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1.

3 PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM


1.3.1 Description of Process Flow Diagram

Process Flow Diagram 1

FIGURE 2: PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM FOR THE PRODUCTION OF VINYL CHLORIDE MONOMER VIA DIRECT CHLORINATION AND PRODUCTION OF
POLYVINYL CHLORIDE VIA SUSPENSION POLYMERIZATION PROCESS
Pure ethylene and chlorine is fed into a plug flow reactor (R-100). Ferric chloride is
also feed as catalyst. All reactants are feed at 25oC and 1.5 atm. Since, direct chlorination is
an exothermic reaction condenser is use to cool down the system. The product stream exiting
the direct chlorination reactor is 1,2-dichloroethane with limited side reaction and unreacted
feed compounds. The 1,2-dichloroethane stream is joined by a recycle stream 5 and fed
through a centrifugal pump and a fired-heat (F-100) to achieve pressurization to 26 atm,
complete vaporization, and a temperature increase to 500°C. Here, where it is primarily
converted to vinyl chloride. The furnace contents are transferred to a quench tank V-100,
which is maintained at 6°C and 12 atm by circulating the liquid condensate exiting the fire
heater through a refrigerant-cooled condenser. The quench tank is a vital component of this
process: Without rapid cooling the pyrolysis reaction will continue, degrading desirable vinyl
chloride and producing additional unwanted side products. The quench contents are fed to a
distillation column (T-100) where HCl is recovered. While, the bottom product were transfer to
a second distillation column (T-101) to recovers EDC. The unreacted EDC is brought to
recycle back at mixer that producing stream 5. VC from T-101 is then feed to a storage tank
first because VC is a harmful gas. Here the temperature is decrease from 31 oC to 25 oC. After
that, suspension process to produce liquid PVC occur at batch reactor(R-200). The product
stream 20, is feed to a decanter/splitter (T-200) to separate unreacted VC from PVC. The VC
is recycle back in quench tank producing stream 9 while PVC is centrifuge at (V-201), and
finally dry at (V-202) which produce final product PVC resin.
Process Flow Diagram 2

MIX-100 CRV-100 MIX-102 T-100 TEE-100 K-100 T-101 MIX-101 T-102 V-100
Mixer Conversion Mixer Condenser Spliter Compressor Distillation Mixer Distillation 3 Phase
reactor Column Column Separator

FIGURE 3 : PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM FOR THE PRODUCTION OF VINYL CHLORIDE MONOMER VIA CHLORINATION OF ETHANE
Chlorine and ethane was first mixed using mixer, MIX-100 at temperature ranges from
200 to 350ºC. The mixture is then fed to a reactor, CRV-100 where thermal chlorination
reaction takes place. The reactor is under almost adiabatic condition. The product formed from
CRV-100 is a crude product that consist of desired product, heavies and partial recycle
fraction. The exothermic reaction occur in CRV-100 helps to produce vapor crude product by
increasing the temperature up to 700ºC. The vapor crude product was cooled to produce
vapor- liquid phase effluent. The vapor-liquid product was fed into a condenser for further
cooling process to condensed the liquid product. The vapor-liquid product were split in a
splitter, TEE-100 in which liquid product was fed into mixer, MIX-101 while vapor product was
fed into a compressor. The vapor was compressed to increase the pressure to 1930 kPa for
an efficient separation of product and unreacted reactant in the distillation column later. After
compression process, the vapor was fed into a distillation column, T-101. The product from
overhead stream of T-101 was recycled back to reactor, CRV-100. Vinyl chloride monomer
was produced at the bottom stream of T-101. The temperature at bottom stream of T-101
need to be maintained at 100ºC or below to minimize fouling. The vinyl chloride monomer was
fed to a separation column, V-100 in which the heavies was stripped from the vinyl chloride
monomer. The overhead stream of separation column produce vinyl chloride monomer while
the bottom stream consist of extinction recycle fraction. The extinction recycle fraction was fed
to distillation column, T-102.The product from overhead stream of T-102 was recovered and
recycle back to reactor , CRV-100. The product from bottom stream of T-102 consist of
heavies was sent to mixer, MIX-102 to be used as a liquid quench media of reactor (Barry B,
2016)
Process Flow Diagram 3

MIX-100 CRV-100 FH-100 V-100 T-102


Mixer Conversion Fire 3 Phase Distillation
Reactor Heater Separator Column

FIGURE 4 : PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM FOR THE PRODUCTION OF VINYL CHLORIDE MONOMER VIA HYDROCHLORINATION OF ACETYLENE
For the production of vinyl chloride from ethylene dichloride, EDC initially ethylene is
allowed to react with gaseous chorine to obtain EDC. Ethylene is reacted with chlorine gas at
temperature of 65oC. The conversion is 100% and selectivity for this step is above 99% for
this reaction. To produce Vinyl chloride from EDC, thermal pyrolysis process is carried out at
a temperature of 480-550oC and 4 atm in fired heater FH-100. Then the EDC and unreacted
acetylene and hydrogen chloride, HCl is strip so that EDC can be future purified easily.At this
operating condition, thermal cracking of EDC is taking place in fired heater. Additionally
vinylation is carried out in distillation column to utilize co – product HCl produce in thermal
cracking reaction. In vinylation reaction, acetylene and HCl are allowed to react at temperature
200oC and 1 atmospheric pressure. The reaction of acetylene and hydrogen chloride is carried
out in the vapor phase at 150–250oC. The acetylene route is usually coupled with ethylene
chlorination unit so that the hydrogen chloride derived from cracking dichloroethane can be
consumed in the reaction with acetylene.
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