found, the former having pni?, while Y has 11r,1. There
is a strong possibility that the archetype of Y did not
understand the rarer word in5T,and substituted the more
common i1nr1 for it. Then again the Hebrew texts in
both places, ,man nrD and nlmnt 'to distil' or 'to drip',
would seem to require in its Aramaic paraphrase some
such word as nlr. The text of Y, however, is clear, and
points back to an independent version.
30. A further illustration of the independent versions of
VOL. X. D d
394 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

L and Y is found in 4. 9. L rnnW n


TrWnnm 5n g
nml p
nzn ^ n1?5i r3p NS:y ^, Dn rb^ M -nl
5nC n w-I sMwj
K15n jO ?nDI p18n?D Ii 7:
;O ^n3 spns Ki n -n mn
i^t
nlrn, by tnuinn tS[, n' mnmn' , nmT. The text of
Y is apparently defective here, all the Yemen MSS.
omitting the first clause. The Hebrew text which repeats
,:,nM:, seems to require the double passage r: nli Iy t3p.
The scribe of the original Yemen version probably allowed
his eye to wander in transcribing this verse, and inserted
the phrase y3 lp ws: 4'::, K,m which belongs to the
omitted clause, in the wrong place. The reading of L
T1:2" was corrupted in Y to 14:2', which also omits Kp'XY.
The text of L thus seems to be better preserved, although
it is not beyond possibility that the shorter text of Y may
have been the original reading. At any rate, the uniformity
of all the MSS. of Y show that they belong to one and the
same recension, different to that underlying L.
3I. There are, moreover, other differences which point
to these independent versions. Thus in 5. 4 the variations
in reading considerably alter the sense of the passage.
Thus: unr5n py KN 5i na
J1p K'^ m,Snr ,71
rnr :
rn,mi nn,r1r. It is difficult to say which reading is to be
preferred. Both give good sense, but L seems to connect
with the previous verse, 5. 3, slightly better than Y.
32. Likewise in i. 8, the two versions show material
difference in the thought expressed. sni~ snnnee ninwyMN
sn'=w . It is possible that L has an independent text, but
since the context requires some such text as Y, it seems
more likely that the latter is the correct and more original
reading. The variants in L can then be accounted for through
scribal error. 4nnDDwas probably ,enf i; and a later hand
found it necessary to correct J1 to plnS.
TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED 395

33. Further illustrations of this divergence between L


and Y are shown in the following passages: I. I 1113V
I'iSIn nll3vn -p
r7 K-INS i"'irl mnD.V- I-InNKn KnINV; I.

1111CM 11IN12M IMM JWcyj 50; 1. K 111PD111


111
r1.V3 Nyll~) 4m

2. 5 MPND VrTVW; 2. 8 5N-V n4l KNnyp421hT" rvl ; 5. I 'in


tlz fl11
2MNI ; 5. 8 psn5vr mrm
34. In 5. 14 L and Y differ essentially in the order in
which the names of the tribes are given, as well as in the
names of the precious stones on which the names were
engraved: (5) -wr,
7') (6) -i, (7) fl, (8) N~nn;(9) -i (ic) -avN.5
35. The names of the precious stones differ alniost
entirely, those of Y agreeing with the Hebrew text in
Exod. 29. 17 ff. and 39. io ff. The names in L are
apparently Arabic equivalents of the Hebrew:52 (I) -nnN 53

ABC have margins or superscriptions giving other names


of precious stones in place of those in the text. AB have
ten such substitutes, three of which agree with L, while C
has all its ten substitu'tes agreeing with L. EF have no
corrections.
36. A further divergence between L and Y is to be
noted in: 5. 14 "M j3) y 'Vflpin rrVrI # 14
50 Cf. T i Sam. 2. i
mlrVZ ITh1m nria.
51 L and Y agree as to the other six names, all reading: (i) j
(
(()f,(II) V4, (12) ? C, however,
reverses the order of (5) jl and (6) 'fl)VI4 of Y. It is noteworthy that L
follows the order of the names given in T J Exod. 39. 0o ff., but Y agrees
with none of the orders recorded in the Pentateuch.
52 Cf. S. Landauer, Orientalische Studien, pp. 505, 506.
53 AB agree with L and write innm
5 AB read szin 7 m -
D d2
396 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

Kn5no D;5 B5 6. 3 'nnm KNnD


K K4KnnNn^,
n
'' KW z.,Pnw '4nw nrmil; 7. 9 sDNn ,n bn K t ?N 4ni

37. The differences cited below are mostly in individual


words which continue to bear out the impression that L and
Y are independent in their text origin. 1. i N": tna1;
I. 9 N^n, 1Z; I. 15 4nmnvn 4in: 1 p pmw n: ;5G 2. I Knn4:1;
2. 5 1 2. 5 "wDM; 2. 8 Nnnob ; 2. 14 57 2. i6
mn1f nan; n?n;

K'p,'n pni ;58 4. I lnt1':n 'n; 4. 2 11p' nl; 4. I2;2rnlnv


l
m^1; 5. 4 n;95 5. IO 5. II ,aK ; 5. 14
p-nm
p,;yle;60?
n^fw'r; 6. 2 1:Di ; 61 6. 8 1rDrn; 6. 8 plr
DtiUDDi)
N3^
NvSwi?; 7. I pjl?:' n1); 7. 2 6
j':nml; 7. nxip^?; 7. II U5r;
8. I lmnn; 62 8. 4 P 1^;63 8. 7 TD ;^i;
p 8. 7 p^nn 8i;
8. 8 L9n;64 8. 9 ,inN:rD: *N 15,:m60

B. FULLER READINGS.

38. In the following passages L preserves fuller readings


than Y. Most of these appear to be additions or expan-
sions made by a later hand. These apparent additions
of L are placed in brackets: i. 9 m:,n [nmrininm]; 1. o1
mn [hUp] i; w CK
I. 13 nmnr ?r];LK
[ =irvj
Kr 2. 2
inmI [PDzip
r:pnn n
ln In ,t:K N '; 2. 7 '=K, [nV1] [3
:,p; 66B3. 4 iN`' [nm KN^n]; 3. 7 '[,:nKn] jpin KwpTo n,
55 Curiously enough A has the same reading as L (excepting NrZ111
KWlp'li which A reverses in order). This reading seems superfluous.
It probably was originally a gloss which later crept into the text of L.
Some later hand corrected A from I,.
56 Cf. Hebr. text. 57 Y nearer Hebr.
58 Y is better= 'heroes '. F reads 'i~' *
59 Y somewhat better. Cf. T 2 Kings 17. 6.
60 unusual pl.; correct form is NlnyVWor nnYDr.
tPlW,
61 Cf. 8. 4 62 Y nearer Hebr. text.

a3 Cf. 6 . 4 L is better; cf. Hebr.


65 Cf. Hebr. 66 Cf. Deut. 2. 14; 2. x6.
TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED 397

[in 1nn" [n1 "V; 3. 10 WD n


&53z3 I3) K'N n] 3smnI'
[3rnin; 3. I [n
Ev nn wK n3 ,z r^
DW vivri Nn inn Kn]
pFD1'Dy?n^y3^ Kni9 : K3n;67 4. I [Knw;:D] 3nz-1; 5. 13
[7r.Ul] n
p1p[ps];7.8
6 8 [W X '; 7.
] 2 [1D] pD ;
7. 10 wnwr [4D'nt]; 8. i ; 8. i iJ T 0
]
[Nn3in].
39. In the following passages it is difficult to say
whether the fuller readings of L are expansions of the
original or whether the shorter readings are abbreviated
forms of what originally were fuller: i. i nDuO1[,rstr ] nks;
I. I 1inNKM:W [Tnz pln]; 2. 16 bniNj'4] NpXY = ['DS];
3. 5 [ Wpn,'] s K3PS;l 3. 6 nrr, nIp[sik] nri; 4. i6 I:D
MYsn' [nnv] K^nrr; 5. 16 [=Di] 6:n];[ 6. 12 p''D4 [p j;
7. 6[snnw nn]
Knep; 8
7. [3] pnn,
40. There are a few passages in which Y is fuller than
L. They are mostly of little consequence: I. 4 Y ' ''
n" s3 ,p3n [rn,p]; I. 5 K
,i, ,
n7 [npm]; I. 7 jlDnrf 'I3K
1n?W[ii'H8D']; I. 8. Kr'n Nn3: n)5r; I. 12 NKny [6l]1;
2. 14 iK [n'3] KnY; 2. 15.-i. na [rty1; 2. 16 glnno
D[Ki] 'P'`1; 3. 5 [1Zn'fl] n4Z NK; 3. 6 SIWV [n13]; 4. 14
InoD [n3v] 4'D [3 D)y]; 5. 3 [mrC-] :W8Knr:3 nimy; 6. 9
[KfSnU]^nno^
C. EXPLICIT READINGS.

41. There are a number of cases in which the text of L


is more explicit than that preserved in Y. It is hardly
possible to say which are the original readings. i. i nrp
iswivfn Np)n [mrln];71 . 12i rznrn [p1J i,n; 72 2. 4 4n %PYK
n:5 [ln^]; 2. 14 jl,I'DD[p-n] D; 2. 16, 5, 10o [nlnm ] np';
67 Cf. T i Kinlgs 8. 65. L appears to be a gloss.
68 L reading unnecessary. 69 L smoother.
70 AB erroneously write [1l)y.
71 Cf. T Isa. 30. 29 NN'I~' ^pD'in . 72 Cf. 7. 9-
398 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

2. I7 [.Tn1V] ViJ' ' *myi; nT^S; 8. 8


2. 17 [-3N:] pnr;
[Ewn].
42. Y, too, has a number of explicit readings not con-
tained in L. i. 6 4,6i; I. 8 nwvn t5nD [inm] nr nr't nt?iy;
I. 14 [r1in ;D] nnm
n?rWjp: rn;73 2. 12 [Pl3:] Domns; 4. I
[-Snwvn] ,w3m; 5. I 'nDoz rmiupnl [NlyZ] n2p; 5. 2 nDD
pinn, ["]j; 5. I n,nl [,'",]; 7. 9 [,Nlm:] n:IK.
43. L has a fondness for full names, for specific titles,
and for exact localizations which Y almost consistently
omits. 1. 9[9 1f] ,D2; 2. 15 [:5'I] :pP; 3. 4, 5 Wnl,v
[NJ:] ; 3. 4 [pIn:li] nIWD'; 3. 4 [PWDWD jnj ]1:nr'; 3. 6
[IU '13] IWi ; 3. 7[[innI] s:oD nni[; 4. I n71tn [WhD1J;
-
5. 4 [1'] t'lW8;74 5. 7 [lnmlln] 5^ ln,pUU'3; 5. I4 rNnn nnn^
[tK13qI]; 6. 2 [wKn?Kl 1n] i:lnntl; 6. 4 [Wlu'' :l t3] in[5W;
8. 12 nrE,
[Kr 2].
44. There are two instances, however, in which Y pre-
serves fuller titles than L. 2. 7 [[Mnr`' ;pn:1"]nw1; 8. 13
[bKv'] .nDv,

D. ORDER.

45. In the following passages the order of certain


phrases in L differs from the order preserved in Y. Most
of these passages, however, retain a better sequence in Y.
i. I mnnD ncKi innn; i. 9 *,arn I nm,nnn rnimnrm"1n; i. 12
p$nli?3s' pirn n3'1 Ins. 7Vilnyl; 2. 3 75nns n3'TZ Kn; 75
2. 8 nwn m1ClnbLm fI 5y; 4. 16 ninD KnI 3;
nIWr' 5. 9
n: * + * *+
N43y no*;7G in:iN 5. I5 pDnni; 6. I 1tW 1
in. pi;; 6. 9. Xinp ,
ilu; 7. 5 jur '`11 pMnv; 7. 6 ,nimn [v

S7 Y nearer Hebr. cf. Exod. 32. 15. 74 Cf. Josh. I9. 47.
75 Only Cmgwrites Nal11nn; Y uses n'nTDDwhich is wrong.
76 C apparently agrees with L, although it does not
preserve the full
text. Cf. 5. 9, &c.
TARGUM TO CANTICLES--MELAMED 399

KLnno ; 7. 7 nri-wMtD; 8. I2 IE ^D D1p TD * '''* PP


aDn?z; 8. 13 44No Lp n"XrI
w'zPWN

E. VERBS.
46. In the cases cited below L and Y use different but
cognate verbs. Thus in I. i6, L reads pNbn,Pael pt. act. of
the root vw, while Y has ;tw from root WD.77 In 6. 2 L has
3n51' from the root :31 to collect, gather (flowers, &c.),
Y :5lnt1from the root 1:a, which, while having the same
meaning, is used generally of debts or taxes. In 6. 9 L
tlrlI a pt. pass., meaning 'to be devoted to', in Y is found
as NTawm from the root inv.

F. SUFFIXES.

47. In the following passages L differs from Y in having


nouns in the absolute form, while Y appends some personal
suffix. Thus in I. 3 'w, rmaNv i; I. 6, 4. i6 tn,S ; 78
4. 1o ,oDDIn;5. 2 tnrTn; 6. 2 tnInmn,n1 ; 7. 6 ,n,r; 8. 9
ND-n; 8. I Kv:i
I -m.
In the following passages L has personal suffixes attached
to nouns which Y omits. Thus I. 6 nznlrwt; i. 13 1n ;79
3. 5 ,'nl 7 ; ; 4. 10 TP'11 D 1 DW'; 4. 12 '',t:1;
5. I W?1nDp
nMl; 5. 13 n1r:n; 6. 5 1'7l1Yt; 7. 5 T' ; 7. 8
T1ron; 8. I Trn ;D; 8. 4 4ny; 8. 7 rrTO^\

G. NUMBER.
48. In the following passages, while it is immaterial
whether we read sing. or plur. in the text, L differs from Y
in number:. I. 4 2KSb6W; 2. 5 DJna;2. 9 1g, 71; 4. 12
Ntb'; 4. I6 8
&:X1:; 7. Nln=:; 7. 13 K:D1n:; 8. 7 'tmn.80

7 Although C has pVj and E "'Vi, they also are derived from WD.
78 Cf. 79 Cf. Onk. Exod. 32. 7.
7. 6.
80 L refers to K'inV1, Y to D23.
400 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

GRAMMATICAL VARIANTS

49. Difference in orthography, phonetics, morphology,


and syntax are also to be noted between L and Y. While
each variant taken by itself would not prove significant,
the sum total of their differences bear out the impression
that the Yemen MSS. issue from a source independent of L.

A. THE ORTHOGRAPHY OF L.

50. Characteristic of the orthography of L is its decided


preference for final n. It writes rno and r=n almost in-
variably, but bccasionally we find a final K, as in SWy:',
gnw. Further, L prefers to use " to (; thus we have p'3:,
p1i1, pn,, but also K', ,nwn .

B. PHONETICS.
1. Consonants.
51. The following consonantal differences are to be
noted between L and Y: 8. 5, L T y, Y nli ;81 7. 6, L
'UW,pi:,Y W^WtI' L5'~:X:, YP;5KA,:.
; 4. 12, L
2. Vowels.
In half or completely closed syllables a is changed to
e or i, as, 2. 5, L IDn,, ABE anK; 8. I, L ,n8:TYV,Y
i,mn/.. When followed by a labial i becomes i, as, I. 7,
L mnmrn:,Y t nni5. U or 6 is changed to i in 4. 14,
L NK'D,Y N in or inmb.82 In 5. 13, likewise, L has KMtr
and Y KimbI,
81 C erroneously pointed the word L is probably correct; cf.
jli'i.
G. Dalman, Grammatik des Jidisch-Paldstinischen Aramdisch, Leipzig, I905,
p. 04 ; hereafter abbreviated 'Gr. .
82 Probably Mlln is the better form; cf. play on '[1n = -.1 ND,
T 2 Esther 2. 5.
TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED 40I

C. MORPHOLOGY.
I. Verbs.
52. Peal: Pf. 3 m. s. A number of instances of forms
with < are found in L which Y omit: I. 14 ~pU1; 3. I
v'n1; 6. 8 1'v1; 8. 7 a,n. Pt. act. f.s.: 8. 13 tnJi. Inf.:
L writes regular form with z, but Y has the unusual form
without D: I. 7 !zn[]5; 2. 9 NKzn[]5. Inf. 1"r and '"
verbs: L writes forms with ,, Y without: I. 7 :nrn'; 5. 4
Zn~l; 7. 9 Wp,I. Pael pf. 3 m. s., 6. 2, L 3p, Y nup;
Aphel pf. 3 pl. 5. 7, L n,n
1n1N, Y nSimIK ; impf. 3 m. s.
8. 4, L '1M, Y -nr; impv. m. s. with suff. 2. 14, L ':?nK,
Y lKrw; inf. 5. 2, L NU1MI,Y KNznq; 8. 6, L NTIMpK,
Y NiNS5; Ithpeel inf. I. Io, L K^3\nnK, Y NK,n'nK . Ishtafal
pf. 3. 6, L TMtnMwi,Y fnrWl. Quadrilateral, pt. pass. 7. 3,
L Dnr%nv,Y n"r^nn,

2. Nouns.
53. The form p:non = 'spices' is to be found only in L,
while Y uses }DUlt.83 Cf. 4. 6, 4. Io, 4. 13, 4. 14, &c. The
form pn;:n, too, is found only in L, cf. 7. 17, and in 2. 15
we find in L nol(5), while in Y n6:('). In the majority of
cases L writes the word 'sanctuary', as KniplD, and in a
few instances as Kt'ip. While it is uncertain what vowel
is intended over the t in the latter cases, L alone has an
u vowel for this word. Y writes either W'mpDb or Nw'pm.
Cf. i. 8, 17; 2. 14; 3. 6, &c. L has singular noun forms
in I. 8 WnrS for Y Nnly 84 'shepherds', and in 2. 15 Sn=l: 85
for Y nrl'1= 'first-born '.
83 In 4. 10 C uses form ilWDD1.
84 D writing only one noun, ''1, has correctly the singular MIlfl~q,but
F incorrectly writes the singular with two nouns.
85 Jastrow gives this form; cf. p.
I70 a.
402 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

54. The following further differences are to be noted


between L and Y in their noun forms. The first of the
cited passages is L: j. 121-13T(i),
iz 44212-(l),80 mixed
*

crowd; i. i6 Nvnl x32w ; 87 2. 9 wmim, Nrwm,


frame wall; 2. 14 P'n, I ; 2. 14 Nns;TryNA541'-f,steps; 3. 9
K~131 K3rWnn,81 species of cedar; 3. 1II HcDnl, NL'uD,
9
booths; 4. 3 'Pln"Nli?N4-~n*1,90 chiefs ; 4. 6 4tis-invW2
41'1n.);1))
demons; 4. 8 i, tr,92 gifts; 4. 14 IIN DPK(),
IIIKI~K~ ~;
~Pi0) 5. 3 .In IOn, 1rl`K1N uncleanness; 5. 15
vt: ;lwZy" (n) [c j(n )J, species of cedar; 6. 6 NnKt
nvm ; 6. 6 9 ; 14 6. 9 K jn
, perfect;

7. 5 i''pn~, ;~3~s; 8. K
N
limKN3, [N'Nj<J-.

3. Relative Pronouzit r7.


5,5. L has a preference not shared by Y for writing the
Relative 4i as a separate word; consequently we have a
number of passages in which Y joins the particle to the
following word; cf. I. 9, 12; 3. IO; 4. 1, 4, &c.
86 Cf.
/ T. Num. It. 40o Gr. 164.
87 The pointing of the manuscripts clearly indicates that KN is suff.
Hence 'in our -'. This at once makes it impossible to translate with
Levy, 'in the Thalamus' (29o a). Jastrow 1146 b translates, 'our lot',
combining the word with Tal. , Ber. i6 b (so Rashi ) But
the reading of the Munich MS. )1'n2 (vocalized KN)11-ItZ: a sort of Keri),
so also Y. Ber. 7 d bottom, suggests the translation 'in our bed'; so
Kohut, Sup. i6, note 4. Certainly W'.13 in our text precludes any other
translation. Cf. also Mid. R., a. 1.
88 L is better with .
suff., cf. Hebrew l3 But the form NJINty4
is better. Cf. N6ldeke, Mand. Gramm., ii3, 98, note 2; Noldeke, Neue
Beit., 143, note 4, I44.
89 It is
probable that L is the correct reading.
90 Cf. dppcvv. 91 Cf. Gr., 165.
92 l is better. Cf. &Zpov.
'9 The Ar. reads as one word Cf. Jastrow, I13 a,
1WKN~4DPNI.
evXaX06', dyiAyoXov, pieces of aloe-wood.
94 Cf. the
passages.
TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED 403

4. Preposition in.
56. In a number of passages L assimilates the preposition
t to the following word, while Y retains it as a separate
word. There are, however, a few instances in which L does
not assimilate t, while Y does; cf. I. 2, 9; 2. I, I4;
6. 2, &c.

5. Adverbs.
57. L always writes the adverb plii n=so, while the MSS.
prefer ";,n. L always writes ;,nS,= but, while the MSS.
write r,it5 or r,nS. In 3. 7, L writes the adverb nn:l = a
little, as one word, while Y writes 'in '. In 8. 4, L writes
pn nn, while Y shortens the form to Nn.
6. Conjunctions.
58. L always writes ,n1,nn,while Y writes =,,n, n:=Mn,
and sometimes ,nran. In 2. 6, L writes 9ll 'also', Y
?1.

D. SYNTAX.
I. Absolute and Determinate States.
59. L seems to have a stronger preference for nouns in
the determinate state than has Y which prefers the absolute
form; cf. I. II MDD2;2. 9 &N11;3. 5 KIyN5;95 5. I N'nip; 5. 8;
5. I; 6. 2, &c. Though few in number, cases are not
wanting in which Y has the determinate, and L the
absolute form. I. 9 rnni; 4. 6 ;jDnz; cf. further 2. 17; 4. i6;
7. i; 8. 6; 14, &c.
2. Periphrastic Genitive.
60. (a) There is a large number of passages in which
L expresses the genitive relation with the relative 1 or "1
where Y omits the relative. Apparently L has adopted,
in these instances, the construction of the later language,
95 Cf. T Deut. 26. i5.
404 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

while Y retains the older construction.9" There are, how-


ever, a few instances in which the tables are reversed; cf.
I. I 11TVa' 4i r1VVS-y; 2. 3 nfllN1I
tri-74 i and 2. 12, 14; 5. 10,
97
i5; 6. 5; 8. 8. But 7. 6 No l v nn; 7. 13 1ri zN'~
(b) L prefers to affix a pronominal suffix to a noun
governing the genitive, and Y places it in the absolute.
Thus I. 9 4W',il "1 ; 3. 6 n;i7 n; and 5. 7; 8. 7.
But one case is found in which we have the reverse; 7. II
mnSy 4-in- i rimn-mm.

3. Relative fr.
6i. In the following passages L substitutes a preposition
for the relative pronoun ni of Y. Thus I. 5 ti4Znl,?ZN13 ;
5. IO KNZ) ,
r~vZ` N?ZSI?"ln In 7. 13 the case is reversed,
Y using the preposition for the relative of L, 43r1 w'irmfl,

4. Stiffxes.
In a number of cases L expresses the object of a
62.

verb as a separate word, while Y employs pronominal


suffixes. Thus: 5. 7 mThVi~4z 5. 7 4~IPTZIN;5. 12 Nnz~l

5. Pronoun.
63. L and Y differ in several passages where a personal
-pronoun is included in either text for the sake of emphasis.
Thus: L, I. I 1n14 nniriJi ; 8. .12 Vl~N 4r11; Y, 4. 4 -1:4

6. Ethical Dative.
64. In 2. 3, L differs from Y in omittino an ethical
dative; x3n tc
96 Cf.
Margolis, Manual of the Aramaic Language of the Talmud, Munich,
igio, p. 63 ff.
97 Cf BA, Ezra 5. 5, 12; 6. 9, io.
TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED 405

7. Particle n.
65. The objective particle n, is less frequently omitted
in L than in Y. Cases of omission of the former occur in
3. 4; 5. 4; 7. i ; 8. 7; of the latter, in I. 4, 6, 14; 3. 3;
7.a,6; 8.5.
8. Adverb and Cozjunction.
66. In the following passages Y substitutes the con-
junction I to convey the meaning either of the adverb Pt
or of the adverbial phrase Tp 'Inrl: 2. 14 nMKl; 2. i6

9. Gender.
67. The noun t1nYbeing of common gender, L and Y
construe it as feminine and masculine respectively; cf. 6. 9;
8. 8. Likewise M^,mof common gender is taken by L as a
masc., while Y takes it as a fem.; cf. 8. 6. In i. I, L
writes the pf. fem. m: ,n nr ,n,nw nt=, apparently being
influenced by the indirect object ,n, while Y writes the
masc., agreeing with the direct object.
IO. Verbs.
68. Peal: in 4. I6, L employs an impv., where Y writes
an impf.: 5nj:l, ,piY.98 In 8. 13, L writes pf., and Y an
act. pt.: n'riy, NtlY. In 8. 12, L writes a pt., Y an impf.:
ulw vn, m S. In 4. 8, L and Y differ as to the person:
L tlJnW, Y iSpn.99In 4. 13; 8. i, L has pt. pass., Y pt.
o
act.: -pvnni, pr_n;100 Dno,
o -li. In 8. 13, L uses the
inf., Y the impf.: mt=,lO11 mnvn. In 4. 15, L and Y use
the Pe. and Pa. pt. respectively: IPDn=X,
i'tD1'. . In 3. IO,
L has Pe. and Y Aphel: Dn'w'1, nSwyk. In 8. I, L uses
the Ithpeel pf., Y the pt.: ,ns, Snn.l102 In 8. 4, L has
98 Y is better.
99 L is more consistent in its person, though Y is not in error.
100 Act. pt. better. 101 L is somewhat better. 102 Y is better.
406 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

Ithpeel pf., Y the Ithpaal pf.: l3vynN, 1n3nm. In 8. 4, L


uses Ithpeel pt., Y Ithpaal pt.: prnn, ini3. In 8.4, L
writes a Shafel while Y has an Ishtafal: pj'w, TY''n"n.
I . Prepositions.
69. In the use of prepositions the following syntactical
differences are to be noted between L and Y. In i. 6,
L omits the preposition 5 although the verb nrDgenerally
requires it, but Y reads KmrU5 n5nn5. In 3. 10, L uses in
pleonastically before nr?'y, while Y writes nr'4m. Although
unnecessary, in 2. 7, L uses 103 in instrumental sense, while
r
Y omits it: thus L n l nna, Y ,mnin,nna. In 2. 16, L
slightly alters the sense by its use of a different preposition
to that of Y: thus L writes MnnMDMnl3y, Y104 nnn D3nl5.
In 3. II, while L omits the preposition, Y uses a : in a
local sense, thus: L 1'Xt KVyl, Y lX KlNnR. In 5. 4, 7;
7. I2, L uses 2 in a local sense, while Y uses 5 to indicate
direction toward, thus: 5. 4, L i13nn n3n: ;nn, 5Km1,Y
105 5. 7, L ni2nT n,nW 3a1, Y 4'3r1a
nrm nn5H ;pnn,
,*L);?
nSn3 n,n,; 7. i2, L wPnrvl3nn' nni, %K,Y m-nKIplnn '" '53 .
In 6. 12, L uses the preposition 5 after the verb i'n and
!5men, Y
pinD, while Y uses 3; 7. I3 mMDh 106 Ns3: l'5'nn;
6. I2, L nTIlN5 YOi' , Y nnuls p^z't. After a verb
signifying appointment to something L uses no preposition,
while Y makes use of a 5; thus: 7. 6, L l5 mnnsRN R:5
KWi', Y NVW ......''.
' In 7. I2, L repeats the pre-
position : before each of the two nouns governed by the
same verb, while Y employs the preposition but once. In
7. 14 the case is reversed. Thus 7. 12, L 3n31 nm[5'41np:
103 Cf. BDB., sub. 3. 104 Cf. T Num. 2 . 24 2nn
lr DS1.
105 Cf. T 2 Kings 17. 6 nrln jlr inn' 21niNi -'inrll5 IW's iJK

C
106 and D incorrectlywrite
16 2.
C and D incorrectly write WD1M3.
TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED 407

t4DnY, Y bvny 4i35 mn64ia Fp; 7. I4, L 1naJi KnaD ^Nnan

snwlxY, Y Knnm' J
Dnsnl b ?bDs nan. In 7. Io; 8. I, 4,
L and Y use different prepositions to express the same
idea: 7. I0, L . nl:',
. Y fIlD nr1[1= 8; 8. I, L [3)D,
Y .l; 8. 4, L nD n,, Y 'eWn iV,
12. Miscellaneous.
70. In the following phrase Y avoids repeating the noun,
since the connexion is so close as to make it unnecessary:
5. 12 CD 'lY Nnv' KrWNn. The apodosis of the sentence in
3. io differing in L and Y, the position of the conjunction
is different: tDm ..* tW v rn4 n6aN nni.

ERRORS

A. LEXICAL.

71. As stated above, the text of L in many places is


much better preserved than in Y. All of the Yemen MSS.
transmitted defective and faulty readings. Not a few. of
these are homoeoteleuta, while others are plain omissions.
I. Homoeoteleuta.
72. The bracketed words in the following are omitted
by Y: I. 17 [DOp"1n' *n-rnw]
iMV1 't:K ] "n; 2. 6 pnir
1 prY
[jpr KiIt Ni', jl-ls v rn nni K3
KW' W]; 4. 8 r,V,yniY]
tn4,1 SK
[1Tnn=% ; 8. 5 wi^W KY^ ' D ;D np5Di]KDIF:
i
tKnr
[Kmv1'3 nz Ss;p3nni; 8. 9 nNnnny DS s^yS]z, iwr:
n,r;
[lWn 8. i [an, nn, ,] ; 10 8. 13 1rD] 5K',N
[SKW'n Knn3v nx4 wKn
2. Omissions.
73. The following omissions occur in Y: 2. 2 '-^D [S32]
Wt'?Z; 2. 3 ['5] 14-U1%;2. 12 C [?S [WnZ] VlyI; 2. 14 KNvpnI
[EPt1];108 2. 17 ,lnwp n, [?n] :Np; 3. 3 [5iKS n:: n3 mr:X]
107 Cf. Hebrew text.
108 Cf. Agad. Shir Hashirim, JQR., VII; DinIN 53nr,wa
51p ns
408 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

5
inw3s; 3.n-Kp nn m n3 m w^n snw3]
n3y&']
Tp53
l^SK:WU;109 [K nr' 0lvynl] lD3fl; 3. 7 KnMl3 KN1nril]
[tnz ln1nDD; 3. 8 KnlVK 'ZnD3 [?jrrn,] jlpir3; 4. I
nD lW3l
4. 2
p-nvir [ nr]; p4 [wriin]; 4. IO
I0 1nf [3] Dw1i; 5. 2
K301 C:3: [Knln ji" 11n?iir];[4:3S w ;D 45
'rnK] 'nrjt nSsi
"m13; 5. 3 n3Vy nms nnnrK p^m ^ll 'n:Fcw n'p^D] :13
nwvnp
f[fK7I<i pz 1p3ixy; 6. I Kn:3'W [130n]; [,] =n3ntnw n;
6. 5 [6n6] 1ipl'; 6. 6 pn' iln,rl [L'nr'l];1106. 7 [;i]
. n
n'nnt;1ll [nion6:] pipny; 6. Io0 n3: [IpNnirn1=]; 7. iK3p1
[nI3K1]; 7. 8 ny3K [IPT.T]; 7. 13 M1mf3 [K'`IP'Dj P^Dr ;
8. 7 rilon = [pI]; 8. [mnii
II D] n1my a5,i.
There are a few omissions to be found in L: i. I inna
[DirIoID]Dlri3n; 2. 5 rlnK[K]; 2. 7 pj'v Isn5n [DInp] )pMn7;2. 9
uTD;9[wKni] <Dnn; 3. 6 n13y [K3iz] 5fnMVK
; 4. 4 11KM3
[1rr'] pIDVKNl,imnnilfi,
3. Doublets.
74. Errors that appear to be doublets are found once in
L and once in Y. L, 4. I 5K,W n:r1nY NrSl.: Y, 5. 4
~. n3:n.112

4. Scribal Errors.
75. The following scribal errors are to be found in L:
I. 12 -1:3z; 4. 1I pj35IN; 7. 8 nylrK
Y, on the other hand, has many more scribal errors.
2. 2 &'3U3nO;113 2. 3 :n;:t:; 2. 5 ?IlK 153p'; 2. 9 Dnm;2. 14

Dnnnn' nxY jip 3 nr3= 51p2n 3D nt


DSl'n . Cf. also Jerus. Sh.
178b, Mek. 4 b.
109Cf. Hebrew text.
110CE add rl-m1, F l1'1' after rtn3ltn. A verb is necessary, but all the
manuscripts have it in the wrong place. L preserves the best text.
1I Cf. Gr., 232 and 6. 8.
112 C
corrupts 1:111 to lt'11. It is interesting to note that the Ar.
supports the reading of L.
113Five different readings are preserved in Y.
TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED40 409

B. GRAMMATICAL.
i. Verbs.
76. The following errors in verbal forms are to be noted

42 n117 8. ii ,NtZ ;118 8. I4. nrirt N1 Y contains the fol-


lowing errors in verbal forms: 2. 8 NtLoI (Nzuzi EF);2 4
rivo~; 2. i6 N-imr; 8. ij.5 1
2. Suffixes.
77. The following errors in suffixes occur in Y where
L. has the correct form: i. 6 piD45N120 ?1r-4DI; 2. 3 ~~
2Z.9 b~tntNV; 2 2.1I7 m,:rjp; 6. 5 INri
n); 8. 5 j-i1bt; 8. i i
3. Gender.
78. In i. ii, L repeats six times an error in the gender
of the ordinal followinig the fem. noun NxrIV', writing the

lti3)l'J1, for the correct fern. readings of Y, iNrmrn 'e, 'v

NnvznP, &c.
In 6. 4, L likewise incorrectly writes 11p rZI for Y

In i. 8 and 5. 3, L incorrectly writes the imPf. 3 f. P1.


pilsi1and ;rl'l for the masc. of Y 'pmr.
In i. 4 and 8. io, L incorrectly takes wn? to be a fem.
noun, writing Nmn~~1 '?, and wn wrsi. Likewise in 6. 3 it

114Apparently Y did not understand ZJZ~ which, of course, is the


correct reading.
115 Cf. Gr., 367. 116 Cf. Gr., 372.

117 Cf. Gr., 351. 118 Cf. Gr., 351.


119 A pt. is required.
120 CDEF have other incorrect forms.

121 Cf. above note 88.

VOL. X. Ee
410 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

takes Kn1 to be fem., writing mV M,nml. Incorrect also


is the gender of L in the following passages:-I. 8 mlinn
rn3llt;I. 15 jI-V p11N;4. 2 (mr) iD; 4.6 npmrDvw ovin;
5. I (Knwr ) :Itl; 5. 14 i'nny t. * ' pn * . ;
.* s.n,5
7. 2(2't) PD; 7. 4 (niKI rw) 4nD?; 7. 14 Nn s:nl
ty3'p, and 8. 9 K,p:v rpnaIpDt nvniw n1nt(double error).
Errors of gender in Y are not as frequent; these occur
in i. 8 ,Nm'lm; i. I4 in KNZSK; 1. 17 KsS KtV'p n 21;2. 11
** * vK:WI'
54n*: wiYr nlnri; 8. 14 i;O KnmK v t Knnr) nD,

4. Number.
79. L writes the following plural forms of nouns in
place of the singular: i. 12 prr1nm; 2. 15 tr1 'D?WaO;5. I
TrlnK ; 7. 9 ll,nslil; and the sing. instead of the plur. in:
2. 7 ptlnm; 7. 3 NK8-,"
Y has the following sing. instead of the plur.: 2. 14
KtenD; 4. 2; 6. 7 3pplt K3r KN'l; and the following plurs.
in place of sings.: 6. 7 7Krnf; 7. 9 jn;l :w; 8. 9 KnnwK

5. Prepositions.
80. In 4. 3 L omits the preposition 3, in Nni!3 rpy:;
and writes 3 for : in 6. 4 NK*1; 6. io tnxYnp3,
6. Conjunctions.
81. In the following passages L incorrectly adds the
conjunction 1: 2. 7 Inl; 2. 14 9` n1 ; 3- IO V"'D; 5- 5 tny
Knp1; 6. 9 KNpDl1; and in the following incorrectly omits
122

it: 2. I3 KND 5iTK; 7.IO KtD ; . 2 ; i; 8. n.i In


5. i6, L writes conj. 1 for relative 'i: 'tK:ni.
In the following passages Y incorrectly adds the conj. 1:
1. 5 51': and omits it in: 4. II T'j1w ; 8. I n:p jln4 ; 8. I

122 Cf. J II, Gen. 49. 5, K'il3 In'.


THE TARGUM TO CANTICLES ACCORDING TO
SIX YEMEN MSS. COMPARED WITH THE
'TEXTUS RECEPTUS' (ED. DE LAGARDE)

BY RAPHAEL HAI MELAMED, New York.

CHAPTER II
AB
82. As stated above, the Yemen MSS. are not uniform
in their texts. While forming a group in themselves,
distinct from L, they nevertheless diverge one from the
other in text, in orthography, and matters of morphology
and syntax. Each of the manuscripts has features, dis-
tinctive to itself alone, as the following analysis will
endeavour to show.
83. The most reliable and best preserved of these texts
are AB. They contain the least number of textual and
scribal errors, and seem to preserve the more original
Yemen readings. A being the better written of the two,
was used as the basis of this edition.

TEXTUAL VARIANTS

A. INDEPENDENT READINGS.

84. The following independent readings are to be noted


I K
in AB: I.K*'8 1 nwn K rnw
Ktlrw Knwnn
Kn'TW nD1I lKnn1 bnn1in 01rn linnm; I. I 5 irlew NKs: 4?p;
I. 9 K'O; 2. 13 'KntOl; 2. 14 1rtn=l; 2. I7, 3. 6, 4. 6 Kmnrle;
VOL. XI. I B
2 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

3. 7 5s' n rim IOD3 lD


snKnW; 3.10 'n; 4. s3Sn
3 mnn
1rwlN'2 o:1*; 4. 4 ,N1 p'MD NKi'; 4. I2 nn n1nT; 6. 4 PT:I
'1ryn nrri; 8. 6 i,[[i].

B. FULLER READINGS.

85. There are a few instances in AB, none of which,


however, are of any material significance: I. I bis [n n] n ;
ibid.[wYian ,1iV] lO; 1234. 2 [WpWVli] 6St1W DI1K
P3R p'T1;
4. I4Xp [b5:D];124 5. 7 Knm''iK [5IV]mt .-
There are three instances where R are fuller than AB:
1. I[R[I ] n1SW;
o] I. I [,asln 2'] p7121;5. 16 glmpn[Kln] ln.

C. ORDER.
86. Several instances of transposition of words occur
in AB: 5. Io iDy1prbKo; 6. 3 f'rnl N n ;125 7. 6 pP
btnDlonns N.Dtn,.126
In A alone there is one instance of inverted order:
2. I5K-~ K1nl-.

GRAMMATICALVARIANTS
A. OF AB.
THE ORTHOGRAPHY

87. AB have a strong preference for o against w; thus


we find D;i, 'noDy, mnD, but p1w':1.
Likewise they express consonantal 1 by 11, thus: nilDt,
-nl()n, mnly1, but also by single i in Kmwi, nlD'l.
88. AB always write the Tetragrammaton thus: ',
and abbreviate not infrequently Dnp,5w'?3, nsvn.

123 L K'3
'tD.
124AB were probably influenced by the recurrence of the phrase later
in the verse.
125 L writes ''nTl *nnIl. 126 Cf. Onk. Gen. 30. 37, 38.
TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED 3

B. PHONETICS.

89. While AB read in i. 4 IDS and in I. 1 2 mwnl


R change a to t, reading 1?W,Wri3.
Patah is lengthened to KEIamesin the pass. part. in i. 8
where A reads it
R
In I. 2 A writes .115
Mf9 R Mlaml; 2. ii A R Pt;
AB always write 11j5,cf. 6, 2. 8, 3. 8, &c.
1.14, 2.
In I. 15 AB write bt"669 R Ni5ti'; 7. 9 A writes sm 'if',
R NR.C
In 6
verbs AB retain final i, which R change to e;
cf. 3. 4, 5. i where AB write 4iat) R s'vw. But 2. 3
A writes 45`mwi while R retain final i, K
Shewa and patah change places in the beginning of
a word: 8. 9 AB O ) R rI; cf. 2. 15, 8. 4.
In the group of nouns wmrip, Winn, Nnn Nn and
Ne'tl-) AB generally use the patah over the prefix, except
in the word PiVn'i,where a hIirekis usually found.
AB usually write Nn`iMb with a hirek over the i; cf.
1. I, I. 9, 2. 7, 7. I, &C.

C. MORPHOLOGY.
i. Verbs.
go. Peal. The impv. form r occurs in 2. 5, A, by
the side of viymf of R.
Pael. For the Pael pass. pt. in 2. 3, AB read ntc'ri
R ri 'W.
Aphel. The Aphel pf. In 2. 7, 3. 5, 5. 8, AB read
niv,'k , while R read mrNics5. In 2. 15i, 8. 4, AB read for
the inf. NnMk'Swhile R have Nn'iR5.
Ithpaal. In I. i4 AB have )FjnR, while B have
4 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

Ithpe. and Ithpa. In 6. 12 AB writes Ithpa. 4rz,,6t,


R Ithpe. '~Yrim
2. Nouns.
91. AB have a strong preference for forms of 'rnl,
'work', with gurek; cf. I. 6, I. 12, I. 15, 2. IO, &c., but
also write plMtIlyw;
cf. 2. i6.
3. Prepositions.
92. With a single exception, AB always write a
with hatet kames. In i. i B writes a,'p. In 4. 13, AB
write 4&ii,while R have~I&Jf.
4. Adverbs.
93. AB always write 1p= 'in order that', with hirek;
cf. I. 14, 2. 6, 2. 8, 3. 8, &c. AB prefer to write the adv.
16ti with patalh; cf. I. I, I. 15, 2. 9, 4. 7, &c.; but occasion-
ally they write 1bri with kames; cf. I. I, 2.3, 2. 7. AB
prefer the adv. p5i`riwith kames, which is the correct form,
but sometimes write it rnAi with patah; cf. I. I, where
both forms occur. In I. 14 B writes Ii: Ki, while R have
14K=.
5. Conjunctions.
94. AB generally write conj. NO: i 'as'; cf. 2. 3, 2. 6,
2. 7, 4. 2, &c., but KNn Noris also found; cf. I. IC, 3. 8.
AB generally prefer %r,cf. I. 5, 2. 7, 2. 14, 3. 5, 3. 6, &c.,
but the unusual form Vtfl is also found, cf. 2. 7,.55.

D. SYNTAX. Verbs.

95. Peal. In 4. 6 A uses Pe. pt. const. tinir, while R


have the abs. ?sPW.
Pe. and Pa. In I. 4 AB use Pa. pf. N3-7NH,
while R have
Pe. NY'14S. In 5. 2 AB write Pe. impv. ci, while R have
Pa. 4nnii.
TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED 5

Peal and Aph. In 8. 4, 8. 9 AB write Aph. mi4, while


R writes Peal '13i, and in 8. 14 AB write Aph. ~ni],
R Pe. nsniv (L 1W'nln).
Pael. In 4. 8 AB have Pa. pt. c. pr?n,R abs. P'pDD.
Ithpe. In 8. 9 A writes Ithpe. pt. det. KninynT, while
R writes the indetr. SinrnD.

ERRORS

A. TEXTUAL. Omissions.
96. The followingomissionsoccur in AB: 3. 2 np[nDKo
[W:CD];4.2[2n1m];
pw: 5. I [^NW1v?]Knlal ; 5. IO 9DSu
[,0K::]; 7. 3 [KI'] ;,'ll: ,r; 8. 14 [tt] 'Iy.
In A alone the following omissions are to be noted:
4. 10 opYW ;D [Itn,]; 7. 3 [n,rl'm ] D'lnD.
There are two passages in which B alone omits words
contained in R: I. 4 [t~'$5:] NnVsN'; 3. 8 [inlnn] tjInDr.
In 8. II AB contain an omission due most probably to
homoioteleuton: [n, -NDN
DIntr,:a] an, x,ni,.

B. GRAMMATICAL.
I. Suffixes.
97. In I. IIID and 4. I mnl'lp A alone is incorrect
in the omission of the suffixes.
2. Gender.
98. AB only have the correct gender in the following
passages: 5. I2 tinDil; 6. 4 tW; 7. 8 ?Ingn; 2. I4 p:pn.
In 4. 8 T15(twice) and 5. I 2 t'np,A alone is correct.
AB have the incorrect forms in the following instances:
I. I i"n'l1; 2. 8
15inni.
A alone is incorrect in 3. Io ri?Tm; 5. 2 iml; 8. 8 1'5,pi;
8. .i i i
B alone is incorrect in 7. 3 nnp.
6 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

3. Number.
99. In 8. 3 N'p,rI5AB alone are correct. In 7. 6 4r4'2
and 8. i wImrRK, AB alone are incorrect.
4. Prepositions.
Ioo. In 8. ii n,m a,15, AB are incorrect.
In 3. 8 sain$ A alone errs.

CHAPTER III
C
o10. The text of C presents a number of independent
readings and forms. It has many features peculiar to
itself which mark it apart from the rest of the manuscripts.
But of all the texts, it is most prone to textual errors and
omissions. Especially is it careless in omitting words
and phrases; of such omissions there is a large number.

TEXTUAL VARIANTS
A. INDEPENDENT READINGS.
Io0. The independent readings of C are the following:
i. I =11; I. 2 T1n-Vir4nnn; 1. 4 Knn1s; 1. I3 M:n'p; 2. 6
4nD^; 127 2. 10 NyV:. -^11tV
KnW tw ;D imtN 14i ',p'
arv

'Nwv -1Wm T1'


4 54nN npn- tw
'P1DI 't'm tpiD 'n4tnM;128
2. 14 nrn:; 129 3. 6 n'p'g; ibid. KnIs; 3. 8 Dnmn i's
Nn"iN;130 3 9
3r lnn'' <n ; 131 4. I np i 1)'P'1;132

127 The roots


'n1 and 45 are closely related; either word might be
used here.
128The reading of C seems 129 Cf. Heb. 'n .
superfluous.
130 L writes
n'l'RN nalM IlnKN; C is good; it is an interesting
D
variant of L.
131C refers to the various woods; R to the
temple.
132 This
may be an error of C.
TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED 7

4. 6 tam; 5. 3 Pinn 'ns; 6. i T pDD n


rri'p nipHnoDK;6.5
wn,lw; 6. 6 i;3nl; 133 7. 13 ratni; 8. 5 &i)p5.
B. FULLER READINGS.
103. There are a number of fuller readings in C:
1. I '[D]; I. 9 [nnrlwli] nVl-; I. 14 [n'l] r'r1; 2. 2
!Dk [pt]; 3. 6 [i]nr5n [5nwl prn] wniDna; 5. 14 MtImw1
L[ppn;il134 7. 6 [nsunn];Wlv.
C. ORDER.
I04. In some cases a different order is found in the
text of C: 2. 8 'nwni K1niD nsS5; 2. 9 'w5yPn:n S
i1a ;135 2. 17 NKY
1WNi; 4. I4 n3V z; 5. 7 N&S5* ITpu;
7. 13 TiKv-IDN5 "nNwz FNI.

GRAMMATICAL VARIANTS

A. THE ORTHOGRAPHY OF C.

105. Like AB, C prefers the use of D to that of i,


and, but for the word ,gwy which occurs twice, uses only
the D.
C prefers final N to n, writing invariably NK and NK:,
but also nnVIw,
In1D.
C rarely uses 11; it occurs but once each in the words
iply, n51, munn,and 1pnnnlr;ordinarily nzt, nr, Wn1n,1nn.
C rarely uses ', generally preferring . Thus we find
np'mr, r,nnm, but nrnirMl,Dtn. t;'D.
C frequently abbreviates such words as mKIK, NDSl,
Dw1rm,besides the common abbreviations nrln brp, Nivr,

133 R Knflvr does not occur as a noun but as Aphel pt.


134C mg. al. m
135 Cf. Pesahim 39 a, and LOw, Aramdische Pflanzennamen, pp. 87, I79.
8 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

B. PHONETICS. Vowels.
o6. In half or completely closed syllables C retains
the original a which R changes to e or i; 5. 3 C mni,S,

When followed by a labial y becomes u; I. I I R iN'w,


C <Ibw.
e changes to Zin 5. 6 C 'ni?, R wni.
Final Zbecomes a; I. 17 C n,KB,R I3nKn; 7. 13 C R,
R K.
i is changed to o in 3. 3, where C writes -nrn for R rltn;
5. 14 p:rIn for R l1pi:; 6. 4 C 'l'nirn, R Tl'li. Patah is
reduced to shewa in I. I4; C IDr(e), Rl;nt(e).
Characteristic of C (and D) alone is the method of
punctuating the conjunction i. Almost invariably C writes
5, contrary to rule, before the 91: letters, thus jbi, fnnwlrt~,
NennY, nnlpt:r, rn4lr, &c.
In two instances C writes q in p/i, p15pi against the
regular form i. It is possible that the pronunciation of i
before pln was as though it were written i and that the two
last forms mentioned are merely mistakes of the scribe.

C. MORPHOLOGY.
I. Verbs.

107. Peal. Pt. m. pl. i. i6 C LVD, L p-aw from /w~V,


R
BV -A/'V.
Inf. 2. 9 C =nR, R 3nnS,L ,3nn.i.136
Impf. 3. 3 C pD,, R p6K; 7. 7 C pDonJt , R '5u1Dn
(Gr. 271).

'36 L is best form.


TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED 9

Pael. Pt. m. s. i. Jo C or&ni, R oD L,5I.


Pt. f. s. smibb, R s-tD5.
2. Nouns.
o8. Two different forms of the same noun are found
in I. I, where C writes niy R, t noD;13 I. II C 'DY,
R inDi~?;2. 9 C tDo'i, AB Nbz6?, EF bDvn.
C always writes tw0pb while R generally write KTwnp?.
4'y written in various ways is found in C as iy.
In 6. 3 C writes Rih, :R irn.

D. SYNTAX. Verbs.
In 7. 2 C writes Pe. pf. where R write pt.:
o09. Peal.
C lpoD, R IPSD, LPSD.
L
Pe. and Pa. 6. 5 C writes Pael. RiLph,B Pe. ,up1.
Pe. and Aph. 3. 3 C writes 'iV1, iR 4w-.
Pe. and Ithpe. Pt. I. 13 BR NP'l1, C pMDYnn1.7. 4
R 15n7' (intrs. pl.), C 5in .138
Ithpe. and Ithpa. Pt. I. 9 C iprnl'n, R ip nrn.
Ithpe. and Ithpa. Pt. i. II C ;wn'nb , RBrqnr.

ERRORS
A. TEXTUAL.
I o. Omissions in C are very frequent, as may be seen
from the cases given below.
i. Homoioteleuta.
Y1 wypw 1^w
I. 9 iD' K'Dnr irl,n4zr14win ISN:1 n:N ] t6
5,=, [K Wm'
n,1 mth2; 2. 3 KDtv ,l
pZ'7D )5, ', n
vn] laDn
[ F4 n8D1 4K' KN5y ll:'p
jp3 ntn j4liyD ; 5. 9 ln) KNlnK p-jK

InM M1t7K
s<n J w'tmy^1 =Nn1 ni- ''Ir n
Knwn n^a^] tO'n

137 C = rnWY; cf. Noldeke, Mand. Gr., 154, note I.


138 L writes iHnW.
IO THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

Nvr nr,,p t'n' mnrn [iK'v; 8. 6 y [mptrni9K P~1a] by;


8. 7 ;iNID 1Vn' M-D=
nDm 'KUD'3NK Kr &D'8i] 41nS
t 14N
K&nnn 14t ?nv mrK ^
Nz: ^ piv^wnn .
["nn
2. Omissions.
1 . Plain omissions in C are as follows: I. 13 Kn1i
[Ip'] 1pn?m; 1. 17 ::3nK1 [",i] t,pr ;139 2. 4 "iy [n''P];
2. 7 [p,D'n]Pltn [a];140 2. 14 N::n3 [ln,-inDDl];141 ibid.
Knm= ; 2. 15 [:m] 3KWni; 2. 16 ::y ninnD [p]]; 142
[5Knv,']
ibid. Nan [1p`t']; 3. 2 inDo [,tr:]; 3. 4 [-^n:] ,n::=a ; 3. 6
p-aynD3l;
[nS] 3. 7 [L'] ?nr; 3. 9 [minv] K39n; 3. Io ',mU
[,n5rI]; ibid. [5ri7v'] KlnK;143 4. 8 [rippn] prI:n; 4. II
[tP:v.] W:z,3; 4. 15 [D5Wv:' i=::nn] K,'pDr n:; 4. 16 [fSl/]
ilK; 5. 15 LK["p] nY;144 6. I [4n4] Knnwrn; 6. 2 N'1n4
[Nnip7l]; 6. 4 [n,ntD:] ,,, MnK;ibid. nnrS [,5] :n7; 6. 5
[rnln] Knv3: [,nn] l(,)n;145 6. 9 Knna [rnn]; 6. II n:5
lm'n [rnp:]; 146 7. I [[ ] ] n[K']:;; 75
7. 2 Y,; 7.
tpon[pl'r] 1pK'; ibid. [-,:nn] 1pv'l; ibid. [W,n, p3.W] :-M p:pl
pl'n; 7. 8 [Kin=] p'nm ii''; 8. I [3ntK'] te; 8. 3 l'n
':147 [N5n,] K,p,r ,; 8. 4 [pDD5] KNPK; ibid. [p1l5]148 ,37';
8. 6 'wi [qDNn] K5'; ibid. j's [15].
3. Scribal errors.
112. The following scribal errors occur in C:
N mnN
I. 10oN:DL: Kn,~lK p; 3. 7 m1n'm';3. IO 1; 4. 3
K:5 KtqDb; 4. 4 19?KNr;149 4. 7 '4ie ni; 4. 8 poDnn; 4- 15
W7Tp=n;5. I n"in; 5. 4 'wi; 5. 9 KniKns p'1'K; 6. I 1p;

139 C shorter, perhaps.


140 KN~ written C mg. al. m. 141 L writes 1I:lD.
142 C writes pI31, mg. al. m. 143 Not necessarily omission.
144 I writes 145 C :1l1.
N:Ip1.
146
n':1, hence may not be an omission.
147 C '. 148 C
mg. al. m. 11:l.
149 This is both an omission and error of C.
TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED IIT

6. ii nsn; 7. I ni-; 7. 3 1i'P; ibid. pin; 7. 5 -5n1 ;


ibid. 6;; 7. 6 anp5; 7. 7n'm5b; 8. 4 rniP 8. 5 tl'i;
ibid. Nm; 8. 6 mK..1'60 In i.II there is a textual error of
R against the correct reading of C; R,3=3, R 4lj :i.

B. GRAMMATICAL.
i. Verbs.
13. The following errors in verbs are to be noted
in C:
I. 6 nr'TjD2; I. 7 1'StLt ; I. 17 pin2; 2. 3 innS; 2. 17
'r$3i ;; 3. 3 4D; 3. 8 -tUI; 5. 2 5ni; 8. 7 rnn.
In the following verb forms C alone is correct:
I it I -
2. 12 rtnnLl; 2. 17 1r45na151
2. Nouns.
14. The following errors in nouns occur in C:
I. 9, 2. 6 9l6rn;
I. 16 mSI; 2. 13 1:5; 3. 8 KnSr cir-
cumcision; 7. 2pr,ni.
3. Suffixes.
115. In 3. 5 p1=nn=i C alone has the wrong suffix, while
in 7. 7 pD:)KC alone incorrectly omits it.
4. Gender.
116. In the following passages C alone has the correct
gender: i. 11 f1nl;
p 4. 2 nl ni;162 6. Io j'Pr.
In the following C is incorrect in gender forms: i. 16
p'pnIn; 2. Io 7.t4;7. 7 19.
5. Number.
II7. In 2. 14 K't* and 5. 2 'nnlf^ C alone is correct in
number. Errors of C in number are: 1. 14 NKjr; 2. 15

150 C is blurred. 151L writes MrD'DEQ.


152 The form C 15WniVn is not found; it should be 6i1nAw, but C is
clearly meant for feminine.
12 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

?n1l3; 2. 17 Jn"p;153 4. 6 l1rm:; 4. I1 jn ; 154 4. 12


r, " 6. I 7pn ;156 7. 3 Mt.
m3mn;;155
6. Prepositions.
118. In the following passages C alone has the correct
preposition 6. Io Int3; 7. 3 NKm=.
In the following instances C either omits or inserts the
wrong preposition: I. I '5h:, 7 5nnr:1;2. 15 5:rnnK ;
5. 13 N3D3, 14 pmtf?'; 6. 2 iTlnliW.

CHAPTER IV
D
119. Despite its fragmentary character, D contains a
number of interesting variants and forms. It contains even
an independent reading which appears to be genuine and
not a corruption. While it presents closer relation to C
than to the other manuscripts, its variants indicate that it
is an independent text, and the missing sections would no
doubt have given us a number of interesting variants in
form and text.

TEXTUAL VARIANTS
A. INDEPENDENT READINGS.

IzO. The following independent reading is to be noted


-~
in D: 7. I2 11mnnM 1 D1M '"w nM3Imy In 'i.
The following differences in individual words occur
in D: i. 9 lrrnI; ibid. xt; I. 13 sn7i; 7. 9 N-ln nD':=;
-nh
7. Io nWn .

153 L writes ol'4= lp.


154 L writes 4pprnn,which points to a different text.
15 IL writes D'l 3lD3. 166 A L write S'W"I.
TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED 13

B. FULLER READINGS.
i2i. The following fuller readings occur in D: i. 14
~WIV [4)1]; 7. 4 WVW'I0[rn2]; 7.i 9 11)404'K[KIMMP2.
The following abbreviated readings occur in D: I. I
[Sl~%K1]Kln; i. 8 [r%iiIWr]?7; 7. IO ['lNv] 4n'
C. ORDER.
i22. A case of inverted order is preserved in D: I. 17

GRAMMATICAL VARIANTS

A. THE ORTHOGRAPHY OF D.

123. D generally omits 1, writing Wrrin,


r'wip, Ki, but
-mVi*n also occurs.
D uses V1but once in imnzri., preferring forms without
1,as Nrnnr 1i1{~.
D generally prefers I to ", making use of 11, strangely
enough, in two words N44-10 and N44=N which are written
in the other MSS. and in L with one 5. D also writes
Nn"11N.
ri4n"11N, but 1P%'-7,
D shows a strong preference for abbreviations, W'=,
KNnVD~ VI each being written in full once. Otherwise
these words are abbreviated together with all other proper
names, as well as such words as mmmz, KNn', KivrK, which
are written as ` '?2Y. or 'k?,'rK.

B. PHONETICS.
i. Consonants.
124. In i. 8 D writes bU1=fl, R
B r
2. Vowels.
i25. D retains the a"which in half or completely closed
syllables is changed to i or e. Thus I. 2 D Nb%'j,R Wrrxl.
14 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

a"is lengthened to i in Pa. pass. pt.;: i.Ii D lp,


BRp ?5.157
f changes to e in i. 12: R ' D Ti3; 7. IO, 8. 5 4
DN"Ib &c.; cf. 7. 9 4MMK),
e changes to i, I. 7 R siln, D 4Vj; 7.9 , D R. Patah
and shewa interchange: 8. 5 D plfi?, R r Peculiar
to D (and C) is its writing of the conj. I before Ina with
a shewa. Thus pip",, rish4wn'Wn S.
is'A1 It is probable that
D imitated C in this peculiarity in all the missing sections,
as it imitated it almost entirely in those chapters extant.
The pronunciation of i before Ina was probably as though
written i.

C. MORPHOLOGY.
i. Verbs.
I26. Peal. Impf. Two forms of Peal impf. occur in i. 8,
8. 4, where D writes mrii, R 158
Pael. Pf. Two forms of Pael pf. 3 m. s. in 1.-7 D Iin',
R 4inA. Pt. pass. f. pl., two forms in I. Ii, D Tnf~65 R Tj5c.
Aphel. Pf. Two forms in r. I D nL IRB m5g.
2. Nouns.
I27. In i. i we have four instances of the same change
of form of numerals, where D writes Kt mhitn'h-
mh'y'N:'i,
ASHl&in-,
for B Nr'l~st3
NnA16v $Nn to"454bhN,
Two forms '
of the sing. noun occur in i. io, where D writes m6ib and
R N%M). D preserves a singular reading, I. i6 N3r)L-
R MjK3
~61159 In 8. 6 D writes B.
P 5
3. Conjunctions.
i28. In 8. I two forms of the conj. occur where D
writes sih, R 9A.

157 Cf. Gr., 158 Cf.


332. Gr., 354.
159 Cf. note 87 above.
TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED I5

D. SYNTAX. Verbs.
t29. Peal and Pael. In i. 9 D writes Pael 3 m. s. 'ti,
R the Peal '. In I. 3 D writes Pael 3 p. wi6h', R Peal
intrs. it,nn.
Pael and Ithpaal. In I. 4 D writes Pa. pt. r'pnn,
R Ithpaa. Ppnmnn.
Ithpeel and Ithpaal. In 8. 2 D writes 3 p.-nirnsn,
R nnAinsx. Inf. In 8. 5 D has Ithpaal , R Ithpeel
Rinb$

ERRORS
A. TEXTUAL.
I. Omissions.
I30. The following omissions are to be noted in D:
7. II [4:] ;4DnWp1'wK;8. I Swor [wnr] in; 8. 3 KWpVK:K1
[,v~:q] ^%oD tr1n.
2. Scribal Errors.
13I. D contains the following scribal errors. In I. I, i. 2,
1. 5, I. 17 D repeats n5rO for n5rb; I. 6 'iDbi. ; i. 8
fi-?wi; I. I ,p; I. 14 ~n In; ibid. pSi; ; i; . i6
vjDg;7. 10n1K0 m; 7. 13 'nD; 8. i nr; 8. 5 n. A
textual error, apparently a doublet, occurs in D: I. 13

B. GRAMMATICAL.
i. Verbs.
132. The following errors in verbs occur in D: i. 8
in. m; ibid. r,i'; I. 13 ip'^aW1; 8. I tDDI5.
2. Nouns.
I33. The following errors in nouns occur in D: i. 8
THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

1,:WI i':;
D;i. 9 7. 14 ,nY. The following noun forms
in D are better than in R: I. 2 n,i;160 . II Prii/.

3. Gender.
134. In the following passages D is incorrect in gender:
I. T :,n1w ; 1.4 n4; I. 7 rp; I. 8 im; rSnn; I. I

I. 14 innm; I. I6 bmso.
lVIaMnnr;
4. Number.
I35. D alone is correct in number in I. 15 ';714 , while
it is incorrect in ibid. N'nrp tKmn-.
5. Prepositions.
1 s0n,
136. In I. Io 12 KN'?U; 7. 13 tDYWD is incorrect.

CHAPTER V
EF
137. In EF also we find a few variations in text.
There are further differences in orthography, phonetics,
morphology, and syntax to be noted. The orthography
of E especially, which, however, is distinct from F in many
respects, has a number of interesting points. Taken
all in all, the text of these two MSS. is well preserved,
and contains by far less of textual errors than C, and is
only slightly inferior to AB.

TEXTUAL VARIANTS

A. INDEPENDENT READINGS.

138. The following variations in text are to be noted in


EF, jointly or singly: I. i ,'W
nv z; I. 8 ioD1D; I. 9 i,n;
I.-I4 nV'w; 4. I KnM3:3; 5. IO n'Dtn; 7. .II 8n': NON
5iWr7; 8. 6 SNilW nw; E I. i SNnv s:n I
^W7; F i. 17
160 CE write
ljiD. Cf. JLok.. and Merx, Chrest., 10, note 9, where
all these forms repeat themselves.
TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED I7

'Dp; 4. 4 iVn; 5. 8 PiIY^ nyv3wb; 7. 3 N;rn11rmI;7. 4 nrri

B. FULLER READINGS.

139. There are a few fuller readings in EF: I. 10


[^Nw rna] ipmX'13; 2. 7 [jDxW]NY-IN;2. 13 [si5lm] Dlwp;
8. 5 [SlWwn] "nD.
C. ORDER.
140. One instance of inverted order is to be found in
EF: 4. 2 NPpl S=n1.

GRAMMATICAL VARIANTS
A. THE ORTHOGRAPHY OF EF.
E and F differ in the use of D and w; E prefers t',
I4I.
writing 'IV, Tn'IW, S5W, but Dm1 and the proper names
Dbi and pDDi. F, however, prefers D, using the w but once
in 'W and pl'manI , and in the proper names 'vWVand m:w;
otherwise using D, as in DP ,nri, n, DD. E alone shows
a decided preference for vocal N, writing :vn, PY, mnW,
'Imo, ,ranl, &c. Both E and F prefer 1 defective, F more
strongly than E, and the same tendency prevails with
regard to ' defective. EF rarely use 11,the word rnli.t it
is true, occurring several times, but more often ni5?, sntsi,
&c. Similarly, EF rarely use ', preferring single ' forms.
Finally, EF are not inclined to abbreviate extensively,
confining their abbreviations generally to n1mmnp. E rarely
abbreviates even 1,p.

B. PHONETICS.

142. In 2. 9 while R write 5n5, E writes =fij and


F j i. In I. 13 R write 'iWa, EF 6Wv. e is reduced to
z in 2. 1o, 3. 3, 5. 3, where E writes :ni and R z3iN; 5. 4
VOL. XI. C
18 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

E ttiK, R ?nt'; 6. 12 E rLN, R jr5nf ; 8. I4 EF p'i3n,


R pniyn. In I. 14 F writes ,nhnri, where R write :rnn1K ;
in 2. 14 F writes -rd6, R -'n. Shewa and patah change
and R AirtLn.
places in 4. II, where EF write mn'Ityn

C. MORPHOLOGY.
i. Verbs.
143. Peal: Pf. 3 pl. 5. 9, EF 1p4"?, R B nNi. Impf.
3 m. s. 8. 12, E K,fi, R 4,s. Impv. 2 s. f. 5. 2, EF 'rti, R
,n5t. Aphel: Pt. m. s. 2. I4 bis, EF p,5n, R p,l. Inf.
8. 8 EF ,nii, R tnrsw. Ithpaal: Pf. 3 m. s. I. I4
F n4nnS, R isnnKi.
2. Adverbs.
144. In 2. 5 E has form ~ri6, R li~.
In I. 12 F alone, and in 2. 17 EF jointly, s<nnrip ji,
where R have nnpnl n.

D. SYNTAX. Verbs.
145. Peal: In 6. 6 EF use the abs. pt. l'T1lp p'fK,
where R have the cst. pt. 'lTlP '5. In i. 8 the pt. act.
and pt. pass. are used interchangeably; EF D'n, R Dn'i;
likewise in 5. 2 and 8. 14, F 45, R 45';; E Tn6i, R 1Ti6'.
In 8. 9 EF have Peal pt. pass. P'PDIi, while R have Pael
pf. 1P'DM. Peal and Pael pf. interchange in 5. 5, F n'fin,
R n'finf. In i. 5 and 2. 5 Peal intr. and Pa. pf. interchange,
E p'5, F p'5, R pS'D; F ninp, R n,np. In 8. 7 EF use
Peal inf. '&65-, while R have Pael inf. 6in5. Pael: Pt.
act. and pt. pass. interchange in 5. io E nini?, R nnn-
In 3. 7 the Pael and Aphel pt. interchange, F anntn,
R annDi6. In 2. 17 F writes Aphel, R Ithpeel; "nwi,
n'z'nf. In 3. 8 EF have Ithpa., while R have Ithpe.;
nDnnnsn,nnFnnnKrn.
TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED 19

ERRORS
A. TEXTUAL.
I. Homoioteleuta.
146. The following omissions due to homoioteleuton are
found in EF: 2. I2 MDtlnrnw n m:
;1RNz sn2t6] n Mn-n
[n'nIn-; 3. 5 [KMm }^3 K1N8PyIn w1w rnr 5'sp Kbm]p1n4-,;
nn'
5. 4 [pTInrs&-irmDrKw5n
45: v] ptnnr;8.12 izr:n] wDl
plnr [ISWT;t,:m ,rn'' i,n=r ;,nlm ,: n=1DyaoT.
2. Omissions.
147. The following omissions occur in EF: I. 4 1t: ;DI
[ni1n] lnMl [;wp']; I. 14 [K:Di] MnDn;I. 15 n'D'D:
En=nl]; 4. I lbapf [:pNP 4'1:i] Kp41; 5. I KWr1] lin tiD
[^,'np, ,n; 8. 9 nfwv [in,,] ,pn5.
The following omissions are found in F alone: 1. 16
W MsW ln i]D1 r;
[prDl prt K:n3 2. 5 m1?
[nn311 ].
3. Scribal Errors.
148. Errors of divers kinds are to be found in EF:
j. 8 wn; 2. 5 n,r1; 2. 9 KND:n; 5. II vnu; ibid. itwn;
6.0 iiI 7. ; 7.7.II ;l; 8.7
1; 6; ; 88nfr;161
8. 14 NWSt't;ibid. ppny.
The following errors in vowels are to be noted in F
over the prefixes 5 and 1; i. IX j'p5;162 5.441K' i;162
IX
5.12 T.
The following are textual errors in F alone: 4. 8 Mnim;
5. 5 '5i ; 6. II '=nD ; 6. 12 jZ:3 ; 7. 5 Knri3; 8. 5 j;:.
4. Miscellaneous Errors.
149. The following miscellaneous errors are found in
E alone: 1. II Niii; 1. 14 Nn; 2. 4 rn'llnp; 2. 14 -:na;
3. 1 5inn ; 4. 6 ;n; 5. i n5rK1; 8. 8 :n1: DnR.
161 R have 1v ; hence the very opposite thought is here expressed.
162 In these two instances it
may be the influence of the guttural n that
altered the vowels of F. Cf. Gr., 224.
C 2
20 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

F contains the following errors: I. 8 NKSnvr; I. 9 trfn;


id. . .N - . J I
ibid. s^,; 2. 3 nVt37z; 2. 14 :m:nn:1.
B. GRAMMATICAL.
I. Verbs.
150. EF have the following errors in verbs: 2. 3 ?5D6;
2. 8 ;i,i; 4. 3 )56; 4. 1o qri1; 4. i6 5yiv; 5. I KfiK;
E alone has the following errors: I. 9 Sfip,rin; 3. 7 piijn15;
3. IO N&'n; 4. 7 '.i.; 4. 8 rtpD; 5. 4 ni5; 7. 3 nIn^.5.
F alone has the following errors: 2. 17 35i1; 3. II 55:;
5. IO nqi ; 8. 14 *rP.
5.4 :nThriDi;
2. Suffixes.
I51. In 5. i6 NKln), S'fin; 6. 4 lrn ln; 8. 6 '1, EF
have wrong suffixes.
3. Gender.
In 2. 2 pI;w; 3. 6 in', EF are incorrect.
152. In I. 16

jp,, E is incorrect. In I. 10 ,n,; 7. 2 pnpml, F is incorrect.


4. Number.
153. In 1.9 nfiw&; 2. 15 i':3z; 6. I10 in'Dr ; . II

Kn':i; 2. 2 NxlV'; 2. 6 'lnwn, EF are incorrect in number.


In 4. 5 K^ND, E is incorrect. In I. 7 'wpT; 2.2 W11;
4. 2 ?pv, F is incorrect.
5. Prepositions.
I54. The following errors occur in EF: 7. 10 nrpP1;
8. 13 ':. In i. 2 pi, E alone is incorrect. In 4. 13
Sn=3, F alone is wrong.
6. Conjunctions.
I55. In i. 13 and 4. 4, F incorrectly omits conjunction
1; W, 1;52.
THE TARGUM TO CANTICLES ACCORDING TO
SIX YEMEN MSS. COMPARED WITH THE
'TEXTUS RECEPTUS' (ED. DE LAGARDE)

By RAPHAELHAI MELAMED, New York.


PART II
TEXT AND VARIANTS
THE following text is reproducedfrom A, which is the
clearest and most accurate of the MSS. A few obvious
errors have been corrected. These correctionsare placed
in brackets,and the sources from which they are selected
are indicated in the notes.
CHAPTER I

N`Zn6 n,,5&
cm6R' -'iv
"lrKCVli DgWS Kw~4S -4if (I)

in;ck n1nb
1; n;wg
nT*i .4'ppw
Nwnn nwwl
ndTw)

iw ?:
sn^p ^ nw
m] 5
.n jI
[Cnw] pn^3

... ._ ? 1 j. g. . . I g .-
I t

I nD5] + ^[1]n KW18] SKW1 B


CEFL KtW1i7] 2

n1N3 L + S FL
p11=r] rnfl3] nibDYc 3 NnKS]
+ p'in L NKn?w Kn11 CEF] ... WT11 AB p1 KrF' L
nlm'= EF] Knnr cC niZo AB Kn'DP] Kn'-ip CEF
1
5 K'WV]:W CEFL D1] Zn C 6 KtSt] XW EF
t^D] prm. & C DinDi] > L
57
58 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

min1:)i?nnbsAw;
1t:xi m i iw= ntm uwmnsnmrosnw
Nnip

<
,nlin
nDlsl:ia
ij~ 1n 1 -'
<4iiV :nn.,: l ,,i ,n^ D in3

n >. _CF ,p '"l


c h ... , n
~t~'l:
4 :-m pn17I' L-- .._> C-
.snw
.'"1."rl n"'1
, <<:- .iv
,
L
...n
5- .
.n.
*nnvi - C'h,
3_^3 C""Fpi_F*': _
n-'rtg"
1:r . nL :r'

? ...: < .. . - *- < I < <'-


:,;i
3.rirT" nm n ni
,...? r3l: pl'

? D incipit.

I n ~]isNnf31'L :] > CEFL raW 33:] 9IVI IN CEF


2-3 lnltl .20
KN1rw KnrtwAB] nrinin"T;DVt3 4:21n-C

K3nn
KDNi (KC'3L) jlp (3Jn13~ D) CDEFL 3 jn]>CDEFL
n6.. .'pD AB] (Knnnrn n, CEFL) NKWW'
(:3=1MD' E) nlW1p.: CDEFL
4 jp3ln]>CEFL 'N"t'~]>CEF KN' L WIN]+,s'IDt L 5 N:;]
<I .I. <.

+IDi.i~". n~ CEFL Nn'i}3'] ~nT'W3^


D J:)] T?t L 2',lJn"]
iprm.1n CL > nD
14 NK123 ]nlwn nlin L Mnr D
6 MnM]

I12
2 WMD KO^
^Dj] ND[t]: CF
F']CF EF
nrCEEF
SN1114] M-M:n
TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED 59

T;so s,nK
rin KWD s^K Nrr5i niP lrj innr nnnK1V
K8p
, ~ | 1 <
? .. - , , .. : . c

nVnmsnDn:
t6 n wi 4np K'5 KitS? cn15 n i WI '7'mni ,i ): 5

,1,' Lw
\Km Km in : ^iD5n , wn ?SiD K;i' K niS tnn]
io K3DK]nn inn L IT nLiK'i]j ?nnn
C w]b
pt n piT: D s tsi]

B : L KnI
I .l 3' Ct 1
] (insc i., C al. n, '] p:m.. T. ]

Y ~VI
CDEF r V L 3 KID=
] >CEF 'l
111'1-Kr irinC r'bi "

nlrnKiDL J 4D ^3] KB
3BE] nL] DEFL 5

C (mg. al. m.) KD]3] KD33 D L N}g] pn6 c


( Mrn6] prmnn

Nin'3 BCDEF t(nv]+ jb C (inscript. al. m.) L p3w p1] p3D1: L


I N410:v KblO1 L II B D]?3 ] iDt: Cc gn6n] pL1n D T'53W]
&J?X'
CD T11n&<]
1DWCD FfJ<u1nlK)
Lii b3K 3]D Mn4413]>
^3nS II2 1 'n^
t1331
N-V CDEF rV33
CDEF M'] ]
nn3g: c nwrg D 83NM] W BL17
L
60 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

c . < c IC
. 1< IC - < I
1- I I- . -. :

nn. - in nn - 'n - rI
nnn 4

nntl
1r rnin i n
nn5 n -*?
lpn, n1n*' wnrn (4)

5 :n6 n I DEF n n1 1is D I4:M8


T Cp Tvn

z'
y *w L^ I *]
*-6 I1Z
mi1Y J
CE ; IniZ D .l
io .n1-

nlTh D11DnEiD'n1f F KD CiL V]>p


p-n micKn n D

i7 O1'VW1]: K)-1C
K11g31 KD1] L6 ?n^n'p CD Kp D
E r] w

T~ID7] ~KVKL h't1 t0 rvi'DL 2 X,'1' 2?] ~1T1 CD

i';~
#'p'nBC D.
^in]^iND
E1 7112hI]
-,1n ,he, n,a] ibt7n`
143]
D ]n ?7pnnn [tqnw, 1n1iMn:
n,at a~ Y L
n1 T D nnI, ni]
mnm]
1t0
j
-i K4:iq'~f0_fi:
m L pn

CDEF 8 Ill'] NMID ~?Y~] '12^3 D N6I~WVL NiD]"i EL


:ni ^^7WJ 7rp L I7W] r^ CDEF JV4: L
c; prm. 9 (5)
N:p

> EF rIM ]>EF . inscript.


(C del., sed . h.
al. m.) ] I C
InwF L
N:n ^,nn ndrn Z Kn CEWZnio' D 1i0ownoii
'
Wh'I D E Dn4h] F sr I?] L DL
> C 2pmn2] p1n"m6 D
12 m] nJ ^nC
DEF N ] n5 CD 43 *WV] > LCifpn]
CDEF
I I-
)YINn
E 51pWN
piTW1] Ko1T DL
WL1)4
TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED

I.: I . J. <
p.
: m.. .. IC. I .i n <"
. ,

45tpi Si C5
%n
L 1n%i6
1 Cm
(insr DL^3 JQ^]5 N (6)

!:, L { ,
(ln]
Mn. ;1' pi n,y K7
Nrin]
rit .t , D 5

Nnn nn ^ 'i^ 1
K W^W,V i MnnM=pt : nW NlKY TnK ('6)

super. D super.'DP
A super. B supCDEF. 1 n
EF
super. EF .Y,,1fl] ).] _'1EF
F EFI I
4 :19R]
nn1_]
:Vil1D DC mg. L r 7 t2] 5) F 1 . : 61 D
/
JnTn L 5I tI1:lf]
nitnw CDE Kn
f'ip] n, CDF
KnV 6ns 'nD]
Jn '= ?C
tl:lD] C l. ~pnm
n5b&
N"lD19" . ...n. 8 ..Ctn
l..DML n 'i
mi]>C
"inK]
D]>Ct (habet
L
(habet C
C4D1
3mg.) N
mg.) ] 4^'
,ff.T]
Kn(7)]
Dn

>'F LE.nIj-gfi'
llrSN1 "5 I2 L KnnIl7iY]
EFCD
.'n1 l] F ')leKN1 in' ] fifi;l{ D CDEF 1" lJlO3
EFL.
in. L

pr~fr'low !]pa0Di04 L 8 Nnt] ln L I


4 Di tri^n D
:nImnII CEF no nip^ L m4p 7] 4Mp11M Jl'BCt1-71 Jln7
L 9 n]]

>EF Io
10 n *6b] CT4Y?
C1 . EF i C (al. m.)

MM,r].ibrn BCDEFL IIn I- II-EF NnY]N= EF znno7

*'l p",]tnV,* 1 L ;V,1'i] ..*Vi D 1 W<Vi. F inn'-on]


Innyl't.)DF
62 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

5Wnni] K~nDW K
KL K;X;2 F
i St CE7KnWt nrlJ] nJ1 'Ti '
D
I, . .L. , - . . j , 7.

:1 F nni?
nm' ] fl nn3
1' C n
Y3^ i 15:Dwn L sn 3g

nN CD it
; 41._: ] EF Zn ? ] '?n CEFLJKZ D (8)

i bVtlflq] btnlmnr L XJVtrl: BC 4W'11] 4rI'ni~ EF Z'~ltr


C (eras.)
- 1~.
<~D D LK1.U'l]n
,y_1EF C'I(mg.) _n6 :L:
?I i;p{nlr
] _ EF
<?L
_- pW "IT
] . K)]1 D 1L
..ynnn
E
;,'nDrJ c (videtur) ;'~ta~6] ;'~a~66 C )'~a~66 F 2 1Y2'1]
F
KIlVY KpDnnt 4] "DnElV- C n14i KD7DD 4-1 L
3NYI]
Kn]CD 4 1r]qi EF
Kt]CiN nNiCiF BCEFD Kl l D]

> Dt
DtDW] 7)1]D mg.)
(habet
(habet mg.) 4-5.
L
4-5 I z ~]K.V<]
l . DEL
DELI* 55Dwr] v L

BCF 17M]pLC(mg.) nlnn nnn1 ]71M631i?n L >W7 >L


jN]noi b64nnl L bt'4c
^'15 CE N4-53FN11&<DnV]
INrl-1taD
IMM1] 4bfil EF ^2=11 L 6MnT] Mn L Whl'm]O*'I D ITHTiEF
^n]I<]NnnI CDL
~n,i CD ; iNin3Ln ACi0]
l lnliD I
AC DL ;,n1=
p^m4B nn3 DL
iO]Bp,'nK BC20
vnnnniN EBC 20 (nl
(n
) . l ' C, Mn
inscriptas.)
inscript.) V,'1C EF
'iMI:N EF
(lmn] NK:fnn
(mg.)] i L b1OZ
L
]hT N-D7 EF]N-ti6 c ] 7",7
, ED] N^in^4rl L

'NKY EFL 4 EFD


51,161 KNI4=] '5CnLKO D KI1]
(habet Dm.
Dt"DE L 8 KN'3V)K]K'D4= D S
w] Kr- F

BCFnnni] jNIi EF (m.)nc' Ci?in3i L KnAi3TNt'lll niK:W'


BCEF D

prl] pln1EL 9 116] >L 6 n^i] Kin CD pnni]4:3] D.=nn D


1I 1n FL]
;2 CEF 'n11 L MnOV]> D NM7n1] Nhln DF MnII L
TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED 63

/ - _* I *C g - . . 1 .. . .
i .

nsnr
ncwF nL ips5 n- In Wn 5
:4Wz 1 D1i (9)Yi
D im4i:n
n]

stDn
t1p-'III nMnDOD
-nttaivn nlnl l ,n Ynnongw 1pI

:n~~ .n~ .n B . n3'IL , ' ' ' . .: I 1 :. t .E 14~

K7 iD^ nip' rii7l3 K' nvj jnv'i nvD


pKn3i KpWv
pFKnpl

ip'lnS) D L
iO] ]/2
nn3i pm'o
npim C,i'] n lql] EiF C Dsi'

^fii
..n] EF prmi.
pn,nn n, 5 nV NNI .n
14n'IN _ 1

I ''33n3] c 111
n3]>FL 2 rwnl] .nwni DEF
in"isVDI L pm:n] E (mg.) F
DiOlD3 m L
KNIr] ni pni]
jl;l7p D 3 StINKID] YZ)NDL llin] inlli C WIZID] K:NOLD
CEF
p1FnEFL
1TMn] pl,nnnZnl] Ii,n-n` pin L 4 ,rwsD]prm. IniL
prm. '1-' C (mg.) bNlP] Kw'q F nnmwmn],ln,nSw DEF
nnw,w1l, L nlinj] lih D Nli F N16~]R^8 F Nn] ,'1n L 3Y.1
'1Y D 5 11]>Ct (habet C mg.) NblH]N CDEFL 5-6 23
7 . . . ]>C 6 "NJZI] pKNCZ11L pSl] pK313 B N-14.31]
,, L n] NV D Nt7t2 172 L [;] D 1Z: EF
pni'1n3
7 75''] >'D D EF 'nN?
KNN15] C Wh t DEF 9ppn] lpjip
CDEF PipnL NIVl] j-IT-lnL 103] N'11= CEF 41i7 D 8 Knl
Nni] N^I KNsB nn L lipinIV&C IpInW'KU
1pDnIVNK8 E on71D]
+n,fnilm* c , n,niiDiD]
wnsi i:1nm ( 4,niwniD
,11m~n:n
1n11mln1,n
inJlDiDiL i,,n] %rin c '.n, D 'IiZDhr
EF I''n94I] WI-s c
D N'1IDn3I
Vl1WnEl EF 9 i,1"K]11,k C liKND NVnEF I0 Nnw]
Nllll%EF L pl5] p'5 BD 1n C p5 EF
12]+91IDVt Ktilr] Nnit D
64 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

T:R Kn3W NpD5 87 : Q^Krd


"p^y -pin 1W3 (lO)

N1ni Knin
Ep 35!:tpnn'i 1 EF
'Ep ^
pK8D tln?p ?K nw

: .. :

prim. i.) 1p 'f]+NK .]


flqhzV] EF 2 iZ, prm. m LC g.

12W
P1,D C :HiDn
p1tV B nlp,Vi
DI ? 130 CnEF 'nln (II)3
3L 5 . ;rn^ CEF ln'] n- s
C
DD1rpn Fnn

prim. m.) n*.] 3.2


pS EF..D3 WI prm. LC mg.

Ci;jin~~] ?l]
LC~nmn~ ? BD LC

N4DID] DNID
D,NWO7] CnncN 7=m D
NOl: MfitD^] nirhtD13 c

ilvY]L
+Ip11-) IC VNK (11<, CEF
5 CD I(ci1 ript.
I inscript.)
F ]io11] tIc 01Tn3
wDtins M1] CnA F
C (AB
7rNi EF ?9i iF pJ3N] N CDEF 1K3'] p6rm3L Ah: tL']
K8nD
X s88.D
1p110n]linK1n3'l
tMOn D
D s C] ABEFL
. ABEFL
C] Ip'4341 riV 2]
j't313]
4~zywl c <
. wc
N"nL 'di] ."42 c NN-14:iDN . z3, E
K'D1D]FF
IO~fl ttrJL
D1D37 99fl]
KO] D=t
C C (g.)
(mg.) L ?tYTD
MT]pl')D7
3 3n D m
ntlv37]
r11?t']
Nvz^3 c tDjll'W] 1111TV B jln'7M1] D ;pj% CEFL E7i7nlF 7]
+7P-Dnn i cI D t4MWno F
;-?6MinCE io pn'1NC] jinTriN BD
v Nri7EF F jlK] KCDEF BDE] 'O A np]
NlD
8I E
TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED 65

nlil i , Y ...pi..fl>~L . . . <121] 23l< _ 21i~i~1.


CE L

:in ;
D) ] >C;ns prm. IIDL n]
p] C ni -tl
Cr,n F 7
(13:

f?in nn iwf i6LTpr 1 ni1] n CF DEi


in 1D3C

I5'n 31 nI^D ]~i


p': ':] B i
1*^ppon-

Kj.'iT C
nlm,'
InMlD2] 8 i N4]
p CF p1 nnK,D] p1nnB( gi
m0Dfil3pD nnp
io *t) ? *>=
h?L nLlf]
p?y]t nmqpm 1K] ) nr6
I?i
C PYFp '] prm.
i]+p3PC; DL
> cI (C mg. L
pinn'] p1n,ni q'l]TI'y]
habet) qqi: D K?Z?fl2] s?n$3
C'EFiL CDEFL
N L
n1lni niTC1IK,] Vfln
p CF
Dt
4 p,1,M] N,'13 CF
re,m L pnrD]
prr,D3 Nr]CEFL 5 -I

nhabet)tnlTMPdel. ] n C
D2
(mg.) l]t p] I,
[LP L ] prm.

NM D
n:n 10 N,10 ID]>L ,N14 .NDhN c in'IV41 prm. lin D
ptVOL.XII. F 7 T

1r1cDEF; >c 10] &E 344MnIn] 1n:tn^rF l7topi ^Ibp c (mg.)


p401] 1gp^ D M4111nITY1 L 4:nn] 4yN D
VOL. X I I. F
66 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

Kpm K1Kpin
- An&a
_: A) o
Kpr m A' nrVi 'TKA j
.< . L L I
.

n^30 l i ):DI'Kl,
211? , " ,n

;r16nf
KD'K?,36V pn- 5/b7;
50 41=1D t'7tK
n16
po7- K WI=
tt1 1
l'z73
K; 1 NK1 4.4W:^N(15
IrtJZ
NZD1' ttD=n1
p4,p NAv 1m'=T 1'tz
pn n y]
p6nri I-1in vnwF;

.. , , . ,
.j . I . .~ _ 1 I I

'iq3 C sjin3 . D 13 F Ni Kmt]


C 1VEF . .,2 I= L
bT 3 c] r lp' 'I fln]prm. In' L Ji] ] Krint BCDEF 3K piAM
13 ]
4P)n1< D p 3nAK] F wv3] Nxin c (p6 CEF 3H'i* D
I / L.1 ,
IO nD 'l DEFL t 4 N 211
^? t '3D[1]p Vlp[1tt MC DEFL
pWI t= L
Pl] C !del] : nb
> EF (Nm> Ct C (mg.) prN] p13 C
5 Y'lT]9'F'D 9-r'lL 6 tDSD] ;Dni C NDi*nCL
MM=?] 7 In]
'AniL 8 JI,1] ', C (< al. m.) 'pri] .iH C (I al. m.) 3]
MY; L nM] .3 L 9 NK6] Nri CD nMA3]>E]> EF n]
^ ZbC
K3'c 61M D 3'Nnl N]KZK%A D KWK%. L pE-p]
KV j'p] C NK""IpD MN,I] "N'I CDEF N"N"]
io " CEF
,N" D
1N4 L C prm. '113 L WInl]
1^n3] nN-l C N'.l.A D EFn- E NKi I]
Kp' V DEF NKp n6
'i C ii 71 ^D]
DIp 7i ABEF 'TYAi]
5T'
1; CD D7YT1 L P4M3UA] j-1311A CDEFL
TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED 67

n^-r rpsiii? IDT


=jn IVW^n
9m;^i<5 i6Di; w

;^D rnnK1 5

,nio 05Vw KN
WM^ :no =1Mw MD'
"4IZ N i:nn
1K nM11p(I7)

44m,N
4,^^n Kin'6 KD7D 4WipM
nNnnK7 N:nn W3 nl'
.. ..
.1'_...... . 'n

I h .] ,ri C (< al. m.) W1D]rm B n EF 2 K] K CL


3'n] ?N B N:nJi] prm. KWp: L I:1'3- C (mg.) KKn?D]
4'=^12D ( .. al. m.) .K'nD1 L K3=1] M31 C pD] PKD C

pMD D 4 415Y] '15t B>F KN-K]> F KmiiK1]>F WD]

tWD c 1wyDE>F j'V^!D L lDi] t''iD CD > F 4D=IL Mq1]

>Ct NK"V C (inscript. al. m.) F


nIVW] n"DY DL I4S3M1 5 4D]
K'D] D 6 n1lIlp] prm. I)V13 (04W 9N A mg. al. m.) 11 iW
rj1

i;1= AB litM-'l] li[]t3;nMICD lZ3nM EtFt IXtO'i;lE (mg.) F (mg.)

K3K] '11K C K13KD 7 'T]>C =n1KK N


j3nKI] C jpD] 11j)F

w't?I] w'r1 BD V137 C Kn'] '1,' L K'' ]>CEF 1NXD 'K' L

8 Knn4w K%n]^-D i'YlW] 1'l-lW& "1 C ('1 eras.; al. m. prm.

1); lNlW:n DL 4:1VZ'l' F 4'11=1 E p1VT'] pIrU C p1]+pn+

In 1Di4 '171n-\1wI?MY Kn2LInL 9 'jNK2i&]nJ:i Ct (4'fnK'i C al. m.)

"^i1in] "':lWl EFL

F 2
68 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

CHAPTER II

|| tkiW'" snw: nnnoK :;^pinm nrwiw ;lnw n7nrn :s (i)

l 8.. i . X .. . K,; C . .s c .)
: On Dzz7^ (m.KID 2K i2Yw
K:5 nE FS Kng n- CFtl3

IIn^explicit
D usque ad 7s 39 . .

3 KnW'3 ;3] Knla ? Ar. &<njw


vni^] L ntta^j~3f] ni^ L

1$ )n'rN
5'INKI 1"Y1Lp KNp KNIK
v'"DiD "in ,"i"i NK"] CEF

5 n','p1 j]".?, ' F CL, .J i.iSn":. N C.


fiO] del.

TYIY'3]NIY'I EF N,"y
Wn,iK1] ', I esy. ,6 '15 'fi] tn"
EF ;,~=niL ~;,r'T'~]
;,q5c ;,'/5,,'* ; 1t'~F pqt," EF
e3,] ,5%]
'55~ p5~Ct /~'Q5'~ C (al. m. inscript.) L '^5;-l EF 7 1I"~I] 1"1, Ct

('1 Cal. m. inscript.) 8 R~I~l0~] [RantID C (al. m. inscript.) RS'1n3

c (mg. al. m.) L. 2IW\t.1 . ..1


l.] :]- L 1 ..11 i CEF

8-9 n71
72 D?ND4.3> >3C
O':N_ n INNNn']? 8'8 BE
'S14 tN F

9y fln] tfl E 9 n^rf'Kf] 311nK BCEF


* Ar. = Arukh Completum, Vienna, 1878-85 a few citations found in
the Ar. have been collated also.
TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED 69

,nK:si^th ab srwKl^r
i m7 swn(l nn ;cut 'Di &AD

KnaD, riN' r1rs K'l w'i n'Di inD


nrlnD niN nz' 7i

r
}D 'nni nFhnCnFyi n^K ntil,n7wI:D i?%nd n^pDn; nFpw
2:YR1 Sn

7pn
iz NimmKmi ?m ni? 4mirmnW n\' n'i' i'vr Kn,4i

I ni46] Mn'Yi F ^tU2] ^'fi E 2 nMril n2n c n'l EF

5,1?] 2n1 c n,nWI] n.n.11N. L .n4n< Ar. :11.]


' 1 c
ThNI] '1l1 L 4'111p] 4IVlPML pj`4Z] ` pnt3) L 3 l i] ,ri c

4 NVK]Kl CEF '] C (vid.)


1]4K ] 4 BF ; prm. nlMTL MinV]
nr^ni BEF ~M=] DIL cNC D]>EF 5 n'Cp ti
.Tp1 C . p.1 41 EL 8 .nj . ] n. CEF 1nnnV]
..* C

t1n, r L l)] I E Mrtr]r-n- EF 9 bv'J15]


,m,iM E
nIn1p] nnV-1p F U;
D131i] 1?1 CEL>F k] KNC>L io Nn?n ]
MnIDL Nin113 ipi]1n-1 L EF
)1TRiL]I'TYNi nDi-t]
1n-DI BCEF n DDoIn] o4Don= B ArDim11
-11] B
L al. m.) 'lN&YniY]
> Ct (inscript. CL 4'11Y
EF '3TD*
V'1O] L
12 pmonfl]rpinin-7cw)CIM] K?IMBC iD E NKi] 'NK1L
N36'Y3] ijPtj CEF DK )
13 (vd] L
KnWL r'NBFi rbnk CF D] E

NDOn L K E n)n* L
MnM]rn'nYv
70 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

p^w n"Wrns Mbn ri n: :jpinri liw wn1


1 nnn ,>Row(6)

iKn
K5nt85 p:ns
tnli M1,nin,1 nnD60p &5 11, t5lnr ntIib

10,n , ni Unl ,FnDy: ?


JT=zn V^VV n
p DZII MOV,^p nw
(7)

T ^T C .. .1n
E i 1F 2 il] Ct l14. C (.inscript. al. n.)

i MI M C *VnE 1n F 2, 1'-nn 41n Ct *n C (inscript. al. m.)

n.MV BC wMYE 4MYF


M1V] ?Znn,D] ?iinDD CE ?pr1Dt?F Vy31tn]
>Ct nt.3_N n_D
11 C (mg. al. m.) 3 Kn:Sn]prm. ID 1rn
4ti Y':lN.J

pn, DI , ~ in 4n: ln,ai,: L; ;' 15-l:5


0nq',6 TL ,i (7')
lml2ol^ 1
E (mg.) nn: Ndn'W
] CF nKIi]j11 L *N1m]
CEF Nlin '1 L 4 ',l] e'fi CF 5 4H?n%]Jn5l c l'tt]
N5 EF 'r1tp] tMpl BE 6 ;W'i] pIrn C pn'1 F1lpn L

Z<'i]^ p.]
c W^ EF ^ND L l.] c .li
pn 7 EF

pp'WDl];'4P'D CEF 8 n1lXNY] mnr:i' C; B (vid.) '/ EF

o I tl] tn L Etl
NWlli']+ EF '1] tIl CEF 1Crn
lIMn] CEFL

N'^5't] NK5% EFL 12 n0Ia] ?nlI2 L i'?O]> Ct (habet Cm)

iit1] n'itYN] in.1^


)NiiV)2C CEF NMn
] 1 BCEF
Ci(i3n]>L
>Ng]>CCt 3Ns
C (mg. al. m.)
TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED 71

jlx= j3 paOir p ?' K In -VMim i4l1% 1561??

nn pim ^ mnn.. , , ,. . a'.s5 ' .n.,.. .riD.

OK :nipn 7Y rPD QnnVn i ar 3 nt


" ni'i 71p (8)
-ni2 ipmp5 nani piemW^ ?'^r'r p- rin]DnIn Lp
p
P : 13D "P tD:K1pN,n1 1p jp:8 KYCKt
1W:K li

np?D Dnxm 1:- n


nW KiDJ Ans tri1T 155iD ni: nb1?W

? : N6t2i~~~
1n ;:::I ~L tgnv..'Ar~.
rtp,1'I
n.
EF t] S p. - nn p6nt 5

i pn]>C JV
rt=1 nn]+K11 C :nC L (mg. al. mn.)
z2 NM?7 ]KWVn1'? BC Nf'1t'16 EF WnT] CE p?1lpn] piffN L
EnDs L 1
ID]p]>L 3 In1^S] V (inscript. A) 4 tInK] p.1- E t
Ifl)]> Ct
1 C (mg. al. m.)
V ] V
7 p211i] EF p... > CEF L

p6?]>L 8 p3in-] ?nI


tp3 KfC np5 Ni) EFL Nt'1t K.. . rnW

nimic 9 rinn Np1]>CEF p C (inscript. al. m.)


IpD] Dn:t EL l 6i C L
71]-+M C (eras.) W C (mg. al. m.)

Dt1 EF ImgL MPIAr. 7 E]p52 EF ; tKn7] pDnnw c

pninn]ciEFLAr. pfin CEFL]\rCEF AB C Ar. al. m.)


N11P1CLAr. lWIl EF II K11u] K11tW EF tn1n?] KnJtKT

C
BAr. ?n1ZKT1 E tnro1AK F Cni3] C N5 E
?nclnN bl:ii
nn,I^ L
72 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

5K7p]?ZKtiwn K' n fl u ^Dpl nDDn K'i'j I D2 na8r * ^p'


NnnDD KNo'Zi mni K'n
Ntnl 1n 7Znokl KNhb tb
nhiml 5min'WK

^?>D? p^ii 4'75 KOn^ pn C 1 i? n


p nD:" 7n1 1MY (10)

?N](del.) Cn K:l>C
C(tig. K,
al. insc ript.
PCIn
(C al. n.)n 4 n
lO6 Ct K1pr nlni ni.) pD EF ]4 K
n'lil'
(II)

.EF . prpi]p'I1 CF CMKI KiK


tKnrm6 In] C Dnn > L K l]

AIC . CK.. E IC Ar. C,I 11 .F I KIl


7] Y :3J1 E11
I i5C F 9LB] K7p AEFK'p C 2 7in
K Cli]
pi r 5 17
wsi K?nnlr~ .'i7]1
L ] ?K
'1 LnE
513n:tY
j ^nti'i7lDi
nnr 177L v (al.in'7p .)
C (ing. K
MY
C N54HIKZi
N54h&k3i E N>TIINZAr. N54N'] NNti CEF Kin3]
tK1DaF )1J] P1,1 al. m.)
?1af Ct )KfI C (inscript. C (rag. al. m.)

3 NKnKsV] KNWKlC N K nY111W


EF E L L o
Kj ] NEF
Ct (del.) n7?0 C (mg. al. m.) N(Dret EF 4 2n'n6]
:n,haNi EF ]
p,p6E mlp,Ma , CF
Ya, KMT,a ] n C Drl]>L imtn]
pnl F 5 Nlr] 1iKZ-CtRpi C (inscript. al. (iNs
m.) C (mg. al. m.)
MDrlL 5 -11] Kl1 L n'ai pihi?l s<3n 7j rn 7Y 'tD1
14p& C p^ii] pEW1 E Mtsl] pnt141 L PTCDIC (mg. al. m.)
6 15g] t7g C KNlW]>Ct SNIWN (C inscript. al. m.) KIN'5] '1KI, 7
CEF tLnni] 45nnDC N5nii ] 5nn Ct NN9'ni'7 C (inscript. al. m.)
t6nn= L 7 i7)] *i7 B* 15 B (correct.) EF 8 ^UK]
WnM E 46inn] 2nm C 4nhl E 46nn F J8] 57 L; +-7iys t6
*nXD cC h*nhn] Mntnh EF 9 ^W] 7tK C 5pa] 1i? FlDRDl C

NpM F T-1YW] IlIsY EF '1132= L IO ::p] ::p C 7n] >n


CEF KU11^W] NU1VWWEF N-7:YW L II K 7S] Nsb7 EF
TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED 73

ii S
tP nrg prptniiD plDDn 7iRi >n KjIXt5 ui7 '- i7rin t

:i-i-n1AIi IN " 7 1p
I=n, Inj ri
= nl 1n ni D3
irs i (12)

tn2rnnnYn7
^n&5 pD i Ntnn 43i? 4h7nD;nni nWi

I n]^ZI
Dnn Kpmn L Fi
6pIUp] KnIC E KC 'n]
Ge'n'? S
..1]1,
BCEFj1b4] CE 3 tVI] 1 > BCEF (al. m. inscript. BEF)

4 .NKji] .+1 C (del.) I*1IPI. .111 C 1$ l..


ag. EF

~:
'J] ,n'7^"B (evan.) 2^155 ;CEF -jiD n]Iln CF 1
p nni L
itnnN'i3 nc
Cp ln n
9WDD Q^YSn1B 10a C n91sn F N13)
,nl20 C i='TiE F WIn=1 L N11nw57] :D F f1lDKW]
]prm. KNOnC (del.) 5-6 I K13i 71
NK1I ]>EF'n n'nn IO

>11f12N]?1fl=N L 6 "ha] j?l6=.1 BL CK1] Gen. I .

pinVJ;'1] j1J1Z'"V C ?g13KV4'1B K 7 fl W= L 11+ ninY= L


I C]
t'C n DID
LF E9 115] lt cC F ] (mg.

al. i.) 1454hF wm3n L io WVtIy] K'WDn E II

BCEF ' K] Dt
DEF CE (BCEF (al. m.
1 C (del.) C ing. al.BEF.)
V c1:EF
C' EL ' ] 7 DIL
Lljzfil] 1p2 B
4jl1j64 Fjhn^i] F

prm.] pm. 1 E
(mg(del .) F5-6 EF; I' .Lorm]>L n?-I:3sK]
>Ct (habet C mg. al. m.)
74 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

tiowon v'"in n pmi,n -n rin


wrimn on vnm 4z (14)

Kin : &wit:
N nP n 1pn I
: ;rni: '^ni' Y
1n1p 4'5l p nx
?. * * ...I. L
-?. c .- .. ..< ? J :' ?-

nnn 1T C; W 3 l nr ?T1,D
L iKni3 ?Z plhn ,iIp
[L Kpn 5C]

n'3] nw7
Knn2D NWF 1c
BK Kn1i nvwF
nn ' 5 5Pnn
L pn13]
K?7 v 37nrD^ri1n
1pb nL
K^1] ni Nn]
pD L

I i._1fSl2. 2 _ C . o? _ I C * 1. - ..1 Ct * -

C (inscript al m.) . . .qVc?D'in] j C . C . ] ?. <C

plKi MMKB MWiCIEF


pn91 EF ^ ] 94:M3 1 L m3 bn nn4
C

L
N1ovtL
~'K~aPlKny
7NWIvn Klcn- C
K%lil] Ki'nr
KrfltC] C P'it? EF
4 n)nYn]
')N'] C n3D3n
3 EF
X.N nn
dK]
KN:t
Kn113] nIn, n
1: N'1rD] LN>
F9 l, n-ND] c '] > bTl
8V 4-100]
CEF5Nn]in:1- EC 't11
;i]6L
C Cp
rninn"i
piitoiO] EF nIL
>JInMo)
; CE ln B ;"V L L
KDnio nln
'KnD]:n1
C'] llD :l
L CF 6 71EFL C]
)'~D ABEFL m11] ?'1% C ) L p~'] ?' 1 C pD'l5]

iKnfi CLtCEF
'nJn-n'i-
n2'5 ?Dln 'q
,:'l', Ti'I]
'-- KDnt L 'D;D
L W'7]
_ I5 L l
anD C 71 Fn] EF
nS:l CEF
r. L

t "P] tBl Cr[ EFL


C ,:L hi'l]
C Ct] C ItNI tF Ct INt]

Jn' L K'tBEFL]
io In,t I'ipC L ' frol] T'7rn6oiB ltf1il CF

N'i?mE Nn1l EF NI'l B Nni n:1


L
-331 BCED
TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED 75
. . < t.. : -
;.._ < _ | < s ; s . I < . i , " , . I _ I
nlnn
IC

spobn p%)p p1'7p?OTSnDSt 1nrw


5 vn KD!nnxnCp mn.

Crag. lWY.
) .pmp ]mn ) Knn ",
nrm pFY p^] n

:3n Nn5
mDn77p=n6: sin4 'pni 7i'R MnnKl

I ., . . I . , .. . . T: - E e . II . . - L . - t

m5
Knnn] r wtnCEFpt 3 KnPl]. 17
m.)BCEF:: C:
>IC; 1 'inS
i 4L nf] LIt36 ,n iDI 1rn nimw Ip (I7)

KDn: nu
nEF
Kpn i Kinl]+nnBCELLn? KF N ^:O] sD15 L
L
bV ninnlpj2 P w]>
rCt C (mg. al. ip.) ] s prm.
Ii L ('n
11E ] 11nF BF1
N1 %V
2 n<
iCL ] l L ppl]+DE 3IZN L

Nn)":] MnMRCEF 3 sN<np]Knp BCEF 15,0L IlsII c


:
15'bm . EF l~] > C <
248)]>C V] 'W BC . 43iiY
4.. BiY ) F; E evan. *?Q']
sNwnz]
Knr,vn ,n1,n
NnwWs cC g,
sNtnvnw] EF N13^WD
463='21 EF .L
K'?PnZ L Kip] zrr
b1n'(<'] 11p1 C

5 jnbDD] N5DK BC NOn] > L 6 N:nnKi] N5irnnint c


b&nnt6 EF N-1 KIl;]_BCEL Nn-lK^ F n1?z] rDn= L
7 Mmtl
1nyy] nC 'n] C '1nI EF In1M L 8 UnynNl]
NngnY p3 L pIDM]> ct ?pS C (mg. al. m.) W] prm. D'T) L ('DU:
C mg.
C ig. al. m.)
in.) < mT
9 KNp]+ L n^]<]
< n3;1
~1 P|' L
F p"?3^ ..''p^y]
,.]
> C; M4jVIY L KN7]> L jl1pnlSIy] Vjl;llyI C IO lmiim]

1inM' E 3n1i F nn] p^7y n CL NnV3] anM=nE 1=n61?


MDnQ3L IIiJ] f' B (vocales ab al. m.) ? EF I2 An1] ^n2 C
nrl1Vtil] nl1t1it c KiNV]+nlnn-i L
76 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

,nt iKrp F
p']i j,'p~is K:llW
WBEFn] C piCnF
jl^' t

ii?,n :1i prnS7 o,nna&S?nn^b5-11iKi


Q^pU Mp p1)K w^Y jo

ni3vz
a, 411l:'h
-ill3 piDinlni
NnS7ipn
K7mpm ' 7 KnD5

' ~I Z VI< I C E . .

I tp77Dn] ;7Dttnl c oni?'i4] plt^ii EF 1D5ninD] MDoDn= c

jD:nb> L CEFL
j)>lprnfIlN]pVrNnklN 2 p lvl] ps'prl F 'n]
,r CEF ?K<]i K:1!iF KNn1K7]K887 CF KWnMiM
L 3 -I'TK
-11
NKn?],-C KNVDID F "p
InKt E 4P? 1n1jp 13'TN L

pnurw] pnJYc] 2p1' c 4 K6itf1:i] NK5t4hl3C


KPN5hiI E 5 p1nW]+i n8' L tin)1D] Mi11 CEFL rvnp]

nn3TIjEF T-p17] p'NplBEF nlp CL nV3]>BCtEF; nI 'tn L


n1 t;n c (mg. al. m.) C2^l1P]:Z?? c lnlp L 1Wi] n1W3 L
TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED 77

CHAPTER III

phnhmb sti ~B,wp2& &3 rn4i n r,w'p nfl1i2 i{fw' nO


(I)

< I <, ,.. . . , .- . , .. . . - .- .. .

,^n;lKW nK nwlnlhii5nn
nipiK ril mi: nniD
nlsl nKDip ?
(2) 5

5fi N Qlpi
113DS v M1M 1 nP 310NI
llynzin'?h3D sM( '
^n^ijn

In3tw N In5 nV
N&Psi3 3i4' QaiDn Q^itIn 'mN (3)

I nNf] r] B llnN E 2 Itn] 1n1CEF 3 n,/4zzn] nE)fnw c


4l'lrl J[V
4i'1
] n C
L ,'ll DVrl hic
4n1^n3^'K] r^~niait^ L m^i'ns^$ C 5 C omit. 3. 2 hio. sed
habet 3. 5 hic in marg. Hebr. habet . Cp :W'] I1Zpi:nl C

nuivTnnlA] Inr1 Cnc nfl] BIn E 6 lil] Ni[ BC r] >C


7 irl):P .,] n"rl.. c (N'1P) mg. al. m.) .'j1 EF W=1I

t)'lip L 8 MM3t CEFL]>AB rtnlm] ritnm C 2tWn' BF


inr1i E f<n^LC1]
.:li. NI*i c N.
fl.1sDi EF 1 .L

Rn1"IDK:I Ar. tlnbl31]>C :L


11in1i 1rJl1n1 Ar. 9 nil] nR B

(nR B*) nlN EF lhrlw] prm. nl-t


=W'-I NMJnJ33 L I fi]

41B]CEFL 4'1] >L p'n'] p'1 L ?YnDt]


nllrYDDI C ;Onlb? E

,nDnli F c CnE n] npBn C


mnl] MN'=CEF
78 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

I6 I - - < ' - *. X L- .. - <


I < C -

: nipmph,7snw:'
1lD^;!: nwl ;p n 7g &
1) MN
* 2- . - I : .. . ,. . .. : .. : .
Lw' <o'n1 '27D CDOnPE1np] 6iv
q-N"L1p N'I~D ,nW nDYi

?iM 1^nrns w:sr ,,s n1


Vnsdi' fu' n nilw Drir (4)

.+.K f L. :K I i<
.K1 CEF 61 1 I
:]> C K1 ,I Kn,

?ii niv 1Y
5Y12 i Ai 1^p1 KV,ywoi ?W^
i rT'tain Pfl3ni
ivnn'K K<N K1*1
n^i .. - Ci 2 Kn^p ; K?J
n 1; . s .: t1 Kjt
iimi-'n4ihpi n4' wirm n

(IlK~~
B*) IlnK EF~~~~' 4Mm=V WMI 1 nM B1 4M EF

fk to)ntl2
I 7 :nWiK] IlKhN
ilKE N-pON)
L5K p's EF
irp1 KCIlN D~
C p: 22FL Kn C FLV
K '1w]
Il4]
rs3N pn+l~'~1D'W
CnL
CL n; n1t I D LC a1.)ni. iLo_.) nN3 JIN]
lK] B
8 IniF1nB
lEK C Z KVNw
l~ L; K
12 Cn (mg.
1nn
]
+ I')1WD'?~I al.
CpCrm.
(mg. I al. L

in ?y] *nn= L 5 nITIn61 MMIa1 Pi11n L F I* i]

4 WM L^n7 NI] 4*VnW CEF 6


:nnw=] >y C 5N.I] n4z NK1

.i. tb CL , . 1 ] M?. LC (mg. al. m.) , 1


Io p iYIN F

1.h'5iD] 16Ai C 16Ilh1 EF n ]>Ct C (mg- al. m. habet)c n.I ]

12 n'lO3]= >L c
> EF ilNy]+ K't" L DliniKnn] f1nlK71

KNI5'6] K6KV' CE ni] > C K] K'n1K2 L


TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED 79

plowjMR
p^ a:np
j':w
p1Unj npt^3b?: grw
5n
prsm
11p'iw 3mn
6nnnnb ws n1Inni ?n:nn)3pwM'" slm8
tWmn1F^:

ptmlt ?'
nDDtti7 nIrK p: . ,s1 .W.t.
^'1pj-r.1
f6
tD K^'Mn l?W2
pW p3i'
n6
WI.O 1rTjrj
b7WO
D7 )N: 1:ppi^
5D7

NW1, D4 Mnr'Ll:: in (D nW n N
np'D n:) npn i
NIni
D3
3Int1Vi .IV
4p..., .i 3 . U 1

'
.
K't:~]-t
3nb iK31
, c _ p'
KpDDL; .(mg.
C(mg.
al. al. m. n.)
) * - NY-]
2 NYNK]D N 1KNBCEF11*
BCEFni
5~i CP7 'nb )nn np6tC nolh F"'pn p 'r( nL bn(6)]

. > EF
MN) . -,IN']1 ]IV*I ' CEF
_1FV '' L

5 c1?V2] PZ I,
C; +N -1 1 1 3'Jf L<Zl.f , 6. c

7 ]pDn>L 3M1-1+3 '13 L 8r nps


] 1
=nV BC 3n n6 Trhin' L

b7nnn] 3pn cnniDn


C 9 7n1 pi3tn6 LnDn3 Ci+Dnpn
cDI Ct i t nCisl c in BF ni ] PD
prm. l L nig Mli

;IV"lln CEFL M4111ID'M] 7IV1'YU2C


izn~~o o'14111'M3L - :
i1Dni
BCIE ii;5 * 11]>EF `r5 nCEF ,nr CEF
] Ci =3] Ki1 L
nU11C] Rgw' CEF EF n1] p1 EFL3 4
BCE]SMW
prm. K>nLE

KnY'?Kip cC Irn2sl :mwKi L I3 nlmtW] p3stV: EF


8o THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

?TJ
:-c-i 3^31 i,- 1On1!a
n7 D Q'EW c.-,i y DO i- (7)

T T-

5; pnrVi"c o L
*.-
J" ,?s b73l.3i
, . - : - -c .
1 sTpw
_.I 1
1 ncr:i n
3n _
^wsJ1 D KTf .. ..

5il^no - EDD
c'1 mn'i' iscp! :nr,] r
NZnCjSWP n'i >CEF

5I1 ;li n w3in


r^n jsvyn 7K nan w:
innW ririm (8)
m3

.I.
:...i
ro5 ri&i,v
piAi" ,.n1,
n QmAi lvn ri snNinPrn
flIw1 P,

I Cr;n
ML;+i 1,h1 >cnL Ar. 3C LF
pX7n+1' n21 7AW

IO,^] ntli] CEFL


KnDy nn CEFL pn'in] prm E

+p37U 7C; +KptnK L; +;nnK Ar. 5n13nn CEFL] ^3-in3 A>B


9 pP*i^] P^p B; ^p^l EFLAr. .fli] flLm C pflEi L p'lY.'l]
1D1
p3 Ar. ?]- L
CEF
Cn]KjL >C f3c
Vrjlin] nntC;
,
E;C 'D FNi] io L ' CFL; plnfl3 EC nr1n1
n EF]
nj1in? c; nFlllnnKr EF ii &3nf] 23'( C '] >CEF
Mn=5t1]
wjarn] KD^p c C 43MI] 4z>bl
wi?n CEF
CE;F
WTi'llr CEFL
I :

TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED

.. J ,,

npn, 90p:n n pis< in3nD 1nr1inTn


1M 1Pi r mi i N "r(1I)
81,m4)1,nnMMn&n5,zn?m lwi ni n4n& onr's In71,
an-i 6
J. I I I - - .,. 1 A , t.

3n15 i'R>:i nL15-?Lni


i N7nils rN1nr
J
7ni^ -i
D :Inn mi
* * 1 , 1 . i ,..- .. ..

[tnhDW]pptp tD: p nS
p'n: ? nm^ nO7p
pn .Tim 5m ^1Dp
p

7: nQ^rWli
;D KJ:W K5W rni T V
JnW .*WU ^" annl

< J . Jlr . -1

I' l N35>C 35 BEF;


K'"3I]C C
Kb.t]::t C;

N54-1= L ~ 34X1] I F; '=11V1L; >CE nmii 1 CEF

1231 11n3L KNrThr]


KNrVn
C; KMfMBL z flljll t13m C 3flhV7J
: . t: s _ . 1 << _ s : i: _ ?1v 1 : . : IC '
1fli B; nnKlic C n]CF
p> 3 -] n C; 1- (EF

4 ty~'~MK']D*
1' 7L E 1 'L1ii c l2] .i C; E;
C'E'nUF;
1nb^iD p pptZ]
2N?fl
r''p n3
^n 7n nw pn1>n
&n VKN ''t L
^3f fltJr pplte BCEF
pi3jr
]>C I'V i A
I I BCEFL; ?
6 C]?f C] C LT
f3?1DL C;
B
E (evan.) C1]
c] E]>c T C;(eviE ] an.); Ci; F K23EF
n3] Lty
K4 pt?nL] F'LW L
KCn] KWIV]
Kn1' c;t] a
E '1W L2 W 8 C; c>'tTi2i E;C
B 1 4K1"]
Ai2]

VOL.
VOL. XI.
XII. G
G
82 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

' t
naDlm insc riT. n' mn CnI nlM Na
in:si nm . n

i -ni] 'in) CEFL K'tnDi] K$n'Dn CEF; I fi Kn'tun-T

xnitoDDn btiaf
Kn n1l KnnKMZl ?M5WL nJinj] nyinl c

(n al. m. inscript.) D-1] C)D;C (3 al. m. inscript.)


TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED 83

CHAPTER IV

iii ,,~~ 1h *I < <


L.. S *L- IC * IC - L s< IC

M- W
rImn3 ty
8& MP6 Ir 1T Kn
VTg,p n^'n 'ynt (i)

I ~',' ,~ EF;
super,- al.3
B (voc. am'
i,' - m.): s1 B; Nna C

NDKiN] n53 L
pnt 1pl p1w S C; W> tEF 2 jD fj,
;n 5
BCEF; wnl C;
tlK1f L , ; EF;
4n -pl4 1L 4 EF;
I 14N Np
.nI?z
In. I L L
] prm. LnnL
J NiNi
l'1U>

5 1t:i] prm.:n- ^I] L ' p']m. ' .s E;-


pL
? n]
7nJl n
BC;
'KEF 5] B (vocales ab al. m.); 7fl' C

BCEF; rhw
L 4 WN4]'K' EF; ,1K' L LN
KNW:3]prm. L
ICEF1.1B-L EF;L ,i B (voc. super al. m.)'I~t] ' 1 v. B; . .1 nmC
;I )V'
] ;C p EF- KC] 3 ]] Lfl>LILt
ljn*] 1=5m BC; 'rS EF F lY]V B (vocales ab al. m.); I'l C

L
I'88K'D: K6 W: lKfij'f1 2'R3,')flEF;?WF K"K
L > L
CJl.
p 1] lpWG2 (2)

G 2
84 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

', p i
I_ PK 'tl1 : > ?3 K.
'nlW4DKN Knp I"1 lV
nl .j n ' J.na ^i
It< ?
D< : - .- I - ,
--

KTO?
KpPl"5 'n Lp? ltti?5 H111NJ113'1 K
1nP11'] M n T5 (3)

i; CEF Ni2^ K N<


'mi?n C:- ) I EF11l7n]
pNKT,j 'NlD'Sn L 4 N'

To I* l p n ,< , i (. ,

p i pli 2?N,ll? Pc"m rn


,n1X i XninnMT
l tOiin 'In (3j: i

Ilo.C nl] : NC' 'iL;C;n


T. ? NI'C EL DN1Tn]NLMiDN
. ? 1 BLE;

NVI aN? CEF


' 511N K ]O'C Cn ; ND3W L N" 5]1Erin E; :llF(?)
Pn 1L]> CEFL 2 ,i'l >AB;lt''
C]> CEF; tlilIl L N1S1]
KV1. B ; 4T1?7L t?MN]p4ll; CEFL i D] ?)Dl L 3 rl]
Nd ''tl C; N4"f EF
:riCEF NpV 1L] ' p1n] po L 4
tpS13lK
lO oIh EF t 1r'7']
W5 117nrM c 71,i7nI] 17l2?1 C;

B (corr.); -7 EF EF EF
tIo B'(norrn EF .EF..C ]EFMM]
tD c 6 Kinn
-1LaDiO] MI C; 111
' EL ; 1lDOiF w i] InI E ;
pin L ?p] 3p43V
BL; P3 E; E3"l F NKnl3] NnlmYL 1L]
fIlDl BEF; D115 C (evan.); K1 L 8 Miil] liil C; N7Ml7EF;

Lc ;
1% EF C5l5n 1] 6 c 9 ? 1t6],p5i 111im B;

ptgN`l EF; p1I- 1 L1t


PINL lp7t
] pC31 CEF 5L
N55D i6 C

lo10'C4n1] ln Kf
EF K(tL Et?5
3] B (corr.) ] EF

1 KTn Dnl] 5N3K'i EF J-H 3n Kim] ^ VCm c 3'1n 3n]

X11 3B E; T14 Cen


3n L llt5] 8 C; Nl&<3r EF
N1<13MC
TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED 85

:pwn p^r*w ^ pr pTrw

F '/E ''DI .
rnn :mg: c cne n''n
Ar ' :'r

f''t1L tro2 XTp jFl i 4 i pNy


DY]n B;i, pw C;
p5''11 EFn

:14 CF;L. BlFAr


EL
.1]> 1cynl] B 1n.EF {']i -1C; > EL

~~3~nfl
KilJZ]~
Ar. K~'W'lK B; . ...CE; F (evan.); .

&"np CL
,nwnpir p^N]>L 3 4'n'i]45D1
EFL t''P'r
E;

E nn
m
:ij. YB ?r*C
g.nN a E; F1n. 'n; L i 8 KdL'] 'i
C;5
*d
* ,T P] CEftEF a 6 BCEFL; + p1?]F (evan.);
nDN
1"rDD
jA. ^^ni] K^nW B CE; F (evan.); ;4WnI5

LAr. Ct; D~C;


n 3C al.
(mgg. .); FL
(eva .1 CtE; IN Ar.

K;2tj] 7K1
N3D] K~i~ BEFAr.
BEFAr. W~1] WM
WM] Wfl B;
B; Thu C; Will
1il c; I E; L
p11iWll L
7 pnn,n11 pnin" CE; nnimd F p W1F
pawyI-]1 n ptDont]

Ei EF;
F'in L n %n] ?rnF CNN flri 2BEFL;2
< I'M C
C (voc.
(voc. sub. al. i.) 1 tlsKn
al. m.) 3li:l C (v. sub.
n] plri15
?1i.1Cfl] SUb. l.. al. m.)
in.)

nlpl C;16"M CE pD Y] $p1YBCEFL; +P E


C; 4T5 44
p C

pi]>ct; piCL c (mg. al. m.); ^h i L


EFL an] 1tijMct
(del.); K1PYnBI C (mg. al. m.) L '1n 1] r'inM1Cc (17del.); Vn

EL; V"4lW1 F c; ;Vtl L cg m-nnir


(aniV)] L
86 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

7 K] n C
fK'pltD in'sV ?']j"n : CwFpLni s ] m'
t 'pw Bc

I I I

'Ei
D?^r E6
'"l] p5i 'DD CF
EFL &^D 5 '' n:p]Dp],nJ L
l,n ni Kni 'ni
C;. 8stpn'-i MXniC; L
nFl

2
KN'DI: A (inscript.)] t3l ' C; 0=1L; T > BEF 3 7]

1i2 B_L C O1 .. prm. C


C. : N 0.- L . - ]
3nl E C> 4 n] c; tn' EFL t4ri] 'on c ; En E]

2, F;.1 A ..nscri
r . :i .., ..1
C; Ar.
>BE 3. 1 .CF
6 ltNw] nn ^C N Tlrn
7 :nm
] B n am6:
sZ]53 (B;

<Y116
1'LF;
F; ", *Mi5iAr.
Ar.C . i bJ3 '1 '.; ELiq] Ar.
jCC. C; Ar.... .]
W'fi E;
E

^im
M<m F;Ar. L i]j C ; MP:Y Ar. 4i] 4w CF

Y'1;n]
lpif;nL ^9 f']"i BCEFL rlq] l'%; C; 1'?;i EF
L
11111 ^^'NL
"V^*)] pnIl prm. s411 =1 slNM
nn. ;an%7L
lo i*P] 'm
4156D] tp;Dn E
CFL; ) 111D E
CFL; 15] CBCEFL
** -*1'] BCEFL -6Z6] ' F
rDt5] 6p
1tDn
E >C
pnr 4ty] c; p1i3i E 1n p06] tIM1i C QWn)]
TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED 87
.<: _ J . <_- J J . .I ..- L ? . ? - ?L?
.

:14nfb p3y7TAma5viy nAniK4w1 ,2 'ir* 4niAi (9)


'nn
Un? rvA
&d'nm
'w m inn -irin nn w4= nn nlW pp
(v. sub1.al. m.)i; q (Mr
~: EF; ann:
g.l ) L
Klp'iY'N1
B; 40 Cl

t:, f IIo
lD:'m nln'InD 1NI D Dn,i3 '1i
'nnK 1*in nD (io) 5

P'i7-K^r' ''1 snwi: n^ lnn Sy {inw n : :Q3n


1 'J.'1:.5 *.~. . bis1_] -(voc .subl Am.) .
nt:l ... C

~C~
~('?.~-~
inscript. al. m.) I EF ]>Ct 3 C (g. al. m.)
1Ln]L) n;l1Yi W nnn5.il na
Vw
lmnw n,:in n' (...)
? -- .-<. : I < I -_ < - I< < . . I :: L .. _3-
rLp s *:.._ : . ' ~: 1 *I I * : -

i jrh33'] FlnS2 c bis (voc. subl. al. m.) ntn3] nnln C

(v. subl. al. m.); Inrt EF; nnK2N(mg.) V3=f-] pf1 B; n-lO C

I';PW
(BF
6pn ;II C inscript.[niC
al.p'] W7 tqn' BCEFL
m.); EF >A
pDV]>Ct; C (mg.
pj ]n
p:in ,t3Yal.L'
m.)
2 Kl;l] mm C 3 31Yp] KW3p C rilV] lfl CL (comma 9 secundum

L: '^M5 6minCT iKnW'I mnw: 4nnK 14W=4Mn1 4 mi


nli p41?
Klil %
Kp8Y 'Nin '- nIn n- lt n 4z m1
nl K4lDEtwn
p wl '8

1bt'1515 ''flinrK
J- l'5iV 1
,nniY?3 Kfl1?Y^)
r'1"111i 51)I rJ) 5-6 ,'3DQW: .?.nillY
5-6s6] .
n-1i] Sfi.0 "'ii:Z S! ..il
nI

*T . * 7@lT'.1? f |nD C (voc. subi. al. m.)


6 rti'N] W'Ve C 7 14' BCEFL]>A tYV ti] L
IpmT

DWI] D?lV BCE; D1ViF; +3t L 1?4P1M] j?pU L 8 15)]

pp13 EF IliODU1] ptJIMD2C; Tl?nDDEF; t4DZ12 L 9- 10 nm

p1ni] Nn
nwv mn. ti. ? nnn 3nm.tzL9 ,u153 mnvw nlo'on n9
Mi? nn C (v. subi. al. m.) 9 71] n-3 EF Io P?YiT]

jt5ni C; I'7TD F snntri] KNNI?V EF 1nii] rn1t L 'lJlD]


'inrD B; FnDO c; pmalD E; 3flDD F; pIMlNmDL nny5] rnnm3
BEF; 3TIV L
88 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

E n . . _ - . _ . , I 1 .. _

;:t;i ntn5?i'rh'1W13'5
ni( i

p-olii? pD:nD: ^n :bi


;nn ypr prw? p
wn >rgz r Sw tz (1i)

.. oe _m e t_ 1 .. O_ N 1 z. I . _ ^n n.. _ _ . IC . I W.
_pnn

tniRnn 5ay7? 55
DYl n-I V
Dwmn Timn5t ('3)

i 1 'i$] *1 : 51 L 4Mfl1] <> L tj.nV]


yl)y]> C
1 V.'i]
; _ Dn L
mK5roC .'.I.I iT1 B ; _C 1] 2 n_iti.p

pIxZc ; 133INE (mg.); I?D6l EF; '61)NK L 3 ;] 5 BEF


'
l.] .ts'1 L 4 .PY)*] 1?.y F 1Nir=] < I C
c *
L E ;5 1b
phK 1i:tY] lirW1t CEFL i'nInD cl] `3phw
ABEFL ton] niM L -t] "V C h563] C I
IOli'n1l ;l3i
c; i EF ;WD]prj= C; 'rV1 L 6 ;4 46ki]

I 1Fzn B; 1 iNi C p^1


c; EF; pI?a3N3L nl] p1 L
p1l4I5 C; Yl?t
Nyw2aD5] L wn1]+ p,n CEFL N4o?Y]ps?YI C;

p?nIL ninnr] prm.W-)s1L Bp;Y] W B; 2i3) CEF; >L


NC;
mN4hK
] t L EK(nm] KNnn1BCEF; >L 7 ;] SJ BF>L
nyan^1?]
n^i^iKL K^^oN5V5NINIEFL si] Nil^ CEF; Ni L
8 l jl] L1 C
C; Ki EW
EF 991T ] B; 1C41Y3lC;
1,j^ EF;T4'DL L },'%7io ] tp^DCE;pti7 F;
c]tD L
ABFL04n] p1T3V1 L 41] 7NC; hFlBEF Cnn11C]
1tVm L 1]
17p3 L B;i NTY
] C C 11
ii :l ] 5N C; n EFL pDnm]
TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED 89

-i n nmi?3 4i ^5 nY
n5 Dmnln^R nD:p
;=iM m)IDI Tn (14)

;p.Dtiat r .d L ^5 Nq:.
:i^ ny III i?N IDI N .niL1_

p t w tb 1bt nK3
b nK86 tr;p nD^ I n Q-i (15)

pn DKL ' g np ;h1? t tv n


t7 'AniD 3Y n z55

1D'8i Ktni t' inl K' nK$i fi nm nnIN )n 1p?D


p1

:
n~r
n .n : ,J- -L
:8
. 1in tp; Kn K-R KL KC

] BND hl
'nn pbzn rnDn
K:3n3p1
-srII- tni 1ii5n
1i2n> inl
3nin ljn , ;] isX
io yn' &nm&6 4 K CDD
Y: K1ni:n3D (lol0

'lro'l]
N:n o'l ?F.L. pz't'
nn]n
B?i'= >m
pn]n ?_. ; i :F

: L
:n3PI]
:D1pi3
6P4DD13 LE.'I1 *] Nrl= Nt:iIl]
F 5'1 ptIll:C .
BAr.
LAr.
BAr.;
pqns5 'l C;
C; P"TIDt
'F EF

'Pp'l] pp^n BC; p?p EF


, ITz]
I a5EF p, nip] C;
CinpI EF 2 p-1] p'-i BEF
.
rnSJ , K2Pl?L
p8nl CEL; F 34p51]CEFL
Dl]> ] BCEF;

L
DlMp1 IMtlpl]?1Pi CE 3 WM] KIM C; -1n3LAr. NII]
'
WI CEF pDiK] 4K1 CEF; Dpl LAr. l ]
IINIlSK B; ?K1" C; iN'Ik E; tK17K F; pII17' L; 14N6 Ar.

nIV 41]-'c nflZ]>L JTDIZ] =ODl2L 4 tfli] 1fY B (vowel


al. m.) nlwn] n1'w c 5 nrmz] mnr c 1'Dt] pY'*i CE
6 ?PpDV] PD1 CF 1K$] lnS1 C; bn1 L t'] 1^OI L

7 ?^D.?] p5DV1 L bnxit] 4'ipb c Dawm'a fnnvlf]>c


npnl1] *MpnV-
CL tln] p c 9
gDS) 1n] nD 1n c
Cs <]
MMNKBEF; jDTV L IO NKDy1]+1r1 L W)31n] N:Yl L
II Jnr-'i Kn rnb]L ii] > C; iD EF; l L h5R]

NIK L 12 i Zp] L
M%p1
90o THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

CHAPTER V

Wm Qy'ngs
n^ DWn
W3 nQy nn^3 ,Tir nns 'nsd (I)

rnw n
T'n KW7p
' o1 :,K flUlV in iin^' cyii7i;n 03iDY Jwr
P
5nwi5nivnnn t7 pWipA n*'7 n^i)
i?rwi ,rt^in: ^

?ZK CEFL "3 'Ij)]nj^ nw L Kl1i Sfl] n EF; fnl


[inK L

nrlln
snwIrnflDBCEF
s1I p ns
Iin^ ?'npn
plF ID T Lp n,lrn] pitnC j 7 ]pl nDi13'(
fli

2 rflIn1] ri C;
DNYI c; hnEF
C ^ h]M5n -'-]
D31r1] . -IC;c;'_ D~P
0 (?)
(1.) EF N<I ]
nA'^R
CEFL 3 *pD: jl:p L 1nn] lrn EF ; VnNP L
4 1< tK1]
<CEFL]> AB K f' BCEF; t- JV 1 ZL KW] > L
. niri
55 JVTl3t] cC; n
1y1rrri3)iC; EF1 n
,L EF
EFn >7E
] Mn^INIE;; ,L 6
n1(2

T\W7
MM] F :]
r Viip] L
-^1ip 'ID] c 7 Wn'N In^N
- 46h '
*g E
F (blurred) ; IMO>EF *'1] '' nl C (blurred) ; > EF
2 n7n] i 7 c; nEF
b1;W]1 C; 1$'R EL (?) EF BL

> Et, E (mg. habet) . CA1111 C >1L ?c


4M I3W BCEF
TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED 9I

inil& t1 ,nwn
KSnrMr'nnfA:
Kna 7' lvv4 p l, l,nn'

.. _. _.,:
n: _ .'"iD _: , K. ?5 t -

, , . I ,~t . i. , .E , ,..M ? < . < . . .I . ;.

Nni6 iL Nl,'i] N.ltj ,1 C;


c' NY E;:L ] E;

[' F nnjfij] nnfiSL'6E 2 qt] I' C rn'n BCFL] rnlit A;

nl;
h E NK-4t] WIT'C;n's,-Y EF(?) 3 I')] n)j EL; Mi F
mni]'i l F
CEF NniK,l2n] 1n2i inint] Alhri W F nS' ]
'n13V EF 4 flMlN]'IlltI EF 'nnw1 ] 'nnr'ni EF i31

i3r'3:5CL 5 K&yD]
01 (VNI E) 4&n (-IV EL) -1'6 CEFL

nm]I,%nl C 't'nJcD C7]T1n' ABEFL n13l] nl353 F (blurred)

t] ^3^ CL 6 fiw] nrYI EF -1313] prm. 4DUX


J n

7 2nlK 4'] cn C;
n3 F 8WIK]+p f C
ny1 l1 ]

nlID C; >Lh "t =] E (blurred) 9 'lPTI] 1'] C; p'ti L

?rVp]1-n11L -)n1?]
rrtO? c: 'WiN]3'n1 E Io nii3] -13,C
q,] , c n3]+ 'i"m nt3:a nKi -rnna
i"m1 m n,p,
1'K'nmj:c o~
,T.1LpCEF; flf
NI Jn,iN]
L Dlm;i EF; , 1E1,3DL p:,m 1

p4ml EF ; pt7N L vsilS'1N] p;3iDTN C; ps:iN E; KD1tN L


-

92 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

I
?& -? . _ . .- 1 ? I ..I ? . i N .

: ' n7$w ^
" 1=1
K:ps 'anK l3yN :i? in wi4 nr1 ;oDII (4)

10 C X C 1C t.. i I
J: - 1J Cn-
3p C1

jpnn,] .mvn nbnb5 nS'l nn ,a


Ti?mcD.D ,I fis n

2 .y L.. y ii.x]
y ix Fr _
(_?) in 13]1 - .C E;
F;~n CL
I~iirh~ Z~~'1K] E .V]> L
Z~~~',K 3 v.;
,hvp
IO
4~nD Dl:K ,1rr K71 c lK ncm-7 nm4

JI ] > EF; m Ar.; i L 6 D1~r'i in'BD cDI An ; iz nC;

Dn3M51
I] F ; B (al.
D^2MMS
Lr.
m.);1nn> C:] nEF nfCinD
pIn iil7
BC; EnnL
, tr^
f] F ni]
ttil1(CEF
L
25 'W7 1-1EL
M8n
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byn"wllMD3D] (?)C K1,:l]
w ]>c1EF nIn'TC
7JY2 n'1 2 F
in3 Lr n11 ;>:
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C;
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1nnn]>EF] i]n7'D L L
nVnA _r.; +_ 1b
6CE tD4'n Cnr . ; A; ON4, m
nnl]_ B] C;]
mn5rnF; nE^na] L ^a&5] ;nnM BC; BL EL -5]
mnz ^h CEF
1 nnn L n " Knn
flm F;nEn]i B ; CL 12 7P
nm :F t
C plIn1
5if n] C*N I L i1
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cF n 1c A, E
TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED 93

lpRn1]w 7 , C':'cn] 56 pn; ni3 I"


Ks n]iCL
V nTt'i~n

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nc 1w y "13, ncs D1nD
7 mm':? I,nDil,n c1I,- (7) 5

F;DZ ,i3:^ 1'~:1


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1i UiTnn,l Uil ns IKDri DK<


Q1tn nin8 njnK nynw, (8) Io

:;^s nmlDnnn In

Ki1] K7C 4nKMn]il"nNKY EF 43j3] "M C n^n3y] Tni c

2 linK] 1,1KI C 12?3 CL


K4W4ZnD 3 ,n wD] n 1p nw14VL
l,lNKl] lnKw C 6 "1p2K1] L^ 1pK L Y]>CEFL Knn-lK]
KnnilK L tppnli] t'piMl1E; ppj'tl1CF 6-7 ltMi ltrn] -rltn
N1?nc 7 WV1n D71W1n c il:t2] Knc`:'i CL; W'2W3 EF
8 K-I1Y] nnK1Y L
(L(L ,lpU
il'PpD1Y) i'"p7Yi] K' KTc]c

+ nrllni L n,l171kr] N'n1?1kw CEF; ,hn1 12'IKl L 1-7ii]


7F; ^ni:n L 1KDDIl] MDITI L II ]>BEF niin]
ninw' B (' inscript. al. m.); nbint EF nViZK1 n1'S15KVYCEF

l7] p1UrSj F 12 NKKn] 1DK? L Krnnl .. . Jnm] . .i.nnK

tlznnnI L Kinnm] mmnnF t1l' i] p3) CL nin'7]

Kiny1D C; Kny3Wn4? EF; Knrn4Y1 L


94 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

I5 1 nfl2 oi . . r .. 1 PT . c Lr 2 rp : . .. LYi

2..-3< . ,I > 2.<


C c . BEF . 3. I]

. < IC I. . .. . - < . - < . .. . i. f..

Cw+ ;
:] 7trnn1]> BEF B (eras.)i3 I;.]2 C1;;11 ' E;

p5'Y
N1 = L
F; 1o?
F; L 1ikil1 ?n11 C;
V*I?n1pN EF
EF
pT&<ti 1T?DVi'C *S EFC;
yC; ? EF
n
Kn:] prm. nN<
7NM] prm. nK C 4hm] rn1
c ';.K] cK;rnu
nfK C; n2i7 EL; Mf'F
ELD; ;%. M3
N13Y] K::
K'Y] L
0'n:i1...
I2-3 riisio]> c z n5mn^]
nimn1
1nNpl BEF 3 1]
7 -I'l+YKi]CDp'tl >4 KC;D B F;( D L
1,f] f1 iC11 BCEF
3?V,r8 L ?~VKi]
K':K] PTS flK EF 3'N'K EL;
K'F^p7 K 3 I L

1t]
.I
P..'ns] p', CEF. ; 1p"i
:CEF; L ..P.D1_ ...]41 E _ ..' ] aL.
n 'V Va.4 _ v. al. m.)
E (sub. v.
16 In]] bm]BE L K?6ip
(ersl3) CF] 2 p A
CEF;L]
nnI [L y C] CEFL ]EFL ne'lK] L K F Kp'N L

9 nlTDkF ] na:D6 EF Ei23D


lq6r1] C; Kii1i EF Enl'in ]

n:l l? E; 'l'rl F 1Y 1';] li):Y'; BCEF; p1'yi' L p1ln'ri]


Jn>'inEF iCotr1] ?1nK3F p]] p1i1 CE p5t] 3KMi C;
K YSTn EF; p'8Kn L
TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED 95
,ons i ,^n :3nii3 - ? ninw nJ n _ip I -n (I )

ripe%
pTp's ~1f-lnn
'1? b ;"irn Dp?~ ~ h (12

qn7,i r4;>L;n1 o1n]n ,n5nL n]


=r41 n.i; pnn L mn135

i v14lPDp] rnip C; 1n11ID EF 41] IMIVnC; ^^ E;


i F; >L WM-1] N4M -1 L 11] 3VT EF; M1 L r'IT]

I"Wi L p..V.] prm. "l,'l L 3.5n] ",Ml p.l,] EF nh

CEF K'Cljb] 'DMKf L N'f3IY C; N1'3i EF


N2i311] 4nklltri]
nlY?nnCB (al. m.) (B originally r11Yil) n%t5] nMT%B (vowels al. mn.);
nDn EF 515jiDt BEF]piS?nD6 ACL ?itOZR] N<3t^ C;
E (blurred); KtZlINS L ,33] ,l b,3'1i CE; NV') L

6 Ki61 s] .,iDCEF; nY'l


KNtID L ??iYP'] 114i * BCEF
- t<- ; * L

5n1qrD] fi'r5n0D CEFL 7


I3P3in IPni76V
] CE 3:l 3] 3nl3 E

in l i
o] 1n. C 43n1 20]> BCEFL 8 231] n'32 CL 9.n1?]

hrn1B; r,5 EF (vowels al. m.) mnl_ i] n.ib B (vowels al. m.,

originally fnqPl1) Drlp'i)] Dnrp?J BC; D"'TIt EF Io 1n3Inl


~ 32 BCF; i 1 pmV] 14V B; ^ IO
Urrro c t Y]m'3wr EL

CEF; >tlqD
L ? L ENWri];N1 EF;
jlSCFL; Lim'lnE

CEF3;] 4D;K L PmD13] n'D13 EF C;ii] 41DF C ; Ini0b1 EF;

*'niDl L
96 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW
I .: : .. I . I - ...- . . . .
.. .

Ni'lh3
sl^a _iiT ;it'?._j _ -

5 pfnl1K *3p pn O an3Dl fl3& 1, DV KI


?1sDn n D ^Y n

y7 Prii
a^^in yi^;^3'jj?r n&nK
PIDr* ^aiTn 0 P'ji-In

iVIn]DMI41M L tPp^D^*-]
pp')4D-CEF pI?I]4pni?rL -n1=1i
t in L ' L
?Vpnlimb]nliaN C N1nnO] 4NVD 3 t'lAn2]
v&Onf5 C I'V] I; B (al. m.) C; \I. E; lV F 4 iD] n'X E;
nD3 FL n,lfl] n1:7Y F 1'1] 7 16'5 BCEF; 15' L 4-5 ... Y

1> BEF 4 Kni'1T T p -L 5 'ID] 'IY E; '~1 FL


WN'InD w^n?: C; NniDEF m;nnn],VL li-K] Li1^ FF;
L D1K3N] prm. MN'
3nnK11 lli"C L 1] fil C 6 In6rN] DlNr
CEF; n,n1 C (mg. al. m.)
9:1] > CE nism At] nia Bt; MI=

C*EF; p'1V A super. B super.; '1' CE; super. F 4 At] p'2 Bt;

Fp71
sct 1 CEF;
1 + I'ls
< ,. <1 L; c ,.INYSt
j
B BZ super.;
A super. fl'41 -: cC< c(mg.)
7 4rSr 16):l Smn-161.CB; 16j5 CtEF;4,n. LCsuper. p'l] 'VV'F CL
ntqi At] 'nD BtEF; r DS,1 nri1 C* ; C A super. B super.;
6ntK L; NKn
C -(m al v]
C'VlF3 C (mg.) C ;513? L 6Dt At] 1D]5,1 BtEF;

C*EDCt; 'I1ML; Dn,lM2A super. B (mg.); n,111 C super. 'i] ;p L

Dn? At] +Dn0 CtEF; 61'31 L; p'l A super. B super.; N c13C super.

8 ^IVN],n%: L 1:; At] '13 C*EF; n1D0LD A super. B super.

,n:At] '^: L n,nW_ At] In6Cn1 C*EF; aU3t L; sn'er A super.


C
B super.; .-) C (mg.) ?513] '71 L vWT_n At] v'n1il BCEF;

8rn1L L; p*'N A super. B. super.


TARGUM TO CANTICLES--MELAMED 97

n"w nrii t' pir JVYnn1fV


Qj ,nwfl PPV
p7 bW 73 1

1'Bj)~ A super. B super. .D'l[j C l(mg.) 'l] OD C;'W


(15)

L.i
VO ,nD F1 n X 1In 1 Hni 3 fWl 'i6 i 10

pinb 44z33:8n nDn n4nin idlpn 3'i D*nn ,n7sU nnnwln

I WAt] QnlWEF; Y31n5 3nWCt; JYln L; aDM-T1 A super.


B super.; "nn12D C super. M)W4At] ,1'7D C; otEDW
EF; ItDJEDNL;
:11BK A super. B super.; *W3aS< C (mg.) 1DY] '1D C ; nW3 E

jli'f WMt
p^Ml] D3;m6C; K7tfn E;; M'5
E;SOtj t;56 1 FF tn5n]:'n"l11n2 c*; ; t~NMw
pnl c* - L; 'n.?3
L; 1tn4'1
CD' :']
(mg.)
(mg.) wiOl BCEF
2
z ln'nY] n
tn L JnIMY
.nIn..hn
.. L Ent DnEF]
pri5 l'2l
p'?i.
prfasW5] l?2n
ptt'tnW
t; p inJlDon
C; +1'?11?'1
+l CCEF;6)
.'a c (mg.
(mg.
al.
fal.m.)
.) 3 1 45]5. CC
n2'K'] ^W C;
)IN]
j'Tq .1YNEF
'.J.l 4 'DD
'n n
?-1-1
21'I
EF)*]
(~.?D1D
(56D1D EF)] i.Tn p0t=D
2.I'r~I.D. .L 5 K-n^n1N
..rP"llg "D:n] snrlIN
't3"l]
fn<lrK R. .IN"W1nD
L
n'
ppyl'3in
t'pp'D%Y] nwCEF pTi:'i16]n
CEF
j')iDYn p4nh51Ol]ninl~i
p4n'll161
Cc 5 p]>pL n 6 8N1]
C 4']>L 1.1'K1L
l] l,I
4%nD] r,irrmt:tDm
,fl?n6,]*74nnD
*fljCc ?'1n'h-,L
pi L K'D,1 CC
NK1D3
M3DD] K=D' 77 c;
>
:42i1]
5nNp]>C;
NX1pl
lpn L 'lsj] ,
8 14^&>l1:] 1 cnY%
pI D5`5 C; 6]6L
C; 1t4=^>J 99 4'%] nM4 CF;
dnp CF;
^ iln E (mg. al. m.) IO1 Wl] WlMVI C; NVIM E (mg.
al. m.) F 711pM]`tlp9 CEF 27713]+D01 L II n nTYrln]

w F
n1qin5n 465RU]M'5KUBCEFL CEFL; 9*pn F
pr] prm. MNV
*n"X1 '%12 BCEF in] '":n EF pnDn-] ptI53nMDCEF;
L
p1KnMIT
VOL. XII. H
.. . .. .

TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED 99

mitnOpI iKin4p rpn .i ln3 tp5


Kjr ^^ i r. i n nIK-
nK'1w V 1
r13,t pr I"5 . ...K

...
&6I m D p5
5 tjii5
.'- ..n * i. . ol

:1pi] 2n1EF in"t'3] prm. nI2 L 2n "1lp')> C nD]


~ T: TTP
:K?DjZ8z FjKN t bl' [0o

z n~
n3l^ :nil^ nIIC
Dl B(B*); in3K EFC] 8 >C (4)
nd CEFL
lK2nw C n
nlf2 nDT l] n3IEF f]
'*htaSn T CL;.O
I

1l2CE; 1P13TF; 35=1t L 1Pi1T]1p1- BCEF 8WIVI]NWDHEF


7 s t <B . | 1K< I . 1* :. *
7:nD] tLL KL 5 io
i?3 }D K4th41'Ki;l
N'1 Nl,ilnli] NID'Vil
C; *th F IW2K]
:-L Kl-,-l] NKn-1l
432'1K C;. L
ib15tjv
4O -0^
6 Nnn1]V2~-~K
~'bD] L fb L 4in'i
F ^`6h]
iti ~l] 4anBC;c;. 46*11c
41nniD~l' EFI^idnr EF;
IC.
t Il?y
C^j 12 t1DK]
n fnlDKBC; TDp? pD5K EF; KiDKLp
innoi
4vnnL VWK]WK1&<L Nn'Wlp] KW1OL K:'] 3' CEFL

7 mW| nlK B (NK B*); MnWEF 8 n'=ioa] > C %N4

4NtCEFL
I Cil]1'h nN CFL p]
nm] EF prm.j'n3fi4f
Nh566] EF tnmyi]
L 2l ... 1
n]iCL;
pr]>C TYYlX
>CCEFL
T4nl3Yi EF '?DO1)] tI13D
3 9gKp] L
nKopc; nEFLNn
iT'1mn]
K^p L^]>c 4 PWl
no^]
+Wl1s1n3 Nz7n L IO KiZl] NDr54 c; Nnl' L nynN] ny:K c;

YINK L lDpID6 140DMF II tDn] *tDn BC; =Dn EF Qnw]


QnW B (B* tnw); t3nw c | 'iYW c; B?^. EF I7p5]
EF
:I5: C; ?I5Y3 EF
lIMW] I"2AWC; tW5AW 11-I2 8pl jt]
-li nro c 12 Tiir-DK] 14nDN BC; l^MDN EF; 4nnDN L

'ilni] 'iXl C; T1=1 EF; 1"441 L Nnan.. . nm]>c nitn nitn]


-ntn )tfnc jVNI] pVN 4n L
H 2
100 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

I
?-i J _ .
I_ -I .
.p.Is< : La 11_ ~J. :.- :_ . I I 1

^i ; 1 . ,, p .nn. ;.i131n )
,pi3 CEF .1nl Inpn
6-17 p a'q7 CSnQf1]Y jK3" m'3
Cm'p p ,. .. pld1y
E" 7 Lp

2 '1I]+ L
pD2V^ pw~4 CEi (nD F eras.); i5 nwR
Ar <36

(4 VDl] 11M0 C
bI nfl eT
slIZn] B (BI rnn,B'
1' 1l EF()

1
5p1' CEF; prm. 1Tl F; prm. 14I= L jN K=L] K'4Vlv BCEF: n3v L,

vj ELEF'K6O Ar
Tn6-7n
Yiwh'
he'll Ar;K;NI a'] C;KnL
L
TMnC1] >4?t~ F; L; MIP
Jj 1IwE
Nt1n 1
I'31A]
1pK F?')1~i
8 3 L IMY L
T?17RnC;
2 1 lN4EF;
l]n L L j] ^^ CE (3 > Et (habet Emg.))Arprm.3

55 C'i 11'5 jlEF


p5Npflp
pKflt N]I
MC KCl;
EF ] Ni
Vp1K;
L iV
IB N Nl, tlnEiL;1
' (mg.)CFL; >nn 9KE
NNE 'E; F
1ai7
I _._ I1 I <- , I < .. _- < . . <-

' super abest)] NjO BC;nID *E *-IN F


EF; N M]i 11

o15n4raEF; tZn' 7 C.t-J N (N&-I >Et (habet E mg.))] prm.


4jm EF;
] Ti?W2cL > L C`F;8
B?(15f] ?Z1B 1 p?Zli1E
CET
IO ; BFprm.m KprYm C; L',BEFL
WFl]
lll :lV] ;nT BE

(niC F; prm.n3BCL?; lY]+Nli cl L; iKEF; SDEL;] LKnl LF


215 +EF; n L t'11?] 1> L p( 8 penra.)
i] CF1rzp1rl
; E
4
4 'nno] N551 C ] 114' C ; NWB (mg.) nl] > c 9 Mo n
.N '
,super . abest)] 6Vc BC; < , EF; ,n L I ]
N 7DKc; BF NJIDn5lZ] W:o
I nl c; Wlnn EFLKnnl:l EMIC BE;
nin: F; prm. in ppm.]+pnL1 L iN] NfngYB NrInMYL
TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED IO1

p1'1s,q:lq
nC:n95' t'K,5Ln-1B;nSm
ni2L 6tqS-1
l '2WZ AI16; l:Shron j AFw ((8))
.*I nFti
Cn
, '- J.i , JI .. ,I. I C. . ,LI

inci z_n IF I'n. : . ]LI 1'; l* i.],51*


I -Ci n,i_ C

EF
IwVY3] wn VY K1,nL K : 1'C c;6 ptlh2nEF C;nl EFL
7 iVli] m..ci C; .. ?-1EF
C . l1?_E_
]>c >tI_C C_
3 >
1nTVl1 pE
O1"N]i lC; pXIMI]
C;
p^N3BEFpin 2M]
";'IN EF L KiiD3In fL INA L
nlw 30s1 W=
IMM]
KnCDn L

/nl nmL K2n


',] . n
n2KlnnC K n C ] nCn (
n
1 ID nn
Dub
K-nV BL
BL WD' ?nISr
L
KlY]5 gDW
n L 4DL
p L:3] 4 3''i?3
P1'^ $ B;CE 35
3 o B;

on KN
iN B;I rKW
L EF p?5n] B CEFI<EFL
NmR5l1]
p424n- CF l
C;i] 6 aclntn
fl -itiv]L -n > CL
c; niUlVnY EF

7Kil nIr i nIn C;711TIM EF n :]


nIl nc a ]> c
niM.Tic 7ni71 EF btli-i'l] - ic
W n L nnl 8 btnt:9WV
m^.n] >
NYInV^VL 314] Kc;LMMl
3?3KCB Cn L NlCW7] > CL
N nvi] Nn,m^ L . 9 0DYL
MID4] 2 '3] 35 CE o1 L

Nl'n
&N'B; CEF 1'tMn] %NMMEFL
' -1 tPn] 3pnMI c; i'WOI E

n'WV B; *f'4I CEF nii5i3] EF; CEF; L Z DW


L 12 I iBL
1I$P1 ACEF; .1} E (mg. al. m.) DI fl]171 EFL
I02 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

K nTlpP
[.1wj] nillCp3 -n] n',t'D1NC"n ,D3
i] 1 C : l ]
nrKr nir.,n01 ,ro
I 1 . I IC. I I
n .
nw1ris
,;
. ... .
,pw5
I . nsKT ,
r D I(IO)

prm. )I'm
n? .].i1 1 .'
K_ C. C. ,m3y L ns,lpf]
DPnnL'nn nPI,m'
K5 n m FLnKnE ''in] nn'13
3K "' (In)
IRfi,55 ;~.~i CF ~t?ft];t5i c
EF' ;R,'5::~] 4 l"lY'"l] ~1nYi"
C
Klii~ptj~K,ii-L) F 5 MN] MNE Ij H I C; EF
. .
6 _'..,] IM*oBF _] prm. F.
F,_ 5 C
nA ] 'rIn] >C
1n;:] KcCIpM
f
;:h n4'-.]]t n na c & e- ,Qi B 73 lY,5,
X,5Ln .Dl fT
ID
?i6]
.;6
CEFL 8 . D1i7] 4i.il CL fi5]

5 C;
?tl L C* < C;*c; E B. ,
N,u] ; , E;
.i; F; 'n L 9 'WM] C 6 ] flfl
prm. 1lK C n1t1?D] C 4] 7D
, '
I
I'V~" .rL int>]
f. BCEF io. tiv5Y]v 14-6 C; P

l'M. . L nI fl]> L tr: D .] _D


_ i. <i
E_; _F .
^N'l pF QE E
prl?'K]t1 -C; f lE; {nL 1nio]
1'?i5 E3 V:
eD3]
INpVW BEF tl F VK6] 1f13t ,1k5 C;'
ERnl3 Un]k FL 12

I cC KN1S11] Jn
clfl F mnMNn] ]L c
TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED 103

CHAPTER VII
l
I
. ,1. . , .1 , .? , . ., . I .

Inn'Ipn
] C In* .' *
p3n..:i .l* * tl I1 J.I nI . n

ninDl
Cw; iJnn nI? nrl:'] EF CD[1 ; EF
Y]Iit (Ii> L
p.TF77 CELlKU
8lDK PPw3]nIp%
KiC; L ?7 I+W p O
?XIP?^
F^^ ^ pY prm. iL < . prp1 CEF;
pnn1
-)ICL
Nw?11; L7 ?1DI Ep4i 3i
nM51m] 4IoM > C 2 3

"2n5i?5] n5in:Dnc; n5non EF pn m n]


r-+l6] 3qn,Ci
c-p: 83 L
;,5'ut']+RTIxim
;,51~5 I] ,iV C

p53'n6i EK in6> F
&p3V] t OIV BC ;1E, ]Z EF NM] innICL

i4'fi? m] Fm Itlnq3
pndm
lq'
nYl? CEF i :]> Ln: 5in F;'
B 14'^Y] nllin-14D1
btl= ^ L K R<I] NM
<nM CEF Nwn' D]='I
14MID
t : ;'fpSl
CI' L_ : l E';
i CFL _nF I E6 O BC ] % ;
innEF
2 7n5nni c; B ;n EF
n7] 8CEF ni$ CEF W

ni7J] nl7p,4 CEL 8 ppi?D]+K1p^ C; L


tK-8D LnDD G

4pn l] t3`1 LpFnIM ] prmi r L 9 rnx


nCEF
5 ] 0
KsM F;
pUDnBm l L pn i] II 4p3i c L
1"W] 11INK p ^] pnWnc;
EF
p?.IMML ^p#i iiKCFL; "'ij E Io s IN]>c
104 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW
5 1 1 P . *V- Ss EJ1 ?. I 1. J. h. J A
:VVIW
,1DEW 0M61n n-ni lIiMl t?nO nom RKl,lD, ;3m 1T 1 (3)

n,iwi nniirjSdMlTDT
K;: s nlsa psnn nn^^i K;yw [r'rmb]
*. .. 1. ._ _
?. .. < : x .< . _I. . t. I.< <: 1 . < < Xt I
v 3n-1D6 n
wNnn nniN zns l4nDn K71 1n4In7 <341p* <3D71

5 t'nD 'n[oK it ? c? 3ib p n?


:o5 nni? '] itDn

nK1 K Kn
CEF lp n6^D )D L; K'11n1
ABM ^D n.u]5ipn C

r)nA]M-6n
c; EF
.3?,i ] nb6BC; D EF 2 Tt1jVn;
{In5n1
1tI)2<3V CEF
CEF DT171^
K.l1?] Ky ?NI[^]"
L K1X C; .I] Ki
.. I ,C:, 1,] EF
.E..F

D43'161n6] DJX(anD CL 3 ,in19IM BEF] nnIiD c; ,^nna t* L;

A
> Kn'fl
>A Knl?l, i
KD5] ] K ^D B; K;~t~ CEF;
M:'y NV=2 LPS;.lJ]
CEF; KIY"SD p n6] pnn cC
K?'J

C; MINZJEF
N=SK5] NK:i5 BL; MMJK< rTTn*D:] ,lnriw E 5 D
*rWt.TIC; ? (C
:M E C; 'M EF*
N-31 N-n CEF] MN? N-ni7 M L; NnnJD AB p4mr] p3n c
I ="2 ] B; t:Y' EF
T'i. ito EF nDt C DiK] ; D
KND'l] E;
DD6 mn
6prm.]
ll:
nh] JF
MnA4c;B K "D]EFt} DDK,t
Kcj] B;
LL l Cn;1
nwlDJ CL; p 7D EF
D CEF;
K CE'F; K 1t]2N-1-]
LK9inD Kli1 C;nn]
EL
Ki 1EL

Kiom-i] Knr7ii B; ITIMjE 7 1IOD7JpD7l EF VIWl] VIWl EF


:nTD1]t fl<,Ii cC
w7n1 vm]K] Nmbt
K,K cC 8 :j]
NMI] t 1Pn F N'r1 ,." L
F;; ,V
??] 11]
. S1CE;
DI .,A. jt. CE; 1O^ .F;
F; DD
. L
L K17 7]
K BC
7(7 1. BC 9g D VBi]
. n^B;
I B;

bnaDI c; tWaM? EF D*ln] -2Nhl B (B* 4CNwn); *nNln EF

nZi] 'l B; *TY EF MM


nwDl] Nn*Wl C WnsK] Q'^DN E;

prm. 9D01 F 7i4n*] C78n1 C; 7nCt L II jp7h] ^& C;


j7'tnK E 1^ln3 61*n c; "Mln EF
TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED i05
I
:-1
"
E,6 bi; n1
.L
wit L
1 pwij m:ni :i
: .. _

r
. .

1t . 6
wn
1sr
L1 I . _ .. I

6l (5)

rtzy 7g pn tzn n ^: M1 :
jMUn ,D) 1Ma6 Qi
aai m is

Ki n< ,i * n iif ,<;p<. n *. i_ I I: s. !. i' , .. i


pii

*| s } | .. -* t 1<_< <

EF f;?n'1 ?l
Bir; EF n
7*DE ir
W Cn
. 1 . 3.1 . . i

t,f',nil nn ni
.,'DK:
K: l%
tD]j Nt n[" c rii
'i[3] nnF
nr
i ;m . i wi
, wnl iw^ ,,'yl'. (n6
VNp (6)
C
p-i^i KD ,W] EF
Cnj; 7Ki? pn4 s] It' F n hi5
pis

i ?B; ] * Vi L C
l B
(B. ); EF 21 pEF.]
]

CEFL E K'_ 1
> C; L L1
L1_ F] * L.
m3 i
Mli>ic i'] 7D c; []nEFW 4 I'5i tW 5 sD6

t1iD B; rI~iP)C;
7-,1 EF; JC;
1li L BL;

p EF EF
N1<n ]t=npiop'i5] B pIzDpI
pi6p1-755 ; c;

Ip lrr',
t'' L 11 ' I6 L jPii.' cC ..tVn
66S- 3C 9."q] 1n1111. t: S
pt-L L?l~" ^
pi-]'r i tEF']>> cC

***niTF 133$i] pl EF F
8lnKl] Nt' BC M454] K:4 t an

Ip5irwB; psb c 9 (oh 3] IMINZ B; 2101I&N5


EF D]C
c:] c] t"'15>C ^E L
CEFL NvNM EF] D
IL 3C; MniAB;
NV4' L Mp4 .BEFL] W
X Y AC ..T.... L ._ ]

mnpc'iB; 4sipi c;
4 K-EF iTriMp] t] n^ NMp L
F 6-MI]
DiC; EFL
EFLDj-ni IIn N ^5D7nD] EFL NZY] prm. L ;
io6 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

1i._. ,A. .I ..< .. <p : , ji .

lVry] 11 E in 2

t'n~,
I n,n1.] nli]
I nLqipq ,H cC ] KNDC; ?bjr EF

KNMIn
n NMl'
] N NDL nrn
(niPI c: n)n CEF; N'Z'ln E
EF'; Knl.')'l~=C (evan.) ,"1'5p6C'; ,"l'Ul~ EF;
4 "iT~;iijr~S']
Kl26
14 1_
3D LL; _ n
nn wi 5 (?)C
A (evan.)9
(mg.) c iliT nilT]
i] .niv[Tn:n?)
(eva_.) i i cc (evan.)

'F 17
EF 'yl1 C (evan.) 4CF 4n i1T] nnliP C;njli EF1 :E]

K EF; nIn7n nL 1; C;fl7p71 OfnlD


EF t tnt ViDni: C ssss
I5^cnC
n5.] ,1 ]BE .C1
cL
CL I p-?.10]4ni6t1
4nilD] h cC KL 7M "D] Z ; KD^14
1%6l] N'ipTi
c;
p4ii6RZ EF 14:lrn] 2n1dMI CEF i] nNc;
Ci MMi EF 14aM]

p's6i5 c 8 PPuZin5],pueni CE; ppUhanrF 9 nm5wN]


nl 'aZSV BC (?)ni) b[iK EF ;q'11] I'Ki(21 C (vn1]

> ; T'l:ns L 10pn,4]+3LI nL .S] c;N c;,plolt


nMI N L rimjnfl]Ap6)n6 c; l',l-nno EFL 4515] 1 B;
c57 c
p.ii
TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED I07

:., ,.. 1i :. .

niii3tYZN54DpWKZ r1 1'D3D2 nr npI mnnan7gK np^w (9)


. L- .L , - 1 .. .
o
"nKl
.

p^ir5tini7 ?? n'WD:Rl
J. ..
44p n'iD63
pDK p ) i?nD: ;Qan5
p "'
.. .
: Dflip5
.L..
{S nnl
pnnoii
panr

....:o.. - ., ., < ,? . ....? .1 p, ? <_

C explicit. D incipit.

I nnp
lnDpI] F Kp1i3] Kp EF; Kp:
ncipit] L
n7
,p CL 22 tI'nK
pi5nf5] c; K[nK= L 3 ntnf] ntfr BC

(corr.); nrtik E.F ~1,D6D] 1;jD3D2 BC; I,D?Dm EF n]oowK ]


nwK B;-D*lAf]
n731T-3 E 4 DJsn E;
'*m:n3 F

n'DJiK] nVDi F n.fl] fnKli D 5 'K] 'K BDEF %rn,]


L 1'3 D
Dp?i] QPD7 L K<rr6i3 SnD^ D pi1n] K7i DL lln1K]>L
N'317] KiN715i B; N5'515 DEF 6 p:l1]+--) D; >L t':rD)K]
K cN ipnn: L n,sn:] ,n.jni D '&] ' D i")~] jp3'D L
I i
? , ,

7 nl] t11Wi BD 8 nnn EEL n] Prr BDE


M55V N1 BF; rV'1I E 4nl] 1nn3 L 9 tmn-l] t1ni1Dn L

Io2
-np] nrCpL Km1iVDEF
E3F1<] Dn;
nI] Dn D iPni] mn> D
EF
N1251] N5'l1
Io8 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

.-n4:u7ir on nn
lJ p ..ri.
..n .373i. ii m
Irp^

:,'l'nnisfi
p6Km nEFlb Di5 4
I.... .. * . . 1 . 1 1 i c

* C incipit.

b3in5 D; prm. fliLt nwp.i]nm1'l EF;


nglpY rI L 3 nl]
(I)

ain. NM: EF a: D i4 a Nn,i^N


m41nniM. EF; L
~]+W1~ E n '.]
I i]+ nlDtN E w^iM 44 Ft,LV5]
FL nn
Vn,1
MI= D
EF; '1
n1
111n r,iL
,n,] K'11] EF; 'l (I2)
"1D1]

al. EF
.); 5 EFLi VD E; D F 6]" n I5
BCE; 'D (v. s.

^^i L t]np 1'Ti


^'p EL 3 6 > p F;

"
'/V'1 DL l'(iri] pn 'i 'L nKn1] 'K 7'
L, 9 '] -j EF
al. n.); Y EFL
KS
jEFL D4
ny] bt6 D;
; NY*L D;

inE I nL 2l] c n_f nB D (v. sub.


al. m.)K nn= EF :nDn]i: Bn D, In)jK] ihn EBC; y"1 D (V.
K S.
al. m.)E IYXnEF
TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED Iog

I&<^p
^n ait>i
t6 NV-w-1-ns 35 mkmi5
-5tipi j454finsi
KjD63 5&<iyw nv; ns"tEis
n?^mpKiw i i5n:1n
.nlI..

.. R ,...
tw nDsi p^M31pDtF7i
,.. .. . <
;tNnNl17 VXnW'na^Min^iMBn1'1?
i .i:M . :
pD
.. X < . .
5

rS.nNCEF
Kt~~fl
D;KDY3?'~
L Kl NPnl
n4rb
niv3]v CEF'
'p'"]
Kli L
CD; F; N'I'ql
p
"l'tL L JlX1n10
.,> Nt L

nrn,'Et,
,i5l ~] Dn;Ir,ci p L':i] nn
f;' B in i )DL;
&nDL n'l
LnnpZ] rip? LCEF; cD 7] V
Dc ?r 3 EFL

n'j5 EFL" L
i] "nZ M5lnY'l-j6 DEFL CT
c" K4in
6KnW]

I7Jnk CEF CEF;L


ni5Z] n6tL CEF; KnD nD] WlY3 CL 7]

nOT EF;2nL121
ptVt~CD; 1',rL L;
,'l; +KNVrpTD
+-lP LK1l'5]
lt':)1 5 ] :1D]D
WM1D-1E DF;
F;

K:128nD
niK3DL; 6 LK L
L :D2j
KW] :D5] kBinB'DCD; DEFL
5 tJ1]+t12n EF :5 N41VI1? L tP]>
niK7] K,i^ L
'nnii] L
KWWI tlI DEF;
mpr71]'Ptnnl]p6i?i
E'nin 4:npo7
1L CEF; Kinkt' D
] n fDEFL
' 7B;'ln] KiT DL;
Kxn
KlXN] niir
Ki3ri] D 2l 'n] toKN
On6B] nnp E;FL Kt'l F (K'flS
E; Kn'15 corr.)
(Kni7a corr.) '1C
:?DM]

'q~ MnT L
n17R CDEF; "q]n 8 KY pL
K'P]p] rp bnln1]
Nn6l] Kfn'l L
bMni6 nlDtl]
nD;Sl
m5ff DL QDnnK] DD3n(N B; DF0:NK EF 9 1DDl] lOD7 L
KN4m] Kni DEF 1Y73p] tp DL Kwriyi] K'Wm C; NivD n^ D;
NKmb EFL 1'P')45] 'p'D16 CD NK DD] NI6M c; bK D0 F

IO n anD] anml L 'ip3 ;PF7


.p CEF; p DL WI') C]1p1) A;
Q^pag^BD; Dip 15: EFL KnMM>D] KnrDl CDEF nrtJi] nraa c;
nMn D; nIlMi EF; nrMM1 L
IIO THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

CHAPTER VIII

5 Lu _'C1 r1 _ <D . fli l J lfl n- r (1)

Xs<%^5['nl,ni ;6r 7:1 .'T'O^'T


Mn
MplMp1' Inl'n Mo5
Nyc
W33] pp nsI ,l
DL t] Kl' CDF; s
En1 nnl] nCFw

. z . 1
, 11,: ii1. 1 In,

D^ nn,
A BEF^'pwK
L)] Ln D 8 KK 5 ^ Yn] L(2)
K

pn n ^w wnpr r'^ ^7 K^1 5Z'nUR ;Q"iDnn

I 1]
D iID pN] J_t D (v. subl. ]al. 1m.) M] B (eras.)
>CDE; F 2 l: E]
I D
C;
, m.);
al, u. EF
(v. s ;t: '+ C

'5nt] '5n.q L'NWij:.] rnri?V,E TnD"] 1rD'lc; ,'I pD-1 L


M3n] E; DL F ] N,t'4 CF; N'4k E 8 n'l] 1nn CF i]D;

K5 WL flMf1l KnK:
ZlKn"K] B'n5 B;; nr n4s1K nF; nt L K Dt'o]
rt E';g E
K~D91 D; Knn' F;
F m3f.:
4 p''] "p'] CD'; p'J" EFL NKp'i
NplV'] ^ C-; Kl'M EF; NpM'L
' 13] K'8%
K;~l BDEF;
EC~~?12] Kf'?12 L jl11
Nnq Kl7BCDEFL ['1;?r
5Z1] 5Zl ~1m BCEFL]
nl,1' A KNt5tDD]K5DStD BEF N5tOD D 5 NY-I] T?N L
fll] > D
'Wn14]>D Die] DlI
D~] 1 D[']W
1i_ BCD;
BCD; [., _ EF 1.1
EFKtD. 1] NnD'l D
NKDI1]
_1n D . .l L
D; N-D11
i] n' D 6 Inli[] ?Tn,K CDL qN] 1K D 'Y DEFL]
D^ AB jC;
NK>NKi] "IN D; KINK EFL 1?3D] 1p3n L 7 INIM]
`'
~n, c; '1Xn? EF 1pW]J,5WKc; I D (v. sub. al. m.);
;, BD; '._PEF
tpF: E; V?l F t';] 8 =,'^nn] ,1h BD;

'Q'16nC;L'.35 EF J'[n ;iN] 'n' BD; J')n'RN C;rn'1E' E;


:8in8R F K:5*] bW i D; +KNMM L 1:'WM] 1W E;
z9'pKiL nM] 43 D 94ni] wnhiD; 'IK'i EF; 9Nnl L
TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED III

Oenn .rnw
W1., * *. ^63
&<rn'w ;5m ^I&
, 1 ..- ..
! ... I - : - ?< - .. -
- . .

:TUgni
Kj15 K;p.SO~5
ns
K?i5 KnWi^ :D^ I'Tn 1D
ni^K N
WkC7n D
nnin *^W
7K (3)
K4 1lt' K .t'EF S 152 C l
K:Wp
DEFLn K:KI KJ'l] 7p] Kj'N 5L

,O n''vi ,, I ,4
.5 .n :4 i v? I
n-i I n 9 F'in anN] r.yn.inLn n.l] nLyw
pDEn (4)'
_?s _ I. 2 1 _ ?- . .. _ , ,, _ : .: t :

,/i- nnCnn TFnii


n T CDEF YM1C 2 N( ] W
n)NI CDL;
YiBCN; EF EFnu.] MMi- EF 121N?7] nin c 4=4Pl? M
3_MI -
1i BCD; 4MM6 EF 414M] 41. L riny-1i- nmn
1 7D
4 ^NI EF
VN-1] 5 bttn] Nrrpnn
CDEFL
K4Bp] K'tapL
niD] > DK; p: ni: E K i.S j] K ip'' CEF; nYi
P D 6 twil:]

ID3DEF EjlK] nnn


Nnn1 CEF; L sDKnh] 4p:nCD; NK&MEF

w1min ] NEF'^
K4nL CDEFL t6 Kn]
EnC>c c3]7 lnD c

(C* ON) ro EF .Q ] DN B* inD B corr.; .nlD CD;


'
sub.in.al. m.)) " K.M19]'10
n EF
npi EF .' ] ps.nnV
8 r?nn^]tv D
D (v. al.
)q~tlR~' (v. sub. D] WnK' L

'3il=] BCD 31DY EF; 'N) Y3Vn L MYn] 4D. DL Nn]

+P"*L 9 Inri] 4nmnDL=YDD^] 4nYZDL pD'n0]>c; PaMML


L
nMa1K14nF
4WTl IIcin7N] io Kpmni:]i LICYF1iL] ?C;
pW:1L ;i?j E
]InC
N CDEF
'CF
lo-I'l KT ' D] 6Qn3 L

ii'IZ'14 DEF CDEF;


Kn7K L KjL n]>Ct (habet C mg.)K F]
Mnn BC; KK EF EF';i]M14 DL 12 Pnpln-] p ?c
I12 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW
. i L gX 1 s 1 t < t s 1 X * * J *: ....

timw wi'ri trywr'7 Nnvv whinrl Nmnni Nni ninn


nI K'<iWpi gnwo
'nrI pn'inn
D mlnnnir nD n11 l n ,mnnJ
; nt 4 (5)
D
ssnnDEF
VlV]nF
7 'j: D
D,nD7wi1 +-In
; T Ll nw

I 1,n'q'q] jf'nl') B (' al. m.); :l V._] EF 2 1filitl] j1lr2t~lB

(v. a. m.);CDL C;fl] C;1.i1<.EF D; K3 EF B . m.)


D; nN
P<VlVn 1
ijt D;
D J?Z. EF
EF . L
on'n5]
,.it:l] in BB(v.
B ,&i:l
.-
(v.al. m.)
J:m1Ilg
al.m.) (A mg.
inmg.(A
Jt'lnl] rl'_'
EFm^54
. * . < < - *

al. bn'l.q' nB J'l~lV1


ni^D D;C; D4 EF EF (v. KZTn,r]
al. m.); 1n1 B; ; T'mn III D;
tJJ1~& ?.m'& EF
+7KW^ EF 3 Tnh] 14i4nVEF NVMnMi] YiMnK6D fNM1]
KnW D pTng] pmn D 'nlnlnn p] ?mmrwL 4 I^aM]
i^Ki DEF 14npTW] t14n, D tni+Knn D; +nnlN L nri]

b
K31 D
D; ; W=1
N' L 3t16 )'&]
s71 l't
p] V't CDEFL
CDEFL
to I1fi16161
5 ninn
i ninnr c
n1Ttriff
nI jnn1TKF 18 (xl B L
pKKmln"K]I EF n' 2 L Kn]
prm. ,5KhL
L
1TnMI] 1414npT DL
6 '1,915] 1111.T'1n6 CEF; >DL
prr'i] 1tM4
tpn"]+14nD- E; 1413F; 14nl L
B; ;KWnC; + 1481 D; 1n4M 4nlb]

1n EFL K7K] Vphp c; n^5ka D; &kd3EF ilpn;] 11-nIK E

7 K,i] K1n D; Kin L NnMt)] KnrDt D; NrnlD EF i1nMiN] NnV L

rn 1'i
KNn] . L 13 M12n]
p] .3 jnn cC ipnn] f, 1c;
113 ?n L
C;. 1331 <jl] Nn':55
=14'r] In

BDEF; Ktn:w+nnn ^y ppjnnin?


r 7Krwn K: N-Kn:nt in npDiO

K rl?nnnL
K,mo
Kton: L n6l'i, ntonnnKi
nOfrnFn]n6ffin D n`
ntonnrN
U1i c.;c; n5rinIDL DL;
L' in/n5 E;
n1brnn"I E;
nt=Onnkn F 8 Kp7] 7p7 L Knn11] prm. rn L t1iNtO] 1tpN L
g rr]+s1 CDL Nnn "'J] Kni" c; KNl D; Kni'J EF
. _ .

TARGUM TO CANTICLES--MELAMED II3


nvlnD n hfl
nVpn5,11M 1
-nxrn DyQr 13 v nin5 4f4 (6)
I JL C..a . _L : . L*.., .1 . :

K1nNi
N5In: 7NW MIN ;D
KD1D:
:Nn7WIM 71KW3

i ,Y*I?~ ^D
53^i, 2 'J ,fn n 1,53n 5i
Y6K
r3h 6fi- 5

k Am'
nii nDi
n*,i-ii n, , ;li,
'i$ C 3r, (7)p i~

< .. 1,._).
, ,
. .. . .

D (v. sub. al. mn.); l , , EF 5 n


1 E
EF , 3: < D

Kinh5l] nt Bins D sub. ai. m.); 13t7


(v. q >c
D; EF
^]>c
Pilp'TDEF mV Rp7JI 1ps7 1K'> C D'; l9w] 1ntl) 9n1 n
EFLn

m1
t3t] 5 D]
D 22 -Pt *l
BCDEFL V 3I V* CDEF';
*I

in' n' L rl~5] r C; D;' r EFL K3)'] RJi?J C;

D (v. sub. al.m.)C; Mn: E 'd]


EF 3 D 3 V ^W
t')1 LF;
.
3C; nn'o
D; t;PE 5 li53 Wo- CDMmn7p
NnJwp] C

n?n DEF
Mt2Y)r ^L Io K3]>KC' B; Do; 9
9;5CEFL EFL
BDL 1B>
C;K 1EF 14-M6] t4l="?D NL S'K
] Nt In
6 n,fi?(Cnf,~)~'iaiCDEFL
nfi,Via'il n2l WNIPl~] lacunaC; N'Pp1K'
VOL. XI<I. I< < . .
In2nD
L jil3ID3 R)nI L
?n51] W^n^ 8l; li ]] lacuna
lacuna
C C
9; VW nl`
9E"KL N C
n11]lacuna c ]
M]
t:l D btn.Y^] nyL io iiiciB ; 4W
I^4k| N$15 CEFL 10-1

'
3606
'pOT EF tN]
I LF ]NI L (4v=. pu.
BJ4I. m.; >C;L
nlB; n?]Jqprm. EFEF
D;prm. MIDY
VOL. XII. I
"t4 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

1ihN K 5 pV3
3n'1M T 4n65
pnfi r*5
p 7 4mNr j
pnn KNA1I DS
1
n7 -rinIntNn
19i rt Rp
Kjn in 7 nriir: 1=D 7; nt i3

:lns7sU S
X,l :131m nwn 'T31n <nt 3i 'nffi Nl7
*.i_ : . ..: IZ * - .. .JJ <? ._ .(z :-_
r& QT;^nin^1?
EFy^n5 n] pm
{<
;R
^E'i I;5 mninN(8)
im'p
NIq'fW
nC; Kin ,ilq EF' ,'7Kn"l~K[tK7 tl'-] K1,
:1 Kn:C

n]'? po ,5' no Nn=rom I :?


Tnin M] } cn nE

'
mt- -
n.i
; wlf n nI._ 63 :. _1
1*T^ m..
_3 noih (9)

rK
Efi
50^?-6 nopia]
,q~.Wpf^ ^ '?]-~, Es[i ;a n.L
,SD3 'DDD7 Knr^1K 1i'yi J1'i Dp nnK78'+ : J1 nVD
D 2I

C explicit.

NT1
i p1Y1] L .1_ H 1 ? ] ? cyr N . f.
P"] YD L

1I,iCEFL 23iVl TM'


lL 2 nJV]>L =p3] Ktl CEF Nnnz
l( ]
.Nn... E . ]
3 K&ni?1 n ?. C (evan.) _ l2*
12] T CEF
1."r11n]
X
Nno c; EFK; Ml41'n-
KnUnVD^ L KW] 4 CL 4
nfl:NK]
lMr B; n 1inNEF 5N.. j ) ] prm. ONE;* I?1 F NKIl] *rI1 L

X411N^lD] KT] W
_ L ?i CEFL 6 -I_51 BCEFL] .i_l A

nV] nJ4 EF Nmm^ MR EF c 7 mnlD] ,nn4'TV L M5]


MWIL CrEi]
JP" n-rl L -n']KJ'y EF 9, 10
nCE] Mi$B;
mnl-EF iotfiP] B BF;
N tlN EF 'I]L] -EFL ON L

KnnVwn ] Kn1nt BEFL NWVN3]N1VNLL 1i'NaD L] NSDI L

'nIp']>EF Ni]EF^L p1m.


12j'p5] tE; EF 9l0ni] KNDsn L

IVL ]+IL nM-nsU]T n-3 UhVnh NwV L N5nih?]N5nri EF


TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED II5

ra
nr:t n?in1 F Dp ,r^7ypbm: ii: N,h }ib 0SiK
Kips MDD

K^no : mn7w1"sp4
nKSl
[mm5 y nn5 tK r n::nzi4h
iw n N*3 (IO)

ptri n K31W nK
Kflk na K3spn hKK K'irn iwt KllW:55

inn6 ns3N pitnn s<n56 nn :?


m$tV KnWj5
KDn5i?l Knn 5

K K
DnD31K DK^ nK pnz ;i6
D3in nb7w7 ,,i 2ni (1 )

I[ IKD7W
1n^'] EF '3nDO N4'71nWMND
KNInn4t :LD: Ni 1nsL

lDD
~n: TIM EF [nr C21 D)I]7 Enn?
] T
EF; ?^nPD1
L '11] 7' L

1,m1v1il KN3mzIrL ~'#51~ 45 5 EF MM= L


6 KNli?,'121] K11n]
i31 L 7 Nt &'=mnO2 L 8 D n1* ' EF 9 &5z]
ln ; C; EFN-In1]NKIMB W31Y'313M?2V2 L BEFL]
iV?4n[s]Y
;rn1
nA Dio Q3n1nio D 6?t i EFL] > AB i (1
r EF

NK= Kn?N EF NKD] K ?DK]F KDn ' L 11] nbil11

nVIZ^L -132l 1F 2L 12 El)pi?k] Kn13 BE; KNKiNn F

p5'73 D X3
uBEF npnY
13 EFL]n 1n3
AB; + nn L K37]
'It LEn; 7 F S
15] MV L 5 TDnT icD B; EF nF ]
I . .
II6 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW

nlbpOi7 Mp: l1w


Wi nn^ n& T w^
Kl 7 KD7DnoiW gDw :t

NIM3 ,r D ,rrr nnii ,11n D11


M, Iwnw I I n-.. n

1ri5 K17,. i._ ,c . i i+ 2 :;nbDW

n,16 E 4t .: .io.nW VnV]>E' ,F


'ipm D'IS;]mn ni rn3
(

1t n -i n6 tiDt inM1
n'L nsof Mins jn T*^ 7p

:nQrw5
'*n 73? Q^71Knnai3^7
81n IN 1:37 ^S?rwn1 nn5 (14)

13 sn1
NKM= Jns rpD L KKn?:n
I4 WnDn jL 4;v]M

:,, nEF
.I, ~q.2]i .n ,. 1 .. L5 . 2 B;I : EFv.

nprm. EFL
LL '] 15 B; EF
,'I;iE
N5 ] 4I'6V' '6 EF (corr.) ] W "6
TOF iln,nW]
'nwniEF; lnwn L (n?s] tpns
$npsy
EF; L 1?^Y]trnD L
I5 TI^11] T0^bl E; jtb7 F (corr.) r1nPD] rtnl F nl1n3]

prm. N L
TARGUM TO CANTICLES-MELAMED 117

p niwn 'nn ns p5 ,rnim i^nDn pnpi piyi K7'fh N^htlK5

g ;n? p'nrnl inm [;Ot] 'V KDn6 '6WD pi1oD p^n 7riD l
:' IDDnnnitlp 4php K,^:n PirDoI;nl W1n o
n'ID

EF
I K'4im,]5 Km'5htSN KN'5k] KtKi EF p1Y] Pnv EF
n] nMKL L
] Kn L 2 Dt?EFL]> AB Y'nh] 4nnhi BF;

3Vn,nm'E; nrnn '1+ 1 L tn+trn' 'ywnlL 3 "'11] KL16 EFL


1pD'] t1pD B l'DD1] JnDD1L

(Concluded.)