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GROVE'S "^'^^^^^^

DICTIONARY OF MUSIC
AND MUSICIANS

EDITED

J. A. FULLER MAITLAND, M.A, F.S.A.

IN FIVE VOLUMES

VOL. II

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY


LONDON: MACMILLAN & CO., Ltd.

1906

All rights reserved


Copyright, 190f),

By the :\iacmillan company.

Set up and electrotyped. Published Febniari', ign6.

J. S. Cashing .^ Co. — I'.erwiL'k & Smith Co.


Norwooil, Mass., U.S.A.
LIST OF CONTEIBUTOES
The names of deceased writers are printed in italics

E, Aldrich, Esq., New York Times


'

E. Hebom-Alles, Esq.
G. E. P. Arkwright, Esq.
J. R. Sterndale-Bennett, Esq.
D. J. Blaiklet, Esq. .

J. C. Bridge, Esq., Mus.D.


Mrs.Walter Carr
Edward Chadfield, Esq.
William Ghafpell, Esq., F.S.A.
Alexis Chittt, Esq. .

M. GusTAVE Chouquet, Keeper of the

Musique, Paris
W. W. Cobbett, Esq. .

Arthur Duke Coleridge, Esq.


Frederick Corder, Esq.
Major 0. A. Crawford
W. R. Creighton, Esq.
William H. Cummings, Esq., Mus.D.,
E. Dannreutiier, Esq.
Herr Pa0L David
H. Walford Davies, Esq., Mus.D.
E. J. Dent, Esq.
L. M'C. L. Dix, Esq. .

Clarence Eddy, Esq.


F. G. Edwards, Esq. .

H. Sutherland Edwards, Esq.


Thomas Elliston", Esq.
Edwin Evans, Esq.
GusTAVE Ferrari, Esq.
W. H. G RATTAN Flood, Esq. .

Rev. W. H. Frere .

Rev. F. W. Galpin .

Nicholas Gatty, Esq., Mus.B.


Dr. Franz Oehring, Vienna .
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS

Alfred Gibson, Esq. . A. G.

C. L. Graves, Esq. c. l. g.

J. 0. Grippith, Esq. . J. C. G.

Sir George Guove, C.B., D.C.L. G.

W. H. Hadow, Esq. . W. H. H"


H. V. Hamilton, Esq. H, V. H.

Mrs. Robert Harrison B. H.

Rev. Thomas Heluoue, Master of the Children of the Gha^iels Royal T. H.

JV. Henderson, Esq. . W. H.


Arthur F. Hill, Esq. A. r. H.

A. J. HiPKiNS, Esq., F.S.A. A. J. H.

Edward John Hopkins, Esq., Mus.D. Organist to the Tem])h E. J. H.

Rev. Canon T. R Hudson (now Pemberton) . T. r. H.

Francis Hueffer, Esq. F. H.

A. Hughes-Hughes, Esq. A. H.-H.

John Hullah, Esq., LL.D. J. H.

Duncan Hume, Esq. . D. H.

W. Hume, Esq. w. h"-

William H. Husk, Esq. W. H. H.


M. HuGUES IMBERT H. I.

F. H. Jenks, Esq., Boston, U.S.A. P. H. J.

M. Adolphe Jullien . A. J.

Frank Kid<on, Esq. . F. K.

Hermann Klein, Esq. H. K.

E. Krall, Esq. E. K.

H. E. Krehbiel, Esq., New York H. E. K.

M. Maurice Kufferath M. K.
Robin H. Lbgge, Esq. R. H. L.

Rev. Charles Mackeson, F.R.S. C. M.


Charles Maclean, Esq., Mus.D. (art, International Music Society ')
C. M.
H. Macran, Esq.
S. . H. S. M.
Herr A Maczewski, Kaiserslautern A. M.
Julian Marshall, Esq. J. M.
Mrs. Julian Marshall F. A. M.

Ru^^ell Mabtineau, Esq. R M.


Miss Louisa M. Middleton . L. M. 31.

Rev. J. R. Milne J. R. M.
Mrs. Newmarch R. N.

Miss Edith Oldham . E. O.

Rev. Sir Frederick A. Gore Ouseley, Bart., Mus.D., Professor o.

Music in the University of Oxford,


Sir C. Hubert H. Parry, Bart., C.V.O., Mus.D., Professor of Music in

E. J.
tlie

Sidney H. Pardon, Esq.


Payne, Esq.
.....
University of Oxford, Director of the Royal College of Music

......
C.

S.
H. H. P.

H. P.

E. J. P.

Rev.Hugh Pearson, Canon of IVindsor


Edward H. Pember, Esq., K.C. .... H. P.

E. H. P.
LIST OF CONTRIBUTOKS

Rev. Canon T. P.
Miss Phillimore
Herr C.
....
Pemberton

Ferdixand Pohl, Librarian


(formerly

to
Hudson)

the Gesellsrhaft ') il/ltSi' kfre Willi


T.

Vienna
E. POLONASKI, Esq.
Victor be Poxtigny, E/:q.

Ebenezer Prout, Esq., Slus.D, Professor of Music in the Univ ersity i

Dublin .

Bev. JV. PvLliKG


IF. S. ROCKSTRO, Esq. .

F. G. Shinn, Esq., Mus.D.


"\V. Barclay Squire, Esq.
Miss C. Stainer
J. F R. Stainer, Esq.
Sir Egbert P. Steivart, Mns. P., Professor of Music i the I nirersifii

of Duhlin .

rViLLiAii H. Stoxe, Esq., M.JU.


E. A. Streatfeild, Esq.
Franklin Taylor, Esq.
A. TV. Thayer, Esq, United Stcates Consul, Trieste

Miss Bertha Thomas .

C. A. W. Troyte, Esq.
P. G. L. Webb, Esq. .

H. A. Whitehead, Esq.
E. A^AUGHAN Williams, Esq., Mus.D.
Mrs. Edmond Wodehouse
The Editor
LIST OF ILLUSTRxVTlONS

George Frederick Handel . Front spiecc

FACIN(. PAGK
Cesar Fraxck .... 9t;

RoBKRT Franz .... 104

Etelka Cerster 100

Gewaxdiiau.^, LeirziTt 164

Michael Ivaxovicii Glixka . 180

Ciiristoph Willirald, Kutek V( N Gluck 184

Carl Goldmark 196

Charles Francois Gounod 208

Andre Ernest Moi>este (iREiuY 2.38

Edvard Hagerup Grieg 242

GiuLiA Grisi .... 244

George Grove .... 246

Jacques Francois FRoinoNXAL El AS IL\.Li 274

Franz Joseph ILvydn 348

Louis Joseph Fekdinand IIekold 386

Joseph Jo.a.ciiim .534

Clara Louise KELumiC 562

The Kneisel Quartet 588

Orlandus L,\ssus 638

LiLLi Lehmann . 606

Jenny Find 734

Fr.anz Liszt 740

Pauline Lucca 776


DICTIONARY
OF

MUSIC AND MUSICIANS


F
i"
The fourth note of the natural scale, with syllables of the word 'piangendo,' as
shown in the
"^
B'r> In French and
for its key-signature. example Madkkjal.
in the article w. u. .s.

in solfaing, Fa. D is its relative minor. FABRI, AXNIE.A.LE Pio, Detto Baling, one
The F clef is the bass clef, the sign of which of the most excellent tenors of the 18th century,
is a corruption of that letter. (See Bass Clef was born at Bologna in 1697. Educated musi-
and Clef.) cally by the famous Plstocchi, he became the
F minor has a signature of four Hats, and A[> favourite of the Emperor Charles VI., and other
is its relative major. Princes sought to engage him in their service.
F is the final of the Lydian church mode, He was also a composer, and memljer of the
with C for its dominant. Accademia Filarmonica of Bologna received ;

FJI is in German Fis, in French Fa dit^sc. into that society in 1719, he was named its Prin-
Beethoven has very much favoured tliese keys, cipe, or president, in 1725, 1729, 1745, 1747,
having left two Symphonies (Pastoral ami No. 8), and 1750. In 1729 he came to England and
three String Quartets (tlie first and last, and sang, with Bernacchi, his fellow- pupil under
Kasoumowsky, No. 1), two PF. Sonatas, op. 10, Pistocchi, in Handel's 'Tolemeo,' taking the
No. 2, and op. 54, etc., in F major Overture to ; part of Araspe, formerly sung by Boschi. As
'
Egmont,' Sonata appassionata. Quartet, op. 95, the latter was a bass, the part Avas probably
in F minor. One of Beethoven's notes to Steiner transposed for Fabri for want of a bass to sing
it. In the same year he performed the tenor
is signed part in Lotario, as also in Partenojie (1730),
'
'
' '

and in 'I'oro' and a reprise of 'Rinaldo' (1731),


FS is more rarely usetl but we may mention ; all by the same master. Having been appointed
Haydn's Farewell Symphony a PF. Sonata ; to the Royal Clrapel at Lisbon a few years later,
(op. 78) by Beethoven, for wdiich he had a he died there August 12, 1760. .J. M.
peculiar affection and a cliarniing Romance
;
FABRICIUS, \Vei!NER (1633-1679), an
of Schumann's (op. 2S, No. 2) also Chopin's ;
organist and composer of note, was born April
Impromptu, op. 36, and Barcarole, op. 60. 10, 1633, at Itzehoe, Holstein. As a boy he
the usual abbreviation for forte.
/'is studied music under Iiis father, Albert Faljricius,
The
holes iu the belly of the violin are called organist in Flensburg, and Paul Motli, the
the f holes from their shape. o. Cantor there. He went to the Gymnasium in
FA FICTUM. In the system of Guido Hamburg, where Thomas Selle and Heinricli
d'Arezzo, B;, the third sound in the He.rachor- Scheidemann were his teachers in nmsic. In
cluin natiirale, was called B mi and Br?, the ;
1650 he went to the Leipzig University, study-
fourth sound in the Hexaclwrdxim inollc, B fa. ing philosophy, theology, and law in the latter ;

And, because B fa could not be expressed with- he became a fully (lualified 'Notar. He was '

out the accidental sign (B rotimdvm) it was appointed Musik-Director of the Pauiinerkirche,
called Fa fictum. [See Hexachord.] For this Leipzig, in 1656, and in 1658 was also appointed
reason, the Polyphonic Composers applied the organist to tlie Nicolaikirche. Although he
term Fa fictum to the note Bb, wlienevcr it tried for the post of Cantor to the Thoniaikirche
was introduced, by means of the accidental sign, in JIarch 1658, he was not elected. He was
into a mode sung at its natural pitch ; and, by married July 3, 1665, and one son survived him,
analogy, to the E'-> which represented the same Joliann Albert Faliricius. He died Jan. 9,
interval in the transposed modes. Tlie Fa 1679, at Leipzig, forty-five years old, according
fictum is introduced, with characteristic effect, to the contemporar}^ account of him in Miisica

in the Gloria Patri of Tallis's five-part Re-


'
' Davidica, oder Darids Musik, hei der Leichhe-
sponses, at the second syllable of the word stattuiKi cles . . . Herrn JFcrneri FaJ)ricii . . .

'withoi/i' ; and a fine example of its employ- diircJi Jail. TJrlane, ad S. Niralaiim Ealesiaste.
ment in the form of the transposed E':> will he (See Manalshrffe fur iLusihjeschichte, 1875,
found in Giaches Arcliadelt's JIadrigal, U p. 180.) Eitner {(.Juellcn-Lcxikon) corrects
' tlie

bianco e dolee oigno,' at the second and third date of death, however, to April 9, 1679. 1

VOL. II IS B
FABRITIUS FACCIO
List of works :
Five motets from this work, Xos. 1, i, 1^>
1. Deliciae Harinonicae oder musilvalisclie GemUths-Ergtitzung;,
von allerhard Paduanen, Aleinanden, (Jouranten. Balletten, Sara-
24, and 25, -ivere included in the Bodensehatz
banden, von 5 Stiinineii nebeiist ihrein Eaaso Continuo, auff Violea Collection Florilegium select, cant. Lijisiae,
' '

und andernlnstrumenten fQglicheiizugebrauchen. Leipzig. Joh.


Bauem. 16.36. 4to. &4 compositions. Four part-booka (the Basaua 1803, andagain in 1618. A motet for fourvoices,
the
Estote fortes in bello,' by Fabricius,' is in
missing) in Upsala Library. ' '

2. Trauer- Trost- Nahniens Ode, dem Herm Joh. Bauern , . . . .

Theatri musicae, selectissimae Orlandi de Lassus


.

Qber dera allzufrilzeitigen Abachiede Ihrea Sohnleina David . . .


'

welches den28 Feb. 1650, entachlafen


. . infolgeiide Melodey
1580, No. 7 (Vogel. Cat. IVolfen-
. . . .

gesetzt von Weraero Fabricio. Text I>u Blutvon unserem Blute," :


'
etc. Lib. 2,
for five voices, in suore. Leipzig, folio sheet,
Gedoppelte Frlllinga Lust bey erfrealichen Hochzeits-Feste , . .
hiittcl Herzogl. Bibliothek).
des . Eerrn Sigis. Rnperti Siiltzbergers .
. . den 15 Ap. 1656.
In einer Arie entivurffen von Werriero Fabricio Holsato. Druckts.
. .
MSS.— Eitner {Qudlen-Lcurikon) mentions six
Quirin Bauch. Text Schoner FrUhling lass dich kiisaen,' in score,
;
'
motets in the Proske Bibl. MS. 775, and one, '

folio sheet. Both in the Zwickau Katsschulbibl.


3. E. C. Homburga geistUcher Lieder erater Theil, mit zweystim- sacrum convivium (Xo. 2 in A. F.'s Cant. Sac),
'

migenMelod^^yengeziehretvonW.F., Jetziger ZeitMusik-Directoren


in the Dresden KSnigl. Bibl. JIS. mus.
89 <\_.
in der Paulirierkirchen zu Leipzig. Jena. Georg Sengenwulden.
1659. 8vo, pp. 526. Contains 100 melodies with figured bass a-f. Xo. 37.
Zahn gives 23 of them which became part of the church song. In
the Augsburg Sta<itbibl. etc. •
In the Breslau Stadtbibliothek (see Bohns
4. Weroeri Fabricii Holsati NiotariusI P(ublicufl) C(ae3areu3|
Academiae & ad D. Nicotai Lipsieiisium musici, Geistliche Arieii, Cat.) the MSS. 15, 18 (dated on cover 1580),
Dialogen und Concerten, ao zu Heiliguug hoher Fest-Tagen mit 4,
5, 6, und 8 Vocal-Stimmen aanipt ihrera gedoppelteo Basso continuo,
and 30 contain Haeo est dies quam fecit
'

auff unterschiedliche Arten, nebat allerhaiid Instrumenten fiiglich


kiintien gebraucht und rausicirt werden. Leipzig, Joh. Bauern.
Dominus' for six voices; and fourteen of_the
1662- 4to. Contains complimentary Latin verseaaddreeaed to him motets in A. F.'s Cant. Sac., Xos. 1, 3, 4, 7, 8,
by the aged Heinrich Schlitz. Six com positions. Nine part-books
in the British Museum, etc. 11, 12, 13 (two copies), 14, 15, 16, 23, 24, and
5. Vier-stimmige Motette; 'Vater indeine Hiinde
Wentzel Buhlens Namens-Tage. Leipzig, 167L 4to.
auf Herrn '
. . .

25. Non vos relinquam' (Xo. 4, Cant. Sac.)


'

6. Werneri Fabricii Manudactio zuiri General Bass bestehend aua


is also in the Zwickau Eatssehulbibl. MS. 53,
lauter Exemi>eln. Leipzig. 1675. This work is mentioned in
Mattheson'a Grmfe General Bass SchuZe, 1".'J1, p. 13. Xo. 78 (see Vollhardt's Cat.) In the library
7. Werneri Fabricii, ehemaligen Organisten zu St. Xicolai in
Leipzig. Unterricht, ^ie man ein nea Oi-gelwerk, obs gut und at Freiberg, Saxony, are twenty-six motets for
beatandig sey, nach alien Stiicken, in- mid auswendig ewiminireu
Bnd 80 viel moglich, probiren soil. Frankfurt und Leipzig, 1756. six voices, K'os. 1-25 the same as those pub-
1vol. 8vo. pp.87. Nopreface ordedication. In British Museum, etc. lished in A. 1595, and placed
F.'s Cant. Sac.
It is curious that this work should have been published nearly 80
years after Fabricius'a death, for no earlier edition is known. It has in the same order : Quam pulchra es
N"o. 26, '

been suggested that the date is a misprint for 1656. but the title
states 'formerly organist of S, Nicolas, Leipzig,' and he held that (Cant, eantiei), is also headed Albini Fabricii '

post until his death.


a 6 vocib.' (see Kade's Aeltere ihisikalicn). c. s.
His music is also to be found in :
FACCIO, Fkanco, born March 8, 1840, i at
"\'erona, of parents in liumble circumstances, who
Passionale Melicura
1. . . . Martino Jane, GiirHtz, 1663. Three
melodies.
2. JohannCrilgers Praxis pietatismelica. Frankfurt. 1676
. . .
deprived themselves almost of the necessaries of
and 1693 editions. Six melodies with figured biiag.
3. NUrnbergisches Gesangbuch. 1676, 1677, and 1690 editions. life ill order to give their son a musical educa-
rive melodies Tvith figured bass, from the GeUtliche Lieder of
Homburg, 1659. tion. In Xov. 1855 he entered the Conserva-
4. Geiatlicher Harffen-Kl.ing aui zehen aeyten Job. Quirs-
torio of Milan, where he made remarkable
. , .

lelden Leipzig. 1679. Five melodies.


5. Muaikalischer Vorschmack
1683. One melody with
von Peter Suhren. Hamburg.
figured bass.
. . .
progress in composition under Eonchetti. An
Liineburgiscbes Gesangbuch.
6. 1686 and 16&4 editions one : overture by him was played at one of the
melody. 1695 and 1702 editions two melodies. :

Das grosse Cantional oder: Kirchen-GesangbuL'h, Darmstadt,


7.
students' concerts in 1860. In the following
1687. Three melodies.
8. Choral Gesangbuch von Daniel Speeren, Stuttgart. 1692. . . ,
year he left the institution, and on Xov. 10,
Three melodies. 1863, he had the good fortune to have a three-
9. Meiningeni.?ches Gesangbuch. Editio 3 and 4, 1693 and 1G97.
Two melodies with figured baas. act opera, I Profughi Fiamminghi,' performed
10. D arm eta dti aches
Gesangbuch. 1699. One melody.
11. Cantiques Ppirituels. 5^me edition. Frankfort. 1702. One at La Scala. Before this a remarkable work,
melody with figured bass.
written in collaboration with his friend Boito,
12. Konig's Liederschatz. 1738. Eight melodies.
Wiuterfeld {Dcr evang. Kirchejigexanj. 11. Musikbeilage, Nos. and entitled 'Le Sorelle d' Italia,' had been per-
173-4) repiinted two of Fabricius's best-known chorales from the 16.59
Geiitliche Lied^^ : Lasst uns jauchzen and Jesus du, du bleibst,'
'
'
'
formed at the Conservatorio. [See vol. i.
voice part with figured bass. In the Upsala Library, in Gust;tf
Dliben's Collection of 'Motetti e Concerti, Libro 5,' 1665, are two p. 354 a.] The same friend, for whom he had
compositions by W. Fabricius. Eitner (Qv-ellen-Lexiko?!) gives the
following MSS: in the Berlin Konigl. Bibl. MS. Z. 40. No. 2 Lieblich '
formed a warm attachment during the time of
und schone aein.'and No. 4 Herr. weun ich nur dich habe,'both for '

their studentship, wrote him the libretto of


eight voices. f q
'
Amleto, which was given with success at the
'

FABRITIUS (Fabricius), Albixus (fl. 1580-


Teatro Carlo Fenice, at Genoa, on May 30, 1865
1595), is said to have lived in Gi'irlitz, Prussia. (not at Florence, as Pougin states), but which
The one work known of hig was published at was unfavourably received at the Scala in Feb.
Gratz, Styria(Steiermark), in Austria *Cantiones :
1871. In 1866 he fought, together with Boito,
sacrae sex vocum iani priTnura lucem aspicientes.
in the Garibaldian army, and in 1867-68 under-
Authore Albino Fabritio. Graecii, quae est
took a tour in Scandinavia. A sympihony in F
metropolis Styriae, excudebat Georgius AVid-
dates from about this time. In July 1S68 he
manstadius.' 1595. Obi. 4to. Twenty-five
succeeded Croff as professor of harmony in the
motets. Six part-books in WolfenbiittelHerzogl.
Conser^'atorio. and after acquiring great ex-
Bibliothek.
perience as a conductor at the Teatro Carcano,
Contents:!. Gaudentin cnelia 2. Osacinm convivinm ;i. Qnare
was made conductor at La Scala. A Cantata
; ;

tristis ea anima 4. Non vog relinqmim 5. Hodie rex coek.rnm


; ;
;

6. AveRegina; 7. Salvpfesta flie^ 8. Christus resurgenB 9. Anre.-i


d' inaugurazione was performed in 1 884, and two
; ;

Jux roseo: 10. Tu solis qui fati? 11. Scio quod redemptor 12. ; ;

Cantate Domino 13. Hodie ChriBtii.'' natus 14. Sie praeeen-t PeuR
; : ;
sets of songs by him have been published bv
15. Ad te levavi Ifi. Convertisti planctum 17. Vulnerasti cor
; ;

meunj 18. Exultet omnium 19. A^cendit Deus 20. Alinaiedem-


: : ;
1 PaloBchi .and Eiemann. Pougin eives the date as 1841. Various
ptoris 21. Sancta Maria
; 22. Levavi oeuloH rneoB 2.1. EenedictUH ; :
articlea in the Gaziena niusicale di ilUct-no support either date
PeUB; 24. Ileua cantieuni novum 2."i. Exaudiat te Dominiis. ;
indifferently
FACKELTANZ FALCON
Ricordi. Faccio held an important position Tubingen bestowed
before this the University of
among the advanced musicians of Italy, and as a upon him the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, in
composer his works command attention by their recognition of the value of his Beitrage zum '

originality. It was, however, as a conductor Geschichte der Claviersonate, an important '

that he made his greatest success, and he was contribution to the musical jieriodical Cdcilia
rightly considered as the greatest Italian con- (1846), and the title of Professor was given him a
ductor of his time. He directed the first Euro- few years afterwards. In 1865 he was appointed
pean performance of Verdi's 'Aida' in 1872, and organist of the Stiftskirche, and received a prize
the production of his Otello in 18S7, both at
' '
for his choral work Gesang im Griinen' at the '

Milan. He visited England and conducted the choral festival in Dresden. His setting of Schil-
performances of Otello at the Lyceum Tlieatre
' '
ler's '
Macht des Gesanges was '
eiiually success-
in July 1SS9 and died at the Biffl Sanatorium,
; year with the Schlesische
ful in the following
Monza, July 23, 1891. M. Sangerbund, and a cantata 'Des Scingers Wieder-
FACKELTANZ, or Marche aiix flambeaux, kehr has been frequently performed. His
—a
'

a torchlight procession .survival from the compositions are almost entirely confined to

medieval tournaments which takes place at church music and choral compositions. Sevei'al
some of the German Courts on occasion of the quartets for male voices, and organ pieces were
marriage of members of the royal family. The published collectively, and the Lebert and Stark
procession has to march round the court or Pianoforteschule contains a double fugue by
' '

hall, with various intricate ceremonies (Times, him. AVith the latter he published in 1880 an
Feb. 19,1878). The music —
for military band Elementar- und Chorgesangschule, which has
'
'

is a Polonaise, usually with a loud first and last considerable value. He undertook the editing
part, and a soft trio. Meyerbeer wrote four of tire great edition of Beethoven's pianoforte
one for the marriage of the Princess Royal (the sonatas witli Lebert, for the firm of Cotta, for
Empress Frederick), (Jan. 25, 1858). Spontini, which edition A'on Blilow edited the sonatas
Flotow, and others, have also written them. from op. 53 onwards. Faisst died at Stuttgart,
See also Tattoo. g. June 5, 1894. M.
FAGOTTO. The Italian name for the Bassoon, FA-LA. A ]iiece of vocal music for three
obviously arising from its resemblance to a faggot or more voices, originally set wholly or in part
or bundle of sticks. The Germans have adopted to these two sol-fa. syllables. Fa-las belong
it as Fagott. [See B.issooN.] w. h. s. essentially to the madrigalian era, most of the
FAIGNIENT, 'Sot, a Belgian composer of composers of which have left specimens of tliem.
the 16th century, concerning whose life nothing They are said to be the invention of Gastoldi di
is known. His first book of Chansons, Mudri- —
Cara vaggio if the utterance of musical sounds on
gales <ۥ Moteiz a Qtiatre, Cineq it Six Parties, unmeaning syllables can be called an invention.
Noiiuclleynent coDiposees par Noe Faignient, was Many of his balletti, like many of the Ballets
'
'

published at Antwerp in five 2iart-books in 1 568 ;


of Jlorley —
such as 'Now is the month of May-
Yonge's Musiea Transalpina (1588) contains ing' —
end with a lengthened Fa-la. A 4-])art
two madrigals, and thirty-two othercomjtositions song known as The AVaitts,' by an English '

are noted in Eitner's Bihl, d. Masik$ammelwer]<:e, composer Jeremiah Savile, set wholly on tliose
(Quellen- Lexikon .) syllables, is probably the most popular Fa-la in
FAISST, Immanuel Gottlob Friedeich, existence. .i. h.
born Oct. 13, 1823, at Esslingen in AV lirtemberg, FALCON", Makie Cokxi^lte, born Jan. 28,
was sent to the seminary at Schiintlial in 1836, 1812, eitlier at Paris or at Moiestier near L&
and in 1840 to Tubingen, in order to study Puy, received vocal instruction at the Conserva-
theology ;but his musical talents, which had toire from Henri, Pellegrini, and Bordogni, and
J^reviously shown themselves in the direction of learnt dramatic action fronr Nourrit she gained ;

gi'eat piroficiency on the organ, were too strong, in 1830-31 first prizes for vocalisation and
and, although he received no direct musical in- singing. On July 20, 1832, she made her debut
struction worth mentioning, he had made such at the Optera as Alice in '
Robert,' Avith brilliant
progress in composition by 1844 that when he success. '
Her acting, intelligence, and self-pos-
went to Berlin and showed his productions to session give us promise of an excellent actress.
Mendelssohn, tliat master advised liim to work In stature tall enough to suit all the operatic
by himself rather than attach himself to any heroines, a pretty face, great play of feature. . . .

teacher. In 1846 Ire appeared in })ublic as an Her a well-defined sojtrano, more than
Axdce is

organ player in many German towns, and finally two octaves in compass, and resounding equally
took up his abode in Stuttgart. Here in 184 7 he with the same power (Castil-Blaze). She re- '

founded an organ school and a society for the mained there until 1838, when ill-health and
study of church music. He undertook the direc- loss of voice compelled her to leave for Italy.
tion of several choral societies, and in 1857 took Her parts included Donna Anna on the produc-
a prominent part in the foundation of the Con- tion of '
Don Juan,' March 10, 1834 ; Julie in
servatorium, to the management of which he '
La Yestale '
at Nourrit's benefit May 3, 1834 ;

was appointed two years later. Some time the heroines in '
Moise and ' '
Siege de Corinthe.'
FALSE RELATION FAMITSIN
She also created the parts of Mrs. Ankarstroem
('Gustave IIL'), JMorgiana in Chcrubini's Ali '

13aba, Rachel (' La Juive '), Valentine (' Hugue-


'

nots '), the last two her best parts, the heroine
in Louise Bertin's Esmeralda,' and Leonor in
'
And the treatment of notes which are inter-
ISTiedermeyer's Stradella.
'
Richly endowed by
'
'
changeable in chromatic and diatonic chords
nature, beautiful, possessing a splendid voice, in the same key is equally free, as between a
great intelligence, and profound dramatic feel- chromatic note of the chord of the augmented
ing, she made every year remarkable by her sixth and a succeeding diatonic discord.
progress ami Ijy the development of her talent.
(Fetis. ) After an absence of two years, and
under the impression that her voice was restored,
d=S^M^ -S=
1
,'
i

on JIarcli 14, 1840, she reappeared at a benefit


given on her behalf in the first two acts of The rule is furthermodifiedbysomanyexceptions
'
La Juive, and in the fourth act of the
' that it is almost doubtful if the cases in which
'Huguenots.' But her voice had completely the effect is objectionable are not fe\\er than
gone, and it was with difficulty she could get those in which it is not. c. H. H. r.


through the first part indeed she fainted in FALSETTO. The voices of both men and
the arms of Duprez. (Clement, Histoire de women contain two — or, as defined in the
jVusique, p. 749.) After this she retired alto- Methode du Chant du Conserraioire de Musiqiic,
getlier from the Opera, where her name still three — registers, viz. chest voice (voce di 2>elto) ;

survi\'es to designate dramatic soprano parts. head voice (r. and a third which, as
di testa ) ;

Mme. Falcon afterwards married M. Malan90n. being forced or non-natural, is called by Italians
She made a single appearance as late as 1891, and French /((/sc«o OTfausset, or 'false' voice.
and died Feb. 26, 1897. A. c. The limits of these are by no means fixed. In
FALSE RELATION" is the occurrence of every voice identical notes can be produced in
chromatic contradiction in different parts or more ways than one, and thus each register can
voices, either simultaneously, as at (a), or in be extended many degrees beyond its normal
chords which are so near together that the effect limits. But it is all but impossilde for a singer
of one has not passed from the mind before the to keep both and third registers in working
first
otliercomes to contradict it withanewaccidental, order at the same time. The male counter-tenor,
as at (i). or alto voice, is almost entirely falsetto, and is
^^^ ^jj
generally accompanied by an imperfect pronun-
ciation, the vowels usually partaking more or

Ip*^^!— tp:±
less of the quality of
on v-hich the
the Italian
falsetto
or English oo,
(/

seems to be most easily


piroducible.
The disagreeable effect is produced by the con-
The earliest mention of the falsetto in musical
tradictory accidentals belonging to difi'erentkeys,
Europe is in reference to the Sistine Chapel,
or unequivocally to major or minor of the same
where Spaniards exceptionally gifted with this
key and it follows that when the contradiction
voice preceded that artificial class to whom from
;

is between notes which can coexist in the same


the 16th century until the 19tli alto and even
keytheefl'ect isnotdisagreeable. Thuschromatic
soprano parts have been assigned. [The falsetto
piassing notes and appoggiaturas do not affect
voice has more recently been restored to its old
the key, and arc used without consideration of
place in the Sistine and other Roman choirs.] H. .j.
their apparent contradictions. Schumann uses
the sharp and natural of the same note in the
FALSTAFF. 1. A comic Italian opera in
' two acts words by IMaggioni, music by Balfe.
same chord in his Andante und Variationeu
'
;

Produced at Her Majesty's Theatre, July 19, 1838.


for two pianofortes, op. 46 (f«), and Haydn the
2. Verdi's last opera is in three acts, is set to
same in his Quartet in D, op. 71 (b).
a libretto by Boito, and was produced at the
(") ('')
Scala, Milan, on Feb. 9, 1893 at Covent ;

^P^S Garden, :\lay 19, 1894.


FAMITSIN (F.\MiN-Tsi.N-), Alexander Ser-
GEivicH, of aristocratic descent, was born at
Kalouga, Oct. 24 (O.S.), 1841. He was educated
See Merry Wives.

in St. Petersburg, and on leaving the Unii'ersity


spent two years in Leipzig, where he studied
Again, notes wliich are variable in the minor key theory under Hauptniann, Kichter, and Mos-
do not produce any objectionable efi'ect by their cheles. On his return to Russia he wasappointed
juxtaposition, as the minor 7th descending and jirofessor ofmusical history and esthetics at
the major 7th ascending or stationary thus ; the newdy-openeii Conservatoire. Heresignedin
Mendelssohn in the Overture to Ruy Bias has ' '
1872, in order to devote himself to composition.
Bb and Bj in alternate chords. As a critic he made himself notorious by his
FANCIES FAN FAKE
attacks iijion tlic new national school of music.
Famitsin composed two weak but pretentious
v!^-^
operas Sardaiiapalus, gii-en in St. Petersburg
:
'
'

in 1S75, but with so little success that he made -0-0. .0^. .0.0. ad nil. h
no effort to produce his second opera, Uriel '

Acosta.' His instrumental works include three


quartets, a pianoforte cjuintet, and a Russian '

Rhapsody ' for violin and orchestra. Two


books of ' Songs
Russian Children' have out-
for
lived his more ambitious attempts. As a
musical antiquary lie did his best work in the
following publications liussian iluimncrs and
:
ren>i»rt:e=
5":55^-?tfEfE
Glee-nun (1SS9) TJie A neient Indo-Chinese Scale
;

in Europe and Asia, and its appearance in the


Paissian Folk-Songs (1890); The Gusslce
.J J^
a :

Eussian National Instrument (1890) and The ;

erase. / E5 i-B ^^*«.'


Iiombraand Kindred Instrumenls{lS9l). Famit-
sin died at St. Petersburg, Julv 6, 1S96. R. x.
FANCIES, or FANTASIES", the old English i.—F^P:^?:
name Fantasia, which see.
for In the various
collections catalogued under the head of ViK-
GINAL Music all three w-ords occur. The name The rliythm of the castanets was
seems to have been confined to original com-
positions as opposed to those which were written
upon a given subject or upon a ground. Sir r
I
I
Hubert Parry made the Fancy the subject of one
of his lectures —
'Neglected By-ways in JIusic' Mozart's version is known and accessible

;

at the Royal Institution in 1900 rejiorted in ; Gluck's will he found in the Appendix to Jahn's
the Musical Times for 1900, p. 247. M. Mo-art.
FANDANGO. An Andalusian dance, a There is a curious piece of history said to lie
variety of the Seguidilla, accompanied by the connected with this dance. S(JOn after its first
guitar and castanets. In its original form the introduction, in the 17th centurv, it ^^•a9 con-
fandango was in 6—8 time, of slow tempo, mostly demned by the ecclesiastical authorities in S]iain
in the minor, with a trio in the major some- ;
as a 'godless dance.' Just as the Consistory
times, however, the whole was in a major key. were about to ja'ohibit it, one of the judges
Laterit took the 3-4 tempo, and the characteristic remarked that it \\'as not fair to condemn any
one unheard. Two celelirated dancers were
Spanish rhythm
j j^
In this accordingly introduced to perl'orm the fandango
shape it closely resembles the seguidilla and before the Consistory. This they did with such
bolero. One Fandango tuneisgiven b}^ Ha^\kins effect, that, according to the old chronicler,

(Appendix, No. 33). Another has been rendered '


every one joined in, and the hall of the con-
famous through its partial adoption by both sistorium was turned into a dancing saloon.'

Gluck and ilozart tlie former in his Ballet of No more was heard of the condemnation of the
'
Don Juan,' the latter in Figaro (end of Act ' ' fandango.
3). It is given in its Spanish form by Dohrn Similar dances to the fandango are the
in the Xcue Zeitsclrrift f. Musik (xi. 163, 7) as TiK.-VNA, the Polo, and the Jota Aragonesa.
follows : E. r.
AiuUndi. FANFARE. A
French term of unknown
tr. .
origin

— perhaps Moorish, perliaps onomatopicic
denotes in strictness a short jiassage for trum-
pets, such as is performed at coronations and
other state ceremonies. 1. In England tliey are

knoAvn as 'Flourishes,' and are pla^'cd liy the


Trumpeters of His Slajesty's Housejiold Ca^'alry
to the number of eight, all playing in unison on
E'[> trumpets without vah'es. The following,
beliei-ed to date from the reign of Charles II.,
is the Flourish regulaily used at the opening

of Parliament, and was also performed at the


announcement of the close of the Crimean \\nv,
the visit of Queen Victoria and the Prince of

i ——
^
1—^1—^— ^»* — '- I
3
"Wales to St. Paul's after the Prince's recovery,
and on other occasions :
FANING FANTASIA
Theatre in 1881, and another, 'The Head of
the Poll,' at the German Reed Entertainment
-^^m^^^^ in 1882. At the same date Mr. Faning occu-
pied the posts of Professor and Conductor of
the Choral Class at the National Training School,
and Professor of the Pianoforte at the Guildhall
School of Music the latter post he resigned
;

in July 1885, when he was appointed Director


of the Music at Harrow School. [He tilled this
post with much credit, and important musical
results, until 1901, when he retired. He ex-
amined for the Associated Board of the R.A.M.
2. So picturesque and effective a feature as the and the R.C.M. in South Africa in 1901.]
Fanfare has not been neglected by Opera com- From the opening of the Royal College of Music
posers. No one who has heard it can forget the until July1885 he taught the Pianoforte and
two flourishes announcing the arrival
effect of the Harmony, and until Easter 1887 also conducted
of the Governor in Fidelio, both in the opera
'
' the Choral Class at that institution. For a
and in the two earlier overtures. True to the good many seasons he conducted a Select '

fact, Beethoven has written it in unison (in the Choir' at Messrs. Boosey's Ballad Concerts.
opera and the later overture in Bb, in the earlier Mr. Faning was for some time conductor of the
overture in Eb, with triplets). Other com- London Male Voice Club, and of the Madrigal
posers, not so conscientious as he, have given Society. [He took the degree of Mus.B. at
them in harmony, sometimes with the addition Cambridge in 1894, and of Mus.D. in 1900.
of horns and trombones. See Spontini's Olym- ' For this last his exercise was a mass in B
pic '
Meyerbeer's
; Struensee,' Act 2; Am-
'
minor. ] His compositions include two operettas,
broise Thomas's Hamlet, and many more.
'
A
' a symphony in C minor, two quartets, an over-
good example is that in Tannhauser, which '
' ture, a Magnificat and Nunc Dimittis for full
forms the basis of the march. It is for three orchestra (performed at St. Paul's at the Festival
Trumpets in B. of the Sons of the Clergy), besides anthems,
Weber has left hUiner Tusch
a short one — ' songs, duets, and part-songs, among which the
— for twenty Trumpets in C (.Jahns's Thematic '
Song of the Vikings,' for four-part chorus with
Cat. No. 47 a). [Tusch.] pianoforte duet accompaniment, has attained
3. The word is also employed in a general wide popularity. [An interesting article on
sense for any short prominent passage of the Faning appeared in the Musical Times for 1901,
brass, such as that of the Trumpets and Trom- p. 513.] w. B. s.
bones (with the wood wind also) near the end FANISKA. Cherubini's twenty-first opera ;

of the fourth movement


Schumann's E'[> Sym-
in in three acts words by Sonnleithner from the
;

phony or of the whole wind band in the open-


;
French. Produced at the Karnthnerthor Theatre
ing AndaMte of tlie Reformation Symphony. G. Vienna, Feb. 25, 1806.
FANING, Eaton, the son of a professor FANTASIA is a term of very respectable
of music, was born at Helston in Cornwall, antiquity as applied to music, for it seems to be
May 20, 1850. He received his first instruction sufficiently established by both Burney and
on the piano-forte and violin from his parents, Hawkins in their Histories that it was the im-
and performed at local concerts before he was mediate predecessor of the term Sonata, and
five years old.In April 1870, he entered the shares with the term RiCERCAR the honour of
Royal Academy of llusic, where he studied under having been the first title given to compositions
Sir W. Sterndale Bennett, Dr. Steggall, Signor expressly for instruments alone. It seems itself
Oiabatta, and Messrs. Sullivan, Jewson, Aylward, to have been a descendant of the madrigal for ;

and Pettit, and carried off successively the when madrigals, accompanied as they conmionly
bronze medal (1871), silver medal for the Piano- were by instruments playing the same parts with
forte (1872), Mendelssohn Scholarship (1873), the voices, had to a certain extent run their
bronze medal for Harmony (1874), and the course as the most popular form of chamber
Lucas silver medal for Composition (1876). In compositions, the possibility of the instruments
1874 Mr. Faning was appointed Sub-Professor of playing the same kind of nuisic without the
Harmony, in 1877 Assistant-Professor of the voices was not far to seek. Hawkins remarks
Pianoforte, and Associate, and in 1878 Professor that the early Fantasias 'abounded in fugues
of the Pianoforte. He also played the violon- and little responsive passages and all those other
celloand drums in the orchestra. On July 18, elegances observable in the structure and con-
1877, Mr. Faning's operetta, 'The Two Majors, trivance of the madrigal.' They were written
was performed at the Royal Academy, which for combinations of various instruments, such as
'

event led to the establishment of the Operatic a Chest of Viols,' and even for five Cornets
' '

Class at the institution. A comic operetta, (Zinken). There are examples of this kind by
'Mock Turtles,' was produced at the Savoy very ancient English composers, and some also
FANTASIESTUCK FAEANDOLE
for the Virginals by Byrd and Gibbons in fahrende. A still more unlikely derivation has
Parthenia, Numerous examples by these and been suggested from the Greek cjidXay^ and
other composers of the time, notably Giles 5oC\os, because the dancers in the Farandole are
Farnaby and Peter Phillips, occur in the Fitz- linked together in a long chain. The dance is
wiUiam Vinjinal Book. Dr. Burney qnotes very probably of Greek origin, and seems to be a
Simpson's Compendium to the intent that in direct descendant of the Cranes' Dance, the in-
the year 1667 this style of music was much
' vention of which was ascribed to Theseus, who
neglected because of the scarcit}' of auditors instituted it to celebrate his escape from the

that understand it, their ears being more de- Labyrinth. This dance is alluded to at the end
lighted with light and airy music. of the hynm to Delos of Callimachus it is still :

In the works of Bach there are a great number danced in Greece and the islands of the iEgean,
of Fantasias both as separate works and as the and may well have been introduced into the South
first movement to a Suite, or conjoined with a of France from Marseilles. The Farandole con-
Fugue. In the latter capacity are two of the sists of a long string of young men and women,
finest Fantasias in existence, namely that in sometimes as many as a hundred in number,
A minor called Grosse Fantasie und Fuga
' holding one anotherby the hands, or by ribbons or
(B.-G. xxxvi. p. 81), and that in D minor, handkerchiefs. The leader is always a bachelor,
commonly known as the Fantasia cromatica ' and he is preceded by one or more musicians
i^B.-G. xxxvi. p. 71). Among his organ works playing the galoubet, i.e. a small wooden fliite-
also there are some splendid specimens, such as a-bec, and the tanibourin. [See Tameoukin.]
Fantasia et Fuga in G minor (B.-G. xv. p. 177), 'With his left hand the leader holds the hand
and a Fantasia of considerable length in G of his partner, in his right he waves a flag,
major, constituting a complete work in itself handkerchief, or ribbon, which serves as a signal
{B.-G. xxxviii. p. 75). Among the works of for his followers. As the Farandole proceeds
his sons and other contemporaneous German through the streets of the town the string of
masters are also many specimens of Fantasias. dancers is constantly recruited by fresh additions.
Some of them are very curious, as the last move- The leader (to quote the poet Mistral) makes '

ment of a Sonata in F minor by Philip Emanuel it comeand go, turn backwards and forwards . . .

Bach, published in Eoitzsch's Alte Klavier ' sometimes he forms it into a ring, sometimes
Musik,' in the greater part of which the division winds it in a spiral, then he breaks off from his
hy bars is entirely dispensed with and the same ;
followers and dances in front, then he joins on
peculiarity distinguishes a Fantasia by Johann again, and makes it pass rapidly under the
Ernst Bach which published in the same
is uplifted arms of the last couple. ' The Farandole '

collection. Mo:iart produced some fine examples is usually danced at all the great feasts in the

of Fantasias, Beethoven apparently only two towns of Provence, such as the feast of Corpus
distinctly so called, namely opus 77 and the Domini, or the Courses de laTarasquo,' which
'

Choral Fantasia and two of the Sonatas (op.


;
were founded by King Rene on April 14, 1474,
27) are entitled '
Cjuasi una Fantasia,' which and take place at Tarascon annually on July 29.
implies some irregularity of form. In more In the latter the Farandole is preceded by the
modern times, apart from Schumann's fine ex- hugeertigyof a legendary monster theTarasque —
amj)le dedicated to Liszt (op. 17), the name has — borne by several men and attended by the
been applied to various vulgar effusions which gaily dressed chevaliers de la Tarasque.
'
The '

have little in common with I'eal music hut the ;


nmsic of the Farandole is in 6-8 time, with a
name has been restored to its former dignity by strongly accentuated rhythm. The following
Brahms, who uses it as the collective name for is the traditional Farandoulo del Tarascaire
'

his short piano pieces, op. 116. The name has of Tarascon :

also been commonly applied to those nondescript


:S Uoderalo.
piieces of orchestral music which are not long
enough to be called symphonic poems, and not
formal enough to be called overtures, c. H. H. p.

FANTASIESTUCK. A name adojited by


Schumann from Hoffmann to characterise various
fancy pieces for pnanoforte, alone and with other
instruments (PF. solo, op. 12, 111 with clarinet, ;

with violin and violoncello, op. 8S).


op. 73 ;

They are on a small scale, but several of them


of considerable beauty.
FAEANDOLE. A national Proven(,'al dance.
***:
_fe_

^^S
No satisfactory derivation has been given of the
name. Diez [Etymologisches IVorterbvcli der
RomoMisckcn Spratheii) connects it with the
The Farandole has occasionally been used for
Spanish Farandula, a company of strolling
1 AtisihuneMitthioil, La Farnndoidn, published with a translation
players, which he derives from the German aud uotes by F. Mi.stnil. Avigaon. 13(52.
8 FARCE FARINELLI
less innocent purposes than that of a mere dance ; him at Bologna in 1770, though Padre G. Sacchi.
in lb 15 General Ramel was murdered at Tou- his biographer, fixes his birthplace at Andria.
louse by the infuriated populace, who made use of Some say that he derived his sobriquet from the
their nationaldance to surround and butcher him. occupation of his father, who was either a miller
The Farandole has been introduced on the or a seller of flour (farina) others contend that
;

stage in Gounod's Mireille,' and in Daudet's


'
he was so named after three brothers Farina,
'
L'Arlesienne (with Bizet's music), but the
' very distinguished amateurs at Naples, and his
dance is not suited for the purposes of a ballet. patrons. It is, however, more probable that he
Further information concerning it will be found simply took the name of his uncle Farinelli, the
sub voce in Larousse's Dictionary, in Vidal's composer. Sacchi declares that he saw in Fari-
Lmc TambotiHn, Desanat's Coiirsos cle la Taras- the letters of nobility which he
nelli's iiossession
quo, Mistral's MireiUc, FHes cle la Tarasc/ae, was required when admitted, by the
to produce
and introduction to Jlathied's Lcc Fctrancloido, favour of the King of Spain, into the orders of
and in the works of Hyacinthe ilorel. A good Calatrava and St. lago. It seems scarcely
description of the dance occurs in Daudet's Xuma credible that noble parents should have destined
Jtomnestctn. w. B. s. their son for the musical stage, or consented to
FARCE (Ital. Farsia, probably from the the peculiar preparation necessary to make liim
Latin farcio, to stutf —
Plautus has centoncs a soprano but this, as usual, is explained by
;

farcire, to insert falsehoods or tricks). A farsia the story of an accident having happened to the
was a canticle in the vulgar tongue intermixed boy while riding, which rendered necessary the
with Latin, originating in the French church operation by which he retained his treble. The
at the time when Latin began to be a tongue voice, thus manufactured, became the most
not understanded of the people.' The farsia
'
beautiful ever heard. He soon left the care of
was sung in many churches at the princij^al his father, who taught hira the rudiments, to
festivals, almost universally at Christmas. It enter the school of Porpora, of Avhom he was the
became a vehicle for satire and fun, and thus first and most distinguished pupih In spite of
led to the modern Farsa or Farce, a piece in his explicit statement to Dr. Burney, it is not
one act, of which the subject is extravagant and possible that Farinelli could have made his d^but
the action ludicrous. .J. ii. at Naplesin 1720, at the age of fifteen, in iletas-
FARINELLI. A
serio-comic opera in two tasio's Angelica e lledoro
'
for the latter did
' ;

acts words by C. Z. Barnett, music by .lohn


; notleaveRome till 1721, and Angelica eJIc'loro'
'

Barnett; produced at Drury Lane, Feb. 8, 1839, was not written before 1722. (Fetis. ) In that
Balfe acting Farinelli, and being forced by year Farinelli, alreafly famous in southern Italy
hoarseness to leave off at the end of the first act. under the name of il rac/azzo (the boy), accom-
FARINELLI, Ceistiano, a violin jilayer panied Porpora to Rome, and made his first
and composer, was an uncle of the celebrated appearance there in 'Eumene,' composed by liis
singer Farinelli (Carlo Broschi). Date and master for the Teatro Aliberti. There was a
place of his birth and death are unknown. German trumpet player at that time in the
After living for some time in France we find capital, who excited the admiration of the
him from 1680 to 1685 at Hanover, side by Romans bj' his marvellous powers. For this
side with Handel, as leader of the band. [Ac- artist Porpora wrote an obbligato part to a song,
cording to Chrysander (Hcinclcl, i. 418) he was in which his pu|)il vied with the instrument
in the Elector's service in 1714, and, on the in holding and swelling a note of extraordinary
latter's accession to the English throne, com- length, purity, and volume. Although the vir-
posed a cantata on the words, Lord, remember '
tuoso jterformed this in a wonderful manner,
me when thou comest in Thy kingdom.' (See Farinelli excelled him in the duration, brilliance,
Quellen-Lcxikon..y] He appears to have enjoyed and gradual crescendo and diminuendo of the
a great reputation as a performer, and consider- note, while he carried the enthusiasm of the
able pjopularity as a composer of instrumental audience to the highest pitch by the novelty and
music in a light and pleasing style. He excelled spontaneity of the .shakes and difiicult varia tions
especially in the performance of Lulli's airs and whicli he introduced into the air. It is probable
his own so-called Follia,' which was known in
'
that these were previously arranged by Porpoi'a,
England during the 18 th century as Farinell's ^ '
and not due to the impromptu inspiration of the
ground.' [See Follia and the Musical Times singer. Having remained under the instruction
for 1888, p. 717.] Farinelli was ennoliled by of his master until 1 724. Farinelli made his first
the King of Denmark, and, according to Hawkins, journey to Vienna in that year. A year hiter
was appointed by George I. his resident at he sang for the fii'st time at A^enice in Albinoui's
Venice. r. n. '
Didone abbandonata,' the libretto by Jletasta-
FARINELLI,
Cakt.o Bkoschi, detto, was sio and subsequently returned to Naples, where
;

born Jan. 24, 1705, at Naples, according to his he achieved a tiiumph in a Dramatic Serenarle
own statement made to Dr. Burney, who saw by Hasse, in whicli he sang with the celebrated
1 D'Urfey wrote hianfing 'Joy to pre,it CrKM.ir'in honour rif Ch.irlpa canted rice. Tcsi. In 1726 he ajipeared in Fr.
divisions on tliis bass it must, therefori^, li;ive bet ii .oni-
II. to '

poaed before IfiSS.


;

Ciampi's Cii'O at ililan


'
and then made his
;
FARINELLI FAKINELLl
second viait to Rome, Avhere lie was anxiously such brilliance and rapidity of execution that
expected. In 1727 lie went to Bologna, where it was difficult for the violins of those days to
he was to meet the famous Bernacclii, tlie King '
accompany him. He sang also in 'Onorio,
of Singers,' for the first time. Meeting this '
Polifemo,' and other operas by Porpora and ;

rival in a grand duo, Farinelli poured forth all excited an enthusiastic admiration among tlie
the beauties of his voice and style without dilettanti, which finally culminated in the famous
reserve, and executed a number of most dithcult ejaculation of a lady in one of the boxes (per-
passages, which were rewarded with tumultuous petuated by Hogartli in the Hake's Progress) —
applause. Nothing daunted, ]5ernacchi replied '
One t-iod and one Farinelli In his (irst per-
!
'

in the same air, repeating every trill, roulade, or formance at Court he was accompanied by the
cadenza which had been sung by Farinelli. The Princess Royal, wdio insisted on his singing two
latter, owning his defeat, entreated his conqueror of Handel's songs at sight, printed in a different
to give him some instruction, which Bernacchi, clef, and composed in a difl'erent style, from any
with equal generosity, willingly consented to to which he had ever been accustomed. He also
bestow and thus was perfected the talent of
; confirmed the truth of the story, that Senesino
the most remarkable siiiger, perhaps, who has and himself meeting for the first time on the
ever lived. same stage, Senesino had the part of a furious
'

After a second visit to Vienna in 1728, Fari- tyrant to represent, and Farinelli that of an
nelli went several times to Venice, Rimie, Naples, unfortunate hero in chains but, in the course
;

Piaeenza, and Parma, meeting and vanquishing of the first song, he so softened the obdurate
such formidable rivals as Nicolini, Faustina, heart of the enraged tyrant that Senesino, for-
and Cuzzoni, and being everyw here loaded with getting his stage character, ran to Farinelli and
riches and honours. In 1731 he visited Vienna embraced liim in his arms. The Prince of "Wales
for the third time. It was at this point that he gave Farinelli a fine wrought-gold snnrt'-ljox,
'

modified his style, from one of mere brilliance richly set with diamonds and rubies, in which
and Irarura, which, like a true pupil of Porpora, w^as enclosed a pair of diamond knee-buckles,
he had hitherto practised, to one of pathos and as also a purse of one hundred guineas.' This
simplicity. This change is said to have been example was followed by most of the courtiers,
suggested liy the Emperor Charles VI. You '
and the jiresents were duly advertised in the
have,' he said, hitherto excited only astonish-
'
Court Journal. His salary was only £1500, yet
ment and admiration but you have never touched
, during the three years 1734, 1735, and 1736,
the heart it would be easy to you to create
; which he spent in London, his income was net
emotion, if you would but be more simple and less than £5000 per annum. On his return to
more expressive Farinelli adopted this ail-
!
' Italy, he built, out of a small part of the sums
mirable counsel, and became the most pathetic, ac(piired here, a very superb mansion, in which
'

as he was still the most brilliant, of singers. he dwelt, choosing to dignify it with tlie sig-
Returning once more to Italy, he revisited, nificant appellation of the English Folly.'
with ever-increasing renown, Venice, Rome, Fer- Towards the end of 1736, Farinelli set ont
rara, Lucca, and Turin. In 1734 he made his for Sjiain, staying a few months in France liy
first journey to England. Here he arrived at the way where, in Sfiite of the ignorance and
;

the moment when the opposition to Handel, sup- prejudice against foreign singers which then
ported by tiie nobles, had established a rival distinguished the French, he achieved a great
Opera, with Porpora for composer, and Senesino, success. Louis XV. heard him in the Queen's
who had quarrelled with the great German, for apartments, and applauded him to an extent
principal singer. The enterprise, however, did which astonished the Court (Riecolioni). The
not succeed, but made debts to the amount of King gave him his jiortrait set in diamonds, and
£19,000. At this juncture Porpora naturally 500 louis d'or. Though the singer, who had
thought of his illustrious pupil, who obeyed made engagements in London, intended oiih' a
the summons, and saved the house. He made flying visit to Spain, his fortune kept him there
his first appearance at the Theatre, Lincoln's nearly twenty-five years. He arriveil in JMadi id,
Inn, in Artaserse,' the music of which was
' as he had done in London, at a critical moment.
chiefly by Riccardo Broschi, his own brother, and Philip v., a pirey to melancholy depression, ne-
Flassc. The most favourite airs were Pallido '
glected the affairs of the State, and refused even
il sole,' set by Hasse and sung by Senesino ; to preside at the Council. The Queen, hearing
'
Per qucsto dolce amjilesso,' by the same, and of the arrival of Farinelli, determined to try the
'
Son tpial nave,' by Broschi, both the latter effect of his voice upon tlie King. Slie arranged
being sung by Farinelli. In the last, composed a concert in the next room to that which the
speiially for him, the first note (as in the song King occupied, and invited the singer to perform
in '
Euniene ') was taken with such delicacy, there a few tender and pathetic airs. Tlie
swelled by minute degrees to such an amazing success of the plan was instantaneous and ci m-
volume, and afterwards diminished in the same l>lete; Philip \\"as first struck, then nio\etl, ar.d
manner to a mere point, that it was applauded finally overcome with pleasure. He sent for (he
for full five minutes. After this, he set off with artist, thanked him with effusion, and bade him
b
10 FARINELLI FAKINELLI
name his reward. Farinelli, duly jirei)ared, change his resolution, Farinelli good-huniouredly
answered that his best reward would be to see complied, and sang to the delighted tailor, not
the monarch return to the society of his Court one, but several songs. Having concluded, he
and to the cares of the State. Philijp consented, said :I too am rather proud
' and that is the
;

allowed himself to be shaved for the first time reason, perhaps, of my having some advantage
for many weeks, and owed his cure to the powers over other singers. I have yielded to you it is
;

of the great singer. The Queen, alive to this, but just that you should yield in turn to me.'
succeeded in persuading the latter to remain at He then insisted on paying the man nearly
a salary of 60,000 francs, and Farinelli thus double the value of the clothes.
separated himself from the world of art for ever. While still at Madrid he heard of the death of
He related to Bnrney that during ten years, until his former rival, teacher, and friend, Bernacchi.
thedeathof Philip V. he sang four songs to the
, In a letter (in the possession of the present
King every night without change of any kind. writer), dated April 13, 1756, he speaks with
Two of these were the Pallido il sole and Per
' ' '
deep regret of the loss of one for whom he had
'

questo dolce amplesso of Hasse and the third,


'
; always felt esteem and affection,' and condoles
a minuet on which he improvised variations. with his correspondent, Padre Martini.
He thus repeated about 3600 times the same Shortly after the ascent of Charles III. to the
things, and never anything else he acquired,
: throne (1759), Farinelli received orders to leave
indeed, enormous power, but the price paid for the kingdom, owing probably to Charles's in-
it was too high. It is not true that Farinelli tention to sign the family pact with France
was appointed prime minister by Philip this ; and Naples, to which the singer had ever been
post he never had ; but under Ferdinand VI., opposed. He preserved his salary, but on con-
the successor of Philip, he enjoyed the position dition that he should live at Bologna and not at
of first favourite, superior to that of any minister. Naples. Once more in Italy, after twenty-five
This King was subject to the same inhrmity as years of exile, Farinelli found none of his friends
his father, and was similarly cured by Farinelli, remaining. Some were dead others had quitted
;

as Saul was by David. His reward this time thecountry. Newfriends arenot easilymadeafter
was the cross of Calatrava (1750), one of the middle age and Farinelli was now fifty-seven
;

highest orders in Spain. From this moment his years old. He had wealth, but his grandeur was
power was unbounded, and exceeded that ever gone. Yet he was more addicted to talking of
obtained by any singer. Seeing the effect pro- his political career than of his triumphs as a
duced on the King by music, he easily persuaded singer. He passed the twenty remaining years
him to establish an Italian opera at Buen-retiro, of his life in a splendid 2M2a:zo, a mile from
to which he invited some of the first artists of Bologna, contemplating for hours the portraits
Italy. He himself was appointed the chief of Philip v., Elisabeth, and Ferdinand, in
manager. He was also employed frequently in silence, interrupted only by tears of regret. He
political affairs, was consulted constantly by the received the visits of strangers courteousl}', and
minister La Enseiiada, and w^as especially con- showed pleasure in con\'ersing with them about
sidered as the agent of the ministers of those the Spanish Court. He made only one journey
European Courts which were opposed to the during this period, to Rome, \\'here he expatiated
fanuly treaty proposed by France. (Bocous.) to the Pope on the riches and honours he had
In all his prosperity Farinelli ever showed the enjoyed at Madrid. Tlie Holy Father answered,
greatest prudence, modesty, and moderation he :
'
Avete fatta tanta fortuna costa, perche vi avete
made no enemies, strange as it may seem, but trovato le gioie, clie avete perdute in qua.'
conciliated those who would naturally have When Burney saw him at Bologna in 1771,
envied him his favour with the King. Hearing though he no longer sang, he played on the
one day an officer in the ante-chamber complain viol d'amour and harpsichord, and composed for
of the Ring's neglect of his thirty years' service, those instruments. He had also a collection of
while riches were heaped on a miserable actor,'
'
keyed instruments in which betook great delight,
Farinelli begged a commission for the grumbler, especially a piano made at Florence in 1730,
and gave it to him, to his great surprise, observ- which he called liafad d'Urbino. Next to that,
ing mildly that he was wrong to tax the King he preferred a harpsichord which had been given
with ingratitude. According to another anec- to him by the Queen of Spain this he called
;

dote, he once requested an embassy for a courtier, Corrcy'iio, while he named others Titian, Guido,
when the King asked liim if he was not aware etc. He had a fine gallery of pictures by Murillo
that this grandee was a particular enemy of his. and Ximenes, among which were portraits of his
'True,' replied Farinelli; 'but this is how I royal patrons, and several of himself, one by his
desire to take my revenge upon him.' He was friend Amiconi, representing him with Faustina
as generous also as he was prudent. A story and Metastasio. The latter was engra^-eii by
is told of a tailor who lirought him a handsome I. "Wagner at London (fob), and is uncommon ;

gala - costume, and refused any payment, but the liead of Farinelli was copied from it again
humbly begged to hear one song from the by the same engraver, but reversed, in an oval
incomparable artist. After trying in "\'aiu to (4to), and the first state of this is rare it :
FARINELLI FAEMER 11

supplied Sir J. Hawkins with the portrait for w-as in Venice,and 1810-17 at Turin. In 1819
hia History of Miivij:. C. Lucy also painted he was appointed chapel-master at Trieste, where
Farinelli ;the picture was engraved (t'ol. ) in he died Dec. 12, 1836. He composed an im-
mezzotint, 1735, by Alex. Van Haeclcen, and mense number of operas (Fetis enumerates forty,
this print is also scarce. and Riemann gives the number as fifty-eight) in
Fetis falls into an error in contradicting the avowed imitation of Cimarosa, which, however,
story of Farinelli's suggesting to Padre Martini were more successful than the majority of imita-
to write his History of Music, on the ground tions. A duet he introduced into the Matri- '

that he only returned to Italy in 1761, four monio Segreto' has been mistaken for Cimarosa's
years after the appearance of the first volume, own composition. He also wrote a mass, a five-
and had no previous relations with the learned part Christe eleison,' a 'Stabat' in two parts,
'

author. The letter quoted above shows tluit he and other church music. M. o. c.
was in correspondence with him certainly as FARMER, John (fl. 1591-1601), an import-
early as April 1756, when he writes in answer ant madrigalian composer of the Elizabethan
to a letter of Martini, and, after adverting to the period, and also known to us by his skilful
death of Bernacchi, orders twenty-four copies settings for four voices of the old church
of his work, bound in red morocco, for presents psalm tunes. He was the author of a little
to the Queen and other notabilities of the Court. treatise entitled
It is therefore quite possible that their corre- '
Divers and sundry waies of two parte in one, to the number of
fortie, upon one playn Song sometimes pl.acing the ground above
spondence originated even long before this. They ;

aud two parts benethe, and otherwhile the ground benetbe and two
remained in the closest intimacy until death parts above, or againe, otherwise the ground sometimes in the
middest betweene both, and likewise other Conceites, which are
separated thera by the decease of Farinelli, July plainlie set dowue for the Prolite of those whioh would attaiiie unto
Knowledge. Performed and published by John Farmer in favoure
15, 17S2, in the sevent^^-eighth year of his age. of such as love Musicke, with the ready way to Perfect Knowledge.
Im}irinted at London by Thomas Este Ihi; Asfdjnc of William Byrd,
Martinelli speaks in glowing terms of this and are to be soald in Broad Streete neere the Rorial Ezchaunge at
the Author's house. 1591.'
great artist, saying that he had seven or eight
notes more than ordinary singers, and these The only known copy now extant of this
perfectly sonorous, equal, and clear that he had
; tract, which is dedicated to Edward de Vere, *

also much knowledge of music, and was a worthy Earle of Oxenford,' is in the Bodleian Library.
pupil of Porpora. Mancini, a great master of It consists of a series of examples of three-part
singing, and a fellow-pupil of Bernacchi \vith counterpoint in different orders, aud seems to
Farinelli, speaks of him with yet more en- have attained considei'able success. Hawkins
thusiasm. 'His voice,' he says, 'was thought {Hist. iii. 373) says, 'Before Bevin's time the
a marvel, because it was so perfect, so powerful, precepts for the comjiosition of Canon were
so sonorous, and so rich in its extent, both in the known to few. Tallis, Bird, Waterhouse, and
high and the low parts of the tegister', that its Farmer were eminently skilled in this more
equal has never been heard in our times. He abstruse part of musical practice.'
"was, moreover, endowed with a creative genius In 1599 was published 'The first set of
which inspired him with embellishments so new English Madrigals to Foure Voyces, Newly
and so astonishing that no one was able to composed by John Farmer, Practicioner in the
imitate them. The art of taking and keeping Arte of Musicque. 4to. Printed at London in
the breath so softly and easily that no one coidd Little Saint Helen's by JrUliam Barley the
perceive it began and died with him. The Assigne of Thomas Morley, and are to be sold
qualities in which he excelled were the evenness at his shoj}2'>e in GraMous streete, Anno Doin.
of his voice, the art of swelling its sound, the 1599.' This work also is dedicated to the
portamento, the union of the registers, a surprising 'Earle of Oxenford,' whom Farmer calls his
agility, a graceful and jtathetic style, and a shake 'very good Lord and Master.' In the address
as admirable as it "was rare. There was no to the reader he claims to have fitly linkt '

branch of the art wdiich he did not carry to the ilusicke to Number, as each gi^'e to other their
highest pitch of perfection .... The successes true effect, which is to make delight, a virtue
which he obtained youth did not prevent
in his so singular in the Italians, as under that en-
him from continuing to study and this great
; sign only they hazard their honour. 'The '

artist applied himself with so much perseverance collection consists of seventeen madrigals, six-
that he contrived to change in some measure his teen of which are for four, and the seventeenth
style and to acquire another and superiormethod, for eight voices.
when his name was already famous and his No further madrigals of Farmer's ajipear to
fortune brilliant. Such was Farinelli, as superior
' have been jirinted except the fine one for six
to the great singers of his own period as they voices, '
Fair Nymphs I lieard one telling,'

were to those of more recent times. .i, M. which he contributed 'Triumphs of


to the
FAFJNELLl, Giuseppe, composer, born at Oriana' (1601). This and his delightful 'To
Este, May 7, 1769 in 1785 entered the Con-
;
take the air a bonny lass was walking are the '

servatorio de' Turchini at Naples, where he only two of his madrigals familiar to the present
studied accompaniment under Fago, and com- generation, for the simple but much to be re-
position under Sala and Tritto. In 1808 he gretted reason that no others are now published.
12 FAKMER FARMEE
Hawkins gives a fonr-part maiirigal of Far- recently nothing has been known of his life,
mer's, You iiretty
'
flowers ' (tlie lirst of tlie except that be was living in London at the
seventeen mentioned above), in the Appendix date of the publication of his madrigals in 1599.
to liis Hlstoi-ij of Music. The Library of From an inspection, however, of the Chajiter
Christ Cluircli, Oxford, and the Mnsio School Acts of Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin (kindly
contain some i\IS. music of his, and there are afforded to the Avriter by the Dean), it appears
a few of his liyinn tunes in ilS. at the British thatFarmer preceded Thomas Bateson as organist
Museum. of tliat Cathedral. The follo"\\"ing are the only
Farmer was one of the most important con- Chapter Acts which refer to him :

tributors to Tliomas Este's Wliole Booke of


'
1595. Feb. 16.— Yt is ordered ye said daie by the Deane
Psalmes,' 1592. (See Este.) He not only set and Chapter tliat Mr. John Fermer shall have as Mr. of
tlie children & organist for this yeare fifteene pounds
all tlie canticles, hymns, etc. (twelve in number) Currant nioney of England from Candelmas daie last
tfie Psahns proper,
"which are tlicre prefixed to (vizt.) of tlie Vicars lOs. and of Mr. Deane 20s. and of

but also five of tlie psalm tunes themselves. every Dignitie 10s. ster. and the rest the Proctor of the
Church is to make upp.
Burney, speaking of tlrese settings {Hist. iii. 1696. Aug. 10.— The said daie Robert Jordan resigned
54), says, 'Tlie counterpoint is constantly simple, his "Viccars Rowme in the Chapter house, and the same
daie John Farmer was sworn "Viccar Corrall in hisplare.
of note against note, but in such correct and 1597. July 18.— It is ordered that it Mr. John Fermer
excellent harmony have
as manifests the art to doe not return by the first of August 1597 that tlien all
been very successfully cultivated in England at Excuses sett a-itart ;

His place to bee voyd in this
Church fur depting the land without lycence.
that time.' The following interesting example
will show that Farmer was not unworthy of Although there are no subsequent references
Burney's encomium. It may be mentioned in the Chajiter Acts to any otlier organist until
that in all these settings the melody or playn- '
the appointment of Bateson in 1608-9, it seems
song' is invariably given to the voice immediately most probable that Farmer went straight f'lom
above the bass generally the tenor, but in
;
Dublin to London in 1597, as we find him resid-
this example the counter-tenor, as this tune ing in Broad Street in 1599. L. M'c. L. p.
is set for two trebles, counter-tenor, and FARMER, JuHX, born August 16, 1836, at
bass. The rule by "which the old ^vriters intro- Nottingham, received his musical education at
duced the major third into the final chord of the Leipzig Conservatorium, and subsequently
all compositions in the minor mode (see Tierce under Andrae Spaeth at Saxe-Coburg. He was
DE PiCARinE) is rigidly observed by Farmer a teacher of music at Ziiricli, and subsequently
and the other contributors to Este's collection, music master at Harrow School from 1862 to
not only at the end of each psalm tune, but 1885, where he obtained great popularity. He
also at the end of every line in each tune. became organist in Balliol College in 1885,
where he instituted in the College Hall a series
ChcsslLtrc Tv.ne — Psalm 140.
of Sunday and Jlomlay evening concerts for the
performance of glees, part-songs, etc., as well
~^t^-s~ as the Balliol College Musical Societj-.
'
His '

I II i ]'l=^ I
I M compositions include 'Christ and his Soldiers,'
My soul pr.Tii^e thoa the Lord al-ways, My Ood 1
oratorio, 1878; a 'Requiem in menior}' of
I I

departed Harrow friends'


I I 1 1 I I

; 'Cinderella,' a fairy
^=^=2 opera, 1882 'Nursery Rhymes Quadrilles,' for
;

chorus anil orchestra, four setsHunting Songs ;


'

Quadrilles,' for same songs, etc. He edited


;

'
Hymns and Tunes for High Schools the ' ;

'
Harrow Glee Book,' HaiTow School Marches,'
'

'Harrow Scliool Songs,' etc., as well as tw"o


r volumes of Bach for tlie use of High Schools.
will cciTi-fesa, WTiile breath and life pro - long my days [For some years before his death, which took
i-J-_ II I I
,
I
I
place at Oxford, July 17, 1901, he had been
-Gi~. examiner for the Society of Arts. In a warmly
appreciative article on him in the Masicnl Ga-ctte
for Dec. 1901, his successor at Balliol, Dr. Ernst
Walker, wrote, He struck out a line for him-
'

self, and s])ent himself royally and w"it]i abso-

lute self-sacrihce in the ptopularisation of good,


and only good, music among the naturally
more or less unmusical.'] .\. c.

FARMER, TuOM.As, Mus.Bac, was originally


one of the Waits of London, and graduated at
Cambridge in 1684. He composed instrumental
Nothing is known as to either the dates or music for the theatre, and contributed some
places of Farmer's liirth and death ; and until songs to the second edition of Playford's Cliolce
FARNABY FAIiKEXC 13

Ayres, 1675, to The Theater of Manie, 1685-87, Joliii Farrant (West's Cailiedred Organists, ppt.

and to D'Urfey's Third Collection of Sougs, 29, 41, 78). M.


1685. In 1686 he published 'A Consort of FARRANT, Ricn,Ai;D, was one of the Gentle-
Mustek in four parts, containing tliirty-three men of the Chapel Royal in the
16th century.
Lessons beginning witli an Overture, and in ' The date of his first apjiointment is not known,
1690 A Second Consort of Jlusick in fourjjarts,
'
[he was a member of chajiel in the reign
tlic
containing eleven Lessons, beginning with a of Edward VI.] but he resigned in April
Ground.' [In Apollo's Banquet is, 'Mr. Farmer's 1564, on becoming Master of tlie Children of
Magot for violins' Farmer also wrote music for
; St. George's Chapel, Windsor, of which he is
'The Princess of Oleve' in 168'2 (Brit. Mus. Add. said to have been also a lay vicar and organist.
MSS. '29,283-5).] Purcell composed an elegy, During his tenure of office at Windsor he occupied
written by Ivahnni Tate, upon his death (printed '
a dwelling house within the Castle, called the
in Orpheus Britannieus, ii. 35), from which it Old Commons.' On Nov. 5, 1569, he was re-
is certain that he died before 1695. "sv. H. H. appointed a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal, and
FARNABY, Giles, Mus.Bac, was of the remained such until liis death, which occurred
family of Farnaby of Truro. He commenced on Nov. 30, 1580. Farrant's church music
the study of music about 1580 [was living in merits all the eulogy wdiioh has been bestowed
London in 1589 (Churcliwardens' accounts of upon it for solemnity and pathos. The service
St. Helen's, Bishopsgate)], and on July 7, 1592, printed by Boyce in G minor and given by Tud-
graduated at Oxford as Bachelor of Music ;
way (Brit. Mus. Harl. MSS. 7337 and 7338) in A
,

stating in his supplicat that he had studied music minor [is almost certainly by John Farrant, wdio
for tw"elve years (Wood's Fasti, ed. Bliss, i. 257). was possibly liis son]. His two anthems, Call '

'

He was one of the ten composers employed by to remembrance and Hide not Thou Thy face
' '

Thomas Este to harmonise the tunes for his were for many years performed on j\laundy
'
Whole Booke of Psalmes published in 1592. '
Thursday during the distribution of the royal
In 1598 he published 'Canzonets to foure voyces, bounty. The beautiful anthem, 'Lord, for Thy
with a song of eight parts, with commendatory
' tender mercies' sake (the words from Lydley's
'

verses prefixed by Antony Holborne, John Dow- Prayers), was long assigned to Farrant, although
land, Richard Alison, and Hugh Holland. A it is attributed by earlier writers to John Hilton.
madrigal by Farnaby, Come, Charon, come,' is Tudway (Harl. MSS. 7340) gives another anthem
'

in the Royal College of Music, and another,


— ' Lord, Almighty,' full, four voices as his, —
'Construe my meaning,' has been edited by but this is questionable. [Various payments for
W. B. Squire. w. H. H. tlie plays jiroduced at Court by Farrant's boys

There are a number of pieces by him in are entered in the Acts of the Privy Council,
the Fitzunlliani Virginal Book (see Virginal under dates between 1566 and 1579.]
Music), among which is a curious composition His son, Daniel, was one of the first authors
fortwo virginals, and a transcription forvirginals who set lessons lyra way for the viol, after the
' '

of his own madrigal 'Daphne on the Raineliowe.' manner of the old English lute or bandora, in
The same volume contains four pieces by his the time of Charles I. [He was violist in the
son, Richard Farnaby, of whom nothing is King's band between 1606 or 1607 and 1625
known. Giles Farnaby contributed harmonies (Nagel, Annalen der englisehen Hofmusik in the
to some of the tunes in Ravenscroft's Psalter Monatshefte f. Musikgesch. 1894-95). A book
(1621). Wood's statement that he was a native of organ pieces by him is in the Cathedral library
of Truro is probably correct, though the name of Durham.] w. h. H. Additions from Mr. G.
does not occur in the Visitation of Cornwall E. P. Arkwright, the QueUen-Lexikon, etc.
of 1620. Thomas Farnaby's wife came from FARRENC, Jacques Hippolyte Aristide,
Launceston. He lived most of his life in London horn at Marseilles, April 9, 1794, died in Paris,
and Sevenoaks, and his descendants remained Jan. 31, 1865, composed some pieces for the flute,
in Kent but the early history of the family is
;
but is best known as a writer on music. He took
obscure, and the connection between Giles and an important part in the second edition of Fetis's
Thomas Farnaby the Kentish schoolmaster can- 5iO(7J'a^j7j;'ci(?iji'erseW(', and wrote thebiographical

not be traced. [Additions by vv. c. .s., and notices in Madame Farrenc's Tresor des Pianist es.
fronr the Dirt, of Nat. Bioff.] He also contributed critiques to La France
FARRANT, John. According to Hawkins 'inusieale, and La Bci'ue de Musique o.neienne
there were two nmsicians of this name, who both etmoderne (Rennes, 1858). Some of his valu-
flourished about the year 1600. It is quite able notes and unpublished articles are among
probable tliat there was only one, wdio was organ- the MSS. in the library of the Paris Conserva-
ist of Ely in 1567-72 of Hereford, 1592-93 ;' toire.
;

Christ Church, Newgate Street, London, and Hiswife Louise — born in Paris, MaySl, 1804 ;

Salisbury Cathedral, 1598-1602. A service died there, Sept. 15, 1875 was a sister of the —
attributed to Richard Farraut is the work of sculptor Auguste Dumont, and aunt of Ernest
Reyer. She studied under Reicha, and at an
He w;i3 sconced lor railing and contumelious speecheB to Mr.
' '

early age could compose both for the orchestra


Cuatoa in the hall at supper.time (Havergal's Fasti Mereforde^ucs)
'
14 FASCH FASCH
and [liano. She married in 1821, and made the violin and clavier, and in the rudiments of
several professional tours in France with her harmony. After a short stay at Coethen, where
husband, both performing in public witli great he made his first attempts at composition in
success. ]\Iadame Farrenc was not only a clever church music, he was sent to Strelitz. Here he
woman, but an able and conscientious teacher, continued his studies under Hertel, inall branches
as is shown by tlie many excellent female pupils of music, but especially in accompaniment,
at
she trained during the tiiirty years she was pro- that time a difhcult art, as the accompanist had
fessor of the piano at the Conservatoire (Nov. only the figured bass to guide him. In 17.'.1
1842-Jan. 1873). Besides some remarkable Linicke, the court clavierist, haidng declined to
etudes, sonatas, and pieces for the pianoforte, accompany Franz Benda, Fasch offered to supply
she composed sonatas for piano and violin or violon- his place at the harpsichord, and Benda's praises
cello, trios, two quintets, a sestet, and a nonet, for incited him to still greater efforts. After his
which works slie obtained iu 1869 the prize of return to Zerbst he was sent to complete his
the Academie des Beaux Arts for chamber-music. education at Klosterbergen near Magdeburg.
She also wrote two symphonies and tliree over- Benda had not forgotten their meeting, and in
tures for full orchestra, and several of lier more 1756, when just twenty, Fasch was appointed
important compositions were performed at the on his recommendation accomjjanist to Frederick
Conservatoire concerts. More than by all these, the Great. His coadjutor was no less a person
however, her name will be perpietuated by the than Emanuel Bach they took it in turns to
;

Tr^or des Fia/iistes, a real anthology of music, accompany the King's flute-concertos, and as soon
containing ehefs-d'ceuvre of all the classical as Fasch had become accustomed to the royal
masters of the harpsichord and pianoforte from amateur's impetuous style of execution, his
the 16tli century down to Weber and Chopin, as accompaniments gave every satisfaction. The
well as more modern works of the highest value. Seven Years' War put an end to Frederick's flute-
[Her Tmiti des abbriviations was published in playing, and as Fasch received his salary (300
1897. See also Tr6sor des Pianistes.] g. c. thalers) in paper, worth only a fifth part of
FASCH, JoHANN Friedrich, born at Buttel- its nominal value, —a misfortune in which he
stedt (Weimar), April 15, 1688, was a cliorister anticipated Beethoven —
he was compelled to
at Weissenfels in 1699, a scholar of the Thomas- maintain himself by giving lessons. For his
schule in Leipzig from 1701 to 1707, where he lessons in composition he made a collection of
studied law as well as music, the latter under several thousand examples. About the same
Kuhnau. He founded a 'Collegium musicum,' time he wrote several most ingenious canons,
which seems to have been the ancestor of the particularly one for twenty-five voices containing
'
Grosses Concert and so of tire Gewandhaus
' five canons put together, one being in seven parts,
concerts he wrote overtures for the society in
; one in six, and three in four parts. After the
the style of Telemann, and composed three battle of Torgau the King granted him an
operas for the Naumburg fair and elsewhere. addition of 100 thalers to his salary, but the
In 1714, after leading a wandering life for some increase covered the direction of the opera, which
years, he was an official secretary at Gera, and was put into his hands from 1774 to 1776. After
in 1719 went to Zeitz as organist and Eath- '
the war of the Bavarian succession Frederick gave
schreiber,' where he remained for two years. up his practice, and Fasch was free to follow his
In 1721 he took service with Count Jlorzini at natural inclination for church music. In 1783,
Lucavei in Bohemia, and in 1722 was apipointed incited by a 16-part Mass of BenevoU's, which
court capellmeister at Zerbst, where he died, Dec. Reichardt had brought from Italy, he wrote one
5, 1768. He was invited to compete for the for the same number of voices, which, however,
post of cantor at tlie Thomasschule against Bach, proved too diflftcult for the court-singers. He
but apparently refused to do so. (Spitta, retained his post after Frederick's death, but
J. S. B(u:h (Engl, transh), 181.) Bach held
ii. occupied himself chiefly with composition and
Fasch's music in high esteem, and copied out teaching. In the summer of 1790, as he himself
five orchestral suites of his. In the collection tells us, he began choral-meetings in the summer-
of music left by Philipp Emanuel Bach was a house of Geheimrath Milow, which resulted in
whole set of church cantatas by Fasch. Several the Singakademie, an institution which under
'
'

masses, a requiem, eleven church cantatas and his pupil and successor Zelter became very
motets, one Passion-setting, various overtures, popular, and exercised an important influence on
trios, sonatas, etc., are pjreserved in JIS. at musical taste in Berlin for many years. Before
Leipzig, Dresden, Berlin, and Brussels (see his death Fasch was twice visited by Beethoven,
QuelUn-Lexikon, from which, with Riemann's who spent some time in Berlin in the summer of
Lexilc(m,t\n above particularsare taken). Fasch's 1796. On the first occasion, June 21, he heard
son, a chorale, the three first numbers of Fasch's
Carl Friedrich Christiax Fasch, founder mass, and several movements from his 119th
of the 'Singakademie' at Berlin, was born Nov. Psalm, and he himself extemporised on one of
18, 1736, at Zerbst. As a child he was delicate, the subjects of the latter. On the 28th he re-
and much indulged. He made rapid progress on appeared and again extemporised, to the delight
FAURE FAUKE 15
of Fasch's scholars, who, as Beethoven used to 27, 1878), a symphony in minor (Ghatelet, D
say, pressed round him and could not applaud March 15, 1885), a one-act operetta, L'Or- '

for tears (Thayer's Beethoven, ii. 13). The ganiste,' at the Salle Duprez, 1885, a
Requiem
Acadeni}' at that date "was about ninety strong, (Madeleine, Jan. 16, 18b8), and a choral work,
but at the time of Fasch's death, Augusts, ISOO, La Naissance de Venns (Colonne Concerts,
'
'

it had increased to 147. In accordance with a 1895, Leeds Festival, 1898). [' Madrigal,' op.
wish expressed in his will, the Academy performed 35, for vocal quartet and orchestra Pavane,' '

Mozart's Requiem to his memory —


for the first op. 50, for orchestra and chorus ad lib.
five
;

time in Berlin. The leeeipts amounted to 1200 Melodies, op. 58, to Verlaine's poems a piano ;

thalers, an extraordinarj' sum in those days, and quintet, op. 60 'La Bonne Chanson,' op. 61
;
;
were applied to founding a Fund for the per- nine songs to Verlaine's words, are among the
petual maintenance of a poor family. lu 1801 most important of his recent works.] Music to
£elter published his Life —
a brochure of sixty- various plays has been written from time to
two pages 4to, with a portrait. In 1839 the time, such as that to Dumas's 'Caligula'
Acadeni}' published Fasch's best sacred works in (Odeon, 1888), Ed. Harancourt's Shylock '

six volumes. A seventh, issued by the representa- (adajited from Shakespeare, Odeon, 1889),
tives of Zelter, contains the mass and the canon Maeterlinck's Pelleas et Melisande
'
(English '

above alluded to. Of his oratorio 'Giuseppe version produced at the Prince of Wales's
riconosciuto,' performed in 1774, one terzetto Theatre, June 21, 1898), and Lorrain and
alone remains, Fasch having destroyed the rest, Hcrold's Promethee (Beziers, 1900). In 1885
' '

together with several other works composed and 1893 the Prix Chartier was awarded to
before the 16-part mass. As a master of com- him. In 1892 he succeeded Guiraud as In-
position in many parts, Fasch is the last repre- Sjiecteur des Beaux-Arts, and in June 1905
sentative of the great school of sacred composers succeeded Theodore Dubois as Director of the
which lasted so long in Italy, and his works are Paris Conservatoire. a. .7.

worth studying. They combine the severity of FAURE, Jean-Baptiste, son of a singer in
ancient forms with modern harmony and a fine the church at IMoulius, wdiere he was born, Jan.
vein of melody, and constitute a mine which 15, 1830. When he was three the family re-
would well repay investigation. [For list of moved to Paris, and when he was seven his father
extant works, see the Qucllen-Lexikon.'] F. G. died. In 1843 he entered the solfeggio class
FAURE, Gabriel Urb.«m, born May 13, in the Conservatoire, and soon after the rnattrise
1845, at Pamiers (Ariege), studied at Paris with of the Madeleine, where he was under Trevaux,
Niedermeyer, the founder of the Ecole de Musi(jue an excellent teacher, to whom he owes his sound
religieuse also under Dietsch and Saint- Saens.
; knowledge of music. After the breaking of his
His first appointment on leaving the school in voice he took up the piano and double bass, and
1866 wasthat of organist at St. Sauveur, Rennes was for some time a member of the band at the
in 1870 he returned to Paris, and after holding Odeon theatre. When his voice had recovered
the posts of accompanying organist at St. Sulpice he joined the chorus of the Theatre Italien, and
and principal organist at St. Honore, became in Nov. 1850 again entered the Conservatoire,
maitre de chapelle at the JIadeleine, [where he and in 1852 obtained the first prizes for singing
became organist in 1896 in the same year he
;
and for opera-comique. He made his debut Oct.
was appointed a professor of composition in the 20, 1852, at the Opera Comique. in Masse's
Conservatoire]. He became known as a com- 'Galathee,' after which he advanced steadily
poser by his touching and original songs, of through various roles until his creation of the
which a selection of twenty was published by parts of Justin in Grisar's Chien du Jardinier' '

Hamelle, and 'Le Poeme d'Amour by Durand' the Duke of Greenwich in Auber's 'Jenny Bell,'
and Schoenewerk, b>it his compositions in this in 1855 the Marquis d'Herigny in Auber's
;

class are very numerous. [Among the most re- 'Manon Lescaut the Marquis de Valbreuse
' ;

markable of his later lyrics may be mentioned in Clapisson's Sylphe ' in 1856 '
Crevecreur
'

'Apres un rcve,' En Priere,' and Les Koses


' '
in Gevaert's Quentin Durward in 1858 Hoel
' '

d'Ispahan. '] He has also published many piano- in Meyerbeer's 'Pardon du Ploermel' in 1859
forte pieces at the Societe Rationale de Musique
; placed him in the front rank. [Among his
he produced a Cantique de Racine, duets for greatest successes were the parts of Malipieri
female voices, and a violin sonata, afterwards in Haydee
'
Peter the Great in L'fitoile du
' ;
'

played at the Trocadero, on July 5, 1878, which Nord' ; and the title role in Nicolo's 'Joconde.
last has become popular in Germany. Among his On Sept. 28, 1861, he made his first appearance
most remarkable works, besides a Berceuse and at the Opera as Julien de Medicis in Ponia-
Romance for violin and orchestra, a beautiful towski's 'Pierre de Medicis,' and remained there
Elegie for violoncello, two Quartets for piano as principal baritone for nearly seventeen years.
and strings (1882 and 1887), two for strings His new parts were in Masse's '
La Mule de
alone, and a Violin Concerto, we may mention Pedro,' in 1863; Nelusko in '
L'Africaine,'
an Orchestral Suite (Salle Herz, Feb. 13, 1874), ' First produced at Baden Baden. F.iure achieved a notable fouj*
<?f/Nree therein, sinfiug baritone on the stage and t*nor behind
a pretty Chieur des Djinns (Trocadero, June
'
'
the scenes.
1( FAUST FAUX-BOUEDON
April 26, 1865, chosen for this part by Meyerbeer romantic opera in two acts, is in no respect con-
himself; tlie Marquis de Posa in Verdi's 'Don nected with Goethe's play. It was comjiosed at
Carlos,' in 1867 the title part in Thomas's
; Vienna in 1813 for theTheater ander "Wien, but
'Hamlet,' 186S Meiihistopheles on the first
; was first performed at Frankfort in March 1818,
performance of Faust ' at the Opera, March 3,
'
'
and was lor many years a great favourite. It
1869; Paddock in Diaz's 'Coupe du Roi de was produced in London by a German company
Thule,' and Charles A'll. in Mermet's 'Jeanne at the Prince's Theatre, May 21, 1840; and in
d'Arc,' in 1873. He made his final appearance Italian at Covent Garden under Spohr's baton,
there on May 13, 1876, in his great part July 15, 1852. '^

Hamlet, in which his acting was founded on The musical settings that are now best known
his boyish recollections of Macready in tliat
part in Paris. {Musical World.)
are the following ;

(i. ) Faust, opera in five acts

words after Goethe, Ijy Barbier and CaiTe music ;

In London he first appeared atCovent Garden, by Gounod. Produced at the Theatre Lyrique,
April 10, 1860, as Hoel, and returned there March 19, 1859; at the Grand Opera, March
every season until 1866, excepting 1865. His 3, 1869; Her Majesty's Theatre, as 'Faust,'
parts included Don Juan, Figaro in Le Nozze, '
June 11, 1863 (selections had previously been
Tell, Assur, Fernando in 'La Gazza Larlra,' sung at the Canterbury Music Hall, West-
Alfonso XI., Pietro in 'Masaniello,' Rudoljjh in minster) at the Royal Italian Opera, Covent
;

' Sonnambula, St. Bris, Peter the Great, and, on


' Garden, as Faust e Marglierita,' July 2, 1863
'
;

July 2, 1863, Jlephistopheles on production of in English (by Chorley), as 'Faust,' at Her


'
Faust, in which he has never been surpassed.
' Majesty's, Jan. 23, 1864. In Germany some-
In 1870 he played, at Drury Lane, lago in times known as JIargarethe.
'

the revival of Rossini's ' Otello Lotario on '


; (ii.) La Damxatiox de Faust, dramatic
the production in England of Mignon, etc. '
' legend in four parts the words partly adapted
;

From 1871 to 1875 inclusive he was again at from Gerard de Nerval's version of Goetlie, partly
Covent Garden, for the first time there as Ham- written byM. Gandonniere, and partly by Berlioz
let, Caspar, and the Cacique on the production of himself. Composed by Berlioz (op. 24). Per-
Gomez's 'Guarany.' In 1876 he sang at Drury formed(as a concert)at tlieOpera Comique, Paris,
Lane and in 1877 at Her Majesty's for the
; Dec. 6, 1846 two parts given under Berlioz
;

first time in England as De Nevers, and Alfonso at Drury Lane, London, Feb. 7, 1848, selections
in 'Lucrezia,' which part he plaj'ed, May 19, at the same place, June 29 of the same year, and
1877, on tlie occa,sion of the last appearance on at the New Philharmonic Concert of June 9,
the stage of Therese Titiens. In 1857 he was 1852 (in Choiiey's translation). First complete
for a short time Professor of singing at the Paris performance in England under Halle at the Free
Conservatoire. In 1870-72 he sang with great Trade Hall, Manchester, Feb. 5, 1880. In
success in opera at Brussels, and on Jan. 27, 1903 it was put upon the stage at Monte Carlo,
1872, was appointed Inspector of the singing but the experiment, though tried in various
classes at the Conservatoire there. ^ In 1861 theatres, has happily not been piermanently
he appeared at Berlin at Meyerbeer's request, adopted. f. g. e.

but the tremolo in his voice did not please the (iii. ) Mefistofele. Grand opera in a pro-
>

Germans. In 1878, however, he sang in Italian logue and five acts, words (after Goethe) and
at "Vienna with the greatest success in two of his music by Arrigo Boito. Produced at Milan,
best parts, Don Juan and Mephistopheles, etc., March 5, 1868. Remodelled and brought out
and was appointed by the Emperor of Austria again, in a condensed form (prologue and four
'Imperial Chamber Singer.' He also sang in acts), at Bologna, Oct. 4, 1875 at Her Majesty's
;

concert tour of the French provinces, hut for a Theatre, July 6, 1880. [See also Liszt, Pieesox,
long time past he has lived in retirement.] and 'Wagner.] ji.
Faure is a good musician and a fine actor. FAUX-BOURDON, or Falsobordmie, a simple
He is also a collector of pictures and a man of kind of Counterpoint to the Church plain-song
great culture. His voice is a baritone of great in other words, a harmony to the ancient
extent and of very fine quality. In 1859 he chant. The first kind of variation from strictly
married Mademoiselle Lefebvre (1828-1905), unisonous singing in the Middle Ages was the
the chief actress of Dugazon roles at the Opera 'Organum,' or the addition of octaves above
Comique. He has published two books of songs and below the plain-song or melody. Other
(Heugel), and a Train in 1886. G. additions ; parallel concords were also (as in the 'mixture'
by A. c. organ-stops) Ijlended with the octaves — as the
FAUST. Music to Goethe's 'Faust' was com- fifth, and even tlie I'ourth. These appear to have
posed by Lindpaintncr, and appears to have been been used as early as the 8tli century. After the
produced at Stuttgart in June 1832; also by Organum the next improvement was the Dia-
Prince Radziwill, thescoreof which was publislied phonum and Discant, and by the 14th century
in 1836. Spohr's' Faust' (words by Bernhard), a there are historical intimations that these had
' He had previously played thla part in London, during forrr led, by a natural development, to the use of
seasons, IBW-OfJ.
2 Isnardon's Tfiidtre de la ilonnaic.
'
Faux bourdon,' at A\-ignon, whence it was
FAUX-BOUKDON FAUX-BOURDON 17

taken to Rome on
the retnni of tlic Papal Court
absenee from that city.
-after its se^'enty years'
P— 2^— ^- E^£E^?ii
Hawkins (History, ch. 66) mentions an English
MS. tract, by one Chilston, preserved in the
' Manuscript ofWaltham Holy
Cross, 'niostlikcly
of the 14th century, giving rules and directions
'for the sight of descant and ofFoJnirdoii.' . . .
The same harmony by (in four piarts) is given

Gaforius (1451-1522), who is justly considered


Altieri (1S40) a Faux-bourdon
fifth higher. A
on the same tone (transposed into Fj) is given
the father of the artistic music of the great
school which culminated in Counterpoint a la
by M. C. Frank, Paris, 1857 :—
Palestrina, as also Adam da Fulda, about the
same period, among
the earliest writers wlio
are
Et ox

— (S
- ul -

—I
t;i

ik
vit Spi
1-
2ir3'-i!t=»'==t;^=5Z
— — —— • ri - tus
I
me
I
ua

speak of this kind of Irarmouy. M. Daujou -t:^ £i—Q—^—»-^-


discovered, in the library of S.
treatises
Mark, Venice,
by Gulielmus Monachus, from which
C.F.
i^-E->-.u_j_
it isplain that in the 15th century the faux-
bourdon was held in equal honour in England
and in France. in De - o sa, - lu - ta - ri mc
The English term Fa-burden is evidently a
corruption from the French and Italian. Burden,
or Burthen, is used both for the refrain of a part- -r
song or chorus, and for a vocal accompaniment _J_J_J__, J I
J
to dancing £
Foot it featly here and there,
And let the rest the hunkji bear. by Yittoria, Bernabei, de Zacha-
Falsi bordoni

The word Bordonr, and Bourdon, in its pri- , A^iadana will be found in Proske's Musica
riis atid

mary (in both languages) a jiilgrim's


sense, is
Sacra, tom. iii. Liber Vesperarum. , T. H.

staff; hence, from similarity in form, the bass- The treatises by Gulielmus Monachus referred

pipe, or drone, of the bagpipe and thence again ;


to in the above article are printed in the third
simply a deep bass note. As the earliest Folsi volume of Coussemaker's Scriptores, at pp. 273,
bordoni of which we have specimens are prin- 290, and 299. He speaks of Faux-bourdon as
cipally formed, cxcejit at their cadences, by suc- a peculiarly English form of counterpoint (288J,
292rt), stmg by three voices, treble, alto, and
cessions of fourths and sixths below the plain-
song melody, such an accompanying bass, to tenor. The following is his example :

those wdio had liitherto been accustomed to use


the low' octaves of the organum, and to consider
thirds and sixths inadmissible in the harmonised
i^^^si^^i^pi^
accompaniment of the Gregorian chant, would ,^LJ^J^ =^1:
sonndfaisc and this ap)plication of the meaning
;

of the faJso and faux seems a more rational Here the open notes on the lower stave represent
derivation than that sometimes given from fa l- the plain-song melody, wh ich was not sung. The
sefto and fahcftc, as implying the combination open notes above represent the tenor part, the
of the high voices with the low in Falso Bordone np2)er row of black notes are the alto piart, and
harmony. the lou'errow of black notes the treble, which
The following example, from a MS.' copied was of course sung an octave higher. The actual
from authentic sources at Rome,'' will give a notes to be sung are therefore :

better idea of the nature of thi3 kind of Counter- 8ve lower. _


^ 1

^
i
^ I i_
^^i iz
point than any verbal description. It is a Fatix- '--^ti)^rz'^mt- -mi
bourdon, of the 15th century, on the second tone
(transposed from D to G) originally written for ;
Thus we see that in faux-botu'don the canto
three voices with the canto fermo in the alto ]iart
fermo, or an embellished form of it with syn-
and with a soprano part, ad libitum, added by
Eaini :
— coiiations and cadences introduced, is to be
found in the Inhle part the alto sings at tlie :

fourth below, and the tenor sings at the sixth


below, taking the octave on the first and last
C.F.
-S-_(=_d: notes and at any intermediate cadences. Tlve

m
. <=!

unadorned plain-song melody was usually set


Fa
out at the beginning of the composition. The
Olo - ri li

alto part was not, as a rule, written, but was left


1'Octo Melodiae octo Modorum harmonlfe f.ict.ie nt modul.a-
"baiitur aaeculoVIL.ad praescriptum Adami de Falda.ct Frauuhim to the extemjiore skill of the singer. If this
Oaforii.'
For thiaand siniil;ir specimens nf harmoiii^'i to other tunes, see
'^ be biii-ne in mind, the ap]arently involved
'
AcconipanyiDg Hanaonies ot Plaiu-Song.' by Kev. T. Helniore, language of Gulielmus Monachus and of Chilston
Brief Directory, p. v.
TOT^ II
o
18 FAVORITE, LA FAYEFAX
(if he he the author of the second short treatise he succeeded an elder brother as organist of the
on discantinMS. Lansdowne763 sccChilstox) : parish church, Bolton. In 1845, leaving a sister
becomes at once intelligible. Chilston writes to discharge his duties at Bolton, he came to
thus; — Faburden (i.e. the tenor part) hath
' London and entered the Royal Academy of
but two sights {i.e. sites or positions), a third Music, where he studied under Sterndale Ben-
above the plain-song in sight, the which is a nett. During his stay in London (about twelve
sixth from the treble in voice and an even with : months) he officiated as organist of Curzon
the plain-song in sight, the which is an eighth Chapel. On Xov. 4, 1852, he was admitted
from the treble in voice. These two accords to the degree of Bachelor of Music at Oxford,
{i.e. the sixth and eighth below the treble) the his exercise, a cantata, entitled '
Supplication
faburdener must rule by the mean (i.e. the alto) and Thanksgi^'ing,' performed on the previous
of the j)lain-song, for when he shall begin his day, being highly commended by the Professor
faburden, he must attend to the plain-song and of JIusic, Sir H. R. Bishop. Fawcett died, after
set his sight even with the plain-song and his a short illness, at his residence in Manchester,
voice in a fifth below the mean ^ and after that July 1, 1857. w. H. H.
set his sight always above the plain-song in a FAY. See Dotat.
third and, as oft as he will, he may touch the
: FAYOLLE, Francois Joseph Marie, born
plain-song {i.e. descend to the octave below the in Paris, August 15,1774 ; after a brilliant career
treble) and void therefrom, except twice together, at the College de Juilly, entered the corjis des
for that may
not be, inasmuch as the plain-song ponts et chaussees in 1792, and became chef '

sight is an eighth to the treble and a fifth to de brigade of the ficole polytechnique on its
'

the mean (alto), and so to every degree he is a foundation in 1794. Here.undertheinstruction


perfect accord, and two perfect accords of one of Prony, Lagrange, and Monge, he studied the
nature may not be sung together in no degree higher mathematics, but without neglecting
of discant. literature, and with Fontanes' assistance trans-
In the Trent Codices are numerous examples lated a great part of the ..^neid. Of his verses
of faux-bourdons by Dufay, Binchois, and other the following line has alone survived ;

composers of the 15th century. An example Le temps ii'epargne pas ce quon a fait sans ]ui.
by Dufay, printed at p. 163 of Dr. Adler's first
volume of transcripts from these MSS., illus- Though forgotten as a mathematician and a
trates very clearly the method employed, the poet, Fayolle has acquired a solid repiutation for
introduction of embellishments and cadences his services to musical literature. He studied
in the plain-song of the treble part, the move- harmony under Perne, and the violoncello under
ment of the tenor from the octave below to Bami, but abstained from printing his compiosi-
the sixth and vice versd, and the manner in tions and contented himself with pjublishing
;

which the alto supplied the inner harmony Les qimtrc Saisons du Parnnsse (Paris, 1805-9),
extempore. J. r. E. s. a literary collection in sixteen vols. 12mo, for
FAVORITE, LA. Opera in four acts words ;
which he wrote many articles on music and
by Royer and Waetz, music by Donizetti. Pro- musicians. He also furnished the greater jiart
duced at the Academic Royale, Dec. 2, 1840 ;
of the biograpihical notices in the Dictimi-naire
in London, as La Favorita, at Her Majesty's,
'
' historique des Musiciens, puljlished under the
Feb. 16, 1847. names Choron and himself (two vols. Paris,
of
FAWCETT, John, born at Wennington, 1810-11), a work to which Fetis is much indebted.
Lancashire, 1789, was originally a
Dec. 8, In 1813 he published Sur Ics draynes lyriquis lI
shoemaker, but abandoned that calling to follow leiir execution. He collected materials ibr a
the profession of music, at Bolton-le-moors. He History of the Violin, of wdiich, however, only
composed three sets of Psalm and Hymn Tunes, fragments appeared, under the title Notices sur
published at various periods under the titles of CorcHi, Tartini, Gavinies, Pugnani, et VioUi,
The Voice of Devotion, The Harp of Zion, The extraites d'nne- histoire du 1810).
rioloii (Pa,Tis,
Cherub Lute, a.ndMiriam'.sTimbrel{lS62),v;'hic\\ After the fall Fayolle came to
of Napoleon,
are still very popular in Lancashire. In 1840 England, where he taught French, and wrote
he edited and arranged the accompaniments to for the Harmonicon. On the eve of the Revolu-
a collection of psalm and hymn tunes and other tion of 1830 he returned to Paris, and resumed
pieces selected by .Joseph Hart, the music pub- his old occupation as a musical critic. Among
lisher, entitled Melodia Divina.' An oratorio
'
his later works may be mentioned a pamphlet
of his composition, called 'Paradise,' was pub- called Paganini et Biriot (Paris, 1830), and the
lished in 1853. He died at Bolton, Oct. 26, articles on musicians in the supplement to
1867. His third son, Midland's Biographic UniverseUe. He died
John Fawoett, jun., Mus.Bac, was born Dec. 2, 1852, at Ste. Perrine, a house of refuge
about 1824, and when only eleven years old in Paris. G. c.

obtained the a[)pointment of organist at St. FAYRFAX, Robert, Mus.Doc,


believed is

John's Church, Farnworth. Seven years later to have been descended from the ancient York-
1 The MS. reads '
pluiD-soDg,' an (ibvioue ftlip. shire family of that name. He is said to have
FAYRFAX FEIS CEOIL 19

been of Bayford in Hertfordshire, and was prob- sentative of the school of music whicli prevailed
ably horn in the last half of the loth century, in England ti'om the time of Edward lY., and
but nothing is known of his early life. Anthony which may be said to have culminated in hiui.
Wood is no doubt correct in saying that he was His njusic was soon superseded by that of the
Organist or Informator Chori at the Abbey of succeeding generation of composers headed by
St. Albans, with which place he was evidently Tye, and is now for the most part of purely
closely connected. He was at St. Albans on aiitit[uarian interest.
March 28, 1502, when he received 20s. from The Ibllowing is a list of his chief composi-
Queen Elizabeth of York, for setting an Anthem '
tions, mostly in MS. :

of oure lady and Saint Elizabeth.' At the Muss™ a 5 (1| Eegali.* |2| Alban»» (3| Tecum ppineipiuu,
:
'
' ;
' ;

beginning of this year (1501-2) he took his (4) o bone Jheao nil in the Oxford Mu«lc Sehool Collection
;
and
elscMhepe. (5) O quom eloriflca,' Lambeth and Cambridee (61
'

degree of Doctor of ilusic at Cambridge. The Bponsam,' lute arrangement in Epit. Man.
i.J'°SS°„'^,/"*,'
Mb. jy,.J46. An iinnanied Maae at Peterhouse. Camhridce Add. may
words of the Grace for the degree, conceditur '
be identical with one of these.
Motets (1) Ave Dei Patris,' a 5 Bodleian, etc. (2) Maria plena
Magistro Fayorfax erudito in musiea quod post :

Vjrtute, a 5i Bodleian, etc.


' ;

|3| 'Salve Eegina,' a 6; Eton MS.


gradum bacallariatus sua erudieione possit stare, 141 Lauda vivi Alpha et 0,' Peterhouse. etc. (5) Eternae laudis '

hhum. a 5 Peterhouse, etc. (61


; Maria Deo Grata,' Peterhouse. '

etc., may imply that he was already a member O) Ave lumen gratiae.' a4; Brit. Mus. Addl. MS. 5054. (8) In Deo.' '

K. Coll. Music. 'Ave eumme eternitjitis.' printed by Hawkins


of the University they certainly show that he
; inist. ii. 516), is an extract from Ko. (1) Ave Dei Patria.' '

had made liis reputation as a musician at that A Magnificat a 5, called 'Regalia, 'is at Peterhouse, and (without
coiuposer'B name) at Lambeth a second Magnificat is at Lambeth.
;

date [Abdy "Williams, Degrees in Music\. The Slagnificats at Cains Coll. and St. Michael's Coll., Tenbury may be
identical with one or other of these- IntheEton MS. wei-efornieriy
exercise for his forme in proceadinge to bee
' 'Quid cantemns Innocentes.' 'Stabat Mater,' 'Ave lumen grade.'
.-ind 'Ave cujus coneepcio.' Lute veraiona of three of the above-
Doctor was a live-part Mass,
' quam glorifica, '
named compositions are in Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 29.246. An in-
strumental piece o 3, appjirently a Canon, is in Add. MS. 31,9'22.
which is still in existence [Lambeth, Cod. 1]. Two Bonga by Fayrfax were printed in Wynkyn de Worde's Song-
He was incorporated at O.xford in 1511, being book, 1530 Ut re mi fa aol la,' a 4, and My heartes luat,' a 3.
;
' '
A
fragment of a song, Welcome fortune.' is preserved at Ely Cathedral
'

the first recorded Doctor of Music there. In the Fayrfax MS., Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 5465, are (1) 'That was my
woo,' a 2 (2) Most clere of colour,' a 3; (3) 1 love, loved and lo\ ed
;
' '

Fayrfax seems to have enjoyed the favour of wolde I be,' a 3 (4) Alas for lak of her preaens,' a 3; (5) Sumwiiat
;
'
'

musyng.'a 3. The title-page also indicates two other songs ajj being
Henry YIII., after whose accession he was by Fayrfax, though his name is not written against them. (6)
granted an annuity of £9 2 6 (June 22, 1509), : ;
'
Benedicite, what dremyd J,' a 3; (7) '
To complayne me, alas.' a 3.

being described as 'gentleman of the Chapel.' Burney printed 'That was my woo,' which
At Christmas, 1510, and the two following he thought (for no good reason) may have been
years, he was paid for the board and instruction addressed to Henry YII. after the battle of
of two choir-boys, 'the King's scholars.' On Bosworth (Hist. ii. 647) also extracts from ;

March 6, 1512-1-3, John Fyssher, gentleman of some of the Masses. The songs numbere'd 2, 3,
the Chapel, received a Corrody in the Monastery 4, 6, and 7 were printed by Stafford Smith in
of Stanley, on its surrender by Robert Fayrfax. A Collection of Enejlish Songs. No. 3 is also
In Nov. 151-3, Fayrfax resigned his annuity of printed by the Plain-song and Medifeval Mu.sio
£9:2:6, which was granted afresh in suri-ivor- '
Society in Songs and Madrigals of the l(>lh
ship to Robert Fayrfax and Robert Bythcsee.
' Century. c.. E. p. A.

On Sept. 10, 1514, he was appointed one of the FEEN, DIE. Opera in three acts: words
Poor Knights of "Windsor, with 12d. a day. and music by Y'agner. AVritten at "Wiirzburg
Other entries in the State Papers between 1516 in 1833 (the plot adapted from Gozzi's Donna '

and 1519 relate to sums paid to Fayrfax for a '


Serpente'), excerpts tried in the following ye:ir,
'
book (£13 6 8)
'
for a book of anthems
: : ;
'
but never performed complete until it 'was
(£20) for a prick songe book (£20)
;
'
for a '
;
'
produced at Munich in 1888.
balet boke limned (£20) showing that he
' ; FEIS CEOIL, THE (Irish Musical Festival),
found emploj'ment as a writer ami illuminator was inaugurated in Dublin on May 17-22, 1897.
of MSS. the celebrated Fayrfax MS. (Brit.
: The event takes place annually in May, and occu-
Mus. Add. MS. 6465) may well have been one pies aweek. Itconsistsof concerts (orchestral and
of these (see Diet. Xat. Biog. for reference to ballad),and public competitions in choral and
State Papers). In 1520 Fayrfax, with the rest solo singing,and in ensemble and solo instru-
of the Chapel, attended tlie King to the Field mental playing in all branches, which are adjudi-
of the Cloth of Gold, being named at the head cated upon by prominent musicians living out
of the singing men. His death probably took of Ireland. Competitions also in various classes
place before Jan. 1, 1525-26, as his name does of musical composition are held, previous to the
not then appear in the list of gentlemen of the actual festival, the works which obtain prizes
King's Chapel he was certainly dead before
; being performed at the concerts. The objects
Feb. 12, 1528-29, when Bythesee suri-endered of the Association are, briefly :
(1) To promote
the annuity granted in 1513. He was buried the study and cultivation of Irish music. (2) To
in St. Albans Abbey, his tombstone being after- promote the general cultivation of music iu
wards covered by the Mayoress's seat, according Ireland. (3) To hold an annual JIusical Festival,
to the Fayrfax MS. or Feis Ceoil. (4) To collect and preserve by
Fayrfax was in his day (as Anthony "Wood luiblication the ancient music of Ireland. Tlie
says) in great renowne and accounted the prime
' Association lias its headquarters in Dublin.
musitian of the nation.' He is the chief repre- The secoiiil and fourth festivals (1898 and
20 FELDLAGEE IN SCHLESIEN, EIN EENTON
1900) were held at Belfast ; all the others in the feelings of distress and almost despair of
Dublin. E. 0. the Amsterdam patriots yet that solace ceased
;

FELDLAGEE IN SCHLESIEN, EIN. Opera once more towards the close of 1813, the country
in three acts, words by Eellstab, music by being in a state of insurrection against the
Meyerbeer written and coruposed in memory
; French. After 1815 came peace and the gentle
of Frederick the Great for the reopening of the arts again, and during a great part of the 19th
Berlin Opera-house —burnt August 18, 184.3 ;
century great was the spiritual harvest of the
reopened Dec. 7, 1844. It was performed with '
happy through their deserts '
! The society
extraordinary applause at Vienna, Feb. 17,1847, ceased to exist in 1888.
with Jenny Lind as Vielka eighty florins were ; The name Felix Meritis was more than once
given for places, and Meyerbeer was called on applied by Robert Schumann to Felix Mendels-
ten times. The Feldlager appears never to
'
' sohn ; see Gesammdtc Hchriften (Leipzig, 1854),
have been played either in France or England, i. 219 ; also i. 191, 192, and 193. A. .J. H.
but some of the music was afterwards used up FELTON, Rev. William, born 1713, [B.A.
in the Etoile du Nord."
'
G. Cambridge, 1738, M.A. 1745, vicar-choral and
FELIX MERITIS, an institution in Amster- sub-chanter of Hereford Cathedral in 1741,
dam that included witli tlie performance of music custos of the vicars-choral in 1769, and chaplain
the cultivation of letters, art, and science. It to the Princess -Dowager of Wales]. He was
occupied a building architecturally important, distinguished in his day as a composer for, and
with a large concert-room, library, and obser- performer on, the organ and harpsichord. He
vatory, situated on the Keizersgracht, one of the published three sets of concertos for those
larger canals. Orchestral concerts took place in instruments in imitation of those of Handel.
the winter, similar to those of the London Burney, in the life of Handel prefixed to his
Philharmonic and the Crystal Palace. The account of the Commemoration, relates (p. 32),
usual number was ten, and the subscription on the authority of Abraham Brown the violinist ,

was equivalent to £5. The early history of a droll anecdote of Felton's unsuccessful attempt,
Felix Meritis has been narrated by Professor through Brown, to jirocure the name of Handel
Jorisson on the occasion of the Centenary, Nov. as a subscriber to the second set of these
2, 1877. It was founded in 1777, beginning concertos. Felton also published two or three
its existence on the Leliegracht of Amster- sets of lessons for the same instruments. He
dam. The founders intended it to be for ' was one of the stewards of the Meeting of the
the furtherance of landaUe and useful arts Three Choirs at Hereford 1 744, and at Gloucester
and sciences the augmentation of reason and
;
1745. He was vicar of Norton Canon, 1751-69.
virtue the increase and prosperity of trade,
;
'
Felton's Gavot' was long highly ]>opular it ;

navigation, agriculture, and fishery,' etc. etc. was introduced into Ciampi's Bertoldo in '
'

But Felix Ijegan at once \\itli music and fine 1762. He died suddenly, Dec. 6, 1769, and
art, adding literature to the scheme two years was buried in the vestibule of the Lady Chapel
later. The original locale soon proved to be too in Hereford Cathedral. w. H. H. additions ;

small, and in May 1782 the members removed from Diet, of Nat. Biog.
to the Vorburgwal. In 1785 continued increase FENELL (name also written ffinell),
determined the erection of the present building Thomas, was an Irish musician, and "was A'icar-
on the Keizersgracht completed three years after,
, Choral of St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, in
and with 400 members, instead of, as at first, 1677, of which he was organist from 1689 to
40. (On May 1, 1876, the number of members 1694, with the exception of the year 1691-92,
of all classes was 324.) The wave of disturbance when William Isaac took his place. Dr.
caused by the French Revolution waslied over Cummings says that there are some ilS. works
Felix Meritis, and in 1792, through want of by Thomas Fenell of Dublin, dated 1689, in
funds, the concerts ceased. However, the leaders the music library of Chester Cathedral. From
of the institution would not allow it to sink in 1694 to 1698 he was organist and vicar-choral
the vortex of political speculation and, in the ; of Christ Church Cathedral. In 1698 he re-
abolition of societies throughout Holland this signed, and died about the year 1708-9. He
onewas exempted. During the clatter of weapons was constantly in difficulties owing to his
the Muses were silent, but in 1800 the comple- temper. -w. h. g. f.
ment of members was again full, and in 1806 FENTON, L.AYixiA, born in London, 1708,
the reading-room, long closed during the pro- whose real name was Beswiok, \vas an actress
hibition of newspapers, opened again. In that and singer who first appeared in 1726 at the
year Louis Bonaparte, made King of Holland, Haymarkct Theatre as Jlonimia in Otwaj^'s
offered his protection, which was declined, as 'Orphan,' anri afterwards at Lincoln's Inn
was also the proposal that the public business Fields Theatre, July 15, 1726, as Lucilla in
of the country should l>e carried on in the Sir W. Davenant's comedy, The Jlan's the
'

building. Napoleon I. and Marie Louise, were, Master.' She attracted no particular atten-
however, later received in it. In these troubled tion until slie appeared as Polly Peachum in
times the music of Felix Meritis tended to soften '
The Beggar's Opera,' on the first night of its
FEO FERRABOSCO 21

performance. Jan. 29, 1728, when she 'became voices, accompanied by the organ, I'tc. The
all at once the idol of the town her pictures ; two kinds are known respectively as the ferial
were engraven and sold in great numbers her ; use and festal use. o.
life written books of letters and verses to her
; FERLENDIS, Si(;>;ora, daughter of an
published and pamphlets made of even her
; architect nauu'd Barberi, born at Rome about
very sayings and jests.' This success led to 1778. Her voice was a strong contralto, but
her being entrusted Avith more important parts somewhat hard and iutlc-xible. Having studied
than had before been assigned to her. At the with a teacher called iloscheri, she made her
end of the season, after she had played Polly debut at Lisbon. Here she had the advantage
upwards of sixty times, she withdrew from the of some lessons from Crescentini, and liere also
stage and went to live with Charles, third Duke (1802) she married Alessandro Ferlendis, the
of Bolton. On Oct. 21, 1751, his wife, from oboist, member of a very distinguished Italian
whom he had been separated many years, leav- family of jilayers on the oboe and English horn.
ing died, the Duke married Lavinia Beswick at She appeared at Madrid in the next year, at
Aix,in Provence. She became awidowin 1754 ;
Milan in 1804, and in 1805 at Paris (Theatre
died Jan. 24, 1760, at West Combe Park, Luuvois) in Fioravanti's Caprieciosa pentita.
'

Greenwich, and was buried in Greenwich She achieved there, however, no success in any
Church, Feb. 3, 1760. w". h. h. other role but that one. Soon after this, she
FEO, Fr.a.nce,sco, one of the masters of the made her first appearance in London with
Neapolitan school, was born at Naples about Catalani in Cimarosa's Orazi e Curiazzi.'
'
She
1685. The traditions of Greco and Scarlatti was a prett3' good actress, and at that time first
'

were still fresh there, and it was at the sug- bulla she was less liked than she deser"\'ed, for
;

gestion of the last named that Domenico Gizzi she had a very good contralto voice, and was far
had opened the private school at which Feo from a bad butfa. She would have been thouglit,
learnt tlie art of singing and the princijiles of too, to have acted the jtart of Orazia well, had
composition. His bent was essentially dramatic, it not been for the comparison with Grassini,

as indeed was that of nearly all the Neapolitans and for Catalani's then eclipsing everybod}'.
of his epoch, with the exception of Durante, (Lord Mount-Edgcumbe. ) She accompanied her
whose colder and gloomier temperament predis- husband to Italy in 1810 ; her later career is

posed him towards the ecclesiastical se^'erities not known. J. M.


of the Pwoman style. Feo, like Durante and FERMATA is the Italian name for the sign

Leo, passed some time at the Vatican as the ^, which in English is commonly called a
pupil of Pitoni, but the influence of liis master Pause, and signifies that the note over which it
was not sufficient to divert him from Opera.
'
is placed should be held on beyond its ^
His Ipermestra,' Ariana,' and 'Andromache
' ' natural duration. It is sometimes H

were all published at Rome itself, and appar- fait over a bar or double bar, in which
''

ently during his residence there. [The MSS. case it intimates a short interval of silence.
in the Real Collegio di Musica at Naples in- Schumann, in the first mov^ement of his
clude two other operas, L' Amor tirannico '
'
'
Faschingsschwank in Wien for the pianoforte, '

(1713), and Siface (1723). Various oratorios,


' '
has tlie sign over the double bar in this manner,
masses, etc., are mentioned in the Quellen- where the key changes from two flats to six
Lexikon.] In 1730 he was director of the sharps, and has also written Kurze Pause.' '

Conservatorio de' Poveri di Gesii Cristo at [In the older music the sign for the fermata is
Naples, and did much to establish the school used, as frequently by Bach, merely as indicat-
as a nursery of great singers. Though addicted ing the end of the piece, after a Da Capo, when
to the stage, Feo did not altogether neglect modern composers usually write the word
Church music, and his work is distinguished by '
fine.' It docs not then imply any pause in the
elevation of style and profound scientific know- music between the first and second part of the
ledge. But a certain sensuousness, even in his number.] c. H. H. P.

sacred pieces, suggested by tlie fact that


is FERNAND CORTEZ, OU LA CONQUETE
Gluck borrowed the subject of a Kyrie by him DU MEXIQUE. Opera in three acts words ;

for a chorus in one of his operas. [According by Esmenard and De Jouy, after Piron music ;

to Florimo he was living in 1740.] E. H. r. by Spontini. Produced at the Academic Im-


FERIAL and FESTAL. In the Christian periale, Nov. 28, 1809 at Dresden, March
;

Church from very early times the term Fcria 1812 after revision by the composer, at Paris,
;

sccunda was used to denote Monday, Feria tertia May 28, 1817 ; Berlin, April 20, 1818.
Tuesday, and so on. Hence tlie word Fcrui-, or FERRABOSCO,At,FONso(I), generally known
Ferial day, came to denote a day marked by in England as ]\Iaster Alfonso, was one of the
no special observance, either of a festal or a sons of Domenico Maria Ferabosco, maestro di
penitential character. So far as music is con- cappella to the church of St. Petronio at Bologna.
cerned, tlie chief difference is that on the ferial He was already settled in England in 1562, at
days the music is less elaborate and ornate than which date he was in receipt of a pension of
on festal days, when it is more florid, for more 100 marks a year, payable during the Queen's
22 FERRABOSCO FERRABOSCO
pleasure. It is possible thathe had arrived dare to travel in prohibited places, for fear of
some years 1564 he speaks of his
earlier, for in '
leaving his family at the mercy of the Inquisi-
long service and of his youth and health spent
'
'
tion. He did, however, eventually return to
in the Queen's service,' but it would probably England, and in .June 1572, was concerned in
be a mistake to attach much importance to a Masque presented before the (Jueen and the
phrases of tliis kind. In a letter to the Earl of French Amljassador. He appears to have re-
Leicester he states that he had left Bologna mained in England (probably living at Green-
"without the necessary licence from the Inquisi- wich, where his son Alfonso was born) till the
tion, which had consequently confiscated the year 1578, when he finally quitted the country,
property which his father had left him. His and having bound himself never to
(in spite of
father, however, was alive for some years after- enter any other service than that of the Queen)
wards, and it is probable that his letters (of entered the ser-vdce of the Duke of Savoy, at
which many exist written to Leicester, Sussex, whose Court he was given some appointment,
and Sir William Cecil) were rather intended to for he describes himself as Gentil'huomo dell' '

excite the interest and generosity of his patrons Altezza di Savoia.' He left his two children
than to contain an exact narrative of facts. in England, where they remained in the charge
These letters (dating from Oct. 1564), besides of Corner van Austerwyke, one of the Queen's
excuses for non-attendance at Court on account Musicians. Six years later he sent for them,
of ill-health, etc., are chiefly taken up with but the Queen refused to let them go (perhaps
reasons why the Queen's bounty should be farther regarding them as hostages for the return of
extended to him. On Sept. 10, 1567, he heard their father), and Austerwyke was still unpaid
that the Queen had granted him a pension for for their keeji atthe date of Ferrabosco's death,
his life so long as he remained in her service, which took place at Turin in 1588.
-and wrote to ask that this might be secured to The eldest Alfonso Ferrabosco was the most
him in case of her death by the insertion into important of the Italian musicians wJio lived
the Patent of the words heredibus et sueces-
'
in England in the 16th century, and was held
soribus nostris. ' Perhaps partly on this account, in high estimation among his contemporaries.
but also on account of the unfriendly construc- 'For judgment and depth of skill,' says
tion which his enemies put upon a visit paid by Peacham in 1622, 'he was inferior to none;
liim to the French Ambassador, on Sept. 23 he what he did was most elaborate and profound,
was in disgrace, and the Queen refused to see and pleasing enough in Aire, though Master
him. To add to his troubles, a young foreign Thomas Morley censureth him otherwise. That
musician of Sir Philip Sidney's household was of his Isav) my Lcu/Ae weeping, and the XighUn-
murdered as he w^as going to Court to exhibit gaU (upon Avhich Dittie Master Bird and he in
his skill, and Court gossip acous(>d Ferrabosco a friendly aemulation exercised their in\'ention)
of killing him out of jealousy. He indignantly cannot be bettered forsweetnesse of Aire or depth
wrote to Sussex to protest his innocence (Oct. 13, of judgement. Morley tells us of another 'ver-
'

1567), saying that the young man was a friend tuous contention' between him and Bj'rd 'made
of his, and that he was in the country when the upon the plaine song Miserere, which contention
affair happened. In a later letter (Dec. 28) he of theirs (specially without enide) caused them
complains that until the Queen consentcil to both to become excellent in that kinde, and
receive him, it was generally supposed abroad, winne such a name, and gaine such credit, as
as well as in England, that he was guilty of the will never perish so long as Musick endureth.'
murder. After some delay the matter was The results of this contention, in which each
settled, and in March 1563-69, Ferrabosco, in composer set the plain-song in forty different
writing, bound himself to the Queen's service ways, were printed by East in 1603, under the
for life, and received a pension of £100 a year. title of '
Medulla Musicke '
; no copy of it, how-
The Patent dated March 26, 1569, contains the ever, is now known to exist.
words 'heredibus et successoribus nostris.' At His other printed works are a five-part :

thesame time Alfonso obtained leave(after pledg- madrigal 'Tu dole' anima,' contributed to Pever-
ing himself to return) to visit Italy in order to nage's Harmonia Celeste' (Antwerp, 1583).
'

settle his atfairs. Accordingly, on June 25, he Two Sets of five-part madrigals by him ap-
writes from Paris where he was delayed, partly peared at Venice in 1587 the first set contain-
;

by business which he was arranging with a ing twenty madrigals is dedicated to the Duke
brother who was to accompany him to Italy, and of Savoy the second set containing nineteen
;

partly through having been robbed of all his madrigals is dedicated to the Duchess of Savoy.
property by his English servant. He writes Many of his madrigals found their way into
from Bologna on Oct. 30 of this year, promising English collections: 'MusieaTransalpina' (1588)
to return with as little delay as possible, but in contains fourteen by him Musica Transal- ;
'

September of the following year he is still mak- pina' (1597) contains six ;
five are in Jlorley's
ing excuses from Bologna besides ill-health and
; collection of 1598. Many of these are taken
business, he is delayed by the difficulty in obtain- from the two Sets of 1587.
ing the Pope's licence, without which he did not Two pieces for the lute by the most '
Artificial!
FERRABOSCO FEREABOSCO 23

and famous Alfonso Ferrabosco of Bologna were ' Ferrabosco is said to have sold his share '
for a
printed by Robert Dowland in his Varietie of '
great sum of money.'
Lute-lessons,' 1610. On the accession of Charles I. Ferrabosco re-
A large number of MS. works by him, ohiefly tained his former appointments, and was also
Motets, are in the British Museum Bodleian ; made Composer of Music in Ordinary to the
and JIusic School, O.xford St. Michael's College,
; King, with a salary of £40, from the death of
Tenbury Buckingham Palace
; and Royal ; John Coperario in 1626. He was also Composer
College of Music Libraries. G. e. r. a. of the King's Music, with aii additional salary
FERRABOSCO, Alfonso (II), son of the of £40. He died before March 11, 1627-28,
first Alfonso, was born at Greenwich, and no when he was buried at Greenwich, where he
doubt was one of the children left behind in seems to have lived at any rate after 1619.
England when their father returned to Italy in Entries relating to members of his family are
1578. 'He was trained up to Musick,' says to be found in the Greenwich parish registers
Anthony Wood, apparently at the Queen's ex- (printed in the Musician, Sept. 20, 1897).
pense at any rate, after Oct. 11, 1592, he was
; Ferrabosco published two volumes of music in
in receipt of an annuity of £26 13 4, which : : 1609. The first, a book of Aj'res, dedicated '
'

was paid up to Midsummer 1601. After James to Prince Henry, contains twenty-eight songs
I.'s accession he appears as one of the King's with accompaniment for lute and bass viol, of
Musicians for the Violins, a year's salary of £7 wdiich a large proportion are from Jonson's
being paid him at Michaelmas 1603. He held Masques. The other is a book of Lessons '

his place as one of the violins until his death, for 1. 2. and 3. Viols,' dedicated to the
by which time his salary had been raised to Earl of Southampton. They consist of short
£40. l_Audit Office, Declared Accounts.'] pieces, dances, etc., for the lyra viol, and are
At man's estate he became an excellent com-
'
printed in lute tablature. Each of these volumes
poser for instrumental musick,' says Anthony contains (amongst others) commendatory verses
"Wood, lie was most excellent at the Lyra Viol,
'
by Ben Jonson the first has also some verses
;

and was one of the first that set lessons Lyra- by Campion, addressing Ferrabosco as Musick's '

way to the Viol, in imitation of the old English maister and the offspring Of rich Musick's
|

Lute and Bandora. The most famous man in Father Old Alfonso's Image living.'
]
He also
all the Fantazias of 5 or 6 parts.'
^\'orld for contributed three compositions to Leighton's
'
The l}'re is in liigh favour with them, writes '
'
Teares or Lamentacions in 1614. ' Com-
Andre Maugars from Rome in 1639, 'but I positions in MS. (chiefly Fancies for the \\o\s)
have heard none who could be compared with are in the libraries of the Royal Coll. of ilusic ;

Farabosco in England.' But it is chiefly as the Music School, and Christ Church, Oxford ;

composer of the music to some of Ben Jonson's and the British Museum. G. E. P. A.
Masijues that he is now remembered. Those FERRABOSCO, Alfonso (III), son of
for which he is known to have written music Alfonso (II), succeeded on his father's death to
were 'The Masque of Blackness' (Tu-elflh Xigfif, the pension of £50, which he had enjoyed as
1604-5), 'Hymenad' (1605-6), 'The Masque former music -master to the Prince of Wales ;

of Beauty' (1607-8), 'The Masque for Lord and also to his })lace as ilusician for the Viols
Haddington's Marriage' (1607-8) and 'The and Wind Instruments. The latter double
Masque of Queens' (1608-9). The printed appointment entitled the holder to two liveries
description of the '
Hymensei ' (in which Ferra- of £16 2 6 each, which were secured to Ferra-
: ;

bosco appeared as singer as well as composer) bosco by a deed dated Feb. 7, 1627-1628.
contains a testimony to the friendship existing His name occurs as one of the musicians in
at that date between him and Jonson, in a warm 1635, and again in 1641. He must have
eulogy of the composer, which, however, was died before the re-establishment of the King's
omitted in the folio edition of 1616. In 1604 Musicians in 1660, when Child succeeded to
(Xov. 27) he was entrusted with £20 to buy '
Ferabosco's place —
Alphonsus composer of
two viols for Henry, Prince of Wales, to whom Wind M. and Hingeston for a viol place of
,
'
'

he was appointed music-master, witli a pension Alphonso Ferabosco. G. E. P. A.


of £50 a year for life (dating from Christmas, FERRABOSCO, Henry, son of Alfonso (II),
1604); on the death of Henry in 1612 his and brother of Alfonso (III), succeeded his
services were transferred to Charles, the new father as Composer of the King's Music, and as
Prince of Wales. To these sources of income one of the King's ^Musicians, receiving a salary
was added in 1619 a share in a valuable property, of £40 for each^place. On Feb. 7, 1627-28, he
a grant for twenty-one years to him. Innocent secured his double liver}' as Musician for the
Lanier and Hugh Lydiard for cleansing the '
Voices and for the AVind Instruments. His
Thames of fiats and shelves with power to sell '
name appears as one of the Musicians at different
the sand and gravel with, in addition,; an ' dates up to 1645, when lie signed receipts on
allowance to them of one penny jier ton of behalf of the Musicians, the Court being then
strangers' goodsand merchandises imported or at Oxford. His daughter Elizabeth, baptized
exported into or out of the Port of London.' at Greenwich, Dec. 3, 1640, may possibly have
24 FERRABOSCO FERRARI
been the Mrs. Ferrabosco whom Pepys thought Francesca Gabrielli, an Italian singer, native of
of engaging as gentlewoman for hia wife, who Ferrara. When Burney was in Venice, in August
'sings most admirably {Diary, Sept. 4, lee-l).
'
1770 he heard at the Ospedaletto an orphan girl
She was afterwards in the suite of the Duchess la Fcrrarese with an extraordinary eomj lass
' and '

of Jfewcastle {Diary, May 30, 1667). Henry a fair natural voice.


' Slie sang in London from
'

Ferrabosco may be identilied with the Captain 1784 to 1787 in Cherubini's 'Giulio Sabino' and
Henry Ferribosco who took part in the expedi- other parts, but without much success. In 1 789
tion to Jamaica where he was killed. The she was prima donna in ^'icnna. Mozart wrote
committee appointed to report on arrears of pay, for her the Rondo 'Al desio,' introduced into
etc., due to relatives of tliose who fought there the part of the Countess in Figaro on its revival
'
'

recommend (.lune 10, 16.58) that a sum of £240 August 1789, and she played Fiordiligi in 'Cos!
should be paid for hve small children of Cajit.
'
fan tutte' at its production, Jan. 26, 1790.
Henry Ferribosco, lately slayne by the Enemy Mozart did not think much of her, I'or in speak-
in Jamaica, his wife being also dead since his ing of AUegrandi he says, she is much better
'

departure from England.' His place as Musi- than the Ferrarese, though that is not saying
cian was filled by Thomas Bates at the a great deal.' She probably owed her good
Restoration. G. e. p. a. fortune to her pretty eyes and mouth, and to
FERRABOSCO, John, was probably the son her intrigue with da Ponte, with whom she
of Alfonso (II), who was
baptized at Green-\\ich, lived as his mistress for three years. In the
Oct. 1626.
9, There is a warrant dated Jan. end she quarrelled with the other singers, and
17, 1631, for delivery of Chamlett and other was sent from Vienna by the Emperor. G.

necessaries yearly to John Ferrabosco, one of FERRARI, Benedetto, called 'dallaTiorba,'


His Majesty's JIusiciaus for the wind instru- an Italian musician, and composer of words and
ments, in the room of Henry Ferrabosco, during music for the species of Italian dramas called
His Majesty's pleasure. As Henry was still 'dramme per musica,' was born at Reggio about
holding his place as Musician for the "Wind 1597 [as according to a portrait prefixed to
;

Instrunrents in 1634, this must have been a his 'Andromeda' (printed 1637) he was forty
temporary arrangement, made solely with a view years old at that time.] From a letter, now in
to providing for the child of a favouritemusician ;
the archives of Modena, -written by him to the
it is possible, however, that there were two Duke of Modena in 1623, we learn that his
musicians of this name. John Ferrabosco •^^a3 reputation as a musician, and especially as a
appointed organist of Ely Cathedral in 1662 ;
player on the theorbo, was by that time con-
many anthems and services by him still exist siderable. It was largely owing to him that
there in ilS. In 1671 he took the degree of the dramma musicale took such deep root in
' '

Mus.B. at Cambridge 'per literas regias Italy and Germany, and herein lies his chief
(Dickson's Catalogue of Music at Ely). The interest for us. His opera 'Andromeda,' set
registers of Trinity Church, Ely, show that he to music by Manelli and brought out at the
married Anne Burton on June 28, 1679 their ; Teatro San Cassiano at Venice in 1637, was the
child John was baptized in the following August, first opera pierformed before a mixed audience.
and Avas buried May 8, 1682 John Ferrabosco ; Inl639 followed his Adone,' set b3'Monteverde,
'

himself was buried Oct. 15, 1682. G. E. p. A. and Armida, of w'hich he wrote both words
'
'

FERRARA. The earliest and best-known and music. Its success induced Ferrari to
musical academy in Ferrara was that of the devote himself more to composition than before.
'Intrepidi,' founded in 1600 by Giambattista He remained in Venice till 1645, when he [was
Aleotti d'Argenta for dramatic musical repre- in the Court band at Modena in 1651 he] was
:

sentations. The magistrates of the city allowed invited to Vienna by the Emperor Ferdinand,
the academicians 100 scudi a year for public and remained in his service till 1653. A ballet
celebrations in their theatre. Previous to the by him was performed at tlie Diet of Ratisbon
founding of this academy, Ferrara could boast in 1653. In the same year he was appointed
one of the most magnificent theatres of Italy, maestro di cajipella to Duke Alfonso of Modena,
opened in 1484 by Ercole I., Duke of Ferrara, on whose deatli in 1662 he was dismissed, but he
in which were celebrated the Feste Musicali,' '
was reappointed in 1674, and died in possession
those earliest forms of the musical drama universal of the post Oct. 22, 1681. His librettos were
in Italy in the 15th century. While the 'Orfeo' collected and printed at Jlilan and Piacenza,
of Poliziano was represented at Mantua, the and passed through several editions none of ;

theatre of Ferrara witnessed the Cefalo of '


' these collections, however, are complete. The
Niccoli da Correggio, the 'Feast of Anfitrione library at Modena contains several of his MSS.,
and Sosia,' and others. The 'Intrepidi' in 1607 including the ballet Dafne in alloro (Vienna,
' '

represented with great pomp the Pastorale called 1651). [This is not mentioned in the QncUcn-
'
La Filla di Sciro ' by Guidubaldo Bonarelli. LcxiJion as still extant, but an oratorio Sansone '

Fresoobalrli was a native of Ferrara,and made is noted as at Modena.] We have not sufficient
his studies there. u. M. p. materials to form any oi>iriion on the style of
FERRARESE DEL BENE, the sobriquet of his music. He published at Venice in 1633,
FERRARI FERRI
1637, and HUl, three books of '
Musiche varie Aneddotfi occorsinellavitadiG. G. Ferrari,
. . .

a voce sola,' iu which, according to Burney, the 2 vols. London, 1830. Besides the operas, ballets,
term Cantata' occurs for tlie first time, altliougli
'
and songs already named, Ferrari composed an
the invention of this Ivind of piece was claimed extraordinary quantity of music for the voice,
by Barbara Strozzi twenty years later, f. g. pianoforte, flute, and harp. [See Quellen-
FERRARI, DoMENico, an eminent Italian Lcrtkon.] F. G.
violin player, born at Piacenza at the be^innini,^ FERREL, Jean Francois, musician in Paris
of the 18th century. He was a pupil of Tartini, about the middle of the 17th century, wrote
and lived for a number of years at Cremona. a small pamphlet, A savoir que les maistres
About the year 1749 he began to travel, and de dance, qui sont de vrays maistres larrons a
met with great success at Vienna, where he was I'endroit des violons de France, n'ont pas royale
considered the greatest living violin player. commission d'incorporrer is leur compagnie les
In 1753 he became a member of the band of orffardstes et austres musiciens, comrae aussy de
the Duke of Wiirtemberg at Stuttgart, of which leur faire paler redevance, demonstre par J. F.
Nardini was at that time leader. If Ferrari Ferrel, praticien de musiqae a Paris, natif de
was a pupil of Tartini, he certainly, according I'Aiijou (Paris, 1659). This was the signal for
to contemporary critics, did not retain the style a contest lasting for 100 years, between the
of that great master in after life. He had an French musicians and the dancing-masters, whose
astonishing ability in the execution of octave- chief, the roi des me'netriers,' claimed jurisdic-
'

runs and harmonics, and appears altogether to tion over all musicians. Hard words were ex-
have been more a player than a musician. He changed o]i both sides, and after several law-suits
twice visited Paris, at first in 1751, and played a decree of the Paris Parliament in 1750 settled
there with great success. He died at Paris the question in favour of the musicians. Some
in 1780, according to report, by the hand of of the x^amphlets had curious titles for example. ;

a murderer. Ferrari published sets of six La cloche felee, ou le bruit faict par un musicien
Violin-Sonatas (Paris and London), and some qui ne veult etre maistre de dance parce qu'il ne
for two violins and bass which, however, are salt sur quel pied se tenir, and Discours pour
now forgotten. p. D. prouver que la danse dans sa plus noble partie
FERRARI, GiACOMO GoTirREDO, a cultivated n'a pias besoin des instrumens de nuisique, et
and versatile musician, son of a merchant at qu'elle estentouteindependanteduviolon. [See
Roveredo, born there 1759. He learned the Fctis.] M. c. c.
pianoforte at Verona, and the flute, violin, oboe, FERRETTI, Giovanni, born at Venice about
and double-bass at Roveredo, and studied theory 1540 [lived in where he
Anoona from 1569,
under Pater Marianus Steoher at the convent of was maestro from
di cappella at the cathedral
Mariaberg near Chur. After his father's death 1.575 to 1.585], composed five books of Canzoni '

he accompanied Prince Lichtenstein to Rome in five parts (Venice, 1567-91), two books in six
and Naples, and studied for two years and a half parts (Venice, 1573-86), and another of five-part
under Latilla on Pai.siello's recommendation. madrigals (Venice, 1588), all excellent examples
Here also he made the acquaintance of M. of their kind. A madrigal of his, '
Slat' avertiti,'
Campan, Marie Antoinette's master of the house- for five voices, included in Webb's madrigals,
is

hold, and went with him to Paris, where he was and in vol. iii. of Novello's Glee Hive. m. c. c.
appointed accompanist to the new The'atre FERRI, Baldassare, one of the most extra-
Feydeau. In 1793 the company was dispersed, ordinary singers who ever lived, was born at
and Ferrari shortly afterwards left France. Perugia, Dec.9, 1610. He owed to an accident
Having travelled for some time he finally settled iu hisboyhood the operation by which he became
in London, where he composed a very large a sopranist. At the age of eleven he entered the
number of works, including four operas and two service of the Bishop of Orvieto as a chorister,
ballets. In 1801 he married Miss Henry, a and remained there until 1625, when Prince
well-known pianist. From 1809 to 1812 he Vladislas of Poland, then on a visit at Rome,
suffered from loss of sight. In 1814 he went carried him off to his father's Court. In 1665
to Italy with Broadwood the pianoforte-maker, he was transferred to Ferdinand HI., Emperor
and visited Naples, Venice, etc., returning in of Germany, whose successor, Leopold I., loaded
1816. He died in London, Dec. 1842. He was him with riches and honours. This prince h,ad
an active teacher of singing, and published a a portrait of Ferri crowned with laurels, hanging
,

Treatise on Sinr/iny in 2 vols., of which a iu his bed-chamber, and inscribed, Baldassare '

French translation appeared in 1827. His Ferugino, Re dei Musici.' At the age of sixty-
Studio di musica prattica e teorica (London) is five he received permission to retire to his native
a useful treatise. Two of his French songs, country, with a passport, the terms of which
'
Qu'il faudrait de philosophie and Quand ' '
indicated sufiiciently the consideration in which
I'amour nacquit a Cy there,' were extremely he was held. He reached Italy iu 1675, and
popular in their day. His acquaintance with died at Perugia, Sept. 8, 16811.
almost every contemporary musician of im- Ferri was made a knight of S. Mark of
portance gives a historical value to his book Venice in 1643; and, therefore, probably visited
C
26 FERTE TESTA
Italy at that time. He aroused the greatest of counterpoint with Pitterlin, conductor of the
enthusiasm wherever he appeared hundreds of ; Magdeburg theatre. On Pitterlin's death in
sonnets were written iu his lionour, he was 1804 he became a pupil of August Eberhardt
covered with roses in liis carriage after simply Miiller at Leipzig. Here he played a violin con-
singing a cantata, and at Florence a number of certo of hisown with brilliant success. In 1806
distinguished persons went three miles out of he accepted a place in the Duke of Oldenburg's
the town, to escort him into it. (Ginguene.) band, but iu the following year became solo
He is said also to have visited London, and to violinist under Reichardt at Cassel, where he
have sung here the part of Zephyr: but this passed six happy years and composed his first
must be a fable, as Italian opera did not begin in seven quartets and first two symphonies, in-
England till 1692, — twelve years after his death. teresting works, especially when he himself
It is true that in M. Locke's 'Psyche' (1671) played the first violin. In 1814, after a visit to
there is a character called Zephyr; but he has Vienna, he was appointed solo violin, and in the
only four lines to speak, and none to sing. following year concert-meister, to the Duke of
Ferri had, nevertheless, made one journey (before Baden at Carlsruhe. During the next eleven
1654) to Sweden, to gratify Queen Christina's years he wrote two operas, Cantemir and
'
'

wish to hear him. Ginguene says that his '


Leila,' overtures, quartets, quintets, chorales,
portrait was engraved with the inscription Qui '
psalms and other sacred music. He died at
fecit mirabilia multa but such a portrait (as
'
; Carlsruhe, May 24, 1S26, of consumption, after
far as the present writer knows) has never been many years' suffering, which, however, had not
seen. A medal was struck, bearing on one side impaired his powers, as his last works contain
his head crowned with bays, and on the other some of his best writing. His De Profundis,'
'

the device of a swan dying by the banks of arranged in four parts by Strauss, was sung at
Meander. Ferri was tall and handsome, with his funeral. Fesca was thoughtful, earnest, and
refined manners and he expressed himself with
; warm-hearted, with occasional traits of humour
distinction. He died very rich, leaving 600,000 in striking contrast to his keen sensibility and
crowns for a pious foundation. lofty enthusiasm for art. He appreciated suc-
His voice, a beautiful soprano, had an inde- cess, but steadfastly declined to sacrifice his own
scribable limpidity, combined with the greatest perceptions of the good and beautiful for popu-
agility and facility, a perfect intonation, a larity. Fesca's rank as a composer has been
brilliant shake, and inexhaustible length of much disputed. There is a want of depth in
breath. Although he seems to have surpassed his ideas, but his melodies are taking and his
all the evirati in brilliance and endurance, he combinations effective. His quartets and quin-
was quite as remarkable for pathos as for those tets, without possessing the qualities of the
qualities, (Bontempi, Hlstoria Musica.) j. M. great masters, have a grace and elegance peculiar
FERT6, Papillon de la, born in Feb. 1727 to himself, and are eminently attractive. His
at Chalons; became in 1777, by purchase, In- '
symphonies are feebly instrumented, but his
tendant des lleuus-plaisirs to Louis XVI., and
' sacred works are of real merit. In richness of
as such had the direction of the lilcole Royale '
modulation he approaches Spohr. A comi)lete
de Chant' founded by the Baron de Breteuil, edition of his quartets and quintets (twenty and
and of the opera after the municipality had given five in number) has been published in Paris
up the administration of it. In 1790 he pub- (Eimbault). His son, Alexander Ernst,
lished a reply to a pamphlet by the artists of born at Carlsruhe. May 22, 1820, died at
the opera
—Me'moire justificatif des sujets de
' Brunswick, Feb. 22, 1849, was a pupil of
I'Academie royale de musique in which they'
— Rungenhagen, AVilhelm Bach, and Taubert,
demanded a reform of the administration. He and composer of trios for pianoforte, violin, and
died in Paris, July 19, 1794. His son occupied violoncello, and other chamber-music popular in
the same post after the Restoration. m. c. c. their day. The best of his four operas was Der '

FERVAAL. Opera in three acts, words and Troubadour' (Brunswick, 1854). m. c. c.


music by Vincent d'Indy. Produced at the FESTA, Costanzo, one of the earliest com-
Theatre de la Monnaie, Brussels, March 12, posers of the Roman School, was born somewhere
1897; at the Ope'ra Comique in Paris, May towards the close of the 15th century. He was
10, 1898. elected a member of the Pontifical choir in 1517,
FESCA, Friedrich Ernst, composer, born and died April 10, 1545. He eventually became
at Magdeburg, Feb. 1.5, 1789. His father was maestro at the Vatican, and his nomination was
an amateur, and his mother a singer, pupil of so far singular that he was at that time the only
J. A. Hiller, so he heard good music in his Italian in a similar position throughout the
youth, and as soon as he could play the violin Peninsula. His genius cannot be doubted, and
had taste enough to choose the quartets and Dr. Burney, who had been at the trouble of
quintets of Haydn and Mozart in preference to scoring a great number of his Madrigals, was
Pleyel's music, for which there was then a astonished at the rhythm, grace, and facility of
perfect rage in Germany. Having completed them. He calls one of Festa's Motetti, Qiiam '

his elementary studies, he went through a course pulchra es, anima mea,' a model of elegance
FESTING FESTIVALS, MUSICAL 27

simplicity, and fnire liarmony, and says that asses. On inquiry they found them to be the
'
the subjects of imitation in it are as modern, orphans of Kytch, an eminent but imprudent
and that the parts siug as well, as i£ it were a German oboist, who had settled in London and
production of the 18th century.' Festa, ac- then recently died, literally in the streets, from
cording to Baini, fell in his motets into a sheer want. Shocked by this discovery Festing
fashion too prevalent in his day, of setting consulted with Dr. Greene, his intimate friend,
distinct words to each voice. The Abbe (Life and other eminent musicians, and the result was
0/ Faleslrinu, vol. i. pp. 95-103) explains in the establishment of the Society of Musicians
great detail the lengths to which this absurd for the suppin-t and maintenance of decayed mu-
and undignified affectation was carried, and sicians and their families. [See Royal Society
quotes with obvious and well-merited approval a OF MusiciAXS.] Festing tor many years per-
rebuke administered by the Cardinal Capranica, formed gratuitously the duties of secretary to
in the pontificate of Niccolo V., to some singer this institution. He died July 24, 1752. In
who had asked him to admire the caprice. Mi '
September of that year his goods, books, and
pare,' said the Cardinal, 'di udir una mandra instruments were sold at his house in Warwick
di porcelli, che grugniscono a tutta forza senza Street, Golden Square, He left an only son,
profierire pero uu suouo articolato, nou che una the Rev. Michael Festing, rector of Wyke Regis,
parola.' Dorset, who married the only child of his father's
The principal repertories forFesta's music are friend, Dr. Greene. From this union sprang
the collections which flowed from the presses of many descendants to perpetuate the name of
Gardano and of Scotto at "\'euice in the middle Festing, and not many years since an Hertford-
of the IGtli century, and for which the curious shire innkeeper, bearing the names of Maurice
inquirer must be referred to the Btbllographie Greene Festing, was living. Festing's composi-
of Eitner, or the Quellen-Lexikon. [His first tions consist of several sets of solos for the violin ;

book of madrigals lor three voices was published sonatas, concertos, and .symphonies for stringed
in 1537, and various editions appeared down to and other instruments part of the third chapter
;

15(iS. Two masses are in the Sistine Chapel, a of Habakkuk, paraphrased; Addison's Ode for
four-part Magnificat was published in 1554, and Milton's Song on May morning;
St. Ce(.'ilia'sday ;

a book of Litanies for double choir in 1583.] an Ode on the return of the Duke of Cumberland
The archives of the Pontifical chapel are rich from Scotland in 1745 an Ode For thee how
;
'

in his MSS., and a celebrated Te Deura of his I do mourn '


and many cantatas and songs for
;

(published loJNi) is still sung by the Pontifical Ranelagh. Sir John Hawkins says that 'as a
choir at the election of a new Pope. Burney, performer on the violin Festing was inferior to
in his History (iii. 245, 6), prints a motet and many of his time, but as a composer, particularly
a madrigal of Festa's; and a Te Deuni and of solos for that instrument, the nature and
motet are given in Book's collection (vi. 31, 40). genius whereof he perfectly understood, he had
His madrigal Down in a flow'ry vale (' Quando
'
'
but few equals,' Festing had a brother of the
ritrovo la mia pastorella ') long enjoyed the dis- name of John, an oboist and teacher of the flute,
tinction of being the most popular piece of this whose success in his profession was such that he
description in England, B. H. p. died in 1772 worth £8000, acquired chiefly by
FESTING, Michael Christian, an eminent teaching. w. h. h.
performer on, and composer for the violin, was FES'TIVALS, MUSICAL.
The earliest
the son of a flautist of the same names, who was musical festivals of which any trustworthy
a member of the orchestra of the King's Theatre, record exists were held in Italy. At an inter-
in the Haymarket about 1727. Festing was at view between Francis I., King of France, and
first a pupil of Richard Jones, leader of the band Pope Leo X. at Bologna in 1515, the musicians
at Drury Lane, but subsequently studied under attached to their respective courts combined
Geminiani. He first appeared in public about and gave a performance, but no details of the
1724. He became a member of the king's private programme liave been preserverl. In the early
band in1735 and first violin at an amateur part of the 17th cent ury there was a thanksgiving
association which met at the Crown and Anchor festival at St, Peter's at Rome on the cessation
Tavern in the Strand, under the name of the of the Plague, when a mass by Beuevoli for si.x

Philharmonic Society. [In 1737 he was ap- choirs was sung by more than 200 voices with
pointed director of the Italian Opera.] On the organ accompaniment, the sixth choir occupying
opening of Pvanelagh Gardens in 1742 he was the highest part of the cupola. In France the
appointed director of the music as well as leader first festival recorded is that which took place

of the band. as a thanksgiving, for the recovery of the eldest


Te Deuni
'

Festing was one of the originators of the son of Louis XIV,, when LuUi's '

Society of Musicians. Being seated one day at (written to celebrate a similar happy event in
the window of the Orange Coffee-house in the His Majesty's own life in 1B8G) was performed
Haymarket in company with Weidemann, the by musicians.
-lOO In Bohemia the earliest
and Vincent, the oboist, they observed
flautist, festival was held at Prague in honour of the
two very intelligent-looking boys driving milch coronation of the Emperor Charles VI. as King
28 FESTIVALS, MUSICAL FESTIVALS, MUSICAL
of Bohemia, when the opera of Costanza e '
held (all at Cardiff) as hereunder set forth,
Fortezza' hy Fux was performed iu the opeu with the principal works performed: —
air hy a band of 1200 and a chorus of 100 voices
'Messiah,' 'Elijiili,' 'Hymn of Priise,' 'Golden Legend
— a somewhat singular proportion of orchestral 18'.I2.
(SullivanI '
Oreain of .Tub;tl '

'Stubat Mater' IDvoKk), 'Blest Pair of Sirens' (Huljert


IMaekeiiZiei, '
Faust (Beriioz),
'

to vocal resources — and of this an account is Parry) llevenee (Stanford), in addition to an oratorio,
'
'

'Saul of Tarsus,' cojuposed for the festival by Dr, Joseph


given by Buruey in his Gennan Tour, vol. ii. Parry, Conduettir, Sir Joseph Baniby.
French musicians united at Paris in 1895. 'Messiah,' 'St. Paul,' Limt .Judgment.' 'Requiem (\ erdi),
'

p. 178,
'The Light of the "World' (SullivaTil, 'Faust (Berliozl.
ITiii in a solemn service at the funeral of 'Choral Symphony,' 'St. Francis' (Edfar Tinell, first per-
formance in England and for the first time, 'The Bard
;

Rameau; and at Naples iu 177-1, at the burial (Stiinford) and A Psalm of Life' (David Jenkins).
' Con-
duetor. Sir Joseph Baraby. (An interval of seven years
of Jonimelli, the service was performed by 300 elapsed before the next festival was held.)
1902 'Orpheus' (Gluek). 'Elijah,' 'Song of nestiny (Brahms), '

musicians. In Austria the earliest festivals


'Faust' (Berlioz), 'St-abat Mater' (Rossini), ' Samson and
Delikah' (Saiiit-SaOns), 'Ruth' (Cowen), Flying Dutchman
'

were given by the iMusical Institution at Vienna '

(Acts 1 ami 'Ji. The Ee-ititudes' (C(^-8ar Fitinckl, for the first
'

(Tonkiiustler-Societiit) by whose members, to


, time iuEn-'land; and, for the first time, two orchestral pieces
'On the Heights,' and 'On the March,' by Arthur Hervey.
the number of were performed
400, oratorios Conductor, Dr. F. H. Cowen.
1904 'Elijah '' Hymn of Praise.' 'Eve' (Massenet). 'Faust (Schu-
twice annually, in Advent and Lent, for charit- mannl 'Samson and Delilah' (Saint -Saens). 'Requiem'
able purposes, beginning with 1772.1 In the (Verdi), Dream of Gerontius' (Elgar). 'The Desert' (David).
'

'Lohengrin' (Act 3), 'Midsummer Night's Dream' music


same city there was a festival in honour of (MendelssohnI; and, for the first time, 'John Gilpin '(Cowen),
The Victory of St. Garmon'( Harry Evans), 'Welsh Rhapsody'
Haydn in IbOS, at which the Creation was ' '
(Gennani. and overture In the East," Her\ey, the two laet
'

performed, and at which the composer bade named being orchestral works. Conductor, Dr. F. H. Cowen^
farewell to the world. More important, and in Diocesan Choral Festivals. See below.
its dimensions approaching more nearly to the Dublin. — A festival comprising seven con-
modern festival, was a performance given at certs was held in 1831, when Sir George Smart
Vienna in 1811, also iu Haydn's honour, when and Ferdinand Ries conducted, the latter being
the numbers are said to have been upwards of represented by his oratorio The Triumph of '

700. [See also BE.iULiEU, Cincinn.A-TI, and Faith.' Mendelssohn's Jlidsummer Night's '

NiEDERRHEiNisCHE, for important festivals Dream overture was played from MS. parts,
'

other than British.] c. M. and Pagauini appeared. (See also Feis Cecil,
ante,]). 19.)

British Festivals Edinburgh. — The the Scot- first festival in


was held
tish capital (seven concerts), in 1815
The following musical festivals are described of which a full account (published) was written
under their own Birmingham,
lieadings :
by George Farqiihar Graham (Edinburgh, 181G).
Bristol, Cecilia, Charity Children,
St., The two succeeding meetings, in 1819 and 1824,
Chester, Eisteddfod, Feis Cecil, Foundling were conducted by Sir George Smart. In 1843,
Hospital, Handel Festival, Leeds, Liver- on the occasion of the opening of the new Music
pool, Manchester, Norwich, Sons of the Hall in George Street, a festival was held (Oct.
Clergy, Three Choirs, and York. 9-14) conducted hy the Reid Professor of Music,
Bradford. — In connection with the opening ,

Sir Henry R. Bishop. No new works were pro-


of St. George's Hall, a festival was held in 1853, duced on any of these four occasions, nor have
when a MS Credo by Mendelssohn was performed
.
any subsequent festivals been held. (See Mksic
for the first time. In Hatton's
1856, J. L. for the People, by Robert A. Marr, Edinburgh,
'
Robin Hood,' and G. A. Macfarren's May '

1889, for further information.)


Day,' were produced on August 26 and 28 re- Glasgow. —
In 1860 the first festival took
spectively; and in 1859, on August 26, Jackson's place in Glasgow, wdien the four concerts in-
'
The Year,' received its first performance. All cluded performances of Messiah,' 'Elijah,' and '

three festivals were conducted by Costa. the production of a new oratorio by Charles
Bridlington. —
This festival, inaugurated, Edward Horsley, entitled Gideon.' The next '

financed, and conducted by Mr. A. W. M. music-meeting (six concerts) was held in 1873,
Bosville,D. L.,of Thorpe Hall, near Bridlington, at which were given Messiah,' Elijah,' Eli ' ' '

was first held iu 1895 with one exception


;
(Costa) and, for the first time, an oratorio,
;

(1902) it has been continued annually until 'Jacob,' composed by Henry Smart, and a
I'M'i. Works have been specially composed for psalm, Bow down thine ear,' by H. A. Lam-
'

the Bridlington festival by the following local beth, who, with Costa, shared the duties of
musicians —
Mr. .John Camidge, Mr. Arthur C. conductor. No other festival has since been
Edwards, and Mr. G. T. Patman. Further held iu Glasgow. The opening of St. Andrew's
details will be found in the Musical Timex of
Halls, however, in Nov. 1877, partook of the
Jane 1903, p. 383.
nature of a musical festival. For that occasion
Cardiff. — In spite
of the tact that Wales is
Sir G. A. Macfarreu composed his cantata The '

credited with a true love for music, no festival


Lady of the Lake.' (See Mr. Jlarr's book men-
on an adequate scale took place in the Princi- tioned above, under Edinburgh.') '

pality until 1892. Since then and up to the Hanley. See North Staffordshire, below.
present time (1905) four meetings have been HoviNGHAM. — The festival (not quite an
1 HanBlick'e Concert- Wesen in Wien, p. 18. annual one) in this remote Yorkshire village
FESTIVALS, MUSICAL FESTIVALS, MUSICAL 29

Tvas founded iu 1887 by Canon T. P. Pembertou made the fame of the Sheflield Festival. On
(formerly Hudson), and has al^^'ays been con- that occasion the programme included the '
]\Ies-
ducted bj- bim, tbe twelfth meeting taking place siah,' 'King Olaf' (Elgar), Samson and Deli- '

iu 11103. A list of the works that have been lah' (Saint-Sacus), Tlie Golden Legend,' The
' '

performed is given iu the Musical rimes of Choral Symphony,' 'King Saul' (Parry), and
December ltK)3 Those produced at
(p. 792). the •
Hymu of Praise.' Sir (then Mr.) August
Hovingham have been composed by Dr. Alan Manns conducted ou both occasions.
Gray, Dr. E. AV. Naylor, Mr. T. Tertius Noble, At the festival of 1902 the following works
Miss Alexandra Thompson, and Dr. Charles were performed, under the conductorship of
Wood. Dr. Joachim has taken part iu nearly iNIr. Henry J. Wood: 'Elijah,' Gareth and '

all the festivals. Lynette (a cantata composed lor the occa-


'

Peterborough and Lincoln. Originating — sion by Dr. Coward), Triumphlied (Brahms),' '

at Peterborough iu 1882 as an oratorio service, '


The Dream of Geroutius aud Coronation ' '

this festival assumed its twiu-cathedral form Ode (Elgar) Wanderer's Sturmlied (Richard
'
,
'
'

in 1889, wheu Lincoln became joint partici- Strauss), Israel in Egypt' (Selection), Stabat
' '

pator in the scheme. The meetings have been Mater' (Dvorak), Jesu, priceless Treasure'
'

held as follows: Peterborough iu 1882, 1SS.5, (Bach) 'Meg Blaue' (Coleridge-Taylor), Easter,'
, '

1888, 1891, 1894, 1898, aud 1901: Lincoln symphonic poem for organ and orchestra (Fritz
in 1889, 1892, 1896, 1899, and 1902, -while Volbach), Blest Fair of Sirens' (Parry), and
'

one is announced to be held at Lincoln iu 1905. '


The Hymn of Praise.' Ever since the inception
Thus it will be seen that since 1901 the festivals of the Sheflield Musical Festival Dr. Coward has
have been exclusively at Lincoln. The perform- held the post of chorus-master. For the fes-
ances have been conducted (with the exception tival of 1905, Herr F. ^\'eingartne^ is ai)pointed
of that in 1882) by the respective organists conductor.
of the two cathedrals —
Dr. Haydu Keetou, of Wolverhampton. — Started in 1808, this
Peterborough: (the late) J. M. W. Young aud festival was heldtriennially until 1880, when,
Dr. George -J. Bennett, both of Lincoln. owing to lack of financial support, it ceased to
North Staffordshire. These festivals — exist. The first meeting (1808) was conducted
take rank for at least two new works produced by Mr. Alberto Eandegger, the following four
thereat, and for the excellence of the chorus festivals being under the direction of Mr. W. C.
singing for which the Potteries are noted. Since Stockley, of Birmingliam. Iu 1883, wdth the
their foundation (in 1888) live meetings have appointment of Dr. Swiuuerton Heap as con-
been held, all taking place at Hauley. The ductor, the concerts occupied two days, instead
dates are 1888, 1890 (first performance of of one as formerly. The most important pro-
Swinnertou Heap's 'Fair Rosamond'), 1893, ductive featureof the Wolverhampton Festivals
18'H3 (first performance of Elgar's Kiug Olaf '), '
is associated with that last held (iu 1.S80), wheu

and 1899 (first performance of Coleridge-Taylor's two cantatas, The Maid of Astolat,' by Dr.
'

'
Death of Minnehaha,' the second section of Heap, aud 'The Bridal fif Triermain,' by Mr.
the Hiawatha triology)
' '
The late r)r. Swin- . Frederick Corder, were performed for the first
nertou Heap conducted all these five festivals. time, both works having been written for the
Scarborough. —
Two festivals have hitherto occasion and conducted hy their respective
(r.«)5) been held in 1899 —
and 1902, both composers.
conducted by Dr. F. H. Cowen. The works
performed at the first meeting included St. '
Diocesan Choral Festivals
Paul,' 'The Golden Legend,' and 'Ode to These widely spread festivals, known not only
the Passions' (Cowen) and at the second (in
: all over Great Britain, but in Britain beyond the
190'2), 'Messiah,' 'Elijah,' 'Faust' (Berlioz), seas aud also in America, originated iu the diocese
aud 'Revenge' (Stauford). of Lichfield, in, or about, the year 1850, wheu
Sheffield. —
Although one of the youngest the Lichfield Diocesan Choral Associatiou was
of British festivals, Sheffield has rapidly come formed. Tlie first festival was held, upou the
into the first rank, by reason of its magnificent invitation of the Dean aud Chapter, iu Lichfield
chorus-singing, due to the exceptional choir- Cathedral, on Oct. 11, LSoO, aud was attended
training skill of Dr. Henry Coward. This uota- by twenty-six church choirs coining from various
ble Yorkshire music-meeting originated in a parishes in Staffordshire. But the germ of
very modest way, nothing more than a per- these important and beneficial choral gatherings
formance of Mendelssohn's 'Elijah,' in 189.'*, can be traced to the parish of Cheadle. iu Staf-
conducted by Dr. Coward. In the following fordshire, where, iu (or about) 1819, was founded
year (1890) the first festival proper, lasting two 'The Cheadle .\ssociation for the promotion of
days, was held, wdien the works performed in- Church Music —
a society, wdiich not only organ-
'

cluded Elijah,' The Golden Legend,' Faust


' '
ised festivals of church choirs in the district,
(Berlioz), and 'Job (Hubert Parry). '
but published its own music. One of the '

It was not, however, until the meeting of first acts of this Association was to gather
1899 (three days) that the singing of the chorus together several neighbouring chi;)irs iu the
30 TtTlS f6tis
parish church of Cheadle, for the purpose of composer he wrote much pianoforte music for
practisiug chanting and singing' {The Organist two and four hands, chamber-music, duos, a
and Choirmaster of Nov. 15, 1896, in an article quartet, quintets, and a sestet for piano (four
on Choral Festivals'). In the following year
'
hands) with string quartet, overtures and sym-
(August 29, 1850) a similar festival service was phonies for orchestra, operas and sacred music.
held in Leigli church, nine choirs, comprising His operas L'Amant et le Mari (1820), Marie
'
'
'

100 voices, taking part. Such gatherings came Stuart en tcosse' (1823), 'La Vieille (1826), '

to be known, and they were speedily recog- and 'Le Mannequin de Bergame' (1832) were
nised and encouraged by the Lichfield Cathedral produced at the Opera Comique with some
authorities. Thereupon the movement rapidly success, though they now seem feeble and
spread aud became firmly rooted in the various antiquated. Among his sacred compositions
dioceses and rural deaneries, not only here, we will only specify his Messes faciles pour
'

but in the Colonies and in America. These I'orgue,' and his '
Messe de Requiem '
composed
Choral Associations hold their annual festivals for the funeral of the Queen of the Belgians
either in the Cathedrals of their several dio- (1850). The greater part of his church music
ceses, or in some large Parish Church. On such is unpublished. Fe'tis's fame, however, rests
occasions the singing of the combined choirs, not upon his compositions, but upon his writings
numbering hundreds of voices, is always of an on the theory, history, and literature of music.
imposing and soul-stirring nature. p. g. e. His Methode ^l^mentaire . d'harnionie et
.

F1<;TIS, Francois Joseph, born March 25, d'accompagnement (1824, 1836, 1841), which
1784, at Mons, died March 26, 1871, at Brussels, has been translated into English (Cocks & Co.)
the most learned, laborious, and prolific musical and Italian; his Solf'eges progressifs (1827);
litte'rateur of bis time. He was the son of an Manuel des principes de musique (1837) Traite ;

organist at Mons, and early learned to play the ^lemeniaire de musique (Brussels, 1831-32)
violin, piano, and organ, completing his studies Traite du chant en ch<£ur (1837) translated by —
at the Paris Conservatoire. Boieldieu and Helmore (Novello) Manuel des jeunes coriv-
;

Pradher were his masters for the piano, but he positews (1837) Methode des tnethodes de piano
;

only succeeded in gaining the harmony prize in (1837); Methode des methodes du chant (1840);
1803, and the second '
second prix for com-
' and Methode il4inentaire de Plain Chant (1843),
much as might have
position in 1807, scarcely as have been of great service to teachers, though
been e-xpected from one who delighted to style some of them bear traces of having been written
himself the pupil of Beethoven. He married in haste for the publishers. Far above these
in 1806, and in 1811 pecuniary difficulties, must be ranked his Traits de l' acoompagnement
caused by the loss of his wife's fortune, com- de la partition (1829) his Traits eomplet de la •
;

pelled bim to retire to the Ardennes, where he th^orie et de la pratique de Vharmonie (1844),
remained till his appointment as organist and which has passed through many editions and
professor of music at Douai in Dec. 1813. In been translated into several languages and his ;

1818 he returned to Paris, and in 1821 be suc- Traiti du contrepoint et de la fugue (1824), a
ceeded Eler as professor of counterpoint and really classical work. These two last Fe'tis con-
fugue at the Paris Conservatoire, becoming libra- sidered his best original productions, and looked
rian of that institution in 1827. For an account to them for his permanent reputation. They
of the historical concerts he inaugurated in Paris, were the more important in his eyes because he
see vol. i. pp. 575-76. [In 1828 he was for three believed in the infallibility of bis doctrines.
months in England. (See the Harmonicon for Outside his own peculiar system of harmonic
July 1829.) He came to England in 1829 for generation — the 'omnitonic' system, whose
the purpose of giving a course of lectures on main principle that harmonic combinations
is

musical history. The season was too far ad- exist by which any given sound may be resolved
vanced to allow of bis doing so, and the plan was into any key and any mode he saw nothing —
abandoned, a single lecture being given at Sir but error and confusion. As a historian he was
George Warrender's, on May 29, when illustra- equally systematic and equally impatient of
tions were given by Camporese, Malibran, contradiction. Nevertheless, in his Biographic
Mme. Stockbausen, Donzelli, Begrez, Labarre, urdverselle des Musiciens, and in his Ristoire
De Beriot,etc.] In March 1833 be was appointed ginerale de la Musique, errors of detail and
director of the Brussels Conservatoire and mistakes in chronology abound, while many of
maitre de cbapelle to the King of the Belgians, the opinions he advances are open to question.
two important posts, which, besides ensuring Easy as it may be, however, to find fault with
him many gratifying distinctions, obliged him these two standard works, it is impossible to
to take part in the labours of the Belgian do without them. The first edition of the
Academic Royale, for which he wrote several Biographic (Paris, 1835-44) is especially de-
interesting memoirs. fective, but it contains a remarkable introduc-
Fe'tis must be considered separately in his tion founded on the writings of Forkel, Gerber,
various capacities of composer, author of theo- Kiesewetter, Hawkins, and others. Fe'tis in-
retical works, historian, and critic. As a tended to use this introduction as material for
FifcxiS FEVIN 31

a Philosophie de la Muslque, but had not time is a member of


the Academie Royale in Brussels.
to accomplish it. The second edition of the [He is active as Couservateur en
still (1904)
Biogruphie (Paris, ISliO-fio), though more com- chef de la Bibliotheque Royale. A younger
plete and more satisfactory than its predecessor, son of the historian, Adolphe Louis Eugene,
should still he consulted with discretion its ; born in Paris, August 20, 1820, died there
dates are still often wrong, and there are mis- March 20, 1873, was a clever and successful
takes, especially in the articles on English pianist and teacher, and composed a good deal
musicians, which are almost ludicrous, and might of music of little value.] g. c.
have been avoided. The two supplementary FEUILLET, Raoul Auger, a dancing-mas-
volumes edited by Arthur Pougin in 1878 and ter of Paris, was the author of an ingenious sys-
1880, added much to the value of the book. tem by which dance steps could be noted down
Fe'tis unfortunately allows his judgment to be indiagrams showing the position and movement
biassed by passion or interest. It is a pity that of the feet corresponding to each bar of the
in his Histoire genirale de la Musique (Didot, 5 music. Something of the sort had been pre-
vols. 1S69-76) he is not more just to some of his viously attempted by a M. Beauchamp, but
predecessors, such as Villoteau and Adrien de la Feuillet carries out the idea with a degree of
Fage, whom he quotes freely but never without elaboration which tends to defeat itself owing
some depreciatory remark, thus forgetting the to the bewildering complexity of the diagrams
poet's words: — which result. His book was first published in
'
Ah! doit-on hL^riter de ccux qu'on assassine ?
'

1701, and is entitled Choregraphie, ou L^Art de


In spite of this defect, and of a strong ten- deerire La Dance par curacteres figures et signes
dency to dogmatism, the Histoire generals de la demonstrati/s. It was translated into English
Muslque, although a fragment —
for it ceases by John Weaver in1706, but was not found
at the 15th century —
exhibits Fe'tis at his best. to be of much assistance in practice. Signer
Another useful work is La Musiqne mlse a la Gallini, who wrote on the Art of Dancing in
portde de tout le monde (Paris, 18130, 1854, 1847), 1772, speaks of choregraphie as '
an inextricable
which has been translated into German, English, puzzle or maze of lines and characters, hardly
Spanish, and Russian. The same elevation and possible for the imagination to seize or for the
clearness appear in his innumerable articles and memory to retain,' and concludes that diagrams
reviews, which were all incorporated in the such as those of Feuillet can only be intelligible
Biogruphie, the Curiosites historiques de la to dancing-masters, who are just the persons
Musique (Paris, 1830), the Esquisse de I'histoire who have no need of them.
de Vharmonie (Paris, 1840, now very scarce), Feuillet published several collections of
and other works already named. The Revue dances in this curious notation, and notably a
musicale which he started in 1827, and con- 'Recueil de Contredanees mises en Chore'graphie'
tinued till 180.3, was the foundation of the (1706), which is of the highest value as estab-
musical press of France. [Among his other lishing the English origin of the French contre-
works may be mentioned biographies of Paganini dause. Such well-known English times as
(1851), and Stradivari (1856), Memoires sur '
Green Sleeves and Christchurch Bells appear
' ' '

Vharmonie simultanie chez les Grecs et les Bo- here as Les Manehes Vertes and Le Carillon
' ' *

nxains (1858) catalogues of the musical eshibits


; d'Oxfort see an article in the Musical Times
' :

in the Paris Exhibitions of 18.55 and 1867.] This of Feb. 1901. J. r. r. s.

short resume of Fe'tis's labours will suffice to FEVIX, Antoine de, composer of the 16th
show the immense services he rendered to musi- century, whose wtu'ks entitle him to a position
cal instruction and literature. Had he been a lit- amongst his contemporaries second alone to that
tle less one-sided, and a little more disinterested of Josquin Despres. We have only a few vague
and he would have been a model critic and
fair, conjectures as to the actual circumstances of his
litte'rateur. [After his death his library was life. He was born at Orleans, for he is stjded
bought by the Belgian Government, and is now 'Aureliauensis.' The existence of Fevin's com-
in the Brussels Conservatoire.] positions in MS. in the cathedral at Toledo,
His eldest son, Edouard Louis Fkancois, and the opinion of Spanish musicians, lia\'e
born at Bouvignes near Dinant, May 16, 1812, caused him to be considered a Spaniard, by such
at an early age assisted his father, and edited authorities as Gevaert and Eslava. There are
the Bevne musicale from 1833 to 1835. He was some books of Masses in the Vienna library
art critic of the Indepeudance Beige, edited containing three by Anthonius Fevin. pie
'

the 5th vol. of Histoire generate de la Musique, memorie.' Ambros, in his History of Music
and published L^gende de Saint Hubert (Brus- (ill. 274), shows that the date of these books
sels, 1847), Les Musieiens beiges (Brussels, 1849), lies between 1514 and 1516, and assuming
a useful work, Les Artistes beiges ii I'etranger that Fevin died about this time, and moreover
(1857-186.5), and a Catalogue raisonnii (1877) of (as Glarean leads us to infer) that he died quite
his father's valuable library purchased by the young, places his birth about 1490. We m;iy,
Government. He was also professor of sesthetics at any rate, accept these dates as approximately
to the Brussels Acade'mie des Beaux-Arts and true, and at once see that it is scarcely correct to
32 FEVIN FIBICH
callFevin a contemporary of Josquin. Although '
Le vilayn jaloys' was printed among those of
he died a few years before the great master, he Antoine de Fevin's, by Petrncci in 1515; this
was probably boru forty years after the date of and other masses are in the Sistine Chapel in
Josquin's birth. Had it not been for his pre- MS. and a mass on La sol fa mi in the Munich
'
'

mature death, might not the '


Felix Jodoci library. The composer was probably a relation
semulator,' as Glarean calls him, have lived on of Antoine de Fevin. (Quellen-Lexikon and
to work by the side of Lassus and share with Riemann's Luxikon.)
him the glory of a brighter period? Surely there FIALA, Joseph, eminent oboist, born 1751
was 'that noble youth, whose modesty was
in at Lobkowitz in Bohemia. He taught himself
equ;il to his genius (again we quote Glarean)'
the oboe, for which he had a perfect passion,
every element of greatness, except perhaps phy- but being a serf was compelled to menial labour
sicr.l strength, requisite for making his name in the Schloss. He ran away and was recaptured,
stand with those of Clement and Gombert in upon which his mistress the Countess Lobkowitz,
the gap between Josquin and Lassus. But ordered his front teeth to be pulled out that he
although Fevin can never be the hero of any might be incapable of playing but some of the
:

chapter in musical history, there is little doubt nobility of Prague interceded for him with the
that when the compositions of his time become Emperor, who commanded him to be set free.
once more generally known, the few works He first entered Prince Wallerstein's band, and
which he has left behind him will find favour in 1777 that of the Elector at Munich. He was
as soon as any, on account of the peculiar charm afterwards in that of the Archbishop of Salzburg
which veils his most elaborate workmanship, where he made the intimate acquaintance of the
and the simplicity of effect which seems to come Mozarts. In 1785 he was suddenly discharged
so naturally to him, and so well agrees with the by the Archbishop, with a loss of 200 florins, on
personal character for which Glarean admired which Mozart not only urged him to come to
him. We give the following list of his works, Vienna, but offered him a good engagement.
and the various collections in which they After a residence of some years in Russia he
appear: —
(1) Three masses, Sancta Trinitas,' '
became in 1792 capellmeister to Prince Fursten-
' Meute tola,' and Ave Maria,' from a book of
'
berg at Donaueschingen, where he died in 1816.
£ve masses (Petrncci, Fossombrone, 151.5) The . He published [two symphonies (MS. in the Royal
only known copy of this work, with all the Library at Berlin)] two sets of quartets (Frank-
parts, is in the British Museum. Burney has fort and Vienna, about 1780-80), 'Six duos
given two beautiful extracts from the first mass pour violon et violoncelle (Augsburg, 1799),
'

in his History. ('J) Three masses, 'Ave Maria,' and two sets of trios for flute, oljoe, and bassoon
*
Mente Tota,' and De Feria,' in 'Liber quin- '
(Ratisbon,1806), besides MS. concertos for flute,
decimMissarum (Andreas Antiquis, Rom. 151(1),
'
oboe, bassoon, and violoncello. He played
a copy of which is in the Mazarin Library at several other instruments well, especially the
Paris. (3) Six motets from the first book of violoncello and double ba,ss, and was evidently
the Motetti della corona (Petrncci, Fossom-
' '
a man of mark. ai. c. c.
"brone, 1514) (4) A motet, Descende in
.
'
FIASCO (a flask). Faire fiasco,' to make
' '

hortum meum,' and a fugue, Quae es ista,' '


a fiasco,' i.e. a complete failure —
a phrase of
from the Cantiones selectae ultra centum
'
'
somewhat recent introduction. The term, though
(Kriesstein, Augsburg, 1540). (.5) Two lamen- Italian, is not used by the Italians in this sense,
tations, Jligravit Juda and Recordare est,'
' ' ' but first by the French and then by ourselves.
from the collection by Le Roy and Ballard, The date and origin of the expression are un-
Paris, 1557. (6) Detached movements from known to Littre' but it is tempting to believe
;

masses in Eslava's '


Lira-sacro-Hisi^ana.' (7) the image to be that of a flask falling and
One magnificat from Attaignant's fifth book for breaking — or, as our own slang has it, coming '

four voices, and two motets from his eleventh to utter smash.' g.
book (Paris, 1534). (8) One piece in the Bi- '
FIBICH, Zdexko, son of the chief forester a!
cinia Gallica,' etc. (Rhau, Wittenberg, 1545). Vseboricnear Czaslau in Bohemia, was born there
(9) Three masses, O quam glorifica luce,' '
on Deo. 21, 18.50. After pursuing general studies
' Requiem,' and Mente tota,' in the Ambraser
' '
in Vienna and Prague (where his natural incli-
Messen at Vienna, and three MS. motets in
'
nation for music showed itself so emphatically
same library. (10) A mass, Salve sancta '
that at fourteen he had not only composed a
parens,' the only copy of which is in the Royal symphony in E flat but actually conducted a
Library at Munich. There is a tliree-part song first performance of part of it), Fibich entered
of his, 'Je le I'airray,' in Brit. Mus. Harleian the Leipzig Conservatorium in lSli.5. There he
MS. 5242; and fragments of two masses in remained until 1S07, studying under Mo.scheles,
Barney's musical extracts. Add. MSS. 11,581-2. Richter, and Jadassohn, and there he produced a
For other MSS. see Quellen-Lexikon. j. r.s.-d. G minor symphony among a great number of
FEVIN, Robert de, born at Cambrai, w.as compositions. But of more importance to him
maestro di cappclla to the Duke of Savoy at the than the composition of such works at this time
beginning of the IGth century. A mass, on was the immense influence upon him of Schu-
FIDDLE FIDELIO 33

maiiu. A j'ear in Paris (1SB8-69) was followed adapted by Joseph Sonnleifliner from Bouilly's
by a stay at Mannheim, where Vincenz Lachner ' Leonore, ou I'Amour conjugal.' He received
was his teacher. In 1870 he returned home, the text in the winter of 1804, and composed
and shortly afterwards (1874) his first opera tlie opera at Hetzendorf in the summer. It was
' Bnkovin,' a melodramatic
work, influenced hy produced ( 1 )at the Tlieatre an der Wien, \4enna, '
'

"VVeber and Mozart, was produced. From 1873 on Wednesday, Nov. 20, 1805, in three acts Ihe ;

to 1874 he was a music teacher at Wihia, and overture was probably that known as Leonora '

on returuiug to Prague in the latter year he No. 2.' Cherubini was in the house. (2) It
becamein 1875 second conductor of the Bohemian was played again on the 21st and 22nd, and
Theatre. This post he occupied till 1878, when then withdrawn. (See vol i. pp. 241-242.) Tlie
liewas conductor of the choir in the Russian libretto was then reduced by Breuning to two acts ;

Church at Prague till 1881. After this Fibich three pieces of music —
said to have been an air
retired into private life in order to devote himself for Pizarro with chorus a duct, Leonore and ;

entirely to composition. He died at Prague, Marzelline and a terzet, Marzelliiie, Jaquino,



;

Oct. 10, 1900. and Rocco were sacrificed, and the overture
That Fibich was a very prolific composer the '
Leonora No. 3 composed. It was played again
'

list of his compositions testifies. His works at the Im))erial private theatre on Saturday,
amount to about 700, wTitten in some thirty-five March 29, 1806, and April 10, and again -with-
years. Of these the most imjiortant, quantita- drawn. (3) After the death of Guardasoni,
tively, are his six melodramas, six operas, and the Italian Director of the Prague opera, in 1806,
three scenische melodramen (the latter quite
' '
the apitointment of Liebich, and the adoption
distinct from the other melodramas) the melo- ; of the German opera there, Beethoven, with
dramatic trilogy Hippodamia (' Pelops Braut-
' '
the view to a probable jierforniance of Fidelio,' '

werbung,' Vienna, 1892 'DieSidiue des Tan- ; wrote the overture known as 'Leonora, No. 1,'
talus '
Hippodamia's Tod,' 1892) the operas
:
'
; as an easier work'
than either of the two
'

*Der Sturm' (after Shakespeare, 1895) 'Hady' ; preceding. The performance, however, did not
(1896); 'Sarka' (1897); and Helga,' the first '
come oH', and the overture remained in MS. and
part of the 0}iera Der Fall Arkunas. A string
'
' unknown till alter Beetho^'en's death, when it
quartet in G, op. 8 a pianoforte quartet in E ; was sold in the sale of his ell'ects and jiublished
minor, op). 11 and a quintet, wdtb clarinet, horn,
; in 1832 (Haslinger) as Overture in C, op. 138 '
'

pianoforte, and strings, op. 42, represent the (Au,t. Charactcristische Ouverture ').
'
See Sey-
best of his chamber music, Avhile his orchestral fried, p. 9 Thayer, iii. 25.
; (4) Early in 1814
works include the overture Eine Nacht auf '
the opera, as again revised by Treitschke, was
Karlsteiii (1886), pirobably his most familiar
' submitted to Beethoven be at once set to work, ;

w^ork, Komensky-Festouverttire (1892)


the * '
;
and was produced a third time, in two acts, at
it

symphonies in F (op. 17, 1883) and E flat (op. ; the Karnthnerthor Theatre, Vienna, on May 23,
38, 1892); and seven symphonic poems, some 1814, as 'Fidelio.' The overture was that of
352 pianoforte pieces for two hands, and four the Kuinsof Athens, but on the 26th the over-
'
'

sets of host of songs and


duets, besides a ture in E, known as the '
Ovei'ture to Fidelio,*
vocal duets, and three compositions for chorus was firstNottebohm's reseai-ches in the
played.
and orchestra. sketch-books have made it clear that for the
Fibich's fame has been largely overshadowed revival of the opera in 1814, Beethoven's first
by that of Smetana and Dvorak, but in some of intention was to recast tlie Prague Overture
his ]>ianoforte music especially there is nmch No. 3 (op. 138), changing the key to E. Of
that is full of charm if not great originality and ; this various drafts exist, and some are given
a good deal of his music deserves to be better in Hcethoveniana, p. 74. Had this intention
known, though it would appear that none is been carried out the overture A\'ould have boi-ne
destined to survive for any great length of the same relation to op. 138 that Leonora No. '

time. K. H. L. 3 does to Leonora No. 2,' and we might then


' '

FIDDLE. The old English word, before 'viol' have possessed five overtures to the opera It !

came in,and still more idiomatic than Violin was Beethoven's wish that the opera should be
{ij.v.). Both are possibl}" derived from the same called 'Leonora,' but it was never jierformed
root vitiila, a calf, from the s])ringing motion of under that name. (5) It was produced in Paris,
dancers (Murray, Oxford JJiclionar!/, and Littre ;
at the Tlieatre Lyrique, translated by Barbier
and compare the connection of Geige and jig). and Carre, and in three acts. Ma}' 5, 18 60. In
FiDDLF.s'ricK is the violin-bow, as in the Epi- London by Chelard'sGerman company (Schroder,
gram on a Bad Fiddler : etc. at tiie King's Theatre, May 18, 1832.
) In
Old Orpheus play'd so well he mov'd Old Nick, English (Malibran) at Covent Garden, June 12,
Whilst then mov'st nothing but thy fiddlestick. — 1835. In Italian (Crnvelli and Sims Reeves,
The Germans have three terms for the instru- Recitatives by Balfe) at Her Majesty's, May 20,
ment Fiedel, Geir/e, and Violine. a. 1851. (6) The chief editions are- a PF.
FIDELIO, ODEPi, DIE EHELICHE LIEBE. score of the second arrangement (by l\Tosche]es
Beethoven's single opera (op. 72) ; the words under B.'s direction) without Overture or Finale,
VOL. II
34 FIELD FIELD
1810 ; with them, 1815both entitled Leono re.
; '

A ditto of the arrangement, entitled


third
'
Fidelio,' August 1814. A critical edition by
Otto Jalin of tlie complete work as Leonora,' in
'

PF. score, showing the variations and changes


(Breitkopf & Hartel, 1851). An English
translation by 01ii>hant (Addison & HoUier),
and another by Soane, with Preface (Boosey).
The four overtures are given in the Royal Edition
(Boosey). For the whole evidence as to the name
of the opera see Leonore oder Fidelio ?' in Otto
'

Jahn's Gcsamrii. Schriften, p. 236, and Thayer's


Chron, i^erzcichniss, p. 61.
It may be well here to give a list of the over-
tures to the opera in the order of their com-
position.

Title.
FIELITZ FIGURE 35

1832. From thence he went to Paris, and in of Breitkopif & Hartel's complete edition of
1833 tlnough Belgium and Switzerland to Italy, Schubert. g.
where at Milan, Venice, and Naples his playing FIFE. The name commouly given to the
did not please the aristocratic mob, and his chief instrument, or Bb Flute, in the Drum and
concerts did not pay. Habits of intemperance Fife Band. More particularly considered, the
had grown upon him he suffered from fistula,
; designation signifies an early and simjile form
and his situation at Naples became worse and of small transverse flute (see Fli'te), the bore
worse. He
lay in a hospital for nine months in of which was cylindrical throughout, and the
the most deplorable contlition, from which at intonation in consec^uence very faulty, but
last a Russian family named Raemanow rescued which was in some cases used in Drum and
him, on condition that he should consent to Fife Bands until the last lilteen or twenty
return with them to Moscow. On their way years. This form of the instrument is practi-
back Field was heard at Vienna, and elicited cally obsolete, and tlie name now signifies a flute
transports of admiration by the exquisite pilay- of the '
conical ' type, intermediate in pitch
ing of his Noctiumes. But his liealth was gone. between the concert flute and piccolo.
'
This '

Hardly arrived at Moscow he succumbed, and modern instrument has, in addition to the usual
was buried there in Jan. 1837. six finger-holes, four, five, or six keys. It is
Field's printed compositions for the piano are pitched in Bb
(but occasionally in C), and in the
as follows :

Seven Concertos (No. 1, E>> No. ; Drum and Fife Band gives the mass of the tone,
2, Ab ;No. 3, Eb No. 4, Kb ;No. 5, C, ; being assisted in the harmonies by piccolos and
'
L'incendie par I'orage No. 6, C No. 7, ' ; ; flutes in F or Eb of similar construction. It is
C minor) two Divertimenti, with accompani-
; interesting to note, as relating to the subject of
ment two
of and bass a
violins, flute, viola, ; Musical Pitch, that the pitch of Drum and Fife
Quintet and a Rondo for piano and strings ;
Bands until some time between 1S80 and 1890
Variations on a Russian air for four hands a ; remained the same as Srr Geo. Smart's pitch of
grand Valse, four Sonatas, three of which are 1828, practically identical with the present low
dedicated to Clementi two Airs en Rondeau' ;
'
orchestral p>itch (Philharmonic, 1896), although
Fantaisie sur le motif de la Polonaise, Ah, quel '
from about the middle of last century Military
dommage Rondeau Ecossais
'
; Polonaise en ; Bands, in accordance with the Queen's regula-
forme de Rondo deux airs Anglais, and Vive
;
'
tion, used, and still use the high orchestral, or
Henry IV.' varies and twenty pieces to which
;
'old' Philharmonic pitch. This remains the
in recent editions the name of Nocturnes is official army pitch, as recognised by the Royal
apjdied, though it properly belongs to not move Jlilitary School of Music, Kneller Hall, and to
than a dozen of them. E. D. it both the Military and the Drum and Fife

FIELITZ, Alex.vnder Vo>f, born in Leipzig, Bands now conlbrm. D. J. E.

Dec. 2S, 1860, his father being half Polish, and FIFTEENTH is ana stopi or set of pijjes in
his mother a Russian. He studied in Dresden organ sounding two octaves, or fifteen notes,
under Edmund Kretschmer for composition, and above the Open diapason. Thus when the
Julius SchulhofT for pjianoforte. In 1886 and Fifteentli and Opien diapason stops are drawn
1887 he conducted under Nikisch, and then out at the same time, and the finger is placed
went to Italy for ten years, owing to delicate on the key of middle C, two notes are sounded
health, where he composed most of the music — c'
and c"'.

by which he is known, consisting of several FIFTH. A Fifth is the perfect consonance,


piano pieces, songs, two suites for orchestra, and tlie ratio of the vibrational numbers of the limiting
two operas, one of which, Das stille Dorf, was '
' sounds of which is 2 3. It is called fifth because
:

produced at Hamburg, March 13, 1900, and has five diatonicnotes are passed through in arriving
been played in Bremen, Lilbeck, Ulm, etc. from one extreme of the interval to the other,
Von Fielitz is at present a Professor in the whence the Greeks called it Sia irivTe, Diapente.
Stern Conservatorium at Berlin, and was ap- The interval consists of three whole tones and a
pointed conductor at the Theater des Westens in semitone. c. H. ii. p.

1904. He is chiefly known in England by his FIGARO. See NozzE Di Figaro.


songs, of which the most important is a cycle FIGURANTE. A ballet-dancer who takes
called 'Eliland.' w. E. c. an independent part in the piece also, in France, ;

FIERRABRAS. An
opera in three acts by a subordinate character in a play, who comes on
Schubert, words by Kupelwieser. It was com- but has nothing to say,
missioned by Barbaja, but owing to his failure FIGURE is any short succession of notes,

was never performed, and remains in MS. in either as melody or a group of chords, which pro-
the Library of the (!4esellschaft der Mnsikfreunde duces a single, complete, and distinct impression.
at Vienna. Act 1, 304 pages, is dated at be- The term is the exact counterpart of the German
ginning and end 25th and 31st May (1823) Motiv, which is thus defined in Reissmann's con-
Act 2, 31st May and 5th June. The overture
;

tinuation of Mendel's Lexlkon. Motiv, Ge- :


— '

i.s occasionally played at concerts. The full danke, in der Musik, das kleinere Glied eines
score forms the sixth volume of series xv. solchen, ausdemdiesersichorganischentwickelt.'
3G FIGURE FIQUEE
It is in fact the shortest complete idea in
music ; and in subdividing musical
works into
their constituent portions, as separate move-
ments, sections, pei-iods, phrases, the units are
the figures, and any subdivision below them will
leave only expressionless single notes, as un-
meaning as the separate letters of a word.
Figures play a most important part in instru-
mental music, in which it is necessary that a
strong and definite impression should be pjroduced
to answer the purpose of words, and convey the
sense of vitality to the otherwise incoherent suc-
cession of sounds. In pure vocal music this is
not the case as on the one hand the words assist
,

the audience to follow and understand what they


hear, and on the other the quality of voices in
combination is such as to render strong charac-
teristic features somewhat inappropriate. But
without strongly marked figures the very reason
of existence of instrumental movements can
hardly be perceived, and the success of a move-
ment of any dimensions must ultimately depend,
to a very large extent, on the appropriate de-
velopment of the figures which are contained in
the chief subjects. The common expression that
a subject is very workable,' merely means that
'

it contains well-marked figures though it must ;

be observed, on the other hand, that there are


not a few instances in which masterly ti-eatment
has invested with powerful interest a figure
which at first sight would seem altogether de-
ficient in character.
As clear an instance as could be given of the
breaking up of a subject into its constituent
figures for the purpose of development, is the
treatment of the first subject of Beethoven's
Pastoral Symphony, which he breaks up into
(a) (h) (c)

^^6==^^^
three figures corresponding to the first three
bars. As an example of his treatment of (a)
may be taken —
-9^^ =.--n
FIGURE FIGURED BASS 37

same, partly by the rhythm and partly by the importance of figures becomes proportionately
relati^'e itositinns of the successive notes. This greater. A succession of isolated tunes is always
manner of modilying a given tigure shows a more or less inconsequent, however deftly they
tendency in the direction of a mode of treatment may be connected together, but by the appropriate
which has become a I'eature in modern music : use of figures and gi'oups of figures, such as real
namely, the practice of transforming figures in musicians only can invent, and the gradual un-
order to show dilfereut aspects of the same folding of all their latent [lossibilities, continuous
thought, or to establish a connection betA\'cen and logical works of art maybe constructed such ;

one thought and another by bringing out the as will not merely tickle the hearer's i'ancy, but
characteristics they possess in common. As a arouse profound interest, and raise him mentally
simple specimen of this kind of transformation, and morally to a higher standard, c. H. H. r.
may be (pioted a passage from the first move- FIGURED. A translation ol' Fiijiiruto, an-
ment of Brahms's PF. Quintet in F minor. other word for Florid. Figured Counterpoint
The figure stands at first as at (h), then by is where several notes of various lengths, with
transposition as at (i). Its first stage of trans- syncopations and other ornamental de\'ice3, are
formation is (/) ;further (k) (/) {in) are pro- set against the single notes of the Canto fermo ;

gressive modifications towards the stage («), and Figured melody, or Canto fyuralo, was the
breaking up of the long notes of the church
(1)
melodies into larger or more rapid figures or
pE^^5=^^ passages. The Jigurirtcr Choral, or Figured
chorale, of the German school was a similar
treatment of their church tunes, in which either
the melody itself or its accompaniments are
broken up into figures or groups of smaller
' '

notes than the original. Of this numberless ex-


amples may be I'ound in the works of J. S. Bach.
See Chorale- AiiKANOEMENT.s.
FIGURED BASS is a species of musical short-
hand by which the harmony only of a piece is
indicated. It consists of the bass notes alone,
with figures to represent the chords. It seems
which, having been repeated twice in different to have been first employed by Peri, Caecini,
)iositions, appears finally as the figure imme- Viadana, and Mouteverde, about 1600, in the
diately attached to the Cadence in D\y, thus accompaniments of their Recitatives and Songs,
and was afterwards for some time in universal
use for accompaniment songs such as the eol-
;

leetiou of the Orpheus Britannlmit, and anthems


such as Boyce's collection, and gTeat works like

A similar very fine example too familiar to Bach's 'Passion' and Handel's 'Messiah,' having

need quotation here is at the close of Beet- accompaniments indicated in this manner. The
hoven's Overture to 'Coriolan.' bass line consisted of the lowest part of -whatever
The use which "Wagner makes of strongly was going on at the time, whether treble, or
marked figures is very important, as he tenor, oi' bass, and in choral works it often leapt
establishes a consistent connection between the about promiscuously in a manner that would be
characters and situations and the music by using very harassing to a player unaccustomed to the
appropriate figures (Leilmoliven), which appear process, as for example
whenever the ideas or characters to which they
belong come prominently forward.
That figures vary in intensity to an immense
degree hardly requires to be pointed out and it
;

will also be obvious that figures of accompaniment from the last chorus of the '
Messiah.'
do not require to be so marked as figures which The figures represented the diatonic intervals

occupy positions of individual importance. "With counting upwards, without reference to the nature
regard to the latter it may be remarked that of the chord thus 2 always meant the next
;

there is hardly any department in nuisic in which diatonic note above —


D above C, as in (o), and
true feeling and inspiration are more absolutely 4 the next note but two, as (h), and so on up to

indispensable, since no amount of ingenuity or the 9th, above which the figures of the lower
perseverance can jirorluce such figures as that octave were repeated and the choice of the par-
;

which opens the C minor Symphony, or such ticular octave in which a note represented by a
soul-moving figures as those in the death march figure should be pilaced, as well as the progres-

of Siegfried in Wagner's Gotterdammerung.


' sion of the parts, was generally left to the
As the conmion notion that music chiefly discretion of the player.
consists of pleasant tunes grows weaker, the It was not customary to insert all the figures.
38 FILIPPI FILLUNGER
as some intervalswere looked upon as too familiar Gazsetta Musicale of Milan, and critic of the
to require indication, sucli as octave and tlie Perseveranza, from 1859. His influence was
the tilth and the third, or any of them in strongly exerted on behalf of Wagner, and the
combination with other intervals thus a 7 by ;
early acceptance of Wagner in Italy must be
itself would admit of any or all of them being ascribed in part to his writings his pamphlet, ;

taken without being indicated, as (c) ; and a 9 liicr.ardo U'agner, was translated into
German
would aiimit and published in 1876 a series of musical
of a fifth and a third, as(rf) ; and ;

a 6 of a third, but not of a fiftli, as (e) ; and a 4 essays, as Musica e ilusicisti, appeared in 1879,
of a fifth and an octave, as (/). When a 2 was and a monograph on the life and works of
written alone over a note it admitted also of a Fumagalli is of some value. He composed
sixth and a fourth, as (g) but more commonly
;
chamber-music, pianoforte pieces, and songs.
the 4 was written with tlie 2, and the sixth only He died at Milan, June 25, 1887. (Eiemann
and Baker's Dictionaries.) M.
was understood and this seems to be the only
;

case in which notes other than the octave or fifth FILLE DU REGIMENT, LA. Opera in two
or third are left to be understood. acts words by Bayard and St. Georges music
;
;

by Donizetti. Produced at the Opera Comique,


Feb. 11, 1840. In London, as 'La Figlia di
Reggimento,' at Her Majesty's (.Jenny Lind),
May 27, 1847 and as 'The Daughter of the
;

Regiment (Fitzball) at Surrey Theatre, Dec. 21,


'

1847.
FILLUNGER, Marie, born in Vienna, Jan.
27, 1850, studied in the Vienna Con-servatorium
from 1869 to 1873 under Mme. Marchesi. On
the advice of Brahms she went to the Hochschule
in Berlin in 1874, remaining there until 1879,
when she went to Frankfort, following Mme.
Schumann. While still a student of the Hoch-
"T-r schule, she appeared with great success in public,
"When notes were chromatically altered the singing mainly in oratorio, in North Germany,
accidental was added by the side of the figure Holland, and Switzerland. Early in 1889 she
representing that note (7b), or for sharpening a made her first appearance in London at a Popular
note a line was dra^vn through the figure or by Concert, where her singing of Schubert's songs
its side, as at (7i), and as it was not customary to stamped her at once as a great interpretative
write tlie 3 when the third was to be chromatically
, artist, while the exquisitely beautiful quality of
altered the accidental was placed by itself with the her soprano voice gave peculiar charm to all she
bass note —
thus a simple JJ, b, or tl, implied a JJ, sang. Soon after her debut, she sang Beethoven's
b, or 5, 3rd. When the bass moved and any or all Ah, perfido and Schubert's Die Allmaclit,'
' ! '
'

of the notes of the harmony above it stood still, at the Crystal Palace (Feb. 25), and at the same
it was common to indicate this by a line drawn place undertook the soprano solo in the Choral
from the figures indicating the notes which Symphony (March 4, 1889), for which engage-
remained stationary to the place where they ments she had in the first instance come to
moved again, and if the notes happened to be England. Her success both in orchestral music
snch as were usually left to be understood by and in songs was so marked that she made London
the player, the lines were drawn over the bass her home, and since that time hasbeen recognised
from the point in which it began to move under as one of the most highly accompilished singers of
the imjjlied chord. Whenever the bass was to the best music. It is characteristic of her that
be unaccompanied by harmony, the words 'Tasto she has never sung anything unworthy of the
Solo were written.
' high artistic position she has won for herself, and
The figures were usually written in their her name will always be identified mth music
numerical order, though for special purposes they of the noblest class. She phrases with the
might be reversed when the composer required a delicacy and nmsicianship tliat are generally
particular disposition of the notes, and similar associated with the gi-eat violinists, and whether
emergencies often caused the 8 or the 5 or the 3 in Schubert, in which her first successes were
to be inserted if it was indispensalile that the made in Brahms, whose songs she sings with
;

notes represented by those figures should not be deep expression and beauty of style or in Bach, ;

missed out. See Thoroughbas.s. o. h. h. p. some of whose solo cantatas she has made her
FILIPPI, FiLiPPO, born at Vicenza, .Ian. 13, own, her singing is marked by the highest
1830, studied law at Padua, and took his degree qualities. In 1891 she went with Sir Charles
there in 1853. He had ah-eady taken up the and Lady Halle to Australia and took part with
cudgels on behalf of Verdi's 'Rigoletto,' and them in forty-eight concerts in 1895 she ac- ;

soon afterwards devoted himself entirely to music companied these artists to South Africa, singing
and musical criticism. He was editor of the in twenty-four concerts. In 1904 she accepted
FILTSCH FINALE 39

a iiosition as teacher in the Royal College of FINALE. (1) The last movement of a sym-
ilusic, Manchester. M. fihony, sonata, concerto, or other instrumental
FILTSCH, Charles, born July 8, 1830, at composition. (2) The piece of music with which
Herraannstadt, Sielienbiirgen, Hungary. He any of the acts of an opera are brought to a
appears to have received his earliest regular in- close.
struction on the piano from llittag at Vienna. (1) The finales of the first gi'eat master of
In 1842 he was in Paris, studying under Chopin the symphony, Haydn, though develojied with
and Liszt. In the summer of 1843 he came to extraordinary skill and inexhaustible invention,
London, and appeared twice in public, once on are mostly of a somewhat playful character.
June 14, at St. James's Theatre, between two of Though their treatment is learned, their sub-
the plays, and again on July 4, at a matinee of jects are often trite. They are almost uniforndy
his own at the Hanover Square Rooms. On cast in the 'rondo,' as distinguished from the
the latter occasion, besides the Scherzo in B 'sonata' form. The finales of more recent masters
minor and other pieces of Chopin, he played a exhibit a somewhat severer purpose, and are cast
Prelude and Fugue of Bach's and a piece in A in forms for which, seeing their variety, no name
from tlie Temperaments of Mendelssohn. In
' '

has been, or seems likely to he, devised. In the


the last of these he was peculiarly happy. finale to Mozart's so-called Jupiter Sympihony'
'

'
Presto de Mendelssohn,' said Spohr, the moment every conceivable contrapuntal resource is em-
he saw Filtsch seated at the piano at Sir G. ployed, with a freedom unsurpassed by the
Sjuart's a few nights after. He also played at greatest masters of fugue, to give effect to ideas
Buckingham Palace before the Queen and Prince such as have been vouchsafed to few other com-
Albert. He was then thirteen years old, and posers. In those of Beethoven the great musical
his playing is described as most remarkable poet goes from strength to strength and having,
'
,

'

both for execution and expres.sion full at once — as he would seem to have thought, exhausted
of vigour and feeling, poetry and passion. (See all the capabilities for effect of the instrumental
the Musical Examiner for .Tune 17 and July 8, orchestra, brings the chorus to bear on his latest
1843.) Every one who met him seems to have symphony —a colossal monument of the inven-
loved him. He was le petit in Paris, and
'
' tion,and command of invention, ofits composer;
' little Filtsch in London.'
According to the surpassing in scale, variet}^ and effect all former
enthusiastic vonLenz, Chopin said that lie played and indeed subsequent elforts of tfie kind. [In
his music better than he himself, wdiile Liszt on Brahms's fourth sympliony in E minor, he
one occasion exclaimed Quand ce petit voyagera
'
adopts the form of the old Passacaglia,' using
'

je fermerai boutique.' (Lenz, Grosse PF. Vir- the ground-bass with the utmost freedom, and
tuosen, p. 36 ; Beethoven ct ses trois Styles, making various modifications in its treatment.]
i. 229.) But he was not destined to fulfil the (2) In the earlier operas, of whatever nation,
promise of so brilliant a childhood — the blade each act Avas commonly terminated by an aria
was too keen for the scabbard and, as Mos- ; or, at the most, a diiet, constructed rather to
cheles warned him, he practised too much for exhibit the powers of the singer or singers
his strength consumption showed itself, and he
; emyiloyed in it, than to carry on or even
died at Venice on May 11, 1845. c. emphasise the action. The last act was some-
FILTZ FILS, FILZ, FILSL, and
(also spelt times brought to a close wdth a chorus, generally
FIELTZ), Antos, born (possibly in Bohemia, as brief and always of the simplest character.
is suggested by the various spellings of his name), —
The finale proper the great concerted piece
about 1725, entered the court band at Mannheim in the course of which the interest of each
in 1754, and died in 1760. He was a violon- act culminates —
is a modern addition to the

cellist of great renown, and as a composer ranks musical drama, having its origin in the earlier
"with the best of the Mannheim symphonists. A Italian opera buffa of the 18th century. The
collection of his symphonies, together with some pirincipal masters of this delightful variety of
by Stamitz, was published in Paris soon after his musical composition were Leo, Pergolesi, the
death, another set was published at the Hague, Italianised German Hasse, and Logroscino and ;

*The Periodical Overture' in London, and two it is inthe operas of the last of these, otherwise
books of trios in Amsterdam. A mass for four greatly distinguished for their inventiveness and
voices and orchestrais inMS. in the Royal Library spirit, that the finale first appears, though in
at Berlin, and other MS. compositions exist in a somewhat jiriniitive form. To Picoinni its
various libraries (see Quellen-Lexikon). The development, if not its perfectionment, is sub-
themes of thirty-nine symphonies are given in sequently due. His opera La Cecchina, ossia '

the volume of the Denknuiler der deutscher la Buona Figliuola ' owed much of its extra-
Tonl-itnst {Ba.yrrn), iii. 1, which also contains ordinary poptularity to the introduction of finales
three of the symphonies —
one called 'symphonie in wdiich the action was carried on, and which
periodique '

— in score. M. were first enlivened to the ear by the varieties


FINAL. The equivalent, in the ecclesiasti- of key and of rhythm given to the successive
cal modes, to the tonic or keynote of the later movements, and to the eye by the entrances and
scale. See Modes. exits of the difi'erent persons of the drama.
40 FINALE FINCK
Two of the finest specimens of this class form times, may be cited the infinitely humorous
large portions of Mozart's Nozze di Figaro.' '
fugue at the end of Verdi's Falstaff. ']
' J. H.


One of them tliat to the second act consists — FINCH, Hon. and Rev. Edward [fifth son
of no fewer than eiglit movements, as various in of the first Earl of Nottingham, was born 1664,
character as are the nine personages who are took the degree of M. A. in 1679, became a Fellow
concerned in it, and whose several accusations, of ChristCoUege, Cambridge, represented the uni-
defences, protests, recriminations, and alterna- versity in Parliament in 1689-90, was ordained
tions of success and failure are wrought into deacon in 1700, and became rector of Wigan.
a work of musical art which, as has been well He was appointed prebendary of York in 1704,
said, begins on an eminence and rises to the
'
and of Canterbury 1710]. He composed several *

last note.' pieces of church music. Of these a Te Deuni '

The
great concerted piece, whether introduced and an anthem, 'Grant, we beseech Thee,' are
at the end of an act or elsewhere, was not made included in Tudway's collection of church music
an essential feature of modern opera without in the British Museum (Harl. MSS. 13.37-42).
strong protest and this by the same writer
; [A MS. Grammar of Tlwroagh-Bass is in the
whose amusing designation of barytones and Euing Library, Glasgow. Brit. Mas. Biog.'] He
basses has already been quoted. [Bass.] Lord died Feb. 14, 1738, aged seventy-four. w. H. H.
Mount-Edgcumbe (Musical lieminisanccs. Sect. FINCK, Heinrich (1482-1519), passed the
vii.) attributes introduction to no other
its earlier years of his life inPoland, and received
cause than the decline of the art of singing, and liis education as one of the choristers of the

the consequent necessity for making compensa- Warsaw Hol'capelle. Later on the King's liber-
tion to the musical hearer for a deliciency of ality enabled liim to continue his studies at a
individual excellence by a superfluity of aggre- university. There is a strong probability of his
gate mediocrity. Composers, he says, having
'
'
'
being the Henricus Finck de Bamberga, a bonus
'
' '

(now) few good voices, and few good singers to cantor,' who is entered as a student at Leipzig,
write for, have been obliged to adapt their in the Universitats-Matrikelbuch(f 146) inl482
compositions to the abilities of those who were (Monatshefte, 1890, p. 139). He must have
to perform in them ; and as four, five, or six returned to Poland, for he held the jiosition of
moderate performers produce a better elfect Musicus, perhaps also of Director in the Hof-
jointly than they could by their single efforts, capelle under Johann Albert (1492), Alexander
songs have disappeared, and interminable quar- (1501), andSigismund(1.506). Soonafterhewent
tettes, quintettes, sestettos, etc., usurp their to Wiirtemljerg, as the records of Duke Ulrich's
place.' And again, *
It is evident that in such Capelle at Stuttgart for the years 1510-11 state
compositions each individual singer lias little that Capellmeister Henricus Finck, called the
room for displaying either a fine voice or good '
Singermeister,' received a yearly salary of sixty
singing, and that power of lungs is more essen- gulden, etc. His name appears only until 1513,
tial than either very good singers therefore
;
but he probably remained there until 1519, when
are scarcely necessary, and it must be confessed Joh. Siesswas appointed Capellmeister (Sittard,
that though there are now none so good, neither Zur Gescli. derMnsikam- IViirtternh. Hofc, 1890,
are there many so bad as I remember in the p. 8). Hedied June 9, 1527, at the Benedictine
inferior characters. In these levelling days, Schottenkloster, Vienna (E. Bienenfeld, »S'a«!-
equalisation has extended itself to the stage rrmlhand of the Int. Mtts. Oes. vi. 96).
and musical profession and a kind of medio- ; In Hermann Finck's Fradica Mi/sica, 1556,
crity of talent prevails, which, if it did not occa- there are the following references to his great
sion the invention of these melodramatic pieces uncle, Heinrich Extant melodiae, in quibus
:
'

is at least very favourable to their execution.' magna artis perfectio est, compositae ab Henrico
The most extraordinary thing connected with Finckio, cuius ingenium in adolescentia in
this passage is that it was written half a century Polonia excultum est, et postea Regia liberalitate
after theproduotion of Mozart's Nozze di Figaro, '
ornatum est. Hie cum fuerit patruus mens
with which the venerable critic was certainly magnus, gravissimam causam habeo, cur gentem
well acquainted. From the most recent form Polonicampraecipuevenerer, quia exeellentissimi
of opera, that of Wagner, the finale, like the Regis Polonici Alberti, et fratrum liberalitate
air,the duet, the trio or other self-contained hie mens patruus magnus ad tantum artis fasti-
movement, has entirely disappeared. Each act gium pervenit (p. 4 of dedication
' There are
:
'

may be described as one movement, from the melodies composed by Heinrich Finck whicli
beginning to the end of which no natural pause show great skiU. As a youth he received his
is to be found, and from which it would be im- education in Poland, and by royal liberality
possible to make a connected, or in itself com- was afterwards enabled to continue it. Since
plete extract. It is difficult to conceive tliat this Heinrich Finck was my gieat-uncle, I have
'
system ' should in its integrity maintain, or very great cause to venerate the Polish nation,
attain, extensive popularity ; but itwill no doubt for the height to which he attained in his art
more or less affect all future musical dramas. was owing to the liberality of the most excellent
[As a bright example of the set finale in modern Polish King Albert and his brothers.')
FINCK FINCK 41

'Circa annum 1480 et aliquanto post alii 3 Trium vocumcarminaadiversiamusiciscomposita. Kilrenberg,


Hieron. Fomiachneider. 16^8. No. 22, fur three voices, without
exstiterunt praecedentibus (niusicis) longe prae- words.
4, Ein ausszug guter alter und newer Teutschur Liedlein {G.
stantiores. lUi eiiim in docenda arte non ita Forstor). ^U^nbe^g. Johan Petreio. 15.*Ji). No. 7. Ach hertzigs '

hertz (no composer's name) and No, 87, 'Kuiitachaft mit dir' (\sith
'

ininiorati sunt, sed erudite Theoricam cum compoaer's name F. Holfheymer). They are Noa. 8 & 29 in Finck's
SchiJne ausserlesne Lieder fur four voices.
Practica conjunxeruut. 4nter hos sunt Henricus Der ander Theii, kurtzweiliger guter fiiacher Teutscher Uedlein.
rinck, qui non solum ingenio, sed jiraestanti NUrnberg. Johan I'etreium. 1540. No. 63 'Der Ludel und der
Henuel (with composer a name L. Heidenhamerj is No. 10 in Schone
'

etiam eruditione excelluit, durus vero in stylo.' ausserleane Lieder,


5, teiicroruni hymnorum. Liber primus. Vitebergae. GeorgP,haw.
(Ch. i. p. 3 'About and soon after 1480 musi-
;
1542. Twenty-two motets, in which ancient church melodies forni
the Cantua firmus. Eitner rcpiinted five of them in i'ublikution,
cians appeared far superior to their predecessors,
etc. 1879. vol. 8.
who did not give so much time to teaching the 6, Coneentus 8, 6, 5, & 4 vocum omnium jucundissimi. (Sigia,
Salblinger) Auguatae ViiKlelicorum. Fh. Ulhardua. 1645. No.2;i"'0
art, but skilfully combined theory with practice. Domine JeBuChriate.' in seven movements, for four voices. Ambros
describen this as an exceptionally beautiful work, the 'seven
Among these were [others and] Heinrich Finck, greetings of the Buttering Redeemer are in fact seven short motets '

full of deep devotion and feeling


who excelled not only in talent, but in learning. in the last part two more voices
join in a canon in Epidiapasou post duo tempora.' '
;

He was, however, hard in style.') 7, Officiorum (ut vocant) de nativitite, etc. Tonius primus. Vite-
bergae. G. Rhaw. 1545. f. 51 'Puer natus eat nobis'— Cantite
Heinrich Finck's compositions Avere printed Domino '^' Grates nunc omnes reddamua Huic oportet ut cana- '
— '
'

mus,' for four voices.


only twenty years before Practica Musica, 8, Erotemata musices practicae . . collecta ab Ambrosio Wil- .

with the title Schone ausserlesne lieder, des


:
phlingaedero. Noribergae, C'hr. Heuasler. 1563, p. 160. One musical
example from the mass Sub tuunj praesidium for two voices. ' '

hochberum[iten Heinrici Finckens, sampt andern 9, Suaviasimae et jucundissimae harmoniae: 8, 5, & 4 vocum, ex
duabua vocibus. Clemente Stejjhaui Buchavenae. Noribergae.
. .

newen liedern, von den fiirnemsten diser kunst Th, Gerlatzenum. 15C7. No. 12, Dies est laetitiae for four voices, ' '

Reprinted by Eitner in Publikation. etc. 1879, vol. 8.


gesetzt lustig zu singen, und auffdie Instrument In MS. Augsburg Eibl. Cude.>L 142«, one motet for four voices.
;

dienstlich. Vor nie im druck aussgangen. (Sch letterer'a Cat. p. a. I

Basle Eibl. Ich atund an einem morgen for four voicua.


'
'

1536. (In the Tenor part-book only) Gedruckt Berlin kijnigl. Eibl.CodexZ21,motetsfor four voices: 1. Misereatur
Dominus, 2, Ave JesuC'hriste, S.Deo dicamua, 4-Gloria laus, S.Lieber
zu Niirenberg durch Hieronymuni Formschney- her santh peter. (Eitner.)
Breslau Stadtbibl. MS. 03, Introit in four movements Fuer natua
der. Four part-books, obi. 4to, in the Munich est nobis, etc. for four voices (Bohn's Caf.\. See above. No. 7.
:

Hofbibl. and in Zwickau Ratsschulbibl. Of Kbnigsberg Bibl. J/^S. 4. 24. Four moteta, Nos. 43, 53, 89, and 90,
for four voices. (Eitner.)
the iifty-tive compositions, the lirst thirty are Leipzig Uuiversitiitsbibl. Codex MS. 1494, Der Mensuralcodex
des Magister Nikolaua Apel vonKonigshofen. 1504. Described by Dr.
by Heinrich Finck only six are to sacred ; Hugo Eiemann, Klrche-nniusikdlUches Jahrbuch. 1897. Music by
words. No. 1, 'Christ ist erstanden is for '
Heiiiricus Finck : —
two copies of Et adhuc tecum sum (2nd part), " '

'Domine probasti me' for four voices; and 'Wer ych ayn faick'
five, the others for four voices. In vol. 8 of for four voices, identical with music in the Berlin MS. Z 21, Ko, 95,
without name of compoeer, to the Latin words Invicto regi jubilo.' '

the Piibl. dlterer prak. u. theoret. Musikicerke, Also five songa f<T four voicea, without text, all initialled H. P.
LUbeck Stadtbibl. Ilymni- No. 91, Fit portaChristi, for four voices,
1879, Eitner reprints these compositions in tenor part missing (Stiehl'a Cat. p. 9). In Sac. IJyjii. 1542. No. 30.
Munich Hofbibl, ilSS. 4~ andCS. two copies of a Missa Doniinicalis
score, with the exception of No. 2, 'In Gottes for four voices in MS. 42 a motet for four voices.
; (Eitner,!
Namen faren wir (publ. in score by R. Schlecht,
' Pima Stadtkirche Eibl. MS. Chorbuch, Codex IV,, Fuer natus '

est: Cantate Domino,' and Te Tuaneat semper' (initialled H. F.) '


:

Gcsrh. clcr Kirchcniiiudk, 1871, Musikbeilage, Codex vi., Ecce devenit (initialled E. P.), and Borate coeli
'
all '
'
'
;

for four voices, (Eitner.)


Ko. 44) No. 11, Freu dich du werte Christen-
;
'
Proske biachofl, Bibl. 'Missa de beata virgine,' for three voices
(publ, in score in Ambros's Geachichte der .Uusik, v, '247, No, ;{5).
heit' (publ. in score by C. v. "Winterfeld, Der Motets— for four voices 1. Domine Jesu Christe, in seven move-
:

evang. KirchcngesoMg, 1843, I. Musikbeilage, ments (printed in Concentuf:, 1545, No. 23) 2. Nisi Dominus. in two ;

raovements. For five voicea: 1. Chriatua resurgens, 2. Et valde


No. 12); and No. 18, Ich stund an einem
'
mane, 3. Illuminare Hieruaalem, 4, Ite in orbem, 5. Petre amas me,
6. Verbum caro. For five and six voices Beati estis aancti, in foui' :

morgen ' (publ. in score by R. v. Liliencron, movementa. For seven voicea Reple tuorum corda. (Eitner.) :

Vienna Hofbibl. M^. } 9,242. No. 56 O Domine Jesu Chriate,' motet '

Die liistorisclicn 1865, IV. Beilage


Volkslicdcr, for four voices MS. i8,8IO, No. 24 Greiner, zanner for five voices.
;
'
'

7). Eitner notes that there is no Cantus firmus (Mantuani's Cat.)


Zwickau Katsschulbibl. J/.S, 4. Motets for five voices: 1, Ap-
in Finck's secular songs, he composed his own paruerunt apnstolis, in two movements 2, Felix namque, in ;

three movements 3. Illuminare Hienisalem, in three movementa


Ich stund an einem morgen
' ;

Tenor, only in '


4. Verbum caro, in three movements. MS. iG. For four voices (altuB
part misaing) De Evangelistis (an Alleluiaand Prose in ten aections);
and Oreiner, zanner,' does he use the melodies
'
'

2. Apparuit gratia dei, in two movements 3, Ave praeclara maris


"

The German songs, of which etella, in six movements 4. Discubuit Jesus, in three movementa
of folk-songs. ;

5,Salverexnjiaericordie, in nine movementa; 6.Venicre;Ltor spiritus.


*
Ach hertzigs hertz '
is a characteristic example, For four and six voices: O Domine Jean Christe, in seven move-
ments (see above). For five voices: Ecce Maria geniiit, in twcf
are marked l.iy great freedom of expression, movements. For six voices Grates nunc omnes reddamus, Huic :

oportet ut ciinamus. (Vollhardt's Cat.)


sympathy, and feeling. The motets are more q c;

fettered by their century although tlie Christ


;
'
FINCK, Heesiann was born (1527-58),
ist erstanden ' for five voices is one of Finck's March 21, 1527, at Pirna. Saxony, and probably
finest pieces ofwork, as a rule in his sacred received his early education as a member of the
music, ingenious handling of the counterpoint Hofcapelle of King Ferdinand of Bohemia. He
outweighs harmonious beauty. This p'^rhaps is entered as a student at Wittenberg University,

aci.-ounts for Hermann Finck's stricture in September 1545, in the Album Academiae
Practica Musica 'durus vero in stylo.' Vitebergensis, 1502-60, edited by Forstemann,
Compositions in printed works :
1841 (see extract in Monidshefte fiir Musik-
Ein new geordnct kUiiatllch Lautcnb\ich.
1. In zweii Theyl ciexehicfiti-, 1878, p. 54). On June 1, 1554, the
getheylt. Nlirnberg. Hansen Newsidler. iry.lG. H. F.'s uaisic in
the second part inchidea 'Ich stund an einem morgen.' (Vogel, Rector of the University formally announced
Eitner.)
2. Sec-Tiiidu3 tomus novi operis mweici, 6, 5, & 4 vociiin. 15-38, that Hermann was at liberty to give instruction
(Johannea Ottocivis Noribergensisl. No. 40, |i.) Magnua eatu Doraine, in music to the University students (Fiirstenau,
(ii. Tu pauperum ref ugium, for four voioe.'*. Although the tnnaic is
)

here attributed to Finek, it is printed in Glarean'a Dodecachnrdon, Monatshcfte, 1879, p. 11). That he remained
1647, p. 221, aa the work of Joaquin des Pr^s. It was also published
by Fetrucclln 1504, p. '2Tt. but without the composer's name, Kitner there and was appointed organist in 1557, may
includes it in vol. 8 of the J'ublikation, etc. 1879, but auya the
authorship is doubtful. be jfatbered from a statement made by Nicolas
d
42 FINCK FINGER
Selneccer in a work published in 1581 (Erk, a composer of some note. Few of his works are
Monalsheflc, 1879, p. 63). Selneccer explains in existence, but they show that he was dis-
that in 1557, the organistship being vacant, at tinctly in advance ot his time, both in form and
the request of the Praeceptores, he filled it in expression. Eitner included three comi)03i-
for a month. Then
througli Court influence tions in the I'ublikalion dllerer prai:t. und
Hermann I'inck was appointed to the post, der '
theorct. Musihwerke, 1879, vol. 8 :
'
Pectus ut
bald hernach elendiglieh und jemmerlich zu in sponso ' in three sections for four voices ;

Wittenberg gestorben' (who soon after miserably Semper honorabile in two


' ' sections, for five
died in Wittenberg). He may have stated this voices, both wedding hymns ; and the motet
on the authority of Johannes Garcaeus, Astro- for five voices 'Christ ist erstanden,' part 1,
logiae mcthodus Basiliae, 1570, Hermanuus '
which it isinteresting to compare with that com-
Finckius Pirnensis. Insignis liic fuit Musicus et jiosed l:iy Heinrich Finck at a much earlier date.
Organista, miserrime subitanea morte extinctus Tlie scorewas carefully reconstructed by Otto
est. Nascitur 21 mart. 1527, etc' But the Fade from a very defective JIS. Chorbucli in
suggestion is negatived by the discovery of the the Pirna Stadtkirche Bibl. Codex VII. (date,
date of Hermann's death made by II. Filrstenau, 1556) the last two movements of the motet
;

in the Wittenberg University records (Scrip- were almost entirely destroyed.


torum jyuUice. Witebergae. 1559-62. See Compositions :

Monatshefte, 1879, p. 63), where it states that he Melodia epithaLunii


1. Johanno Friderico II Duci Saxoniae
. . ,

, coiiiposita ab Hermantio Finck Pymenai,


. .
Quiuque voeum.
died peacefully on Dec. 28, 1558, 'auf fromme Vittjljergae excusa typis haeredum Georgii Khaw, 1555. Five part-
lioolts, obi. 4tu Text; Atnore ftagrantissiino apoiisain,' and '

Weise aus diesem Leben geschieden ist.' Melodia epithalamii Henriuo Paxmanno . cumi^jaita ab
. . . , .

The important theoretical work by which Herm. Finck Pimensi. Qujituor vocum. Vitebergae. 1555. Four
Iiart-booka obi. 4to. Text Pectus ut in pponan by Philip Melanc- :
'
'

Hermann Finck's name is best known is entitled tlion. In the Liegnitz konigl. Ritter-Acadeinie Bibl. (Pfudel's Cat.).
i Melodia epithalamii Johannis Schraiiiiiiii composite
. , . . . .

'Practica musica Hermanni Finckii, exempla ab Herni. Finck. Quinque vocuni. A'ittenibeiyae. Haeredes G.
Rhaw. 1557. Text :' Semper honorabile. Five part-books, obi. 4to.
variorum signornm, proportionum et canonum, in the Erieg Gyinnasialbibl. (Kuhii's C'lt.l.
'

judicium de tonis, ac quaedam de arte suaviter et 'S. Ein acboner geistlicher Text Was mein Gott wil da« :
"
:

^eachichtallzeit,' etc. von . Albrechten Marggravenzu Branden- . .

artificiose cantandi continens. Vitebergae ex- burg selber geniacht. Und, wie folget, aulf viererley Art com-
. . .

Ijoniret durch Herm. Finck Muaicum. Discantus prinjua, anno 1558.


cudebant Haeredes Georgii Rhaw. 1556.' In one 4to. This is, so far na ia known, the only voice part in existence ;
it is in a miscellaneous volume in the Weiuiar grossherzogl. Eibl,
volume, 4to. In British Museum, etc. The Tbe Dedication ia aigned by Finck. Musicus, 'Wittenberg, den 25
dedication is to the Count Gorca, and shows that Dec. anno 1557.' (Eitner, I'ublikacion.}

Hermann must have visited Poland and been Eitner mentions that in the Proske hischofi.
hospitaljly received by the Gorca family, to Bibl. iVS. 940 (1557), four part-books, obi. 4to,
whom he expresses a warm sense of gratitude : there is a student's drinking-song for four voices
'
Itaque in editione huius operis, praecipue ad by Herm. Finck, No. 169, 'Sautt' aus und niachs
Celsitudinem vestram scripsi, ut ostenderem me nit lang,' etc. c. .s.

beneliciorum memoriam, quae in meam familiara FINE generally pilaced above


(Ital. '
end ') is

a Regibus et Princi[)ibus Polonicis collata sunt, the stave at the jioint wdiere the movement
perpjetua gratitudine et retinere et celebrare. ceases after a Da Capo repetition. Its place
' '

Fuit eximia erga me quoque liberalitas Celsi- is occasionally taken by a pause (see Fermata).

tudinis tuae lUustris Domine Stanislae. Quare It is often Ibund, too, at the end of works which
et fratrum et tui nominis mentionem hie feci, et finish on the right-hand page (redo), and is
vobis hoc opus dedico, ut gratitudinem meam et placed there, apparently, in order to warn im-
observantiam erga vos perpetuam, ostendam.' jierfectly trained musicians that it is not worth
The work is divided into five books. The first while to turn over the last l>age.
book De musicae inventoribus is of some
'
' FINGER, Gottfried or CJodfrey, a native
historical interest owing mention of con-
to its of Olmiitz in Moravia, came to England about
temporary musicians (see Heinrich Finck) and 1685, and enjoyed the patronage of James II.
to the light it throws on the musical taste of In 1688 he published 'Soiiatae XII. pro Diversis
that time. A long (quotation from pp. 2, 3, 4, Instrumeutis. Ojnis Primum,' and in 1690
is given in the Did. Hist. (Choron et FayoUe) '
Six Sonatas or Solos, three for a violin and
with a French translation. In the third three for a flute.' In 1691, in conjunction
book de canonibus are numerous examples
'
' with John Banister, he published Ayres, Cha- '

of canons: Clama ne cesses,' four voices:


' cones. Divisions and Sonatas for Violins and
'Misericordia & Veritas,' Bassus & Tenor; '.Jus- Flutes,' and shortly after joined Godfrey Keller
ticia et pax, Discant & Altus
' Gande cum ;
'
in producing 'A Set of Sonatas in five parts for
gaudentibus,' four voices; 'Qui se humiliat, flutes and hautboys.' He subsequently pub-
exaltabitur '

Laiiguir me fais,' four voices;
'

'
lished other sonatas for violins and flutes. In
and '
Le desir quant et quant resp(f'rance
croist 1693 Finger composed the music for Theophilus
— 'Amour m'a donne hardiesse,' four
parfaict Parsons' Ode for the annual celebration of St.
voices, with the French words. A German Cecilia'sDay. Inl696,in conjunctionwith John
translation of the fifth book De arte eleganter '
Eccles, he composed the music for Motteux's
et suaviter cantandi,' with music, was published masque, 'The Loves of Mars and Venus,' and
in Monatshrfte, 1879, p. 129, etc. Finck was in the next j'car that for Ravenscroft's comedy,
FINGER-BOAED FINGEUING 43

'The Anatomist, or, The Sham Doctor,' and The finger-board, getting worn by the constant
(with 1). Purcell) that for N. Lee's 'Rival action of the fingers, must be renewed from time
Queens.' In 1701 he set to music Elkanah to time. The modern techniqueof violin-playing
Settle's opera, The Virgin Prophetess, or, The
'
requires the neck, and in consequence the finger-
Siege of Troy.' In the previous year he was board, to be considerably longer than they w^ere
awarded the fonrth prize for the composition of at the time of the great Cremona makers. For
Congreve's masque, 'The Judgment of Paris,' these reasons we hardly ever find an old instru-
the others being given to John Weldon, John mentwitheithertheoriginal finger-board, bridge,
Eccles, and Daniel Purcell. Finger was so sound-post, or bass-bar, all of which, however,
displeased at the ill reception of his composition can be made just as well by any good violin-
that he quitted Englandand returned to Germany, maker now living as by the ancient masters.
where in 1702 he obtained the appointment of The finger-boards of the Violoncello and Diiuble-
chamber musician to Sophia Charlotte, Queen bass are made on the same principle as that of
of Prussia, and lived for some years at Breslau. the violin, except that the side of the finger-board
Whilst at Berlin he composed two German over which tlie lowest string is stretclied is
'

operas, Sieg der Schbnheit liber die Helden


'
flattened in order to give sufficient room for its
and Roxane,' both performed in 1706.
'
[This vibration. Spohr adopted a somewhat similar
latter is very possibly by Telemann. See Did. plan on his violin by having a little seooping-out
of Xal. £iog.'] In 1717 he became chapel- underneath the fourth string, which grew flatter
master at the court of Gotha, [and in March and narrower towards the nut.
1718 is mentioned by 'Walter as part-composer In the instruments of the older viola-, gamba-,
of the opera L' amicizia in terzo.'
'
His name andlyra-tribe, the finger-board was provided with
occurs in a list of 1723]. Nothing is known frets. p. I).

of his subsequent cai'eer. Besides the above- FINGERING (Ger. Fingersatz, AppUcatur ;

mentioned compositions Finger wrote instru- Fr. the method which governs the
Doigti'},
mental music for the following plays The — '
application of the fingers to the keys of any
"Wives' Excuse,' 1692 'Love for Love,' 1695
;
;
keyed instrument, to the various positions upon
'
The Mourning Bride,' 1697 Love at a Loss,'
;
'
stringed instruments, or to the holes and keys of
'
Love makes a Man, The Humours of the Age,
'
'
win<l instruments, the object of the rules being
and 'Sir Harry W^ildair, 1701. Some concertos
' in all cases to facilitate execution. The word is

and sonatas are mentioned in the Quellen- also applied to the numerals placed above or
L''xil:on. w. H. H. beneath the notes, by which the j>articular fingers
FINGER-BOARD. The finger-board is that to be used are indicated.
part of the violin and other stringed instruments (i.) Fin(;ering of the Pianoforte (that
over which the strings are stretched, and against of the organ, though difi'erent in detail, is
which the lingers of the left hand of the player founded on the same princiiiles, and will not
I'ress the strings in order to produce sounds not require separate consideration).
given by the open string. In order to understand tlie principles upon
The finger-board of the violin is best made of which the rules of n\odern fingering are based,
ebony, as harder and less easily worn out than any itwill be well to glance briefly at the histoiy of
other wood. Its surface is somewhat curved those rules, and in so doing it must be borne in
corresponding to the top line of the bridge, but mind that two causes have ojierated to influence

not quite so much in order to allow the bow their development —
the construction of the key-
to touch each string separately, wdiich would be board, and the nature of the nnisic to be jier-
impossible if bridge and finger-board were flat. formed. It is only in comparatively modern
On an average-sized violin it measures 1 0-^ inches times, in fact since the rise of modern music,
in length, while its width is about 1 inch nearest that the second of these two causes can have
to the head of the violin and Ij inch at tlie had much influence, for the earliest use of the
bridge-end. It is glued on to the neck, and organ was merely to accompany the simple
extends from the head to about three- fourths of melodies or plain-songs of the Church, and when
the distance between the neck and the bridge. in later years instrumental music proper came
At the head-end it has a slight rim, called the into existence, wdiich was not until the middle
'
nut, which supports the strings and keeps them
' of the 16th centur}^ its style and character
at a distance suflicient to allow them to vibrate closely resembled that of the vocal music of the
without touching the finger-board. This distance time. The i'orm and construction of the key-
varies considerably according to the style of the board, on the other hand, must have afifected
player. A broad tone and an energetic treat- the development of any sj'stem of fingering
ment of the instrument require nuioh room for from the very beginning, and the various changes
the greater vibration of the strings, and conse- wdiich took p)lace from time to time are in fact
quently a high nut. Amateur players, as a rule, surticient to account for certain remarkable differ-
prefer a low init, which makes it easier to piress ences which exist between the earliest rules of
the strings down, lint does not allow of the pro- fingering and those in force at the present time.
duction of a powerful tom\ Until the latter half of the 16th century there
44 FINGERING FINGERING
would appear to have been no idea of establish- matter how or in whatmanner it is accomplished.'
ing rules for fingering nor could this have been
; One of the boldest of these experimenters was
otherwise, for from the time of the earliest Gouperin, who in his work, L'art de toucher le
organs, the keys of which were from three to c^auccm (Paris, 1717), gives numerous examples
six inches wide, and were struck with the closed of the employment of the thumb. He uses it,
fist, down to about the year 1480, when, although however, in a very unmethodical way for in-
;

narrower, the octave still measured about two stance, he would use it on the first note of an
inches more than on the modern keyboard, any ascending scale, but not again throughout the
attempt at fingering in the modern sense must octave he employs it for a change of fingers
;

have been out of tlie question. The earliest on a single note, and for extensions, but in
marked fingering of which we have any know- passing it under the fingers he only makes use
ledge is that given by Ammerbach in his Orgel of the first finger, except in two cases, in one of
Oder Iiislrument TabulcUiir (Leipzig, 1571). which the second finger of the left hand is passed
This, like all the fingering in use then and for over the thumb, and in the other the thumb is
long afterwards, is characterised by the almost passed under the third finger, in the very un-
complete avoidance of the use of the thumb and practical fashion shown in the last bar of the
the former being only occasionally
little finger, following example, which is an extract from a
marked in the left hand, and the latter never composition of his entitled 'Le Moucheron,' and
employed except in playing intervals of not less will serve to give a general idea of his fingering.
than a fourth in the same hand. Ammerbach's
fingering for the scale is as follows, the thumbs
being marked and the fingers with the first
three numerals ;

Eight Hand.

w ^
Left Hand,
This kind of fingering, stiff and awkward as it
ajjpears to us, remained in use for upwards of
a century, and is even found as late as 171
the third edition of an anonymous work entitled
Kiir:i:r jedoch gr i'mdlicher JVegweiser, etc.
Two causes probably contributed to retard the About this time also the thumb first came
introduction of a more complete system. In the into use in England. Purcell gives a rule for
first place, the organ and clavichord not being it in the instructions for fingering in his Choice
tuned upon the system of ecpial temperament, Collection of Lessons for the Harpsichord, pub-
music for these instruments was only "written in lished about 1700, but he employs it in a very
the simplest keys, with the black keys but rarely tentative manner, using it only once throughout
used and in the second place the keyboards
;
a scale of two octaves. His scale is as follows :

of the earlier organs were usually placed so high


Higlit Hand (ikvmh numhered 1).
above the seat of the player that the elbows were
of necessity considerably lower than the fingers.
The consequence of the hands being held in this
position, and of the black keys being but seldom
required, would be that the three long fingers, Le/t Hnvd {thumb numbered 5).

stretched out horizontally, would be chiefly used, n 2 3 2


while the thumb and little finger, being too short
to reach the keyswithout difficulty, would simply
hang down below the level of the keyboard.
But although this was the usual method of Contemporary with Gouperin we find Sebastian
the time, it is highly probable that various Bach, to whose genius fingering owes its most
experiments, tending in the direction of the use striking development, since in his hands it be-
of the thumb, were made from time to time by came transformed from a chaos of unpractical
different players. Thus Praetorius says {Syn- rules to a perfect system, which has endured in
tagma ilasicu/m, 1619), 'Many think it a matter its essential parts to the present day. Bach
of great importance, and despise such organists adopted the then newly invented system of
as do not use this or that particular fingering, equal temperament for the tuning of the clavi-
which in my opinion is not worth the talk for ; chord, and was therefore enabled to write in
let a player run up or down with either first, every key thus the black keys were in con-
;

middle, or third finger, aye, even with his nose if tinual use, and this fact, together with the great
that could help him, provided everything is done complexity of his music, rendered the adoption
clearly, correctly, and gracefully, it doesnotmuch of an entirely new system of fingering inevitable,
FINGERING FINGERING 45

all existing methods being totally inadequate. the second finger over the first, the little finger
Accordingly, he fixed the place of the thumb in under the third (left hand), and the third over
the scale, and made free use of both that and the little finger (left hand also).
the little finger in every jiossible position. In Bar -2. 23.
consequence of this the hands were held in a
more forward position on the keyboard, the
wrists were raised, the long fingers became bent,
?^?^
and therefore gained gi-eatly in flexibility, and
thus Bach acquired such a prodigious power of
execution as compared with his contemporaries,
that it is said that nothing which was at all
possible was for him in the smallest degree
difficult.
Our knowledge of Bach's method is derived
from the writings of his son, Emanuel, who
taught it in his Versitch iiber die 'wahre yirt das
Clavier zii t>pieJen. But it would not be safe to
conclude that he gave it literally and without
omissions. At any rate there are two small
pieces extant, the marked fingering in which is
undoubtedly by Sebastian Bach himself, and yet
ditiers in several respects from his own rules as
given by his son. These pieces are to be found
in the Clavierbiichlein,' and one of them is
'

also published as No. 11 of '


Douze petits Pre-
ludes,' but without Bach's fingering. The other
is here given comjilete :

In the above example it is w'orthy of notice


that although Bach himself had laid down the
rule, that the thumb in scale-playing was to be
used twice in the octave, he does not abide by
it, the scales in this instance being fingered
according to the older plan of passing tlie second
finger over the tlrird, or the first over the
thumb. In the fifth bar again the second finger
passes over the first — a progression wdiich is
disallowed by Emanuel Bach.
The discrepancies between Bach's fingering
and his son's rules, shown in the other piece
mentioned, occur between bars 22 and 23, 34
and 35, and 38 and 39, and consist in passing
46 FINGERING FINGEEING
it from a condition of uselessness, so have they (ii.) Fingering of Stringed Instrument!?.
freed its employment from all rules and restric- — Fingering, the exact jilaoing of the fingers
tions whatsoever. Hummel, in his Art of upon the strings in the order that musical notes
Flaifing the Pianoforte, says, "We nmst employ
'
are to be made. This order first suggests a scale
the same succession of lingers when a passage as the fingers follow from first to second, second to
consists of a progression of similar groups of third, third to fourth, and so on. Fingering also
notes .... The intervention of the black key means the figures placed over notes to indicate
changes the S3nrimetrical progression so far only the finger required to stop or press the string.
as the rule forbids the use of the thumb on the The basis of sound technique is the scales and
black keys.' But the modern system of fingering the arpeggi of the various chords fingered accord-
would employ absolutely the same order of lingers ing to rule. The practice of these perfectly in
throughout such a progression without consider- tune, each note a true musical sound, is a sure
ing whether black keys intervene or no. Many means of technical advancement. Technique
examples of the application of this principle may may regarded as the handicraft of every
be
be found in Tausig's edition of dementi's Gracilis practical artist, but it is only a means to an
ad Parnassum, especially in the first study, a end, the highest technical education must go
comparison of which with the original edition hand in hand with artistic cultivation, or the
(where it is No. 16) will at once show its dis- result at maturity is unsatisfactory.
tinctive characteristics. That the method has In violin fingering, the position and carriage
inmiense advantages and tends greatly to facilitate of the hand are of the greatest importance the ;

the execution of modern difficulties cannot be thumb should be underneath the violin neck
doubted, even if it but rarely produces the below the first and second fingers, the tip bent
striking results ascribed to it by Von Biilow, outwards, the neck resting on the thumb near
who says in the preface to his edition of Cramer's its first joint, the thumb will then give the
Studies, that in his view (which he admits may necessary counterpressure to the force of the
be somewhat chimerical), a modern pianist of fingers. The violin should be held by the chin
the first rank ought to be able by its help to and shoulder, firmly, but not stiffly. In chang-
execute Beethoven's Sonata Appassionata as
'
' ing position, the whole hand should go in one
readily in the key of Fj( minor as in that of F movement.
minor, and with the same fingering ! It is necessary from the first to study an
There are two methods of marking fingering, economy of finger movement. Taking the scale
one now used in England alone (though not by of A in three octaves as exampjle beginning in
any means exclusively), and the other in all other the first position, first finger on the fourth string,
countries. Both consist of figures placed above the first, second, third, and fourth fingers should
the notes, but in the English system the thumb
' ' be played in succession, and held down until the
is represented by a x and the four fingers by
, first finger is used on the third string, wdien

1, 2, 3, and 4, while everywhere else, the first they should be raised and the same order
five numerals are employed, the thumb being followed on the third string and the second,
numbered 1, and the four fingers 2,3, 4, and 5. second and first. The shift from first position
This plan was probably introduced into Germany to third goes between Gj! and A, first finger
— where its adopjtion only dates from the time under second, the whole hand going forward in
of Bach — from Italy, since the earliest German one movement, keeping exactly the same form
fingering (as in the example from Ammerbach in the third as it had in the first position. The
quoted above) was precisely the same as the next shift is from third to fifth position, and
present English system, except that the thumb
' '
goes between B and CS this is a more difficult
;

was indicated by a cypher instead of a cross. shilt, as the hand has to pass the shoulder of the
The same method came into partial use in Eng- violin, the advantage given by the thumb under
land for a short time, and may be found spjoken the neck will be at once seen, as it enables the
of as the Italian manner of fingering
'
in a ' player to move forward to the fifth position
treatise entitled '
The Harpsichord Illustrated maintaining the same shape of the hand as in
and Improv'd,' published about 1740. Purcell the first and third positions. The next shift
also adopted it in his Choice Collection quoted
' '
liesbetween D and E, and brings the hand to
above, but with the bewildering modification, the seventh position. The first finger is kept
that whereas in the right hand the thumb was on the first string through all the shifting up-
numbered 1, and so on to the little finger, in ward. In this case it begins at Fit, and remains
the left hand the little finger was called the first, on the string up to E in the seventh position.
and the thumb the fifth. [The rational system The first must not smear the notes at the
finger
(1, 2, 3, 4, 5) which is, rightly or wrongly, shift. The forward movement must be both swift
known as the continental,' has, for many
*
and quiet it should not be heard. This is one of
;

excellent reasons, been widely adopted by the the points of excellence in scale playing there :

better English publishers, so that there is more are three —


intonation, equality of tone, one note
unanimity in the present day than there was after another, absolutely silent shifting. The
twenty years ago.] r. T. movements descending are the reverse of those
FINGERING FINGEEING
ascending, second finger going over first the ; to Bi] on the first strhig, in the first position,
first is not held down. The movement described measures 3 inches, the same interval in the
in the foregoing is a whole shift of the hand, eighth position measures 1-^ inches). The ap-
first position to third, third to fifth, filth to preciation of this gradually lessening distance
seventh. "Whole shifts go also from second has to become instinctive by practice it is too
;

position to fourth, fourth to sixtli, and so on. subtle to be thought out at the moment, and
A half shift is from a position to its neighbour- only careful practice will bring the instinct of
ing one, viz., first to second, second to third, true intonation.
etc. It will be found that the scales of G, G
This studied economy of
and hand
finger minor, Ab, A'p minor, A major, A minor, Bb,
movement should be followed through all violin Bt> minor, B3, B minor, and (with an extension
technical in-actice. of the fourth finger) C, lie in the first position.
A Position is the space on the finger-board C, C minor, Cjl, C]J minor lie in the second
which can be covered without moving the hand. position. Dw, T>h minor, D, and I) minor, in
A full command of the finger-board can only the third position. Et>, E'p minor, E, E minor
be attained by being well grounded in the in the fourth position. F, F minor, FS, Fjf
dilferent positions, which are eleven in number. minor, in the filth position. Scales of two
In the first position, the first finger stands on octaves through the twenty-four keys major and
F on the first string, and takes the correspond- minor are therefore included in the first five
ing notes on the other strings, B, E, A really ; positions. It will be well at this point to show
in each position there are two half positions the principle of fingering scales of two octaves,
easily shown by playing in the first position going through the keys in chromatic order,
the scales of B flat and B natural. The hand beginning on G. The lingering 'of scales of two
stands half a tone higher in the one than in the octaves in the first position needs no explanation,
other. This occurs in all positions. In the as one finger follows the other, arriving at the
second position the first finger stands on G on scale of B, the fingering for that will carry the
the first string, and takes also C, F, and B on player through the rest of the keys by moving
the other strings. In the third position the the hand forward a semitone for each major
first finger stands on A on the first string, and and minor scale, and following the order of
takes D, G, and C on the other strings. In the positions until he arrives at Fff, and FJI minor,
fourth position, the first finger stands on B on and so completes the cycle. The fingering for
the first sti'ing, and takes E, A, D on the the minor scale is the same as the major in
others. In the fifth position C on the first each case. The melodic form of the minor scale
string, etc., and so on up to the eleventh is of much greater nmsical in)portance than
position, in which it stops B, E, A, and D. the harmonic ; both are necessary in modern
The distance between notes gets gradually closer music.
as the liand moves forw^ard to the higher Arpeggi in Udo octaves form-ed of co^nraon
positions (the same interval measured an octave chords, viajor avd minor, subdojiiinant inajor
apart will show a considerable difference. FJJ and minor, diminished and do^nina.nt sevenths.

Formula for Arpeggi working through the Keys.

— Scales and arpeggi practised in this manner Intermediate scales between two and three
with a stricteconomy of finger movement give octaves in compass, may follow the same order
firmness to the stop, strengthen the hand, as those of two octaves, viz., chromatic progres-
enabling it to keep a true position, and form the sion of keys. The fingering for the scale of B
first step in training the fingers to feel the closer will complete the round of keys as before, the
stops as the hand moves forward to the higher fingering for those below B will be obvious.
positions.

Intermediate Scale of B.
48 FINGERING FINGERING
Intermediate Arpeggio Formula.

CAromalic scales of two octaves in oiic jwsition. only way of fingering chromatic scales, but it is
— The fingering lor the scale beginning on B will very direct, and is easily understood. There is no
suit all the rest. Below B the hngering varies standard fingering. In actual playing it is usual
somewhat. It is not claimed that this is the to take thetingering that best suits the difficulty.

Chromatic Scale beginning on B.

l^ 3^2! 1

1112 2 3 ''_i*l 12 2 3 3 <|.l »i«j!rji*St»,M-.i,.., 1

The Double Note Scales which properly belong fingering became a difficulty when the compass
to the foregoing scale technique, should be one of the violin was augmented to three and four
octave in compass and progi'ess through the octaves. Paganini was the inventor of the
keys from major to relative minor. Beginning modern violin technique, his genius opened out
at C major and A minor, through the flat keys entirely new avenues for the violin, as Liszt did

to Ci> —
enharmonic Bj, then through tlie sharp for the pianoforte. He added enormously to the
keys to complete the round. resources of the instrument, as is fully shown
in his masterpiece, twenty-four Caprices, op. 1,
Double Scale in Thirds.
1212 1212 !t?i2!i2 a real treasure of technical material.
It will be interesting to give, as fully as may
^^^^^^fE^\ be in an article of this kind, the technical
equipment of a violinist of the present day.
All the scales on the same principle of fingering.
In bulk it will seem enormous, its diflSculty
will dismay but worked at item by item these
;

Double Scale in Sixths. disappear, one step upward brings the next step
1-212121
2 3 2 .1 2 .1 2 ,1
2 12
3 3 2
1 21.
.1 2 3
2
within reach, and so on to the goal a sound —
I
l^-«L;«--g--lglg-gL-g_- r f j J -j-n and masterly technifiue able to meet all the
requirements of a great concerto, a light salon
piece, or the intricate and beautiful work of the
All on the same principle.
string quartet, and other ensemble pieces for the
Double Scale in Octave.?. various combinations.

^i^l isi
s^
^
.:?--*-
Um Principles of fingering for scales and arpeggi
of three octaves, etc. —
Diatonic scales of three
octaves compass in chromatic order of keys.
Again the fingering for the scale of B will go
The scales and arpeggi indicated above cover through the rest of the keys. Below B the
the compass required for the performance of fingering needs no special mention.
works by the great masters of the violin from Jliree-octave scales in progression from major
Corelli to Viotti, excepting the six solo sonatas to relative minor, through the keys, each scale
of Bach, which must await a more advanced beginning in the first position. The fingering—
technique able to grapple with difliicult chords falls into groups of C's, D's, E's, F's, G's, A's, B's.

of three and four notes, and the power to play All the scales of C and E, and that of G flat,
in two, three, and four parts. require exceptional fingering ; it includes a half-
The famous opera qiiinta of Corelli —twelve shift in ascending the scale, in descending and
sonatas for violin, the model for the solo sonatas a shift on to the third finger in the third jiosi-
of his contemporaries and followers, do not in tion. Each group has some slight difference
any case go higher than E in the third posi- of fingering, but the main principle is the same
tion a few double notes in the first allegro of
; through all, viz. shifting foi-ward on the first
the sixth sonata must be taken in the fourth finger under second, with the reverse aition down-
position, but in all other cases the third posi- ward. Arjieggi of common chords, three octaves
tion is the limit. Corelli's brilliant passages, compass : — these also fall into grou])S. The
both in the opera quinta and other works, are downward shift is a difficult one ; it is effected
invariably made up of broken chords, broken on the first the hand has to descend
finger,
thirds and sixths, thirds and sixths in double generally two whole shifts in the one move-
notes. Arpeggi are numerous, but always in ment, a little sound of the glide of the first finger
the first position. is admissible. Arpeggi of dominant sevenths
From the point of view of the modern player, belong equally to the major or minor keys, there-
FINGERING FINGEEING 49

fore there are but twelve of them. Arpeggi of ing. All scales of B, F, and D must start in
diminished sevenths belong more properly to the second position.
the minor keys there are twelve of these.
; Scales of broken sixths in tvjo octaves. —
Scales of broken thirds in t/iree octaves. The — Several scales require an extension of both the
principle of fingering is the same through the third and fourth fingers.
twenty-four ke}s the shift is always made on
; Scales of broken octaves thrcnigh all keys.
the second finger both ascending and descend- Scales of broken tenths through all keys.

Brokex Tenths.

W Chroviatic
-^r^-
scales, three
These need only be "worked a3 high as D, in
chromatic order of keys from G.
.11*

octaves

Add the third


_^^1^

m
3

co'inpass.
14


,

2
,
4

cases, the
J

3
4 Sua

„, shift,
£^=F=^
and
1 4

so on to the top, where, in

third and fourth finish the scales.


most

octave to those already given in two octaves. Reverse the order for the descent. Some scales

Extension. Thissubjectisan important one, I'cquire an extension of both third and fourth
as the extension simplifies many passages that fingers. An awkward cross movement of the
otherwise require much shifting, for instance, second finger jirevents sixths being played very
those that lie between first and third positions. rapidly, especially in the lower octave, but in the
second half of the second octave they n)ay be
Extension Forward. played quite rapidly by keeping the second and
third fingers on the string and moving the whole

^^fe^ fe
hand in short jerks forward the fingers then
merely adjust themselves to make the sixths
;

major or minor. A few chromatic scales in


The extension of the fourth finger is indis- sixths should be w^orked out entirely on the
pensable in the high scales the fourth finger
; first and second strings in one octave. Two
thus employed easily takes the niinor second at fingers are placed upon the strings stopping a
the top perfectly in tune, otherwise it is almost sixth, the hand goes forward in little jerks,
an impossible interval, even for the smallest making this small, strong movement for every
finger-tips, owing to the closeness of the notes. semitone perfectly in tune. The same thing
The extension is needed in nearly all the three- can be done on any two strings. It should be
octave arpeggi. Backward extensions of the worked in thirds, sixths, and octaves. An
first finger are also frequently used. extraordinary rapidity can be attained on chro-
matic scales from the highest note downwards,
Extensions Back- Extension and is much used in compositions by Vieuxtemps
WAKD AND Forward. Backward. and Wieniawski, and composers of the brilliant
school. It may appropriately be called left-
hand staccato.
Chromatic octaves, two octaves compass, should
be worked through all keys and in one octave
Double scales in thirds, compass.
tivo octaves — com[iass up and down each pair of strings.
;

The fingering follows the same principle through Double tenths, tico octaves, in chromatic

the keys „
12 shift, „
12 shift, and so on to the
progression of keys, beginning on G and work-
,
ing up to F with the same fingering as broken
,

top. Reverse the order for the descent. Some tenths, the lower ones are the more difficult
scales require an extension. A few chromatic owing to the wider stretch.
scales of thirds should be worked. Double scales in fingered octaves are used
Double scales in sixths, two oetccves compass. — rarely, and only for rapid ascending scales they ;

The same principle of fingering throughout. require long fingers and a strong hand.

Double Scale in Fingered Oct.a.tes.


4

Double note scales are an important feature 1 They should at first be taken very slowly, striv-
m modern violin technique, as their practice ! ing always for an ideal intonation, giving each
strengthens the fingers and shapes the hand. |
double stop a whole bow, with very even pressure
VOL. II E
50 FINGERIKG FINGEEING
on both strings, and listening attentively for force. The finger should not be raised too high.
the resultant tone. It has to be remembered The intonation should be true, a major shake
that any two notes played together, whether in or a minor shake as required. In chains of
or out of tune, will produce a resultant tone shakes a rule to attach a turn only to the
it is
;

the point is to produce the correct resultant last note, and any exception to this would be
and to hold it steady this is the most severe
; indicated by the composer.
test of absolutely true intonation. The follow- The double shake does not admit of the same
ing simple tests will show the point clearly : rapidity as the simpjle shake a moderate pace ;

with clearness of utterance should be attained


Examples
11^
by careful practice. The beat of the two shake
Double stops.
f must be exact.
fingers
Accompanied trills are very difficult. The
Thirds. [Eesultant.
accompaniment must not interfere with the
^^ f Double stops. regular beat of the trill, or the efiect is spoiled.
MiXOR J
Considerable independence in both hands is
Thirds. [Resultant.
required to be fully successful it is so easy to ;

IN r Double stops. spoil with the bow what the left hand does well.

Perfect -j
Tremolo of the left hand is not exactly a trill,
Fourths. I Resultant.
though it is of the same family. The Andante of
the Concerto by Mendelssohn furnishes a beauti-
IN f
Double stops. ful example, and the Sixth Caprice by Paganini
Perfect \
a difficult one requiring great regularity and
Fifths. (Resultant.
rapidity of beat.
IN Double stops. The vibrato is one of the most important
M.A..JOR embellishments used by the player. It is a
Sixths. tremulous wavering of the tone obtained by a
V. Resultant. vibratory motion of the left hand, the finger
IN '~
Double stops. n rolling forward and backward on its tip, the
Minor I

centre of this roll an absolutely true note. The


Sixths.
Resultant. _ vibrato used slowly gives tender expression to
The shifting in double stop playing is ex- long notes. Where a crescendo from p to/ has
tremely difficult, especially where a shift and a to be made on a long note, it should begin with
change of strings have to be made together. a slow wave and gradually quicken in movement,
The stops must be firm and true, the shift made so increasing the intensity of the sound to the
swiftly without smearing. highest point the reverse for a diminuendo.
;

The shake is undoubtedly the most beautiful Used very rapidly, it intensifies passionate
of all the ornaments. A fine shake, brilliant, expression. The player should have at his com-
pearly, or limpid, as occasion may require, is a mand, the quick, the slow, and the gradational.
crowning glory to an artist. This command of Scales and arpeggi of common chords in fonr
the trill is not easily obtained, indeed it may octaves. —
The compass of the violin in modern
be said to be most difficult, and requires long
and patient study. Before Beethoven's time to
shakes were generally short, but in the first times is from ]~ ; it is therefore pos-

movement of his violin concerto


long shakes
and chains of shakes are given, producing a
lovely effect this example has been followed
; play scales and arpeggi of G and G minor,
sible to
by Spohr, Mendelssohn, Bruch, Saint -Saens, Ab, minor. A, A minor, Br>, Bl> minor,
Mr
Brahms, and others. B, B minor. The fingering given in the ex-
Tlie shake must be practised vdih each finger, amples will suit all the scales and arpeggi
the beat should be firm but with not too much mentioned.
Scale of G in Four Octaves.
S ya

-J^—i-^^fl(-ti Ci .1 ^r^ lJ.3-2^^' 4-3 -^*— &*^l-'


FINGERING FINGERING 51

Scale of A.

Harmonics. See article under that heading. less individual, and will vary according to the
This system of fingering applies e(jually to the ability, the experience, and taste of the player.
Viola, but as its compass is limited, the scales The fingering of the violoncello was originally
and arpeggi must be only of two octaves, and taken from that of the violin, as that of the
between two and three octaves. Scales of C, D, Viol da Garaba was obviously not suitable,
and E, with their arpeggi can be played in three owing to the smaller intervals between the pitch
octaves. The chief point of difference between of its seven stiings. The }'rinci])le of the
the two instruments is the production of tone. present system is the normal distance of a semi-
The scales and arpeggi, the chief subject of tone between two adjacent fingers. The intei'-
this article, form the systematic fingering of val of a whole tone is taken, either by leaving
the violin, and with some well-chosen exercises out one finger, which is kept in reserve for the
to develop the percussion of the fingers should semitone, or by the first and second fingers
be sufficient for their purpose. The great classi- only (as in the A flat and E major scales,
cal studies shonld go hand in hand with them, see page 52), very seldom by the second and
Kreutzer, FioriUo, Rode, Gavinies, the Solo third, or third and fourth fingers. The first
Sonatas of Bach, and the Caprices of Paganini. and fourth take the interval
fingers, therefore,
The first requirement of interpretation is of either a minor or a major third, in the
mechanical skill there is a time of life for
;
'
normal and extended positions of the hand
'
' '

working out difficult technical problems and respectively. Large hands may even take a
playing compjositions of extraordinary brilliancy fourth.
and daring, but as the artist comes to maturity, if According to the oldest school, Corrette, 1741,
the true spirit animates him, these things having the fingering for the diatonic scale was ;

served their purpose in training him to overcome 1st position .12 4


.12
.

difficulties will no longer interest him, the great


2nd ,, . 4
classical works will attract him more and more,
3rd ,, .12 3 4
.12
.

and his artistic sensibility will be trained to the 4th ,, . 3


highest point of pure refined taste. A. G.
FiNGERiNO OF THE ViOLON'CELLO. Besides — The thumb acts as a moveable saddle in the
the differences in size and length of hands and higher positions, being placed across two strings.
fingers, there are some other influences which It was early in use for this pur[iose, but up to
modify the fingering in general use, such as : the end of the 18th century the fourth finger
the strength of the fingers their stretching
; was not employed in the thumb-positions, being
capacity, as gained by practice the example
; considered too weak. With the help of the
of the teacher ; the course adopted as to the thumb, thirds and octaves, fifths, sixths, and

kind of studies ;and the inevitable tendency even tenths can be easily played, as the thumli
towards what gives the least trouble. All com- afibrds a firm hold on the strings. It could bo

plicated fingering, therefore, will be more or as easily used in the lower positions.
52 FINGERING FINGEEING
The positions, as shown in the following The higher positions are taken with the
tible, contain of course in each case either a thumb.
normal position of the hand or an extended Higher up, in some scales (G, D, A, F, Bb)
position, as referred to above. from the fourth position upwards, the hrst and
second fingers are used alternately, each scale
of three or four octaves closing with 12 3. This
w^ system applies to all scales starting from the
Nonnal. Extended. Normal. Extended. first position. Scales starting from anotlier
position have their fingering based on the three-
Half Position. First Position.
tinger system.
The Seven Positions with the
Half-positions.

m^Aftit^T*^. HI IV V VI Vli VII


Position i I II IIJ Illi Vi
This generally-recognised table of the posi-
tions is based on the principle that each step
of the C major scale on the first string, be-
It took a very long time — nearly a century
before the fingering became fixed in a correct
gianing with A, is a full position, and each
and methodical way, and the improvement was
accidental a half position, Davidov and started by the French (Tilliere, Cupis, Miintz-
Schroeder place the positions in accordance with
berger). The best methods were J. L. Duport's
:

the major scale of each string, the principle


Essay on Firu/ering, an excellent work of lasting
being uniformity of all positions on all four value and the Mithode de Violoncelle, by
;

strings, the positions of the C major scale on


Baillot, Levasseur, Catel, and Baudiot (Paris,
the lowest string forming the basis. ^ ^ 1804), the first method in use in the Paris
With the development of tech-
^
Position
Bi

i
It^^i^
I II II Itl Illi IV rvt V V) VI VII
Conservatoire.
nique in the 19th century by well-known
masters the fingering was more and more de-
finitely fixed. Absolute uniformity is even now
The fingering of the scale of C is as follows :
lacking, as may be seen from a comparison of
4
0134 0124 the different methods in one scale, as shown
4 5^1*-*- ^12 4 12
below. The reason for this lies in the fact that
the instruments as well as the hand and fingers
of the players will always vary, not to speak of
C string. other causes mentioned above.

M rr
FINGERING FINGEPJNG 53

sliding from one to the other semitone with place in favour of the first, second, and third
the nearest finger. Here also the change took fi Offers ill succession.

w IjTi^-W 4«|--^-ffn»*'= 3 12 30 123 12 30


=!^t =
O Vi '2 3

In the higher positions the fingerin; of the fingers, the fourth fingers not being used. The
chromatic scale may be alternatel}^ tonic sounds from the full length of the tube,
1 and 2 going np and coming down. liut with exceptions to be subsequentl}' noticed.
1, 2, 3, successively going up, and 3, 2, 1, By over-blowing on the fiute, all these notes are
coming down repeated an octave higher, and the production
;

3 and 2 alternately coming down, as recom- of the octave of the tonic can be facilitated by
mended by Servais. lilting the finger from the sixth hole.
These six holes, therefore, supply all that is
Thirds are comparatively easy in the upper
required for the production of a diatonic scale
positions, with the aid of the thumb. They
of two octaves in instruments of the flute class,
are fingered thus, in both upper and lower
and also in conical instruments played either
positions :

p 1 2 with a reed, as the oboe, or with a cup mouth-


2 3 4 piece, as the old zincke. In the oboe, and
In the lower positions only, 1 and 4 are avail- similar conical instruments, the production of
able, or 2 and 3 with open strings (without the the notes of the second octave is greatly facili-
thumb). tated by the opening of one or more small
For sixths in the lower positions the fingers tubular holes or pipes in the upper part of
' '

change more frecpiently the instrument.


12 3 4 4
'^'"^^
,3 On an instrument with six finger-holes, scales
112 3 2 other than that in which it is set, and therel'ore
12 3 requiring semitones foreign to the original scale,
In the thumb-positions q -,
o can be rendered only with a rough approxima-
2 3 3 tion to accuracy by partly closing, and so liattcn-
In the higher positions without thumb
ing the speaking hole, or by closing one or more
Octaves in the thumb -positions are fingered holes below it. For a complete chromatic scale,
3 3 4 or the cycle of twelve diatonic scales, five extra
either _ consecutively, or _ ^
alternately. In
holes controlled by keys have been introduced ;

the lower positions by the first and fourth these, with the six finger-holes, giviugthe eleven
fingers only. different lengths of tube required in addition to
The fingering of arpeggios sometimes shows the total length, for the twelve degrees of the
interesting combinations over four strings and ; chromatic scale. On instruments wliich cannot
the practice of sliding with one finger, or from be overblown, however, whether conical, as the
one finger to another forward, backward, or cliaunters of the various bagpipes, or cylindrical,
crossing over a neighbouring finger, is an indis- as the rudimentary chalumeaux, a seventh hole
pensable device of the violoncello player. Sjiace is required for the completion of the scale of one

will not permit the detailed explanation of octave, and this liole is usually controlled by
these points in a dictionary. E. K. the thumb of the left hand.
(iii.) FixGERixG OF Wind Instruments. In the ordinary flute-scale, as described above,
— The fact that the natural harmonic scale, or the fundamental note of the tube is used and ;

series of notes (referred to below as H.S. ), as the next note to this in the H.S. is the
although utilised in diiferent ways, must be octave, the whole of the intermcd'atc notes
regarded as the basis of the intonation of all have to be obtained by means of variations in
wind instruments, is briefly dealt with under thelengthoftube. If, however, the fundamental
"Wind Instruments, but a slightl}^ more ex- note were not required, the original length with
tended, although necessarily limited view of three variations would give the diatonic scale,
the scale fingering of all such instruments as as the second, third, and fourth notes of the
have side-holes is here given. (For the scale H.S. are the octave, twelfth, and double octave
schemes of brass instruments generally, see of the prime. A diatonic scale in the second
Horn, Trombone, and V,a.i.ve.) harmonic octave requires, therefore, only three
The simplest basis for consideration is an finger-holes, giving the su]iertonic. mediant, and
iuistrument bored with .six finger-holes as the subdominant, the dominant or third note in
common fife or flute without keys. Since tlie H.S. being derived from the full length of the
prevalence of the modern major diatonic scale, tube, and this was the usual arrangement in the
the holes have been jilaced in such positions as tabor pipe and galoubet.
to give the six degi-ees of this scale which lie Returning to the bagpipe cbaunter, the six
between the tonic and its octave, or second note normal holes of the flute are supplemented not
in H.S. by the successive raising of the six only by the seventh, or thumb-hole, to give the
54 FINGERING FINK
octave, but by an eighth hole closed by the most important of these is that known as the
fourth finger of the right hand. This is required Boehra system (see Boehm, Theobald), the
by a prolongation of the tube sufficient to give basis of which is that every speaking hole
a note one tone lower than its keynote, the is vented by the hole giving the semitone
keynote itself now sounding from this eighth immediately below it. To attain this result
hole, instead of from the full length of tube. key -work of a somewhat elaborate descrip-
This simple case of extension of the scale down- tion is required, but is justified by the equality
wards is typical of many the point to be ob-
; of tone and power obtainable in all keys.
served is that such extension does not affect the The system is seen at its best and simplest
general scheme of fingering, and the natural, or on the flute, but the use of it on the clarinet
characteristic scale established by the six finger- is increasing.
holes. In the same sense that the natural This general summary of the scheme of finger-
scale of the pianoforte is C, and is not altered ing common to all instruments with side-holes,
by the extension of the compass downwards is given here rather than under the name of any
from CO to AAA, so the natural scale of a wind one instrument, but certain details peculiar to
instrument is that determined by the six finger- each are, when possible, noticed under their
holes, and is not altereii by the extension of its respective articles. D. -T. E.

compass. From this point of view the key or FINK, Christian, born August 9, 1831, at
scale of the modern concert flute is D, although Dettingen in Wiirtemberg, studied music until
having downward extension to c', and in some his fifteenth year with his father, who combined
cases to &a or even h'^ ; the oboe is also in D, the offices of schoolmaster and organist. In
with extension to 65 or h'ly. The bassoon mth 1846 he was sent to the "Waisenhaus-Seminar
its six finger-holes closed, sounds G a twelfth at Stuttgart, where he remained for three years,
lower than the oboe, but its natural scale is C his musical education being in the hands of Dr.
major, the highest finger-hole sounding / and Kocher. Appointed in 1849 assistant music
not /(( as required in the scale of G. The holes teacher in the seminary at Esslingen, he pur-
for the left hand only being closed, the instru- sued his studies with such success that he was
ment gives c d, e, and / sound as the fingers
; able in 1853 to pass the examination for the
are successively raised, and on the closing of upper class of the Leipzig Conservatorium. After
the holes for the three fingers of the right hand, a year and a half he went to Dresden to study
g is obtained, followed, on raising the fingers, the organ under Schneider. From 1856 to
by a, b, ami c' all as octaves of their respective 1860 he appeared as organist at many concerts
primes G, A, B, and C. The extension down- and oratorio performances in Leipzig, and in
wards from G to BBiy is obtained chiefly by 1863 was appointed head of the seminary at
key-work. Esslingen and organist of the princijial church
As the octave harmonic has no existence on of that place. Two years afterwards he was
instruments with cylindrical bore, no rei^etition given the title of Professor. He has published
of the scale in the octave, on such instruments, many excellent works for the organ, some of
can be obtained. Therefore e.xtra holes be- which have appeared in the Organist's Quarterly
yond the normal six or seven are imperatively Jaurnal (Novello), besides psalms for chorus
called for if the scale is to comprise more than and orchestra, songs, choruses, etc. (Mendel's
eight notes. On some of such instruments, as Zcxil'07i.) M.
the racket, much ingenuity was displayed in the FINK, Gottfried "SVilhelm, theologian and
doubling of the tube, so as to bring more than musical critic, born March 7, 1783, at .Suiza in
one hole under the control of a single finger or Thuringia, was educated at Naumburg, where
thumb. On others, as the sourdine and krumm- he was chorister, and Leipzig (1804-9). He
horn, key-work was used long before the evolu- began writing for the ^l/g. Mits. Zeitung in
tion of the modern clarinet. The distinctive 1808, and in 1827 succeeded Rochlitz as editor,
feature of this instrument is not so much the a post he held till 1841. In 1842 he became
addition of keys to extend the fundamental for a short time professor of music to the
compass from an octave to a twelfth, as the University of Leipzig. He died at Halle, August
peculiar use of the thumb or pipe-key, as a means 27, 1846. Fink's only musical works of value
of ensuring the production of notes, speaking as "were the 'Musikalischer Hausschatz, 'a collection
the fundamental notes do from the different of Lieder, etc. (Leipzig, 1843), and 'Diedeutsche
lengths of the instrument as determined by side- Liedertafel {ihid. 1846).
' As an author he pub-
holes, but in each case a twelfth higher than lished various volumes and ]iam]ihlets, but none
the fundamental. of which the names are worth preserving. Besides
The foregoing remarks give a general indica- the A.i[.Z., he was a prolific contributor to the
tion of the fundamental jirinciples and develop- Conversations - Lc^-icons of Ersch and Gruber,
ment of fingering from a diatonic basis but as
; and of Brockhaus, and to Schilling's Lericon dcr
the free use of all scales necessitates working Tonkunst. He left in j\TS. a history of music,
from a chromatic basis, modern improvements upon which he had beenengaged for twenty years.
have been influenced by this principle. The Fink was at once narrow and superficial, apd a
FINTA GIARDIXIEEA, LA FIOEITURE 55

conservative
sti'oiif,' and the Zcitwivj did not
; operas. His character was gentle and retiring ;

maintain under his editorship the position it lield and the last few years of his life were spent
in tlie musical world under Rochlitz. M. c. c. very (piietly. He died at Capua, on his
FINTA GIARDINIEKA, LA. Opera bulla way to Naples, June 16, 1837. Like Paisiello
in three author of libretto unknown
acts, ;
and other considerable Italian composers of
music by Mozart produced at Munich, Jan.
;
that date, Fioravanti was extinguished by
13, 1775. Rossini.
FINTA SEMPLICE, Opera bufta in LA. His son ViNCENZo, born April 5, 1799, died
three acts libretto by Coltellini, music by
; March 28, 1877, also composed operas with
Mozart composed at Vienna in 1768, when he
; ephemeral success. m. c. c.
was only twelve, but apparently never put on FIORILLO, Federigo, violin player and
the stage. composer, was born in 1753 at Brunswick, "where
FIOCCO, the name of a family of some dis- his I'ather Ignazio, a Neapolitan by birth, lived
tinction who flourislicd in Brussels in the 18th as conductor of tlie opera. He appears to have
century. They may have been related to a been originally a player of the mandoline, and
Donienico Fiocco, a mass of whose composition, only afterwards to have taken up the violin.
for four voices (with added parts by Brossard), In 1780 he went to Poland, and about the year
is in the Bibl. Nationale in Paris the head of ; 1783 we find him conductor of the band at
the Brussels family was Pieteo Antonio Fiocco, Riga, where he stayed for two years. In 1785
a Venetian, who was in the court band at he jilayed with much success at the Concert
Brussels about 1696, and conductor of it from Spirituel at Paris, and published some of his
1706. Van der Straeten states that he was the compositions, which w^ere very favouralily re-
firstdirector of the musico-dramatic Accademie' ceived. In 1788 he went to London, where he
in 1704. A volume of Sacri concerti, op. 1, was appears to have been less successful as a violinist,
printed at Antwerp in 1691, a cantata, Le '
as ^^e conclude from the fact that he plaj'ed the
Retour de Printemps, is dated Brussels, 1699,
' viola ]»art in Salomon's quartet-party. His last
and various masses and motets are mentioned appearance in public in London took place in
in the Quellen-Lcxikon. He died in Brussels, the year 1794, when he perlbnned a concerto
Nov. 3, 1714. His elder son, Jean Joseph on the viola at the Antient Concert. Of the rest
(or Giovanni Gioseffo) Fiocco, succeeded his of his life but little is known, except that he
father as conductor at Brussels in 1714, but the went from London to Amsterdam, and in 1823
younger son, Gioseffo Hectoee Fiocco, the was in Paris. The jilace and date ol his death
third in succession in the conductor's place, are not known. His numerous com|"iositions
seems to have been the most important of the areDuos for violins, for piano and violin, and
three. He was
suli-conductor at Brussels in violinand violoncello Trios for flute, violin,
;

1729, from 1731 master of the choristers at and tenor, for two violins and bass Quartets ;

Antwerp Cathedral, and master of the music at and Quintets for stringed instruments Con- ;

Ste. Gudule, in Brussels, in 1737. He Avas a certos for the violin ; Concertantes for t\\'0

distinguished harpsichord player, and in his violins, etc. (see QiicVcn-Lexilcon for fuller
first book of Pieces de Clavecin are many things
' ' list). Tbey were very favourably received in
of value, some of which were reprinted by his time, and, although somewhat dry and old-
A''an der Straeten and in Elewyck's selections fashioned, show him to have been a sound and
from the Netherlandish masters. (QiicUeii- earnest musician. There is, however, one par-
Lexikon.) ticular work which has brought his name down
FIORAVANTI, Valentino, composer, born to our time, and will probably long remain a
in Rome in 1764, studied under Sala at the standard. His thirty-six Caprices or Etudes
'
Pieta de' Turchini at Naples. ' His first opera areknown and valued by every violin player.
'
Le avventure di Bertoldino,' produced in Rome, They rank with the classical stuilies of Krentzer
1784, was follo'A'ed by at least fifty others, all and Rode, and, apart from their uselulncss,
comic, the last of wdiich, 'Ogni eccesso e vizioso,' are not without merit as compositions. They
was produced at Naples in 1823. He was in- have been edited over and over again ni' st —
vited to Paris in consequence of the success of recently by Ferdinand Davii (Lei]izig, Senff).
'
Le Cantatrici Villane (1806), and there wrote
'
Spobr wrote and published an accomiianving
'I virtuosi anibulanti (1807). These two' violin-part to them. p. D.

"were on the whole his best operas, though all FIOEITURE. The Italian term for orna-
possessed a genuine vein of comedy, a freshness, —
ments scales, arpeggios, turns, shakes, etc.
and an ease in the part-writing, which concealed — introduced by singers into airs. In the 18th
their triviality an<l want of originality, and century airs were often written plain, and were
made them very popular in their day. He was embroidered by the singers according to their
again in Naples in 1807, and in June 1816 he taste and ability. Such songs as dolce con- '

succeeded Januaconi as maestro di cappella to St. cento and Nel cor pii'i were seldom sung alike
' '
'

Peter's at Rome, and while in that post wrote by two difl^erent singers. Rossini's early airs
3. quantity of church music very inferior to his were written for the same treatment witness —
56 FIPPLE FLUTE FISCHEK
' Non piu mesta.' A remnant of it some will Ho was born at Mayence, August 18, 1746,
still remember in the long, tasteless cadenzas and well known at the theatres of Muuich
indulged in at the close of Handel's airs. This (1778), Vienna (1779), Paris (1783), Italy
was all very well as long as singers were also (1784), Berlin (1788), etc. He
good musicians, and as long as the singing was died at Berlin, July 10, 1825. P
more tliouglit of than what was sung. But now He was the original Osmin in the ^ —1=
these things are changed, and the composer '
Entfuhrung,' and had a compass "^ —
writes exactly what he intends to be sung of two octaves and a half all '

notes, nt(anci:s, and e.\[)ression. round, even, and in tune (Reichardt). '

The practice of '


fioriture ' was not unknown Fischerwas a great ally of Mozart's, who
to players in him Kon so d' onde viene,' and
tlie orcliestra as well as to singers.
Spohr gives some amusing and almost incredible
wrote for '

otten mentions him with aff'ection A truly — '

instances of such freaks of Horns and Clarinets splendid voice, though the Archbishop told me
in the I'uUi of his Scena Contante Concerto,
'
' he sang too low lor a bass, and I assured liini he
at Rome in 1816 {Sdbslhiog. i. 330). G. should sing higher next time (Sept. 26, 1781) '
;

FIPPLE FLUTE. The designation Flute, '


A man whose loss is irretrievable (Feb. 5, '

as applied to modern European instruments, 1783) ;I went to see the Fischers


' I cannot ;

includes broadly all in whicli the tone is jiro- describe their joy, family desire
the wdiole
duced by the breath without the use of either to be remembered to you (JIarch 17, '

a reed or a cup -shaped mouthpiece. Li the 1781). The others of the family were his
more limited modern use, the term is applied wile Barbara, a more than respectable singer
to those instruments only in which the current and actress; his son Joseph (1780-1862),
of air proceeds directly from the lips across the also a bass of renown, but more known
mouth-hole, or embouchure. In a large class as an impresario than a singer ; his daugliters
of flutes, however, now rapidly disappearing, Fischer- Vernier —
who in 1835 founded a
the wind was blown through a tube into a singing school of great repute for giils in
cavity from which it issued in a flat stream —
Vienna and Wilhelmine, and Joseph's adopted
against a sharp lip opposite. Tliis flat form daughter, Fischer- Maratfa, all good, efficient,
was given to the air-reed or stream by a block intelligent artists. M. c. c.
in the chamber or cavity, and this block was FISCHER, JoHAXX, violinist and composer,
called the tipple. Hence the instruments vari- was born in Swabia in the middle of the 17th
ously called recorders, flutes-a-bec, and flutes century, probably about 1650. He was a
douces are all fipple flutes, as are also flageolets, nuisician whose career presents features not a
ocarinas, and whistles generally. For derivation little remarkable, the (musically) remote period
of the word tipple, and many interesting details, in which he li\'ed being taken into considera-
see Jlr. Welch's paper Literature relating to
'
tion. A thorough Cosmojiolitan, a writer and
the Rejorder' in Froc. Mas. Assoc. 1897-98. performer of what is known to-day as Virtuoso
(See Flageoli-;t, Flute, Recorder.) d. .t. b. music, and comjioser of at least one example of
FIREWORK MUSIC. A series of pieces- *
progi'amme music,' he possessed a conil:>iuation
Overture, Allegro, Lentement, Bourree, Largo ot qualities we are accustomed to look upon
alia siciliana. Allegro, and two Minuets, all in as essentially modern. His instructor in
the key of D —written by Handel and perlbrnied violin playing is unknown, but it is recorded
at the Fireworks given in the Green Park, that he was taught harmony by Capricornus
April 27, 1749, on tlie occasion of the Peace at Stuttgart, and sent in early youth to
of Aix-la-Cliapelle. The baud— 100 in all - Paris, where he became copyist to Lully,
contained twenty-four oboes, twelve bassoons, whose music he is said to have subsequently
nine trumpets, nine horns, three drums, besides introduced into Germany. In any case, traces
strings. <'•, of that composer's influence are to be found in
FIRING is pulling all the bells in a tower ]iis compositions.

at once, so as to make them strike togethi/r. After leaving Paris, he led a wandering life,
It is practised in England on specially joj'ful remaining for a time at Augsburg (in the
or mournful occasions — on the latter with the Barfiisser Kirche) and at Schwcrin, where he
bells muffled. C. A. w. T. liold an appointment as Capellmeister. He
FIS and FISIS, the German terms for Fj also visited Denmark and Sweden, finally sett-
and F x respectively. The e([uivalent French ling down in Schwedt Pomerania as Mark-
in
terms are Fa diese and Fa double dicse. grailicher Capellmeister. Here he died at
FLSCHER. A
family of singers of the 18th the age of sevent}' years.
and 19th centuries. The founder was Lud^vig, He composed Tafehnusik, Overtures, Dances,
a bass, of wliom Otto Jahn (Mozart, 2nd ed. i. Madrigals, Minuets, and Solos for violin and
661, 630) speaks as 'an artist of extraordinary viola. In a list of his compositions given by
gift, for compass, power, and beauty of voice, Fetis are also to be found various vocal pieces,
and artistic perfection both in singing and play- and the primitive example of programme
ing, probably the greatest German bass-singer.' music, already alluded to, entitled, Feld und '
FISCHER FISCHER 57

Helden Miisik, iibor die 1704 bei Hochstadt and the pedals are only required for tlie Preludes.
geschehener Scblaclit, woriu die Violine der Many of the themes have a remarkable resem-
Marlborougli, und die Hoboe der Tallaid verstel- blance to those afterwards made use of by Bach.
len.' It is interesting to note that Fischer Tlie E major fugue lor example begins with
wrote and |ierforined Violin pieces in which the precisely the same theme alia breve as that in
device of special tunings (Scordatura), found in the second part of Das wohltemperirte Clavier,
latter days in the works of Paganiui and others, See also the beginning of the F major fugue.
Avas occasionally employed. These U)nsfiiii- Max Seifl'ert points out many other striking
munrjcn.^ as the Germans call them, are even resemblances (^G-eschiehte der Klavier- Musili,
found in pieces written by him for the viola, Bd. 1). To these preludes and fugues the com-
an instrument for which be liad a marked pre- poser has subjoined Ave riceroari on the church
dilection, w. w. c. melodies: 'Ave Maria klare,' 'Der Tag der
FISCHER, JoHANN Caspae Ferdixakd, an ist so Freudenreich, 'Da Jesus an dem Krenze
'

almost totally forgotten predecessor and innne- stund,' 'Christ ist Erstanden,' and Kouunlleili- '

diate forerunner of Handel and Bach in clavier ger Geist. Two other works of Fischer appeared
'

and organ music, was born some time between later without date, one entitled Musicalischer '

1660 and 1670, and died about 1738 (according Parnassus,' consisting of a series of nine suites
to Ernst v. Werra, see below). Of his life for clavier named after the Nine Muses. These
nothing further is known but that he was suites are of a more solid German character,
capellmeistcr to the Jlarkgraf Ludwig of Baden with fewer concessions to French taste in the
at the Schloss Schlackenwerth in Bohemia. use oi agremens. The remaining work is entitled
Markgraf Ludwig had been obliged to take \ip Blumenstrauss, and would seem to have been
his residence at this Bohemian Schloss in con- published after Fischer's death. It is arranged
scciucnee of the destruction of the Residenz at according to the eight Chmxli Tones, each tone
Baden by the French in 1688. Fischer's op. 1 having a prelude followed by eight very short
a}ipeared atAugsburg in 1695 with the title fugues, concluding with a flnale. Although no
Lc Journal du Frintemps consistant en Airs ct mention is made of tlie fact, it would seem as
Bnhts a 5 Parties et les Trompcltes el plaisir. if these pieces were intended to accompany the
In 1696, op. 2, 'Les Pieces de Clavessin,' ap- plain -song singing of the Magnificat in the
peared at Schlackenwerth, but was repuljlished fashion which became common in the 17th
at Augsburg in 1698 with the title Musica- century ; that is to say, wliile in the 16th
lischcs Blumen-Bilschlem, etc. This work con- century it w'as usual to sing altei-nate verses of
sists of eight short suites for clavier, each intro- the Magnificat in vocal harmony, witli tlie otlier
duced by a prelude. Fischer, however, does not verses sung to the simple plain-song, in the
adhere to the regular order of dance-forms in 17tli century the custom grew up for the organist
the suite as established by Froberger, viz. to substitute his own playing in place of the
Allemande, Couraute, Sarabande, Gigue, but vocal harmony of the alternate verses. Very
follows the newer French fashion in substituting, dignified examples of this kind of work may be
ael libitum. Gavottes, Menuets, Bourrees, Passe- seen in Frescobaldi's Fiori Mtisieali, 1635, also
pieds, etc. Suite v. consists only of a prelude and in Scheldt's Tabulatnra Nova, 1624. Pacbelbel
aria with eight variations. Suite viii. consists of also left some very florid and less ecclesiastical
prelude with chaconne only. In 1701 appeared specimens of these Organ Jlagnificats. The
op. 3, Vesper Psalms a 8 with ad libitum short movements of Fischer hold a right mean
accompaniment of two violins and basso con- between the earlier simplicity and the later more
tinue for organ and violone. In 1702 appeared florid style, and although tliey have so little
Fischer's op. 1715 without
4 (republislied in development, the themes themselves and tlie
opus number) entitled Ariadne Musioa Neo-
' modulations have much of the spirit of Bach in
Organoedum,' etc. This work is a direct fore- them. It only remains to mention that the
shadowing of Das wohlfcniperirtc Clavier. Its clavier and organ works of Fischer have been
title points out as intended to be a clue to
it recently republished in one volume by Ernst von
budding organists to guide tliem througli the "Werra, and the orchestral work Le Jouinul des
mazes of all the newer modern keys, major and Printemps in Band x. of the Denlmiiler der
deutsehen Tonkmist, 1902. J. i;. M.
minor. It consists of twenty preludes and
fugues in as many difl'erent keys, only the key FISCHER, JoHANN Chrlstian, distinguished
of E minor occurs twice, once without signature, oboist,born 1733 at Freiburg (Brei.sgau), was for
as if in the Phrygian mode, and then with two some years in the court band at Dresden from
sharps as if in the Dorian. Of the twenty-four 1764 to about 1771, then in the service of
modern keys only five are unrepresented, G sharp Frederick the Great, and after a successful con-
and F sharp major, E flat ndiior, B Hat minor, cert tour by Mannlieim, Holland, and Paris,
and G sharp minor. C sharp minor and F sliarj) came to London, and made his first appearance
minorare both written with fonrshar) is signature, at the Thatched House, June 2, 1768 J. C. ;

B minor with three sliarps, A flat with three flats, Bach playing the pianoforte for the first
'
'

etc. Both preludes and fugues are very short. time at the same concert. Fischer was for many
e
58 FISH FITZWILLIAM
years a great attraction at the Bach-Abel and there. He was next a teacher of music, then
Vauxhall concerts, and as a member of the principal oboist at the theatre, etc. and eventu-
,

Queen's band played frequently before the Court. ally leader of the band at the concerts. He
His playing of Handel's fourth oboe concerto at numbeied among his pupils Edward Taylor,
the Handel Commemoration in 1784 so delighted afterwards Gresham professor of music, and
the King that he expressed his satisfaction in George Perry, afterwards leader of the band of
a note on his book of the ^^'ords. (lUemoir of the Sacred Harmonic Society. He died in
Dr. Biirnry by Mme. D'Arblay, ii. 385.) His Nonvich, March 15, 1866. He composed
tone must have been very powerful, since Giardini numerous songs, and other vocal pieces, a piano-
the violinist characterised it as such an impu-'
forte sonata, op. 1, and concertos for various
dence of tone as no other instrument could contend instruments. w. H. h.
with' and according to the ABODario it was
;
'
FISHER, John Abraham, Mus.Doc, was
very tine and inexpressibly well-managed. On ' born at Dunstable (or London) in 1744, He
the death of Stanley, Master of the King's band became a student of the violin under Pinto, and
(1786), Fischer competed with Burney and others made his first appearance in public in July 1765
for the vacant post, but Parsons was appointed, at the King's Theatre, in a concert for the benefit
and Fischer soon after went abroad probably in ,
of the Musical Fund. About 1770 he married
disgust at his failure. Mozart in 1766 as a boy a daughter of Powell the actor, and became, in
had been enchanted with his playing in Holland, her right, proprietor of a sixteenth share in
but on hearing him again in Vienna, severely Covent Garden Theatre. He composed for that
criticises him (letter to his father, April 4, '178 7), and other theatres the music for the follow-
and condemns alike his tone, his execution, and ing pantomimes, viz., 'The
'Zobeide,' 1771 ;

his compositions. From 1790 he remained in Monster of the Wood,' 1772; 'The Sylphs,'
London. While playing at Court he was struck 1774 Prometheus,' 1776 and 'The Norwood
;
'
;

with paralysis, and died April 29, 1800 (see Gipsies,' 1777 and also music for the opening
;

I'imes of ila.j 1). Kelly, in his -Reminiscences of 'Macbeth.' On July 2, 1777, an oratorio
(vol. i. 9), gives an anecdote of Fischer's pride by Fisher, entitled Providence,' was performed
'

as an artist. A certain nobleman having invited in the Sheldonian Theatre at Oxford, and on
him to supper much against his wall, said when the 5th of the same month the composer (as a
he arrived, 'I hoi)e, Mr. Fischer, you have member of Magdalen College) accumulated the
brought your oboe in your pocket to which he ' ;
degrees of Bachelor and Doctor of Music. His
replied, No, ray lord
'
my oboe never sups, and
; ' oratorio was performed in Freemasons' Hall,
instantly left the house. He was very intimate London, on May 28, 1778, for the benefit of
with Gainsborough, who was a gi'eat lover of the Middlesex Hospital, and again in 1780. On
music, and wdiose pretty daughter Mary he the death of his wife Fisher disposed of his
married, though the father gave a very unwilling interest in Covent Garden Theatre, and started
consent, foreseeing the short duration of the on a professional tour through Russia and
mart'iage. (Fulcher's Life of Gainsborough.) Germany. In 1784 he reached Vienna, where
There is a fine portrait of Fischer by Gains- he induced the youthful Anna Selina Storace
borough at Hampton Court (private dining-room. to become his second wife —
contrary to the
No. 747). Thicknesse mentions a second in full advdce of all her friends. The union proved
uniform — scarlet and gold like a colonel of the
'
an unhappy one, and in a short time the parties
Foot Guards.' separated and the wife never after used her
Zuck and Kellner were his best-known pupils husband's name. The Emperor, incensed at
in London. J. C. Bach wrote for him a quartet Storace's having had to submit to blows from her
for two oboes, viola, and violoncello, which he husband, ordered Fisher to quit his dominions.
often played. His own compositions (of which He then went to Dublin and gave a few success-
Fetis and Gerber give a partial list) consist of ful concerts in the Rotunda. [He was in
solos, duets, concertos, quartets, etc. On this Ireland from 1786 to 17S8 (see Lady Morgan's
point the ABUDario says, As a composer his
'
Memoirs). He left Ireland before 1798 and
desire to be original often makes him introduce died, probably in London, in May 1806.
whimsical and outre passages, which nothing w. H. c. F.] Besides the above-named com-
but his playing could cover.' Mozart, in spite positions Fisher published some symphonies for
of his unfavourable ojiinion of him, immortalised orchestra, and other works, for which see the
his minuet by writing variations for it (1773), QucUcn-Leril-nn. w. H. H.
wliich he often played to dis]ilay his bravura FITZWILLIAM, Edwaep Francis, son of
(Kiichel, No. 179). This minuet was then all
'

Edward and Frances Fitzwilliam both actors
the rage,' as Kelly writes, after hearing Fischer —
and singers born at Deal, August 1, 1824.
play it in Dublin {Pvem. i. 9), and it continued He was educaterl for the musical profession,
to be the rage for Tnany years. c. r. p. and devoted himself especially to the study of
FISH, William, born in Norwich in 1775, composition. In 1853 he published a set of
became, early in life, a violinist in the theatre twelve songs which were much admired, and in
' See Otto Jahn'a Mozart (Oerman edition), iii. 309. the same year was appointed director of the
FITZWILLIAM COLLECTION, THE FLAGEOLET 59

music at tlie Hayniarket Theatre, where lie —


Fitzwilliam Mu.sic. The list is as follows
produced an operetta called Love's Alarms '
(' Orch.' implies orchestral accompaniment)
:

(1854) and music for some minor jneces. About Bouno. C\no Sancto.
1855 he married Miss Ellen Chaplin, a member
of the Haymarket Company, well known as
Mrs. E. Fitzwiliianr. His compositions were
distinguished by an intelligence which gave
promise of great excellence when he should ha^'e
fully mastered the technicalities of his art —
hope disappointed by his early death, after a
lingering illness, on Jan. 20, 1857. Besides the
songs above mentioned, he wrote music for The '

Green Bushes,' 1815 Anything for a Change,'


;
'

1846, 'Queen of a Day,' comic opera; and


published a Te Deum, and a hymn, incom- '

prehensible Creator. A quartet from the former


'

is given by ilr. Hullali in his Sacred Jlusic '

for Faniilv Use.' w, H. H.


FITZWILLIAJI COLLECTION, THE. In
the year 1816 A'iscount Fitzwilliam died, leaving
to the University of Cambridge, of which he was
a member, the annual interest on £100,000 in
money, and a large number of valuable paintings,
books, engravings, and other works of art. Of
these a collection of music, ilS. and printed,
forms a portion. Its most jirominent features
are the Virginal Book formerly called Queen '

Elizabeth's a volume of anthems in the hand-


'
;

writing of Henry Purcell, and another in that


of Dr. Blow, containing various pieces not yet
printed and a miscellaneous collection em-
;

bracing the works of more than 250 composers,


mostly of the 17th and 18th centuries, and
chiefly of the Italian school as for instance ;

Claiii, 3 masses, 3 Dixit Dominus, a Stabat, a


Confitebor, etc. Leci, a Mass, 2 Miserere, 3 Dixit

;

a 5, aS (in autograph) and n. 10 an Oratorio ;

etc. COLONNA, a Magnificat, a Contitebor, a


;

Domine ad adjuvandum, a Beatus vir, a Dixit,


etc. JoMMELLi, a Miserere, a Dixit (n 8), 2
;

Operas, an Oratorio, etc. BososciNI, a Mass (« ;

8), an Opera, a Psalm, Cantatas, etc. Py'.iiGOLEsi, ;

a Mass, a Kyrie, and Gloria (a 10), portions of a


Dixit, etc. Dur..\NTE, a Messa de' Morti (« 8),
;

a Litany and Motets. In addition to these


there is the autogi-aph of a Symphony in F, di '

me Giuseppe Haydn and some interesting


787,'
MS.S. in Handel's autograph. Kelway is said
to have been emplo3'ed by Lord Fitzwilliam to
collect for him in Italy. The Catalogue, by
J. A. Fuller Maitland and Dr. A. H. JLann (the
latter of wliom contributed a valuable analysis
of the Handel sketches) was published in 1893.
By the generosity of the late .1. Pendlebury,
M. A., of St. .John's College, a large collection of
important musical compositions, mainly modern
works, was given and bequeathed to the Museum.
The contents of the Virginal Book were pub-
lished by permission of the authorities, edited
by J. A. Fuller W. Barclay Squire
Maitland and
(finished 1899). See Virginal Music.
A portion of the above music was published
by the late Vincent Novello in 1825 as
60 FLAGEOLET FLAT
In the whistle, and in the English Flageolet, it appears that in this case the two instruments
the scale is simply that of the Flute indeed, ; play in thirds intervals larger than this being
;

flutes are made from \\'hich the usual head can possible in a few cases. The two tubes are set
be removedaud that of the Flageolet substituted. in a single block and blown by one mouthpiece.
The French Flageolet is similar in its upper Contrivances were added for silencing one of the
part, but possesses a more complicated scale, two pipes when required, but they seem to have
and an abundance of auxiliary keys. been often blown in unison to a single note.
The inventiou of the Flageolet is ascribed by Triple flageolets have also been made. These
Burney {Hist. iii. 278 note) to the Sieur .Juvigny, instruments, though still within the memory of
who played it in the famous Ballet comique de la
'
some, have entirely and most deservedly gone
Royiie,' 1,581. In the time of llersennus (l,588- out of use. No music of importance seems to
1648) the principal teacher and player was Le have been composed for them.
Vacher (Hawkins, chap. 126). It appears to The single English and French flageolets are
have superseded the more ancient Recorder, still to be met with, chiefly in dance music.
much as the Violin did the Viol. The two were The former has been described as a simple form
obviously for a time in use together in this of Flnte-k-bec. The latter is a far more com-
country ; for the '
Genteel Companion, being plicated instrument, possessing two holes for the
exact directions for the Recorder, carefully com- thumbs at the back and four in front for the
posed and gathered by Humphrey Salter,' is two first fingers of the two hands. Indeed it
is distinctly a descendant of the old Flageolet
'

dated from tlie Lute in St. Paul's churchyard


'

in 1683, whereas the 'Pleasant companion, or given above. The half-stopping of the left hand
new lessons and instructions for the Flagelet ly 1 thumb-hole by means of a grooved plate for the
Thomas Greeting, Gent, was printed for J
'
' thumb-nail, and the introduction of the tip of
Playf trd, and sold at his shop near the Temple the right little finger into the small everted
Church' inl682. The former work gives a plate bell at the bottom of the instrument, are devices
of a long bulky Recorder, reaching lialf-way peculiar to this difficult but rather inetteotive
down to the player's knee, whereas the latter instrument. Its compass is two octaves and
represents him sitting over a table on which lies three semitones, from g' to b'" flat. A full
his book, holding in his mouth and hands the Method is published by Bousquet.
'Flagelet,' a pipe not more than nine inches The Flageolet is never found in orchestral
long ; on the table lies one somewhat larger, scores, but there a tradition of some authority
is

apparently about twelve inches in length. It '


that the solo pjart in '0 ruddier than the cherry,'
may be carried in the pocket, and so without any marked in the score as Flauto,' was played in '

trouble be a companion by land and by water.' Handel's time on the flageolet and Sullivan ;

In the same way the early Violins were termed introduced it with excellent ert'eet in the part
piecoli Violini alia Frances^ in opposition to the of Dr. Daly in his Sorcerer. '
w. h. s.

more bulky A'iol. Both the flageolet and the re- FLAGEOLET. The French and Italian term
corder read from a staff of six lines, each of which for the harmonic notes in the violin and other
represents a hole to be stopped. In the Recorder instruments of that tribe doubtless so called ;

music the tune, with proper notes and time, is because in quality they resemble the flageolet,
placed on a staff above, whereas in the Flageolet [Harmonics.] m. c. c.

a single symbol above the staff shows the time, FLAT. A term employed in the sense of
but not the intervals of the melody. [See Re- lowering an artist sings or plays flat when his
;

corder.] The flageolet has only six holes, notes are below the right pitch. B flat is a
stopped by a different arrangement their closure; semitone lower than B, E flat than E, and so on ;

being appropriated successively to the thumb, to flatten (baissri-') a sound or an instrument


' '

first, and second fingers of the left, followed in is to make it lower than before, just as to

order by the first finger, thumb, and secon<l ' shar])en it is to raise it.
' The sign used to
fingers of the riglit hand. This fingering seems denote this flattening in music is b, called a
to be unique of its kind, and persists in the flat — Fr. bimol Ital. Beinolle
; Germ. Be. ;

French Flageolet. It has been already shown under Acciiientals


The Double Flageoletwas invented by a person and B (vol. i. pp. 19 and 141) how the signs
named Bainbridge about 1800, and his Method of the flat (t>) and natural (tj) were derived from
for the instrument is supjilemented after about two forms of the letter b. A double flat is a
twenty years by his son-in-law. It consists of two descent of two semitones, and is marked by bb-
'
pjatent Flageolets, the sides close to each other ;
(See also Double Flat.)
the one has seven holes in front and one behind ;
In German musical nomenclature the notes
the other only four in front. The seven-holed are flattened by adding s (or cs) to the letter, as
Flageolet is played with the left hand, the four- Es, Des, Ges, etc. A flat is As, and B flat B,
;

holed Flageolet is played with the right hand ;


though Hea has been used. Double flats are
and in playing duets you will in general have Deses, etc. The b and ( in German literature
'the same rmmber of holes covered on the second were formerly used to express minor and major,
Flageolet as on the first.' From the examples as Gb for G minor, DJJ for D major, and even
FLAUTO MAGICO FLOEENCK 61

Eb for E and Asj( for A fiat major.


minor, many improvements in organ- building which
(See the earlier Indexes of tlie Allgemfine prepared the way lor still superior mechanism.
"inuHkalische Zeitiing for frequent instances of Amongst them was an apparatus for steadying
this strange usage. ) Such ambiguities are now the wind, added to the bellows during a repara-
avoided by the use of the words dm- and moll tion of Father Schmidt's organ at Trinity
for major and minor. g. College, Caniln-idge, which preceded, and pos-
FLAUTO MAGICO. See Zauberflote. sibly suggested, the concussion bellows. B.
FLAUTO TRAVERSO (Ital. Fr. Fldte ; Flight died in 1847, aged eighty, and Robson
traversiere). Tlie distinguishing name of tlie in 1876. w. h. h.
Flute with a lateral mouthpiece, held across the FLINTOFT.Rev. Luke, a native of Worcester,
jieriormer, as opposed to the FhUe-d-bcc or Fla- took the degree of B.A. at Queen's College,
geolet, held straight in front. [Flute.] w. h. .s. Cambridge, in 1700, and was appointed Gentle-
FLEMMING, FiiiEPEicH Ferdinand, born man of the Chapel Royal in 1715, having been
Feb. 28, 1778, at Neuhausen in Saxony studied ; Priest- Vicar of Lincoln Cathedral from 1704 to
medicine at Wittenberg from 1796 to 1800, and 1714. In July 1719 he was apjiointed Reader
subsequently at Jena, Vienna, and Trieste. He in Whitehall Chapiel. He was also a minor
practised in Berlin, where he took a keen canon of Westminster Abbey from 1719. He
interest in all musical matters, composing many died Nov. 3, 1727, and was buried in the South
part-songs, especially for male voices, for the Cloister of Westminster Abbey. He is presumed
society founded by Zclter. He died in Berlin, to have invented the double chant, his beautiful
May 27, 1813. His claim to notice in this chant in G minor being the earliest known.
Dictionary is based upon his excellent setting (But see Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. x. 206,
of Horace's ode beginning 'Integer vitae, which ' xi. 267, 391, and 445.) w. h. h.
is still universally popular in English schools FLORENCE (Flren:e), although in point of
and universities, as well as in Germany. The great masters inferior to the otlier schools of
curious resemblance in style and structure music in Italy, can still claim her place among
between this and "Webbe's '
Glorious Apollo the earliest institutions for instruction in that
is certainly fortuitous, since the latter was science. Casella, the friend of Dante, was a
written in 1787, and Flemming can hardly native of Florence, and as early as 1310 tliere
have become acquainted with the Englishman's existed a philharmonic society there, which
work. M. Bnrney, writing in 1789, speaks of as still '

FLIEGENDE HOLLANDER, DER. Opera in existence,' and which invented the Laudi
in three acts, words and music by Richard Si'iuiTUALi. Under the famous Lorenzo de'
"Wagner; produced at Dresden, Jan. 2, 1843. Medici, the streets of Florence resounded with the
In London at Drury Lane, as L'Olandese dan- ' '
Canti Carnascialeschi, ' tlie gay and frivolous
'

nato,' July 23, 1870 and by Carl Rosa, as the


; songs of the Carnival, against wdiich Savonarola
'
Flying Dutchman,' at the Lyceum, Oct. 1876 ; protested, and the music of which was often
at Oovent Garden as II Vascello fantasma,
'
sacrificed on the pile of Vanita. To the history
'
'

June 16, 1877. of Florentine music during that epoch may be


The words were sold by Wagner to the added the name of Antonio Squarcialupi, organ-
manager of the Grand Opera in 1841, set bj' ist of the Duomo but passing over the other
;

Dietsch as Le Vaisseau fantome, and brought


'
' masters of this first epoch of the Florentine
out there, Nov. 9, 1842. o. school we come to the dawn of the opera nmsic,
FLIGHT, Ben.iamin, an eminent organ- which had a fitting birthplace in festive Florence.
builder, born about 1767, was the son of For the purpose of promoting this kind of music,
Benjamin Flight, who, in the latter part of the a private musical academy called 'Degli Alterati'
18th century, carried on, in partnership with (the thirsters) was founded in 1568 at Florence
John Kelly, under the style of Flight & '
by seven Florentine noblemen who assendjled at
Kelly,' the business of organ-building at Exeter the house of Giambattista Strozzi. They chose
Change. Young Flight learned the art of con- as their device a cask of grapes filled to over-
structing organs from his father. About the flowing, and the motto Quid non designat'

year 1800 he commenced business, in partnership ebrietas ? Giovanni Bardi, Conte di Varnio,
'

with Joseph Robson, in Lisle Street, Leicester belonged to this academy, and, after the death
Square, under the style of Flight & Robson.' '
of Strozzi, his house became the rendezvous of
They afterwards removed to St. Jlartin's Lane, the academicians. Bardi had for many years
where they constructed and for many years studied the theory and practice of music till he
publicly exhibited the Apollonicon (q.r.). The became a correct and good composer and he ;

partnership wa.s dissolved in 1832, after which was often solicited to prepare for the stage those
Mes-srs. Gray and Davison bought Robson's mythological representations which under the
share of the business, while Flight in conjunction , name ofFeste_ musicali
'
were among the '

with his son, J. Flight, who had long actively earliestforms taken by the musical drama.
assisted him, carried on business in St. Martin's These entertainments were first represented at
Lane as '
Flight & Son. ' Flight invented • PubUahed by Grazzini, Florence. 1559.
62 FLOKENCK FLORENCE
Florence on a scale of magniticence in keeping of a nobler and higher order than the popular
with the gorgeous character of the Medici song which does not sever or maim the words,
;

feasts. nor deprive them of life, but gives new force and
Vincenzo — father the great Galileo
Galilei of vigour to both. It is then a new and wonderful
— was another member the academy Degli of '
invention, or rather a revival of the ancient
Alterati. He
wrote a clever treatise, Dialogo
' Greek musical drama which has been lost to us
della Musicci anticci e inoderna (Florence, 1581), for so many centuries' (Tiraboschi, vii. 1321).
upon the abuse of modern music, in which he Rinuccini's next opera, Arianna,' composed by
places in the mouth of Bardi an attack upon the Monteverde, was represented at the nujitials of
madrigalists and the researches after counter- Francesco Gonzaga of Mantua with the Infanta
point. He was also a composer, and is supposed Margaret of Savoy (Doni, Oipere, ii. 25).
to be the first who composed melodies for a This first academy for theatrical music was
single voice. He set to music the speech of succeeded by many others, as the passion for
Ugolino {Inf. xxxiii. ) beginning 'La bocca musical representation became universal in Italy.
sollev6 dal fero paste also a portion of the
' ; Quadrio (i. 71) mentions three in Florence,
Lamentations of Jeremiah. 'degl' Infocati,' 'degl' Immobili,' 'de' Sorgenti,'
Girolamo Mei was another member of this founded between 1550 and 1560 especially for
academy, and Emilio del Cavaliere, a composer promoting this kind of music. Each of these
of the Roman School, who, previous to the com- had its own theatre and vied with the others in
position of the first entire musical drama by the splendour and magnificence of its representa-
Rinuccini, had divided into scenes and set to tions. Indeed, in the middle of the 16th cen-
music two Pastorales — La disperazione Sileno
' di tury, the tlieatres of Italy, constructed in many
and '
II Satiro '
— the words by Laura
latter to cases by no less an architect than Palladio, and
Guidiccini, a lady of Lucca. where the most melodious ofall modern languages
When Bardi was summoned to Rome by first appeared married to sweet harmony, were

Clementi VIIL the society of the Alterati


,
'
the wonder and admiration of the world.
assembled in the house of Jacopo Corsi, a The Florentine school of music differs from the
Florentine nobleman, an enlightened lover of the other great schools of Italy in that the com-
fine arts, and passionately devoted to dramatic posers of dramatic music just enumerated were
music. They soon added to their number the only amateurs, and had been for the most part
names of Ottavio Rinuccini the poet, Jacopo trained in the great schools of Rome and Bo-
Peri the composer, and Giulio Caccini, who, logna. Nor did Florence ever ju'oduce any great
besides his talent for composition, had the gift composers of church music, although composer
of a beautiful voice. These three occupied them- succeeded composer in that brilliant operatic
selves in developing the first attempts at musical music of which we have traced the first begin-
drama into the finished performance called the we arrive at the great Cherubini,
nings, until
opera. They invented the recitative by which who was a master in both the church and the
the Italian opera and the oratorio are distin- theatre.
guished from the opera of other countries and The present Royal Musical Institute' of Flor-
'

fromotherspeciesof theatrical musical exhibition. ence is of modern foundation, and was opened for
'
Dafne was the first result of their united
' public instruction in 1862. Its objects are. To
efforts. Rinuccini composed the poetry, Caccini teach the science, history, and practice of music ;
and Peri the music, and the whole was repre- to maintain a pulilic library of nuisio ; to gi-ant
sented in the house of Jacopo Corsi, 1597. rewards to deserving artists to perform the best
;

'
This,' says Burney {Hist. iv. p. 18), seems the ' works of modern and ancient masters. It is an
true era whence the opera or drama wholly set establishment for public and gratuitous instruc-
to music and in which the dialogue was neither
, tion, and comprises three sections that of ad-—
sung in measure nor declaimed without music, ministration that of instruction
; and the ;

but recited in simple musical tones which Academy. The administration is directed by a
amounted not to singing, and yet was different President, assisted by three Professors, who form
from speech, —
should be dated.' Dafne was ' '
the Council of Management. The department
succeeded by 'Euridice, represented with gor- ' of instruction contains schools for the rudiments
geous splendour in 1600 at the feasts given in of music and musical reading for solfeggio ;
;

Florence in honour of the marriage of Henry IV. for solo and part singing for keyiil, stringed,
;

of ranee with Maria de' Medici.


1'' None of the and wind instruments ; for thorough - bass,
subsequent compositions of the great masters of coimterpoint, and composition and forfesthetics
;

operatic music produced anything like the elfect and musical history. The Academy is com-
of these first representations, which introduced posed of resident, corresponding, and honorary
Italy as it were to a new art that of musica — members. The Examiners are chosen from the
parlanU. The poet Angelo Grillo (the friend of resident members of the Academy, as are also
Tasso), writing to Caccini, observed 'You are : the three members of the council of manage-
the father of a new kind of music, or rather ment. The number of pupils averages 220, and
singing, which is not a song, but a recitative song is regulated by the applications for admission,
FLORENCE FLORIMO 63
the result of the examinations, and the means Italian term is Figiirato. Examples are hardly
available for imparting instruction, c. M. p. necessary but the genesis of florid passages is
;

FLORENCE, Evasgelixe, Christian the highly interesting, and an instance or two, from
names of Miss E. F. Houghton ,' born
at Cam- the simplest form to the very highest art, may
bridge, Mass., U.S.A., Dec. 12, 1873. She be tbrgi\-cn.
was first taught singing at Boston by the late Bach, Christmas Oratorio.
Mme. Edna Hall (well known at Loudon con-
certs in the early seventies), and made her
debut in public at Boston at the age of eighteen
as the heroine in Flotow's Martha.' She
'

Hayds, Quartet 1.
caused considerable sensation by singing, by -*-
way of encore, the last verse of The Last Rose '

of Summer an octave higlier than originally


'

having a phenomenal compass from g


Avi'itten,
to double high C in alt, <"". In London she
received further instruction from Henschel,
Blume, Randegger, and the late Mrs. Rudolph
Lehmann, the well-known amateur, who gave her
gratuitous instruction, and became her life-long Beethoven, Concerto No. 5.
friend until her lamented death in 1903.
May 11, 1892, as Miss E. Florence, she made
her debut at St. James's Hall at a concert
On

given by herself in conjunction with Miss Mar-


guerite Hall, the daugliter of her first teacher.
ii ^^^^gCfJ^
Do., Ninth Symphony (^Adagio).
^
She was remarkably successful, having
'
a
light soprano of phenomenal compass and of
exceedingly beautiful cjuality,
'

absolutely pure
'

^^1^^^^^^
throughout its large extent. ... In Alabiev's
" Nightingale " the A fiat in altiss was reached
with apparent ease' {Timts). On Dec. 1 she
^^^l^^pHi
sang Elsa's Dream at Henschel's Symphony
'

Concerts ;
'

on Jan. 16; 1893, she sang in the


first production in London of Parry's Job by '
'
^^g^^^^i
the Highbury Society on March 6 she sang at
; Such florid passages are essential to Varia-
the Popular Concerts the London Ballad Con-
; and the last of these examples is taken
tions,
certs ;Feb. 17, 1894, at the Crystal Palace at — from the finest set of variations existing.
all which concerts she frequently sang subse- For Florid Counterpoint see Countekpoint
quently. In 1894 she sang at the Hereford and Strict Counterpoint. g.
Festival; in 1897 and 1900 at Birmingham. FLORILEGIUM PORTEXSE. A collection
She sang at the Philharmonic, May 18, 1899, of sacred vocal music of the 16th century, in
in the Choral Symphony; on Feb. 25, 1903, separate parts, published in 2 vols, by Boden-
in 'The Light of the World,' and on April 1, scliatz in 1618 and 1621, and containing in all
1904, in the 'Messiah' with the Royal Choral 265 pieces. [See Boden.schatz, vol. i. pp. 346,
Society. She has also appeared with the Queen's 347, where a full catalogue is given.]
Hall Choral Society, in various provincial towns, FLORIMO, Francesco, born Oct. 12, 1800,
etc. For a good many years she has been the at San Criorgio Morgeto, Calabria, was taught
principal soprano at Messrs. Boosey's Ballad music at the Real Collegio di Musica at Naples,
Concerts. In 1895 she sang on tour in Aus- where he learnt counterpoint and composition
tralia, in 1898 on the continent, and in 1899 from Zingarelli, Furno, Elia, and Tritto. He
in her native country. The phenomenal high was appointed in 1826 Librarian of the College
notes she rarely uses now, on the advice of of Music (afterwards incorpoi'ated with that of
musiciaTis, but relies for lier piijiularity on the SanPietro diMajella), where, finding the archives
many modern songs she has introduced, such in a state of chaos and disorder, by his energy
as those of Mrs. Lehmann ('A. L.'), Mrs. Bed- and perseverance he gradually made the Library
ford (LizaLehmann), Mrs. Needham.and others. one of the most interesting and valuable in
She was married to Jlr. Alexander Crerar, at Europe. He added a number of important
Boston, U.S.A., on Oct. 17, 1894. .\. c. works, besides a collection of autographs and
FLORID. Music in rapid figures, divisions, manuscripts, of all the masters of the Neapoli-
or passages, the stem of the simple melody, tan School, Florimo's compositions include a
bursting forth, as it were, into leaves and flowers. Cantata, op. 1, in honour of the Duke of Noja,
The image is the same as that in Fioriture. The Director of the College of San Sebastiano a ;

Dixit a Credo
; a Te Deum
; a Funeral;
' she dropped the surname of Houghton to prevent confuaion
with another singer of that name in London. Symphony composed on the death of Bellini,
64 FLOTOW FLOTOW
afterwards performed at Zingarelli's funeral a ; the Paris theatres several other operas, such as
Otiorus and Fugal Overture on the unveiling of '
L'esclave de Camoens' (18-13), and 'Lame
Zingarelli's jjortrait at the College Ore musi- ;
'
en peine (1846) known in London as 'Leoline'
'

cali, a setting of ten songs, vocal duet and quar-


' (Princess's Theatre, Oct. 16, 1848). 'Stradella'
tet (Girard, Naples) 1835; twelve songs published was rewritten as an opera, and brought out at
under the same title by Boosey (London, 1845), Hamburg, Dec. 30, 1844, and has had extra-
six of which were included in the iirst collec- ordinary success throughout Germany. In Paris,
tion three popular Neapolitan songs in a collec-
; though published, it has never been produced.
tion published by Lonsdale, 1846 twenty-four ; In London it was brought out in English at
Songs (Rioorili, Milan), etc. He was Bellini's Drury Lane, June 6, 1846 a dead failure — —
dearest friend, and in 1876 took that composer's and in Italian in 1864 at Covent Garden, when
remains Ironi Pere-la-Chaise, Paris, to Catania ;
it lasted two nights only, killed by a joke of

he wrote a pamphlet, Trasporto dclle ccneri, Ronconi's. It was followed by 'Martha' (Vienna,
etc., on the event. He also founded the Nov. 25, 1847), which was remodelled from a
'
Bellini prize at the College, a competition
' ballet written in conjunctionwith BurgmiiUer
only open to Italian composers not over thirty and Deldevez in its new form
in 1844, and
(Baker's Didionarij). He wrote a Method of quickly spiread all over the world (London,
Singing (Rico)'di), 3rd edition 1866 C'enno ; Covent Garden, 1858). These two works Flotow
storico sulla scuola musicale di Napoli, Naples, has never surpassed, and of his later operas
2 vols., 1869-71, enlarged into 4 vols, and 'Die Grossfiirstin (1850), 'Indra' (1853),
'

republished 1830-84 a History of the College


;
'Riibezahl' (1854), 'Hilda' (1855), 'Albin,'
San Fietro, Naples, 1873 liiccardo Wagner td; or Der Mtiller von Meran (1856),
'
La Veuve
' '

i JVagneristi, 1876, 2nd edition, Ancona, 1883, Grapin' (1859), Pianella (1860),
'
Zilda ' '

with a supplement containing letters from Verdi (1866), 'L' Ombre' (1870), 'Naida' (Milan,
and B iilow, from Frau Wagner 'to the most 1873), 'II Fior d' Harlem ' (Turin, 1876), the
amiable of librarians, and the juvenile octogen- only ones which have attained any general
arian,' expressing the satisfaction of herself and popularity were 'Indra,' 'La Veuve Grapin,'
her husband at a performance of a Miserere of Leo and 'L' Ombre,' the last of which was enor-
by the students of the College on the occasion mously successful not only in Paris, but in
of their visit there in 1880 also a lithograph ; Italy and Spain, and has been produced in
copy of a letter from "Wagner himself to the London (Her Majesty's) Jan. 12, 1878, as
Duke of Bagnara the President, from the Villa 'The Phantom.' His ballets are as follows :

d'Angri, Naples, dated April 22, 1880. Florimo •Die Libelle' (Vienna, 1866), 'Tannkbnig'
also wrote a memoir of Bellini (1885), and died (Darmstadt, 1867), 'Am Runenstein (Prague, '

at Naples, Dec. 18, 1888. A. c. 1868). His 'Enchanteresse,' known in England


FLOTOW, Friedrich, Feeiherr vom, Ger- as Alma ineantatrice, a revised version of
' 1' '

man opera composer, born April 27, 1812, son 'Indra,' was produced in Paris, 1878, and his
of a landed nobleman of the arch -duchy of '
Rosellana' was left unfinished at his death.
Mecklenburg was educated with a view to the
; In 1856 he was appointed Intendant of the
diplomatic service. In 1827 he went to Paris, court theatre at Schwerin, a post which he re-
when music was at its best. The brilliant tained till 1863. The most important works
,

artistic life into which he was thrown aroused he produced during this period, when he had
hira to a consciousness of hisown talent for so many inducements to compose, were a
music, and he devoted himself to a course of '
Fackeltanz and some charming music to
'

study under Reicha. The Revolution of 1830 Shakespeare's 'Winter's Tale' (1862). After
drove him away for a time, but feeling that the giving up the management of the theatre in 1863
atmosphere of Paris was necessary to his success, he returned to Paris, and in 1868 removed to the
he soon returned, and produced his first dramatic neighbourhood of Vienna. He died at Darm-
attempts at the private houses of some of the stadt, Jan. 24, 1883. His remaining composi-
aristocracy. Stradella was brought out at
'
' tions, overtures, songs, and chamber music,
the Palais Royal as a short piece lyrique in are little known, and call for no remark. In
1837 [and Flotow wrote many numbers for the 1864 Flotow was elected corresponding member
ojjeras '
Lady Melvill ' and 'L'eau merveilleuse,' of the Institut de France.
performed in 1838 and 1839 respectively as the The great success of 'Stradella' and 'Martha'
work of A. Grisar.] His first public success must bo mainly ascribed to the melody which
"Was at the Theatre de la Renaissance, where he pervades them, and to their light and attractive
produced, May 31, 1839, Le Naufrage de la '
character. Flotow's comic talent is considerable,
Meduse, which was given fifty- three times in
' and he has great natural instinct for the stage.
twelve months, and at once established his His early French experience taught him the
position. He afterwards rewrote the piece, virtue of lively and well-accentuated rhythm,
and produced it at Hamburg in 1845 as 'Die and gave him dexterity in the construction of
Matrosen,' whence it spread to the other theatres extended pieces, to which he writes pleasing
of Germany. Meantime he had composed for harmony and piquant orchestration. On the
FLOWER FLUE-WORK 65

other hand, his music has rarely anything below beth in France and the Low Countries, born at
the surface, his rhytliui frequently degenerates Milgate, in the jiarish of Bearsted in Kent, 1574.
into that of mere dance-tunes, his modulations At the age of seventeen he became a student of
are poor, and he is prone to sentimentality. St. John's College, Oxford, wdiere he studied
In the scientitic jiart of coni})osition he too pihysics. After a short time of residence he went
often betrays the amateur. On the whole the abroad for a few years, at the end of which he
conclusion is forced upon us that, in spite of his returned and took the degree of Bachelor of
popularity, Flotow will not live in tlie history Arts in 1596, and of M.A. in 1598. In 1605
of dramatic music. A. m. he received the M.B. and M.D. degrees, and
FLOWER, El'za, born at Harlow, Esse.x, in 1609 was made a Fellow of the College of
April 19, 1803, was the elder daughter of Physicians. F'rom 1616 until his death he was
Benjamin Flower, the political writer. She engaged in the composition of various philo-
published a set of Fourteen lUusical Illustra-
'
sophical treatises, in which he refuted the
tions of the Waverley Novels,' in 1831 a once ; theories of Kepler and Mersennus, and advocated
popular chorus, 'Now pray we for our country,' those of the Rosicrucian and other mystics. In
in 1842 and a set of H}'nin3 and Anthems,
; the history of philosophy his name is of some
the publication of which began in 1841 a ; importance, since his writing exercised a power-
selection from them was reissued in 1888. ful influence over Jacob Behmen. In musical
Among them is the original musical setting of literature he holds a far less prominent itosition,
'Nearer, my God, to Thee,' the words of which his chief connection with the art being found in
were written by the composer's sister, Jlrs. a treatise printed at Oppcidieim in 1617-24,
Sarah Flower Adams. Her music shows marked entitled Utriusque cosmi majoris, scilicet et
'

originality and traces of decided talent, if not miuoris metaphj'sica, jihysica at<|ue technica
actual genius. She died Dec. 12, 1846, and historia. The following sections treat of musical
'

was buried at Harlow. {Did. of Nat. Biorj.) phenomena Tract I. Book iii. and Tract II.
;

FLOWERS, Gi;oi!GE French, Mus.D., son Part i. Book vi. and Part ii. Book iv. His
of Rev. Field Flowers, Rector of Partney, Lin- '
Monochordon muudi symphoniacum,' written
colnshire, born at Boston, June 2S, 1811, studied in reply to Kepler (Frankfort, 1622), contains a
music in Germany under C. H. Rinck and curious diagram of the universe, based on the
Schnyder von Wartcnsee, and was organist of divisions of a string. He died at his house in
the Engl sh Chapel in Paris in 1836-37. Coleman Street, Septt. 8, 1637, and Avas buried
Returuiiig home he became organist of St. at Bearsted. M.
Mark's Church, Myddelton Square, and St. FLiiGEL (a wing). The German appellation
John's, Paddington. He was afterwards oigan- of a grand piianoforte or a harpsichord, from the
ist of Beverly Minster, and St. Maiie (R. C. ), wing shape common to both. See Goethe's p>un
High Barnet. In 1839 he graduated as Bachelor on gefliigelte Geister in Goethe and Mendchsohn,
of Music at O-xford. He founded a Contra- '
p. 24. Stutz Fliigel is a short grand jiiano-
puntists' Society' in 1S43, and about the same forte. [SeeHAEPSicHOEii, Pianoforte.] a.j.h.
time was the music critic of the Lilerary Ocuelte. FLDGEL HORN. The German name for
In 1848 he was an uusTiccessfnl candidate for instruments of the Bugle family. Originally,
the Professorship of Music at Oxford, as he was say the dictionaries, a hunting-horn ( U'aldhorn,
in 1863 for that in Gresham College. In 1851 Jagdhorn), used by the liuntsman whose duty it
he established The British School of Vocalisa-
'
was to watch in theFliigeln, or aths cut thi'oughj

tion for teaching singing on new principles, and


'
thewood, and give a signal on the approach of the
in the two years following gave concerts for the game, [The Fliigel horn nowused in the English
purpose of exhibiting the progress made by his anil German armies is of the Bb cornet pitch
pijpils, the most notable of whom was Miss and compiass, but more mellow than
its tone is

Featherstone, afterwards Mrs. Howard Paul. that of the cornet, and has something of the
In 1865 Flowers proceeded Doctor of Music. He character of the contralto voice. It is furnished
wrole an Essay on the construction of Fugue,
'
with valves, either of the piston or cylinder kind,
with an Introduction containing new Rules of which have superseded a clumsy kind of keys,
Harmony (1846), aud a Pictorial Representa-
' '
from which it used to be called lappenhorn.'\ K
tion of the Science of Harmony (translated from
'
Tlie name is also applied to sevei'al instruments
Easier, 1850). He composed Fugues in the in the Alto, Tenor, and Bass clefs. w. H. s.
style of Sebastian Bach, and other organ music, FLUE-WORK. Organ-stops, in regard to
a mass (about 1860), Tennyson's Ode on the the manner in which their sound is generated,
death of the Duke of Wellington, and other are grouped in two gi-eat classes REED-woitK —
vocal pieces. He was also a copious contributor and Flue-work. All organ-stops in which the
to the musical periodicals. He died of cholera, sound is produced by the wind passing through
Jime 14, 1872, in London, and was buried at a fissure, ,/?«c, or wind-way, and striking against
Keusal Green. w. H. H. an edge above, belong to the Fine-work, whatever
FLUB, or FLUDD, Robert, the son of Sir may be the shape, make, or tone of their prijies.
Thomas Flud, Treasurer of War to Q\ieen Eliza- The peculiarities of shape or proportion, make,
VOL. II F
66 FLUTE FLUTE
and tone, lead, however, to a subsequent division flute two modifications of form have been in-
into Peincipal-work, Gedact-wokk, and troduced with a view to restoring the desired
Flute-work. e. j. h. correctness. The older of these resulted in the
FLUTE (Germ. FUte, Querflote Ital. Flaulo, ;
'
cone flute, in which the liead-joint is cylindri-
'

Flaulo traverso Fr. FlMe, FlMe traversiere).


; cal, and the lower three-fourths of the instru-
[Tlie Greek name Aulos was much more com- ment is slightly conical in bore, the diameter
prehensive that our word Flute, by which it is decreasing towards the foot. In this way the
generally translated. It usually signified an necessary correction was obtained. The second
instrument with a reed, either single or double, modification was introduced by THEOB.iLD
these varieties being respectively represented, BoEHM {q.v.) about the middle of last centurj',
in their modern developments, by the clarinet and consisted in a modification of the bore of the
and oljoe, rather than by any instrument that head-joint, by a coning on approximately the
would now be classed with flutes. In the same lines of the parabola, the main bod}' of the flute
way, theancient Egyptian instruments discovered being restored by him to its cylindrical form.
by Professor Flinders Petrie in 1890, though Thus designed, we have the cylinder flute of
'
'

commonly referred to as flutes, were in all the present day, which for solo and orchestral
probability played with reeds. The ancient purposes is now generally preferred, altliough
Egyptian Nay, however, of which two interesting in military bands the cone flute is chiefly
'
'

specimens were found by Mr. John Gar- used.


stang in 1903, was a rudimentary flute, The peculiar characteristics of the flute are
the tone of which was excited by blo\v- the beautiful mellowness of its tone, and the
ing directly across the cut end of a reed. facility it ofters for the rapid and vocal '

One example of the Nay is here figured.' execution of runs and shakes. Its tone-quality
Hence there is clear evidence that, after at its best is well described by Mr. R. S. Eockstro
eliminating, from the many instruments in his work. The Flute, as lying between the
called flutes in translations, all those somewliat nasal tone of the oboe and the hollow
which are strictly reed instruments, there sound of the cooing of a dove. This latter
remain, of very ancient date, certain quality is due to a deficiency in the number or
kinds which with strictness may be calleil strength of harmonic partials, and is character-
flutes. Whether a lip-blown instrument, istic of a tube freely open at both ends. The
such as the Nay, or a flute with wliistle diminishing of one open end by the mouth-hole,
mouth-piece (see FiPPLE Flute) is really already noticed, and the piresence of the small
the older, it is impossible to say. chamber or extension of length between the
The modern instrument, known as the mouth-hole and the cork, are largely influential
Transverse Flute, has not been traced in giving the true flute quality, and the exact
back for more than four centuries. It position of the cork has a very distinct influence.
has a compass of three octaves from Helmholtz (Ellis's Trans. 2nd ed. p. 205)
middle C (c') upwards, but in a few in- appears to have considered that the octave and
struments the lowest note is h, or even h'rt. twelfth were the only upper partials heard, but
It sounds as an open tube, that is to say its the jjresent writer found that when ct on the
length is approximately that of the half-wave flute was sounded, the seventh partial was
of its lowest note, and it is capable of giving discernible,but with a' no partial higher than
the natural harmonics in full sequence in the the was detected.
fifth {Proceedings Mas.
same way as other open tubes. The tube
'
' Assoc. 1879-80, p. 84.) In any case, it is toler-
is plugged with a cork or stopper at one end, ably certain that the high partials which give
and the open condition at this end is restored
' '
the peculiarly brilliant or even cutting tone to
by the cutting of the embouchure or mouth-hole some instruments are absent, or at least indis-
through the wall of the tube, at a distance from tinguishable. The cylinder flute is more power-
the cork of about one diameter of the tube. ful than the cone instrument, and has a somewhat
The lower lip of the player partly covers the bolder tone-quality, ajijiroaching a little towards
embouchure and the stream of air is directed so the reedy character of the clarinet.
as to strike the opposite edge. The exact action Therepresentativecone flute is the eight-keyed
of stream or air-reed has not been fully
tliis instrument, with six finger-holes, six closed keys,
investigated, but it is tolerably certain that it and two open-standing keys, one to close the
vibrates, and so maintains the alternate conden- normally open el' hole, on which the true scale of
sations and rarefactions of the air colunm. The the flute begins, and so give (•{', and the other
area of the mouth-hole being less tlian the cross- to close this rj' hole and give e', wdiich is the
section of the tube, causes a departure from the lowest note on this, the usual instrument. (For
correctness of the harmonics of the theoretical the general scheme of fingering, see Fingering,
open tube (see Fife), and in the history of the ante, pp. 5.3, 54.) The five closed keys (the
1 This curious instnaujent ia stiU used by the peasants abciut the sixth or long F key being merely an alternative)
Nile. The original of the figure was brou^-'ht Iroiu Egypt by F. give the five semitones necessary to convert the
Girdlestone, Esq., of the Charterhouse. See an admirable cut iu
Lane's Modern Egyptians. diatonic scale of el', in which the flute is set, into
FLUTE FLUTE 67

a chromatic scale. The flute being held to the In the Clarinet, Oboe, Bassoon, and other octave-
right from the lips, and slightly sloping down- scaled instruments, the Br> a whole tone below
wards, the second, and third fingers of the
first, C, which in a D instrument like the flute is
left hand upper holes, and the
close the three represented by the Ft] below the middle G, has
similar fingers of the right hand the three lower to be produced by closing the Bt] and At] holes
ones. The fingers being successively raised, the and lifting an intermediate B? key, thus lower-
scale of D is produced, and by slight modification ing the pitch a minor third and raising it a semi-
of the embouchure to increase the pressure of tone. The same metliod as that for the FjJ is
the lips, is repeated in its second octa^•l•. For employed Ibr the Bf? or Aj, which is produced
the third octave, cross fingerings, sometimes of by lowering the B5 a semitone through the
a complicated nature, are used, the general prin- intervention of a lever actuated by the lingers
ciple in tliese lieing the opening of holes in such of the right hand, those of the left, middle, and
positions as facilitate the subdivision of the ring fingers being left open. The whole com-
primary sound-waves. The chief defects of the jiass of tlie flute is shown in the
eight-keyed cone flute are the inecpiality in the accompanying illustration.
power and in the quality of the notes. These [Although the cylinder flute is
defects are due to the necessity of placing the now usually fitted with key-work
holes in positions which suit the natural action nu Boehm's system, as described (D*) '
of the fingers, and can only be lessened, and not above, this is not universal, ibr some players,
altogether eliminated by the addition of extra desii'ing to have the ad-
key-work. Many players and makers worked vantage of the cylinder
in this direction, among them being Siccama, bore and large holes
Clinton, Carte, and Pratten.] adojited by Boehm with-
The principles of the Flute originally invented out dejiarting widely
by Captain Gordon of Charles the Tenth's Swiss from the key
eight -

Guards and introduced b}' Theobald Boehm ^ in fingering, have intro-


his new flute, constructed in 1832, were princi- duced extra key work -

pally (1) that each note should speak independ- to secure the result.
ently out of asingle hole, as though tlieremainder Although the Ibite is
of the bore were entirely cut ort' (2) that all keys
; usually in D, it is occa-
in their position of rest should be permanent!}' sionally made in (i, as
open. He also aimed at equalising the dilliculty : the Alto Flute, and was
of the dilferent keys, some of which, on the older > also formerly made in A
flute, were notoriously inconvenient and all but 3 as the Fli!'te u' am our
impracticable. For the left hand, which occupies i (q.v.). In military bands
the upper part of tlie instrument next to the ; the F and Eh fiutes
head, are four open keys to be closed by the first i' are used, and the F in-
finger, thumb (situated at the back of the instru- strument is also some-
ment), second, and third fingers successively. ^ times used in tlie or-
For the little finger of this hand is an open key ; chestia, as by Spohr in
producing the GJJ or A'p. On the right hand ^ his symphony, The '

joint are three open keys, for the first, second, >. Power of Sound.'
and ring fingers respectively, with accessory or 1 The Piccolo is ]iitched
'
shake keys (which are normally closed) inter-
'

^ one octave higher tlian


posed. For the right little finger are the closed the Concert Flute, and
key of Dj and the two ojien keys of Cj and C. its highest notes aie the
In many flutes mechanism, still worked by the sharpest ordinarily used
right little finger, is added to produce Bs and in music.
even Bb. But from the Dj downwards all the Theillustrations show
work Is accessory, and not directly used in the the eight - kej'ed cone
production of the natural scale. For this reason and the Boehm cylinder
the instrument is said to stand in the key of D. flutes.]
For the jiurpose of obtaining each sound by the The literature of the
closure of asingleorifice, asomewhat newarrange- Flute is so extensive as
ment of the scale is necessary on certain notes. hardly to admit of illus-
The G, for instance, in either octave is produced tration within moderate
by closing the five holes of the left hand. For limits. Bach uses it freely botli as an obbligato
the F a whole tone below, the forefinger of the instrument and in concerted passages, and ever
right hand is added. The intermediate Fj is since his time it has held a prominent place in

obtained by depressing the pad of the middle tlieband. In the scores of his works it is some-
or ring fingers, that of the index being left open. times marked Trarersiire to distinguish it from
the Fllite-a-bec.
I
See hie pamphlet l^ber den Flotenbau und dia nein^stcn Tcr-
besgerunffen, Mainz. 1847. Haydn, both in his Symplionies and in his
68 FLUTE FLUTE-WORK
Oratorios, awards it the same prominence. The are extant afford inestimable models of construc-
Trio for three Flutes in the Creation may be '
' tion and originality.
named as an illustration.
Handel usually specilies the German Flute, '
'
Flute Music.
and often indicates its importance hy the words Mozart. — Grand duo G, 76 Andante in op. ;

'with the accompaniment of a German Flute.' in C, Concerto G, Hondo D,


in in op. 86.
understand how the players of
It is difficult to Spohr. — Concerto modo di Scena Gantante,
in
his day were able to make themselves heard op. 47.
with the few ilutes then allotted to the Orcliestra Weber. — Romanza G minor, with
Siciliana in
against the large numbers of Oboesand Bassoons. Orchestra ; Trio for Flute, Violoncello, and
In the Handel Commemoration in Westminster Pianoforte, op. 63.
Abbey in 1784, there were si.K Flutes against Beethoven. — Serenade for Flute, Violin, and
twenty-six Oboes and twenty-six Bassoons, Alto, op. 25.
besides twelve Trumpets and the same number Haydn.— Two Trios two Flutes and Violon-
for
of Horns. Handel proiluces, however, a magnirt- cello.
cent elfect in the Dead March in Saul by the '
' Kuhlau. — Three grand Trios three Flutes, for
simple employment of two Flutes moving in op. 13 Do. do., op. 86
;
One do., op. 90 ; ;

thirds against the reiterated bass of the kettle- Three Quintets for Flute and String Quartet in
drum. D, E, A, op. 51 Grand <juartet for four Flutes
;

Mozart, except in some of his Symphonies, in E, op. 103 Six sets of three Duets for two
;

which were obviously written for a small band, Flutes, ops. 10, 39, 80, 81, 87 Solos, with
;

freely scores for this instrument. The opera Pianoforte, op. 57 ; Three Fantasies, Do. do.,
of the Zauberfliite derives its name from it.
' '
op. 95.
There are also two Concertos for solo Flute and Reich A. —
Quartet for four Flutes in D, op.
Orchestra in G and D, and one for Flute and 12 twenty-four Quintets for wind instruments.
;

Harp among his works (Kijchel, 313, 314, —


Schubert. Introduction and Variations on
299). 'Trockne Blumen,' for Flute and Piano, op.
Beethoven, Mendelssohn, and all later writers, 160. w. H. s. [Additions in square brackets
give it the leading part of the wind in all their by D. .1. B.]
compositions. The solo shortly after the trumpet FLOTE D' amour
(Germ. Lielesflote). An
flourishes in the Overture to Leonora No. 3 will
'
' old form of flute, standing in the key of A, and
not bo forgotten, or the lovely part for two flutes corresponding in pitch with the Oboe d'amore.
in thesecond moveraentof the Italian Symphony. Both were supposed to possess a smooth and
Schumann also has introduced a prominent ca- fascinating quality of tone, whence the name
denza for it in the Finale to his B flat Symphony. is derived. \v. h. s.

The accompaniment to the Ranz des


difficult [The bore of this variety of the flute was but
Vaches, played by the Oboe, in Rossini's Over- very slightly larger than that of the concert in- '

ture to William Tell affords a good illustration


'
' strument,' and therefore narrow in proportion to
of the mechanical complexities which this flexible its length, and to this its peculiar quality was
and agile instrument is com})etent, and conse- in some measure due. Although commonly
quently expected, to surmount.
is In a dramatic said to stand in key of A, its pjitch was a minor
sense used by Mendelssohn in the sacrificial
it is third below the concert flute in D. The key
chorus '0 be gracious' in 'St. Paul,' and by of the instrument was therefore B, and could
Gretry in Andromaque, in which the part of
'
' only be said to be in A in the same sense that
Andromache is always accompanied by three the concert flute is sometimes said to be in C,
flutes. from the fact that its notes sound as written.
The most voluminous writer for the Flute was Strictly speaking, the key in which an instru-
probably Quantz, who composed 200 solos and ment stands has no connection with notation,
300 concertos for Frederick the Great alone. or with the custom of treating it as in the
But the instrument had a distinguished writer, transposing or non-transposing class. D. J, B.]
Kuhlau, as the special exponent of its powers FLUTE- WORK. Underthisheadaregrouped
and beauty. Thiseminentcontrapuntistdevoted all the flue-stops on the organ, of whatever kind,
nearly the whole of his short life to Flute com- shape, or tone, that are not classed as Principal-
positions. This singular fact has been accounted work, or Gedact-work, and it also includes
for by the statement that an amateur flute player various modifications of these two classes o f stops.
of position employed him constantly and liberally [Flue- work.] Thus when the 'scale' of the
in writing them. Kuhlau has been termed the pipes of a cylindrical stop is reduced heJotv the
Beethoven of the Flute.'
' It will be seen from proportion essential to secure the broad and full
the list given below that Solos, Duets, Trios, Diapason tone, and the sound becomes delicate
and even Quartets for Flutes, are among his volu- as in a Dulciana, or crisj^ as in a Gamba or ;

minous works. Indeed, but for a fire which when it is increased heyond the Diapason scale,
destroyed the composer's manuscripts, their and the tone becomes thick or less resonant as
number would be at least threefold. Such as in the Block-flbte, the stop becomes a member
FLYING DUTCHMAN FORSTER 69

of the flute- work.'


'
Also, if the covers of the listened to with respect,though she was never a
pipes of a closed metal-stop be punctured, and warm favourite. '
Don Giovanni
wiis brought
'

a narrow tube —
in Germany called a reed, in out at the King's Theatre in 1817, and Zerlina

France a cliinmey be inserted, the stop then was her best cliaracter. In July 1818 she went
becomes a member of the Hute-work under the to Italy, i-eturning to Paris early in the following
name Jiohr-fotc, ^liiU a ejtcmbiic, or 'Metal year, after Catalan! had given up the opera.
stopped-Diapason (or Flute) with chimneys.' Rossini's '
Barbiere was then given for the first
'

A unison cylindrical stop will be occasionally time in Paris (Oct. 26, 1819), and she played
met with labelled as a member of the flute-work. Rosina, as well as Kinctta, Agnese, and other
All stops the pipes of which taper upwards, as first-rate parts. In 1822, suHering severely
the Spitz-flcite and Gemshorn all three- or four-
; from dyspepsia, she was advised to try the
sided open wood pipes, as the Hohl-fliite, Clara- milder climate of Naples, which so completely
bella, Wald-flute, Oboc-Hute, and Suabe-flute ;
restored her that she appeared at San Carlo as
and most string-toned stops, as Salicional and Desdemoiia, Semiramide, and Zelmira, creating
Viol d'Aniore, — are members of the Flute-work. in all twenty new parts. In the following year
The invention of the conical, the string-toned, she sang for a whole season in "N'ienna, but
and the other stops classified as flute-work, returned to Naples and remained there till
dates back no farther than the beginning of the 1825, when she again went to Paris. On Dec.
16th century. e. j. h. 9 .she appeared in 'Semiramide,' but her voice
FLYING DUTCHMAN, THE. See Flie- failed and she was oomjielled to leave the stage.
GENDE Hollander. This misfortune was followed by a hoarseness
FODOR,
Joseph, violin player, born in 1752 which jirevented her singing again in Paris. The
at Venloo. In 1766 he studied under Franz management having declined to fulfil their con-
Benda at Berlin, and having acquired great tract, she brought a succession of actions against
proficiency, travelled for a number of years them, and finally accejited a compromise in
in Germany, the Netherlands, and France, 1828. After her return to Naples her voice so
establishing his reputation as an eminent far improved that she sang again at San Carlo,
violinist.In 1794 he went to St. Petersljurg, but its })eculiar charm was gone, thougli her
and remained there up to his death, Oct. 3, style was as fine as ever, and served as a model
1828. Spohr, who heard him in 1803, con- for no less a singer than Henrietta Sontag.
sidered him wanting in feeling and taste, and Mendelssohn saw a great deal of her at Naples
objects to his unsteady manner of bowing, but in 1831, and his very favourable impression
acknowledges his great technical skill. His may be learned from his letters (April 27, 1831).

numerous compositions nine Concertos and Her last appearance was at Bordeaux in 1833,
Solos for the Violin, Duos for Violins, and many after which she retired into jiriA'ate life.
Quartets for Strings, are well written and met "When at her jirime, Fodor's voice was not
with much success in their time. [List in the only poA\'erful but extremely sweet and round,
Qiitllen-Lexil-on.^ The famous singer, Mme. with a jicculiarly charming accent, and a fault-
Fodor-Mainvielle, w'as his daughter, and his less intonation. She was very painstaking, and
two younger brothers, Chap.les and Anton, acquired by practice a flexibility ^^ith which
were clever pianists and composers. P. D. she was not naturally gifted. Her daughter
FODOR-MAINVIELLE, Josephine, cele- Entiichetta, also a singer of merit, was very
brated singer, born 1793 in Paris, where her successful at the Kbnigstadt Theatre (not the
father, Joseph Fodor the violinist, had settled Friedrich-Wilhelmstadt Tlieatre) in Berlin, be-
in 1787. In 1794 her parents removed to St. tween the years 1846 and 1849. F. a.

Petersburg, where she played both pianoforte FORSTER, Emanuel Aloys, composer of
and harp when only eleven. Three years after good chamber-music, born at Niederstein, (,41atz,
she became known as a singer, and in 1810 Silesia, Jan. 26, 1748. In his 3'outh he studied
made her first appearance at the court theatre music by himself, and composed industriously,
in Flora vanti's Cantatrici villanelle, which
'
' while obeying his father by attending the Latin
was repeated sixty times, so successful was her school, and working under him as an accountant
performance. In 1812 she married the actor at a tavern. He afterwards served in the
Mainvielle, and travelled with him to Stock- Prussian army, and in 1776 resolved to go to
holm, Copenhagen, returning to Paris, where Vienna in orcler to cultivate music thoroughly.
she was engaged for the Opera Comiqiie. Her There he soon became one of the most valued
first appearance, August 9, 1814, was a com- teachers of thorough-bass and composition, and
parative failure it was evident that French
; his works were universally respected as the
opera was not her province, and she was trans- products of sound thought and earnest study.
ferred in Nov. of the same year to the Theatre In 1802 he published his Anleitung zum
'

Italien, then under Mme. Catalani's manage- Generalbass (Traeg) with 146 examples, a clear
'

ment. Here she remained till the beginning of practical work still of vahie. In 1805 it was
1816, when she left for London. In London she republished by Brcitkopf & Hartel, and a new
sang for three seasons as prima donna, and was edition by Artaria in 1823. Fiirster added three
70 FOGGIA FOLLIA
supplementary numbers of practical examples. topheles, Sparafucile, Basilic, Assur and Oroe
His compositions consist of forty-eight violin ('Semiramide '), Rodolfo (' Sonnambula '), Bide
quartets, numerous pianoforte sonatas, preludes the Bent ('Lucia'), Bertram, and Daland on
and fugues for organ, Lieder, etc. [See the the production of 'Der Fliegende Hollander,'
list in the QudUii-Lexilcoii.~\ He composed the at Drury Lane, July 23, 1870, etc., in addition
variations inA on an air from Sarti's opera I '
to the parts previously named, in which his fine
which were long attributed toMozart,
fintiEredi,' voice —
a rich powerful bass of more than two
and extremely popular and which appeared in ; octaves from E below the line to F was heard —
many editions of Mozart's works. (Kochel, p. to full advantjige.
630, No, 289
Jahn's Mo;.art, ed. 1, iv. 11
;
;
Signor Foli was equally well known as an
ed. 137.)
2, ii. Fcirster was held in high esti- oratorio and concert sniger at all the important
mation by all the composers of liis own time, par- festivals. He made his first appearance in the
ticularly by Beethoven who implies he had learnt
, former on April 25, 1866, in 'Israel' at the
much trom him. He
died at Vienna, Nov. 12, National Choral Society, but his first success
1823. His place and date of birth and death, was on Feb. 22, 1867, in The Creation at the ' '

much disputed points, are given here from the Sacred Harmonic. His new parts in this class
Transactions of the Tonkiinstler-Societat, of
'
' included Jacol:>, on the production of Macfarren's
which he was a member. [See the Sammclbunde '
Joseph' at the Leeds Festival, Sept. 21, 1877,
of the Int. Mus. Ges. vi, 274.] o. F. p. and Herod, on production of Berlioz's L'Enfance '

F0G6I A, FK.4KCESCO, the last Italian church- du Christ under Halle at Manchester, Dec. 30,
'

composer who remained faithful to the traditions 1880, and in London, Feb. 26, 1881. He
of Palestrina born in Rome 1604, studied under
; played in America, at St. Petersburg, Moscow,
Cifra, Nanini, and Agostiui. He then entered Vienna, etc. In Russia he made a conspicuous
the service of the Elector of Cologne, the Elector success as Caspar, Moses (^^dlich part he sang
of Bavaria, and the Archduke Leopold of Austria with success at the Sacred Harmonic), and as
in turn. After his return to Italy he was Pietro in Masaniello.'
' He died at Southjiort,
appointed maestro di cappella successively at Oct. 20, 1899. A. c.
Narni, Montetiascone, and the following churches FOLK-SONG SOCIETY. This society was
in Rome, —
Santa Maria in Aquiro, Santa Maria definitely established in London on June 16,
in Trastevere, St. John Lateran (1636-61), San 1898, for the preservation and publication of
Lorenzo in Damaso, and Santa Maria Maggiore folk-songs and melodies. The first President
(1677), wliich last post he retained till his death, was the late Lord Herschell, and the late Sir
Jan. 8, 1688, when he was succeeded by his son John Stainer, with Sir Alexander C. IVIackenzie,
Antonio. He is buried in the church of S. Sir Hubert Parry, and Professor (now Sir C. V.)
Prassede. He published much church music for Stanford, were Vice-Presidents. The original
from two to nine voices [see the list in the committee consisted of Mrs. Frederick Beer,
QucUen-Lcjcikoii], and most of the churches in Miss Lucy E. Broadwood, Sir Ernest Clarke,
Rome possess some works by him in MS. Mr. W. H. Gill, Mrs. L. Gonnne, Messrs. A.
Martini has analysed some of his motets in the P. Graves, E. F. Jacques, Frank Kidson, J. A,
*
Saggio di eontrappunto.' Liberati calls him Fuller Maitland, J. P, Rogers, W. Barclay
'
sostegno e il padre della musiea e della vera
il Squire, and Dr. Todhunter. Kate Lee Jlrs.
armonica ecolesiastica.' He was one of the lirst was Hon. Secretary, and Mr. A. Kalisch Hon.
musicians to write tonal fugues, while he was Treasurer. During the first year 110 members
the last Italian capiable of composing geiniine were enrolled. There have been five publica-
church music in the polyphonic style. Hullah tions issued (up to June 1904), and much useful
printed a fine motet by him in his Vocal '
work done in attracting attention to the neces-
Scores.' F. G. sity of noting down our folk-songs before thej'
FOLI, SiGNOR, whose real name was Ali^an are entirely lost. In 1904 Miss Lucy E. Broad-
James Foley, was born at Cahir, Tip]ierary, wood became Hon. Secretary, and Lord Tenny-
Aug. 7, 1835, and in early life went to America. son, President. r. K.
He was taught singing at Naples by the elder FOLLIA. Said to be an old Spanish danco
Bisaecia, and in Dec. 1862 he made his debut for a single dancer —
ces belles chaconnes, ces
'

at Catania as Eliniro in 'Otello. He played ' Folies d'Espagne,' wdiicli the son of the seneschal
successively at Turin, Jlodena, Jlilan, and in of Rennes danced to such perfection (Mme. de
1864 at the Italiens, Paris, On June 17, 1865, Sevigne, July 24, 1689). But really all that
Signer Foli made a successful dc))ut at Her is known of it is that the twenty-t^vo variations,
Majesty's as St. Bris (' Huguenots ') on July ; or the theme of them, which close Corelli's
6 as the Second Priest on the revival of twelve solos (op. 5) are entitled FoUia that ;

'Zaubertliite,' and on Oct. 28 as the Hermit in the same bass and air, but with different
'
Der Freischiitz. From that time he sang
' variations, are given in the Division Violin '

frequently in Italian at the three patent '


as Faronell's division on a ground
'
that '
;

theatres in upwards of si.xty operas, viz. as A'ivaldi's ojj. 1, no. 12, is a set of variations on
Sarastro, Commendatore, Marcel, Caspar, ]Mephis- the same and that Hawkins (chap. 141) cites it
;
FOOTE FORD 71

as a favourite air known in England by the name


'
poem, Franccsca da Rimini,' have been played
'

of Farinelli'si Ground,' comiiosed by Farinelli, repeatedly by the orchestras of Boston, Kew


the uncle of the singer, who was court musician York, and Chicago, under the direction of such
at Hanover in 1684. It seems to follow from men as Wilhelm Gericke, Theodore Thomas,
this that the ground, and not the treble part, Emil Paur, and Frank Van der Stucken wdiile ;

was the theme, just as it is in the chaconnes of his cantatas, The Farewell of Hiawatha,' The
' '

Bach and Handel. The ground is one on which Wreck of the Hesperus,' and The Skeleton in '

a skilful violin player and a skilful dancer Armour have ibund places on the programmes
'

might go on iiddling and dancing ad infinitum. of many other concert institutions. Mr. Foote
The following is CorcUi'a theme :
has also made large excursions into the fields of
chamber and church music and song. H. E. K.
FORBES, HEXiiV, born in London in 1804,
studied music under Sir George Smart, Hummel,
Moscheles, and Herz. He was an excellent
pianist and organist, and conductor of the
Societa Armonica. He for some years held the
appointment of organist of the parish chureli of
St. Luke, Chelsea. He gave concerts with his
brother George (1813-83), organist of St.
Mary's, Bayswater Square, and author of many
pianoforte pieces, etc. His published composi-
tions comprise several songs and a collection
^feE ?^E^ of psalm tunes for four voices called National '

Psalmody' (1843). He also composed 'The


5t Fairy Oak,' an opera jiroduced at Drury Lane

^^^^^S^^i
?

Theatre in 1845, and 'Ruth,' an oratorio,


performed at Hanover Square Rooms in 1847.
Cherubini has introduced eight bars of it in He died in London, Nov. 24, 1859. w. H. H.
the opening of the Overture to the Hotellerie *
FORD, Ernest, conductor and composer,
Portugaise.' G. born at Warminster, "Wilts, Feb. 17, 1858 was ;

FOOTE, AiiTHUE, amongst American musi- the son of the Vestry Clerk and organist of the
cians of eminence, enjoys the distinction of Minster there. From 1868 to 1873 he was a
being the only one whose education is wholly chorister in Salisbury Cathedral, but owing to
native. He was born in Salem, Mass., on March indifferent healtli was sent for educational pur-
5, 185.3. As a lad he studied the pianoforte, poses to Weston-sujier-Mare. In 1875 he won
and at was taken to B. J. Lang, on
fifteen the first Sir John Goss scholarship at the Royal
whose advice he was entered as a student of Academy of JIusic, London, where he studied
harmony in the class of Stephen A. Emery at under Sullivan, Harold Thomas (pianoforte),
the New England Conservatory of Music. These and Dr. Steggall (organ). In tliat j'ear also he
and all other musical studies were interrupted became a F.(R. )C. 0. On quitting the Royal
when he entered Harvard University. Though Academy Ford spent some time in Paris studying
John K. Paine was a musical instructor and under Lalo, whence he went to America, where,
chapel organist at the time, music had not yet in celebration of the 250th anniversar}' of the
been raised to the dignity of an elective study, foundation of Harvard University, a motet by
nor was there a musical chair. After gradua- him, a setting of the Psalm Domine Deus, was '
'

tion in 1874 Foote resumed his musical studies the chief musical work performed. At one time
with zeal, going to Lang for lessons on the Ford was official accompanist at the Saturday
pianoforte and organ, and to Paine for counter- Pojiular Concerts, and on the opening of the
point, canon, fugue, and free composition. His Royal English Opera House (now the Palace
e.xamination for the degree of A.M. conferred Theatre of Varieties) Ford was selected with
on him by Harvard University in 1875 included F. Cellier to conduct Sullivan's Ivanhoe,' the '

music. opera with which the ill-fated opera-house


Entering upon the practice of his profession opened. Later he became conductor of the
Foote became a church organist and teacher Trafalgar (now the Duke of York's) Theatre,
of the pianoforte in Boston, to which city his where the comic opera The Wedding Eve '

activities in that direction have since been con- was produced in London with music revised and
fined. As a composer, however, his influence mainly composed (as regards the second and
has spread throughout the States. His orches- tliird acts by Ford
) and of the Empire Theatre,
;

tral compositions, including an overture, In '


where much of the music to the ballets pi'oduced
the Mountains,' two Suites, in D minor and E there between 1894 and 1897 was composed by
major, a Serenade for strings, and a symjihonic him. In 1897 the Royal Amateur Orchestral
Society elected him conductor, a post he still
1 The common English name was '
FiirdineU's.' as Madame de
QuerouaiUe waj called '
Madam Carvell.' holds (1905). For some time he was also director
72 FORD FOELANA
of the operatic class at the Guildhall School of the post, and Forkel remained at Gtittingen till
Music. Ford's compositions are in nearly all his death, March 17, 1818. Heis best known as a
styles. His church services are in constant use musical critic and historian. Hisfirstwork, Veher
at St. Paul's Cathedral, Westminster Abbey, die Theorie der Musik, etc. (Cramer, Gcittingen,
and other principal churches for the Empire he
; 1774, republished in 1777), a p>amphlet urging
composed the ballets 'La Froliijue,' 'Brighton the foundation of lectures on music at Gottingen,
Pier,' '
Faust,' and La Danse
' there exists a
' ; was followed by many others, especially Masik-
volume of beautiful settings of poems by Shelley alisch kritische Bibliolhek, 3 vols. (Gotha, 1778),
while liis operas and operettas include Daniel '
containing violent attacks on Gluck's Iphigenie '

O'Rourke' (1884); Nydia (a duologue by


'
' in Aulide ; Uber die besie Einriehtmuj bffentlicher
'

Justin H. McCarthy, 1889); 'Joan' (Robert Konzcrtc, 1779; Gcnuuere Bestiramung, etc.,
Martin, 1890) ; 'Mr. Jericho' (operetta by H. 1780 the Mas. AVmanach fiir Deiitschlaml i'or
;

Greenbanlv, 1893); '.Jane Annie' (libretto by 1782, 1783, 1784, and 1789,- containing parti-
J. JI. Barrie and Sir A. Conan Doyle), produced culars (not always trustworthy) as to novelties
at the Savoy, May 13, 1893) ; a cantata, 'The in music his AUgmneine Ocschichle der Musik,
;

Eve of the Fcsta.' On March 29, 1899, he was 1788 and 1801), founded on
2 vols. (Leipzig,
elected a Fellow of the R.A.M. R. H. L. Hawkins, Burney, and Marpurg, now super-
FORD, Thomas, born about 1580, was one seded, but interesting as a literary ' curiosity ;
of the musicians of Prince Henry, son of James I. Oeschichte der ItalieniscJien Oper, 2 vols. (Leipizig,
In 1607 he published a work entitled 'Musickeof 1789), a translation of Arteaga's book ; and
Sundrie Kindes. Set forth in two Bookes. The Allgemeine Literatnr der Musik (Leipzig, 1792),
first whereof are Aries [sic] for four Voices to the his most important work. This book, which
Lute, Orpharion, or Basse- Viol, with a Dialogue shows the amount of his knowledge and reading,
for two Voyces and two Basse-Viols in parts is the foundation of Becker's S'ystematisch-
tunde the Lute way. The Second are Pavens, chrmwlogische Darstellung der musikalischen
Galiards, Almaines, Toies, ligges, Thumpes and LUeratur. Forkel was the first to attempt a
such like, for two Basse- Viols, the Liera way, biography of Bach (Ueber J. S. B.'s Leben,
so made as the greatest number may serve to Ku'tist, und Ku'iutwerke. Leipzig, 1802), trans-
play alone, very easie to be performde. This ' lated into English under the title Life of J. S.
work contains the beautiful four- part songs Bach, with a critical review of his compositions
'
Since first I saw your face,' and 'There is a (Lonrlon, 1820). As he knew little of Bach's
ladie sweet and kind.' [In 1611 he was one of great sacred vocal works, he treats him mainly
the musicians of Henry, Prince of Wales, at a from the p»oint of view of the organ and clavier,
salary of £30 a year, soon afterwards increased but the book will always remain as the founda-
to £40. In 1626 it was doubled, on his becom- tion of all subsequent Lives of the great musician.
ing a member of the King's band.] Ford con- [Among his musical compositions may be men-
tributed two anthems to Leighton's Teares or '
tioned the oratorios 'Hiskias,' 1789, and 'Die
Lamentacions of a SorrowfuU Soule,' 1614. He Hirten bey der Krippe, four cantatas for chorus
'

composed some canons and rounds printed in and orchestra, clavier concertos, and many sonatas
Hilton's 'Catch that Catch can,' and an anthem and variations for harpsichord. Quell en- Lexikan.]
'Let God arise,' printed in the Anthems by The royal library at Berlin contains an interest-
Madrigal Composers of the Mus. Antiq. Society. ing spiecimen of Forkel's labours. This is a large
He was buried at S. Margaret's, Nov. 17, volume of church musie of the 16th century,
1648. w. H. H. : corrections and additions scored by himself, and, though printed, unique.
from Vict, of Nat. Biog. It was intended to form the first volume of a
FORKED, JoHANN NiooLAUs, a meritorious series of examples illustrating the history of
though overrated writer on the history and music, and was undertaken at the instance of
theory of music, son of a shoemaker, born Feb. Sonnleithner of Vienna. The p)lates were en-
22, 1749, at Meeder near Coburg educated ; graved in Leipzig, and the j)roofs were already
himself by the study of Mattheson's Vollkom- in Forkel's hands, when the French took the
inener Gapellmeisler. Having a fine voice he city in 1806, and seized everything in tlie shape
was appointed chorister at Liineburg in 1762, ot metal to be converted into bullets. His plates
and four years later Chorpriifect at Schwerin.
'
' having been thus destroyed Forkel had the proof-
In 1769 he entered the university of Giittingen sheets bound, and this is the copy now at Berlin.
to study law, but soon occupied himself exclu- The masses it contains are taken from Missae '

sively with music, and became organist of the tredecim Norinbergae


. . . arte Hieronymi
. . .

university church. In 1778 he was appointed Graphei, 1539,' and Liljer quindecim Mis-
'

director of music to the University and grad- sarum . Norimbergae apud Joh. Petreium,
. .

uated as doctor of pjhilosophy in 1780. [He 1539.' F. G.


conducted the weekly concerts of the Akademie FORLANA. An Italian dance, a favourite
from 1779 to 181.5.] On the death of Emanuel with the Venetian gondoliers. It is in 6-8 or
Bach he hoped to have been appointed his ' After ForkeVa death, Schwickert, the publuher, f^fferefi the
materials for completing the third volume to Fetia and Choroii, but
successor at Hamburg, but Schwenke obtained they declined the taek.
FORM FORM 73

G-i time, but possesses no special characteristics. of time, sometimes by no means insignificant ;

An example of tliis dance may


be found in J. S. and connection has to be established for them
Bach's suite for orchestra in G major. The without the aid of words or other accessories
following quotation of the opening bars of a between jiarts of the movement wdiich ajipear at
forlana of the 17th century is from ¥. L. Schu- considerable distance from each other, and tlie
bert's Die Tmizmiisik. wdiole must be so contrived that the impression

^^^^^^^ upon the most cultivated heai'cr shall be one of


unity and consistency. In such a case Form will
inevitably [ilay an important part, becoming more
and more complex and interesting in proportion
to thedevelopiment of readiness of comprehension
in the auditors. The adopition of a form which
is quite beyond the intellectual standard of those
FORM. The means by which unity and pro- ftir whom
it is intended is a waste of valuable
portion are arrived at iu musical works are the work but a perfect adaptation of it to their
;

relative distriliution of keys and harmonic bases highest standard is both the only means of lead-
on the one hand, and of subjects or figures or
' '
ing them on to still higher things, and the only
melodies on the other and this distribution is
; starting-point for further progi'csa. From this
called the Fonii of the work. The order of it wdllbe seen that in musical works which are
distribution varies greatly witli the conditions. connected with words or progTamme whether —
Music set to ])0etry with a burden to each ' '

choruses, songs, arias, or ballads, etc. — Form is


verse would naturally adopt the form of repeating dependent on the words and such works, as far
;

the same melody to each recurrence of the as they are reducible to any definable system,
burden and when the words implied similar
; are reducible only to the simplest, and such as
circumstances and feelings would adopt repetition admits of infinite latitude of variation within its
of similar or allied phrases. In dramatic works limits. But in instrumental nmsio there has
the order of distribution must vary with the been a steady and pierceptible growth of certain
development of tlie emotional crises, and in such fundamental principles by a })rocess that is
cases will be rather a distribution of culminations wonderfully like evolution, from the simplest
and gradations ofintensityofpassion and emotion, couplings of rejieated ideas by a short link of
than the more obvious one of key and figure ; some sort, upt to the compilex but consistent
though, the relation between important figures
if completeness of the great instrumental works of
of melody and the special circumstances to wliich Beethoven.
they are appended be observed, the notion of There can hardly be any doubt that the first
form as defined by subjects will still continue to attempts at Form in music were essentially un-
be perceptible. Analogously, in music which is conscious and unpremeditated. Therefore if any
supposed to represent some story or idea, such as conformity be observed in the forms of early
is now known by the name of Programme Music, music derived from various sources, it would
the form must be developed with the view of in- seem to indicate a sort of consensus of instinct on
terpreting that programme truly and consistently. the part of the composers w"hieh will be the true
Such music may be com[tared iu this to the work starting-point of its jiosterior development. It
of a painter who trusts rather to the stirring nuist be remarked by way of parenthesis that in
nature of his subject than to the perfection of its tlie early days of modern music —
apart from the
composition to engage and delight the beholders, ecclesiastical music of the Roman Church — the
while in a portrait or picture of less vivid interest instrumental and vocal orders were not nearly so
the element of composition, following generally distinct as they are^ now, for the tendency to
and easily recognised principles, would be of vital strongly and clearly marked distinction in kind
importance. Similarly in ]>rogramme music the is notoriously a matter of slow growth. Hence
comjioser may choose to follow the established examples may be drawn with perfect safety from
so-called classical models, but it can liardly be both kinds wherever they can be found.
doubted that a genius deeply impregnated with The first basis of true Form, apart from the
the spirit of his subject would seek to create a balance of groups of rhythms, is essentially
form of his own which should be more in con- repetition of some and what is most vital
sort,
sonance with the spirit of his progi-amme even — to the question is manner of the repetition.
the
as Beethoven did without progTamme, expressing The simplest and most elementary kind is the
some marvellous inner workings of his emotions, repetition of a phrase or bit of melody with a
in the first movement of the Sonata in E, op. 1 09. short passage in the middle to connect the two
But even with Beethoven, in the case of music statements. As an early example of this form
without either programme or words to explain may be taken an ancient German chorale, Jesus '

'

its purpose, such irregularity is rare. It is here Christus nnser Heiland, Der den Tod iiberwand
especially that the nature and ea]iacity of the (1536), which is as follows :

minds of the auilitors play an important part.


Their attention has to be retained for a space
74 FORM FORM
a design, and no attempt, or very little at best,
is made to soften off the outlines by making

the sections pass into one another. The chief


subject is distinct and the episodes are distinct,

and the number of repetitions seems to depend


solely on the capacity of the comjioser to put

i ^
^^-^— v^---^ ^g le
In this the bars bracketcii are the same, and the
something in between. Still it is clear that the
virtue of contrasts both of style and of key is
appreciated, though the range of modulation is
extremely limited. It is noticeable, moreover,
phrase which connects them is very short and ; as illustrating the point of \iew from which
the whole presents about as simple and un- Form at that time was regarded, when recognised
sophisticated a specimen of Form as could well as such, that the divisions of the Rondo are
be conceived. The simple basis of which this is marked with extra emphasis by a Fcrmata or
a type is the origin of the Rondo-form, which pause. From this to such a Rondo as we find
has survived with great variety and modification in the Partita in C minor of Bach is a great
of treatment till the present day. Tlie first step. Here there are no strongly marked divi-
advances upon the above example which offer sions to stiffen the movement into formality,
any points of interest seem to be in cases where but it flows on almost uninterruptedly from first

we find either a. contrast aimed at in the passage to last. The ei)isodes modulate more freely,
which forms the link, or a number of repetitions and there is not such rigid regularity in the
succeeding one another, wdth ditferences in fhe reappearance of the main subject. It appears
passages connecting them. Tliese two consti- once outside of the principal key, and (which is
tute the two great branches through which yet more important) is brought in at the end
this primitive idea diverged into thousands of in an extremely happy variation which is ;

Arias, Lieder, Nocturnes, Romances, Scherzos, prophetic of Beethoven's favourite practice of


and other lyrical pieces on the one hand, and putting identical ideas in dill'erent lights. The
the movement which still retains its name of next stage of development of this form and —
Rondo on the other. As an early example of that probably rather a change than an improve-
the first we may take the song Roland courez
*
ment on the above beautiful little specimen of
aux amies' from LuUy's opera 'Roland,' which Bach — is the Rondo of Haydn and Mozart.

is too long for insertion here, but wdll be found Their treatment of it is practically the same as
in the 136th chapter of Hawkins's History of Coujierin's, but in many cases isstrongly modified
Music. In this there are twelve bars of melody by the more important and elaborate First- '

in C, concluding in that key ;followed by twelve movement- form,' which by their time had grown
more bars, in which there is modulation first to into clearness of sj'stera and definition. The
the relative minor A, and then to the dominant Rondo-form, pure and simple, has remained till
key G major, in which key this portion concludes ; now much as it was in Couijerin's time, gaining
after which the first twelve bars are resumed more in expansion than in change of outline.
precisely as at first, and so the whole concludes. Even the great Rondo of Beethoven's AVald- '

Here the employment of modulation in the con- stein Sonata (op. 53) consists of the repetition
'

necting passage is a strong element of contrast, of a subject of some length intersjiersed with
and indicates a considerable advance in musical episodes with modifications in the length of the
;

ideas on the obscure tonality of the preceding ex- episodes and the repetition of one of them, and
ample. On the other hand, almost contemporary a great Coda founded on the principal subject to
with Lully, there are, in the works of Coujjerin, conclude with. The further consideration of the
numerous specimens of the Rondo, consisting of Rondo as affected by the first movement form
'
'

a number of repetitions, with differences in the must be postponed till after the examination of
connecting passages. In these the passage with the latter.
whicli the movement commences is repeated over By the side of the primitive Rondo above
and over again bodily and without disguise, and quoted a form more complex in principle is found.
separate short passages, of similar length but In this form the relations of harmonic roots come
varying character, are put in between, Couperin largely into play, but its most striking and
was particularly fond of the Rondo-form, and singular feature is the manner of the repetition
examples may be found in profusion in his by which it is characterised. And in this case
work.s. The one which is perhaps best known examples drawn I'rom various early sources which
and most available for reference the isPassa- '
agree in the peculiar manner of the repetition
caille en Rondeau,' published in the complete will be of value, as above indicated. In this
edition of Brahms and Chrysander, vol. i. p. form the movement is divided into two halves,
152. A point syiecially observable in them is and these again into two sections. The first
the rigidity and absence of any attempt at half, or complete period, comprises asortof rough
sophistication in the process. The sections are balance between the amount which tends to the
like crude squares and circles fitted together into Tonic and the amount which tends to the Domi-
FORM FORM 75

iiant, thereby indicating the division into two feel the force of tliis as a point of musical form
sections and tliesecondhalf begins withpassages
;
when it is once I'ealised it has the elfect of
;

"which have more freedom in tlie distribution of completeness fora short tune which is unrivalled.
tlieir roots, which constitutes its firstsection, and If we turn to far other sources we shall find an
ends with a quotation of the last bars or figures early English specimen in the well-known Since '

of tlie first lialf, wliich constitutes its second first I saw your face' (1607), in wliich the
section. This will be best understood from an second and last line will again be found to be
example. The following is a very early specimen identical,and the other points of the scheme to
of the dance tune called a Branle or Brawl,' * ' '
conform in like manner. Even iu Italy, where
lioui the Orchesographie of Thoinot Arbeau
' '
the value of form does not seem to have been
(Laugres, 1589):— so readily appreciated as bj' Teutons, we find
a little Sinfonia for flutes in Giacomo Peri's
'
Euridice (1600)
'
the first — — musical drama per-
formed in modern Eurojie -which at least has
the one important feature of repeating a little
characteristic figure of the cadence of the first
half to conclude the whole. It must not be sup-
posed that this form was by any means universal
so early as the middle of the 16th century —
time wdieii notions of harmony proper, as apart
111 this it willbe observed that the first half from polyphony, were but dawning, and the
of tune is divided at («) by the strong
tlie little musical scales and keys as we now know them
eniiihasis on the Dominant,* from which point were quite vague and unsettled. It is wondeitul
it returns to the Tonic, and so closes the first enough that there should be any examples of
half. The second half, commencing at (6), can Form at all in such a state of musical language ;

easily be perceived to have a freer harmonic for Form as now


recognised depends gi-eatly ujion
basis than either of the first sections, and so those two very elements of harmonic bases and
leads the mind away from the Tonic and Domi- relation of keys so that what was then done in
;

nant centres in order that they may come in those deiiartments must have been done by in-
fresh again for the conclusion and havingcarried ; stinct. But by the middle of the 17th century
the figure on to an apparently disproportionate musical knowdedge in these respects w^as much
length (which serves the excellent purpose of more nearly complete, and the scope of composers
bieaking the monotony of constant pairs of bars), proportionately widened. Accordingly we find
finally, at (c), resumes the little tailpiece of the a greater freedom in the treatment of forms ;

first half and thereby clenches the whole into but the outline of the same form on a larger
completeness. The manner in which tliis answers scale is found to predominate in the instrumental
tlie requirements of artistic construction is very works of the time, especially such as pass under
remarkable, and it will be found hereafter that the names of dances though it is proliable that
;

it does so throughout on a precisely similar those sets of them which were called 'Suites,'
scheme, in miniature, to that of a 19th century or 'Sonatas,' or 'Ordres,' were rather purely
Symphony movement. It would be natural to musical than tcrjisichorean. In the ecclesias-
suppose that this was pure accident if there tical Sonatas (Senate da Chiesa) the style still
were not other ancient examjiles of the same continues fugal and polyphonic.
form coming from the most opposite sources. It would be impossilile to gi"\-e even a faint
The above Branle is a French dance tune if we ; idea of the number of examjiles of this form
turn from it and take the most famous German wdiich are to be found in these dance-tune suites,
Cliorale, Ein' feste Burg (1529), the principles
' '
but it will be well to take some typical speci-
of its construction will be found to be identical. mens and indicate the jioints in wdiich they show
It is so well known that it is needless to quote develojinient. In Corelli's Chamber Sonatas
it.' It will be sufficient to point out that the there are many clear instances. Thus, in tlie
first half of the tune ends at the conclusion of Giga of Sonata IV. of the Opera Quarta,' there
'

the second line and of this half the first line


; is the usual division into two halves. Of these
ends on the Dominant and the second on the the first is again divided into two phrases, the
Tonic, jirecisely as in the Branle and it is then ; first phrase all in the Tonic key, D the second ;

repeated for the third and fourth lines. The then modulating to the key of the Dominant and
music to the fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth closing in it. The second half begins with a
lines answers to the ])assage betw-een (b) and (c) sort of development of the figures of the first
in the Branle, and like it presents a variety of ]iart, then modulates to nearly related keys, and

harmonic bases and to clench it all together


; after passing bade to the original key concludes
the mu.sic of the second line is quoted to conclude with a quotation of the last few bars of the
with, precisely as is the little tailpiece of the first half. In this scheme there are two points
first half in the Branle. It is impossible not to of advance on the previous examples the first ;

1 It la given In vol. i. p. 771. part concludes in wdiat we will henceforward


76 FOEM FORM
call thecomplementary key, or key of the Domin- the typical progenitor and its descendant is
ant, instead of merely passing to it and back sufficiently clear. D. Scarlatti's works are
and closing in the principal key —
by that means almost universally a great advance on Corelli in
establishing more clearly the balance between it the clear definition of the subjects and the variety
and the principal key and secondly, the first
; of the rhythms, which enables him to approach
part of the second half of the movement presents much more nearly to modern ideas in what is
some attempt at a development of the features called the 'development' of thesubjeots though ;

of the subjects of the lirst part, and real free it is true that a mere patchwork of short subjects
modulation. The Corrente and Giga of the stated one alter another often serves the purpose
seventh Sonata of the Opera Seconda are also
'
' with him of the more continuous and artistic
remarkably clear specimens of repetition of the modern development. It will also be noticed
end of the lirst part as a conclusion to the wliole, that Scarlatti generally abandons the names of
since full six baj's in each are repeated. Both ex- the dance tunes while retaining their forms.
amples are, however, inferior to the above-quoted There were other contemporaries of Bach and
Giga in respect of the conclusion of the first part Handel who must be noticed before them for the

being in the principal key like the older same reasons as Scarlatti. Their worksgenerally

examples first quoted as typical though like present the feature of extensive repetition of the
that Giga they are superior to tlie older examples last section of the first part as a conclusion to the
in the free modulations and reference to the whole, in a very marked manner. Thus in a
conspicuous figures of the subjects in the first Corrente from a Suite by Domenico Zipoli (born
section of the second half of the movements. 1685) precisely the same system is observable as
Domenico Scarlatti (1683-1757) was a con- in the example by Scarlatti. And in a Sonata
temporary of Hanilel and Bach, being but two by Wagenseil (born 1715) in F, op, 1, the first
years their senior ; nevertheless he must be movement is a very extended specimen of the
considered as historically prior to them, inasmuch same kind and the last movement, a Minuetto,
;

as the very power of their genius would make is remarkable for the great length of the phrase

them rather the prophets of what was to come repeated. The first half of the movement is but
than representatives of |>revalent contemporary sixteen bars, of which the latter twelve are all
ideas. Domenico Scarlatti left many examples in the Dominant key and the wliole of these
;

of Studies or Sonatas which are essentially twelve bars are repeated at the conclusion, the
expansions of the plan of the original Branle. first four having been disposed of at the com-
In some the first part concludes in the principal, mencement of the preceding 'development,' as
and in some in the com|>lementary kej', either in the Study of Scarlatti.
Dominant or relative major. A very extended Bach and Handel present an extraordinary
example is found in a Study in D minor, Allegro variety of forms in their works. Some are iden-
(No. 7 of a set of Pieces jiour le Clavecin
'
tical with the form of the Branle and Fin' teste '

published by Cramer). In this there is first a Burg' others are like the p)rimitive Rondo on a
;

section chieHy in D minor, which modulates to very extended scale and many exhibit various
;

F, the relative major, and concludes in that key stages of progressive development up to the per-
— altogether twenty- two bars ;and then another fect types of the complete modern forms as used
section, of twenty-one bars, all in F major, and by Mozart.
closing in that key. This concludes the first A very large number of the movements in the
half, which corresponds with the first lialf of Suites of both Bach and Handel are in the same
a modern Sonata movement. The second half form as the previous examples. The first half
sets out with a reference to the first subject in is divided, not very strongly, into two sections,

F, and then modulates freely to various keys, in which theprincipal key and the complementary
ultimately closing in the original key of D minor, key alternately predominate. The second half
and there taking up the thread of the latter sets out with development and free modulation
section of the first half of tlie movement, and and concludes with a quotation ol' the concluding
giving the whole twenty-one bars almost identi- bars or features of the first half To take Bach's
cally, transposed from the original key of F into '
Suites Fran(;aises as examples, the following,
'

theprincipalkey of D. The descent of tliis move- among otheis, will be found to conform to this
ment from the dance type is sufficiently clear simjile scheme : —
Gigue of No. 1, in D minor ;

without again going over the ground. Its most Courante of No. 2, in C minor Gigue of No. 3, ;

conspicuous advance is in its relative extension, in B minor Courante of No. 4, in Efc> the AUe-
; ;

twenty-two bars corresponding to two in the mande and the Courante of No. 5, in G and the ;

original exampile, and the other divisions being in Courante and the Bourree of No. 6, in E. As
proportion. The free modulation of the second examf>les of tile same from Handel's Suites tlie
half of the movement is the strict counterpart following maybe taken the Courante in No. 1,
:

on a large scale of the clianging harmonic basis in A ; the Allegro in No. 2, in F the Courante ;

in the Branle, and this is an advance due to the in No. 4, in E minor the AUemande in No. 5,
;

great increase of musical knowledge and re- in E major and the Gigues in the 5th, 7th, 8th,
;

sources. In other respects the similarity between and 1 0th Suites. In many of these there is a
FORM FORM 77

systematic development of the figures of the sub- into one another, and tlie subjects are more
ject ill the first section of the second half of the definite. These two exam})les are, however, ex-
movement but a tendency is also observable to
; ceptional as regards both Bach and Handel and
commence the second half of the movement with their innnediate successors. The tendency was
a quotation of the commencement of the whole, still for a time to adopt the form of repiroducing
which answers practically to the first subject. the first subject at the commencement of the
This was also noticed in the example quoted second half of the movement ' and in point of;

from Scarlatti. Bach not unfrequciitly begins I'act it is not difficult to see wdiy it was preferred,

the second half with an inversion of the charac- since if nothing else could be said for it, it cer-
teristic figure of the commencement, or treats tainly seemed to keep the balance of the keys
it in a free kind of double counter])oint, as he more equal. For by this system the subject
sometimes docs in repeating the conclusion of the wdiich appeared in the principal key in the first
first half at the conclusion of the whole. (See half came in in the comjilementary key in the
the last lour bars of the Allemande in the second half, and the second suliject vice versa,
Partita No. 2, in C minor.) How the subject whereas in the later system the first subject
reappears is, however, a matter of subsidiary ahvays appears in the principal key. Moreover
importance. What is chielly important is the tlie still older system of merely repeating the
fact that the first subject gradually begins to ending of the first half still lingers on the scene
make its apjiearance clearly and definitely in after the time of Bach and Handel, for in a
the second part as a repetition from the first Sonata by Galuppi (1706-85) in D (published in
part and it is very interesting and curious to
; Bauer's AUe Clavier MusH-) there is a charming
note that there was a long hesitation as to the little opening Adagio which seems to look both
position in the second half which this repetition forwards and backwards at once for its form ;

should occupy. The balance for a long time is a clear specimen of the mere repetition of the

was certainly in favour of its appearing at the concluding ]ihrase of the first j)art at the con-
beginning of the second half, and in the comple- clusion of the "whole, wdiile its soft melodious
mentary key of the movement. A very clear manner and characteristic definition of sections
and easily recognisable instance of this is the by cadences and semi-cadences (tending to cut it
opening ponqTOSo movement of tile Overture
' '
up into so many little tunes) make it in sjiirit a
to Handel's 'Samson,' which differs in foini very near relation of Mozart's. And one might
from the first movement
of a modern Sonata or take this little movement, without much stretch
Symphony in this one particular only. But of imagination, as the final connecting link be-
there are specimens of form in both Bach and tween the movements wdiicli look back towards
Handel which are prophetic of the complete the primitive form as disjilayed in the original
modern system of Mozart. The fact is so in- Branle, and those which look on towards the
teresting and instructive that it will be worth Mozart and Haydn epoch. The other movements
wdiile to give an analysis of the shortest example of Galuppi's Sonata are in the more developed
of Bach, in order that it may be compared with form, in wdiich the first suliject is quoted at the
the scheme of Mozart form, which will be given commencenicnt of the second half of the move-
later. A little Air in the Suite Framjaise No. ment.
4, in major, sets out with a clearly defined
Eb In Galuppi's contemporary, P. D. Paradies, we
figure which may be called the 'first subject,' find even a closer relationship to Mozart in many
and modulates in the fourth bar to the key of respects. Tlie first movement of his Sonata in
the Dominant, in which the figure wdiich may A, for instance, is on an extended scale. His
also be called by analogy the second subject '
sulijects are clearly defined, and the growing
appears, and with this the first half of the move- tendency to cut the movement up into sections
ment concludes. The second half sets out with is still clearer than in Galuppi. The subjects
modulations and hints at the figures of the first are definitely restated, but after the earlier
half, after ten bars comes to a pause on the manner, with the first subject reproduced at the
Dominant of the original key and from thence beginning of the second half. It is, however,

recommences the first subject and tlie latter ; uoticealile that in the lively Finale of this Sonata
part of the section being deftly altered by a the subjects both reappear at the end of the
device of modulation —
of which Mozart made whole.
great use in the same position in the movement If we turn to the distinguished German com-
enables the whole of the last four bars of the first posers of this epoch we find ourselves as it were
half of the movement to follow also in Ek, so among the immediate exemplars of Haydn. In
concluding the Air. them both the manner and form of their gi'eat
There is no need to give a like detailed an- successors are prefigured, and there is no longer
alysis of the Allegro in Handel's Suite No. 14, any doubt about the basis of construction of the
in G. It will suffice to point out that its form movement ; the first part being as it were the
is identical with the preceding on a large scale ; thesis of the subjects, and the second part their

and that it is clearer and easier to recognise,


The slow moveraent of Beethoven's Quartet in D major, op. 18.
ia au example of thi3 form.
inasmuch as tlie sections do not flow so closely No. 'i,
78 FORM FOEM
discussion and re-statement but there is still an
; a second subject would be treated in a more
uncertainty with regard to tlie respective jiosi- extended movement, being given complete, trans-
tions of the re-statements. If, for instance, we posed from the Dominant key to the original
examine a Sonata of Johann Christian Bach, Tonic. That Krebs had well defined his own
op. 17 (Pauer's AUe Clavier Musik), we find a objects in these matters is clear from the fact
very clear and extended specimen of the older that the Polonaise from the same suite, and an
system. The first lialf has a very long section Allemande from another in Bt>, are constructed
in the principal key (B>>), and another section, after precisely the same system.
also long, in the Dominant key (F) all of wliich — There remains yet the most important pre-
is as usual repeated. The second half commences decessor of Haydn, namely Emanuel Bach, in
with a clear statement of the first section in the whose Sonatas Form reached a very remarkable
Dominant key, followed by development and pitch of perfection. Many of them stand in a
modulation, and pausing on the Dominant of very peculiar relation both to the old order and
the original key of Bb, in which all the second to the new which was destined to supplant it on
section of tlie first part is reproduced with an the jirinciple of the survival of the fittest for ;

exactness which is almost tiresome. It is worthy they present examples of the reappearance of the
of remark that the last movement is in the ("iigue first subject at the commencement of the second
time and style without being so named, and is half of the movement, as mil as after the section
a happy instance of the gradual complete merg- devoted to development and modulation in —
ence of the old dance Suite in the Sonata. As other words, both in its older position and in its
a reverse to this picture tliere is a Bourree in a recognised pilace in modern instrumental works.
Suite by Johann Ludwig Krebs a contemporary — This is the case in the Sonata in G in the first
of Joliann Christian Bach, and one of the most collection published at Leipzig in 1779, and in
distinguished of his father's pupils which, — Billow's little selection of Six. The same also
though called by the old dance name, is in perfect in the last movement of the Sonata in A (which
modern form, and shows so aj)tly the transition is both in Billow's collection and in Pauer's
of the repeated ending of tlie first part into a '
Alte Meister '), and in the first movement of
second subject that it is worth quoting in out- the Sonata in F minor from the third set of
line. Clavier Sonatas, also edited by Billow. The
sonata in D minor approaches more nearly to

^^ aJ.
-J,J^L
N*»t
g^^ gEtff-|
rfr^rrf-fr
©^ :
modern ways in the position of the repetition of
the first subject in the second part but offers a ;

M
marked instance of independent thought in re-
producing the second subject in the key of the
w,
J2U third below the Tonic (that is, in B^ relative to

^^ rferrr-rr
^^EE^^ D) and afterwards ptassing back to the pjrincipal
key, and reproducing the rest of the materials of
the section after the usual manner thus in some —

^ rrr=«=^i^-rr r
(c) respects anticipating Beethoven.
3E 5t* A great deal more might be said on the in-
dividual and thouglitful use of Form wdiich is
observable in the works of Emanuel Bach but ;

it will be merely necessary to point out that the


Tliis is followedby seven more bars of develop-
study of them as works of art, by those who are
ment after the manner of this commencement,
as yet unacquainted with them will throw quite
modulating to C minor and Ap and thence back
a new light on Haydn and Mozart. He has
to E|7, in which key the hrst subject is resumed
been called' their forerunner, and he thoroughly
as follows :

justifies the title not only by the clearness and


(d) ^ ^ tr. tr.
distinctness of his form, but bycertainindefinable
qualities of styleand sentiment. Something of
this may due to his view that music should
Vie

be interpreted as vocally as possible (see Burney,


Hist. vol. iv. chap, x.), which is also a very
distinguishing trait of the Jlozart school. It
must also be noted that in him the continuous
In this the piassage from (a) to (h) constitutes fugal manner seems finally to have yielded before
the firstsubject and section and that from (6)
; the growing predominance of the essentially
to (c) the second, in the Dominant key, cor- distinct modern harmonic style. The forms of
responding to a second subject'
then follow ' ; the fugal style, such as they were, were rather
the develop)ment and modulation, from (c) to (d) ;
relative than positive, and depended upon certain
and then the repeat of tlie first section in the laws —
not very clearly defined or consistently
principal key, with the little cadence figure (c), observed —
as to the modes of recurrence of the
which is treated in precisely the manner that 1 Von Billow. Prefiice to hie selection of pieces.
FOEM FORM 79

subjects ; whereas the forms of the modern har- subject reappearing clearly at the beginning of
monic style are positive and systematic. The the second half of a movement instead of in its
forms of the fugal style may be compared
to the F major, op. 2, No. 4
latter portion ((Juartet in ;

composition of lines and curves in a drawing, in No. 67 in Trautwein) and further than this,
;

which they are not preconceived, but grow into and corroborative of the continuous descent, is
completeness by the attention wliich is bestowed the fact that ^\hen the first subject reai}pears in
by tlie artist on their relations to one another. what we should call its right ]i!ace, there are
AVhereas the forms of the harmonic style are conspicuous irregularities in the procedure, just
architectural, and are governed by certain neces- as if Haydn were half apologising for a liberty.
sary prior considerations as vital as that of roof For the section is often prolonged and followed
and walls to the architect, whereby the move- byirregular modulations before the second subject
ment comes to be divided into sections chieHy reappears, and is then far more closely followed
based upon the succession of keys, in which the than the first subject and the materials of the
various subjects are rather indicators of outline first section. Another point illustrating a linger-
than positive elements of construction. In ing i'eeling for the old practice of repeating the
Emanuel Bach we iind a number
and of figures conclusion or cadence-figures of the first part at
subjects characteristic of each of the primary the conclusion of the whole, is that a sort ol*
sections, as wx do in Beethoven and the spirit
; premature coda is occasionally inserted after the
of his great lather, though attenuated enough, earlier figures of the second section on its repetition
is yet perceptible in his manner of treating short in this place, oftrr which the concluding bars of
and pregnant and in some peculiarities
figures, the first jiart are exactly resumed for the finish.
of phraseology. These are probably the chief Of this even Mozart gives a singular and very
points of connection between the spirit of the clear instance in the first movement of his G
great giant and the graces of the less austere minor Symphony.
style of Haydn and Mozart. Of the minor incidental facts which are con-
It can hardly be doubted that the realisation spicuous in Haydn's works the most prominent
of this practically new discovery of the element is Ills distribution of the subjects in the first
of positive harmonic or Tonal form in nuisic must part. He
conforms to the key-element of Form
have acted like many other fresh discoveries in in this part with
persistent regularity, but
the realms of art, and tended to swamp the other one subject frequently suffices for both sections.
elements of eftect making composers look to
; AVith this principal subject (occasionally after
form rather as ultimate and pre-eminent than as a short independent introduction in slow time)
inevitable but sul.isidiary. It seems not improb- he commences operations and after concluding
;

able that the vapid and meaningless common- the firstscction and jiassing to hiscomjilementary
place which often offends the sensitive musician key for the second, he reproduces it in that key,
in the works of Haydn and Mozart, and appears sometimes varied and sometimes quite simply
like just so much rubbish shot in to fill up a as in the well-known Sj-mphony in D, No. 7 of
hole, was the result of this strong new feeling Salomon's set (first movement), or in that in Eb,
for form as paramount, and that it remained for No. 9 of the same series (also first movement), or
Beethoven to re-establish definitely the principle in the Quartet in F minor, op. 55, or the Finale
of giving equal intensity to every part of the pdece of the Quartet in C, op. 75 (No. 1 in Trautwein).
in proportion to its importance. With Haydn And even where the second section has several
and Mozart it is common to find very sweet tunes, new it the first subject is often still
features in
and sometimes very serious and pregnant tunes, the centre of attraction, as in the first movement
in each of the primary sections, and then a lot of the Quartet in G (No. 16, Trautwein), and
of scurrying about

'brilliant passages' as they the same movement of the Quartet in F (No. 11,
are often called —
the only purpose of which is to Trautwein). On the other hand Haydn is some-
mark the cadence, or point out that the tune times profuse with hissubjccts, and like Beethoven
which is just finished is in such or such a key. gives several in each section and again it is not
;

Haydn's early Quartets are sometimes very little uncommon with him modulate into his com-
to
more than jingle in one key and more jingle in plementary key and go on with thesamematerials
another, to fill up his recognised system of form, for some time before producing his second subject,
without ever rising to the dignity of a tune, and an analogous practice to which is also to be met
much less to a figure with any intensity of with in Beethoven.
meaning : and some of Mozart's instrumental A far more important item in Haydn's de-
productions are but little better. velopment of Form is the use of a feature which
That Haydn studied the works of Emanuel has latterly become very conspicuous in instru-
Bach is well known, for he himself confessed it mental compositions, namely the Goda, and its
and the immediate connection between him and analogue, the independent episode which usually
his predecessors is nowhere more clear than in concludes the first half of the movement.
the similarity of occasional irregularities of con- Every musician is aware that in the early
struction in the second half of his movements. period of purely formal music it was common
There is more than one instance of his first to mark all the divisions of the movements
80 FORM FORM
clearly byand half closes and the more
closes ; reiterating the same series of chords in the same
vital the
division the stronger the cadence. key. As an instance of the consideration and
Both Haydn and Mozart repeat their cadences acuteness which characterise Haydn's very varied
in a manner which to modern ears often sounds treatment of forms may be taken the Coda of the
excessive and, as already pointed out, they are
; first movement of the Symphony in C, No. 1 of
both at times content to make mere business In this movement he misses
'
'
the Salomon set.
of by brilliant passages, or bald chords but
it ; out certain prominent figures of the first section
in movements which were more earnestly carried on its repetition in the second half, and alter
out the virtue of making the cadence also part of passing on duly through the recapitulation of
the music proper, and not a mere rigid meaning- the second section he takes these same omitted
less line to mark the divisions of the pattern, figures as a basis whereon to build his Coda.
was soon recognised. There were two ways of Many similar instances of well-devised manipula-
effecting this either by allusion to the figures
; tion of the details of foi-m are scattered through-
of the subjects adapted to the form of the outhis works, which show his remarkable sagacity
cadence, or by an entirely new figure standing and tact. They cannot be brought under any
harmonically on the same basis. From this system, but are well worth careful study to see
practice the final episode to thefirst part of the how the old forms can be constantly renewed
movement was developed, and attained at times by logically conceived devices, without being
no insignificant dimensions. But the Coda proper positively relinquished.
had a somewhat different origin. In the days be- Haydn represents the last stage of progress
foreHaydn it was almost invariable to repeat the towards clear and complete definition of abstract
second half of the movement as well as the first, Form, which appears in its final technical per-
and Haydn usually conformed to the practice. fection in Mozart. In Mozart Form may be
So long as the movements were of no great length studied in its greatest simplicity and clearness.
thiswould seem sufficient without any addition, His marvellous gift of melody enabled him to
but when they attained to any considerable dispense with much elaboration of the accepted
dimensions the poverty and want of finish in outlines, and to use devices of such extreme sim-
ending twice over in precisely the same way plicity in transition from one section to another
would soon become apparent and consequently
; tliatthe difficulty of realising his scheme of con-
a passage was sometimes added after the repeat struction is reduced to a minimum. Not that
to make the conclusion more full, as in Haydn's he was incapable of elaborating his forms, for
well-known Quartet in D minor, op. 76, the first there are many fine examples to prove the con-
movement of the Quartet in G (Trautwein, No. trary but it is evident that he considered
;

56), the last movement of the Quartet in E, obviousness of outline to be a virtue, because it
No. 17, and many others. It seems almost enabled the ordinary hearer as well as tlie culti-
superfluous to point out that the same doctrine vated musician to appreciate the symmetrical
really applies to the conclusion of the movement, beauty of his compositions. Apart from these
even when the latter half is not repeated since ; points of systematic definition Mozart was not
unless an addition of some sort is made the an innovator, and consequently it will not be
whole concludes with no greater force than the necessary to point out his advances on Haydn.
half the conclusion being merely a repetition
; But inasmuch as he is generally recognised as
of the cadence figure of the first half of the the perfect master of the formal element in music
movement. This case, however, is less obvious it will be advisable to give an outline of his
than the former, and it is probable that the system.
virtue of the Coda was first observed in con- The first section, which tends to mark clearly
nection with movements in which the second the principal key of the movement, sets out with
half was repeated, and that it was afterwards the principal subject, generally a tune of simple
found to apply to all indiscriminately. A Coda form, such as eight bars divided into corresjiond-
in both cases is to be defined as the passage in ipg groups of four (see the popular Sonata in C
the latter part of a movement which commences minor). This is either repeated at once or else
at the point where the substance of the repeated gives place to a continuation of less-marked
first part comes to an end. In Haydn codas are character of figure, generally commencing on
tolerably plentiful, both in movements in which the Dominant bass the order of succession of
;

the latter half is repeated and in movements in this repetition and continuation is uncertain,
which it is not. They are generally constructed but whichever comes last (uidess the section is
out of materials taken from the movement, which further e.xtended)usually passes to the Dominant
are usually presented in some new light, or asso- key, and jiauses on its Dominant or pauses with-
;

ciated together in a fresh manner and the form


; out modulation on the last chord of a half close
is absolutely independent. Modulation is rarely in the original key or, if the key of the whole
;

to be found, for the intention of the Coda was to movement be minor, a little more modulation
strengthen the impression of the principal key will take place in order to pass to the key of the
at the conclusion, and musicians had to be taught relative major and pause on its Dominant. The
by Beethoven how to do this without incessantly —
second section which tends to define clearly the
FORM FORM n
complementary key of the movement, whether principal key of the movement happens to be
Dominant or Relative major to the original minor, and the second section of the fiist ])art
usually starts with a new subject somewhat con- to be in the relative major, its reappearance in
trasted with the features of the tirst section, and either the major or minor of the pirincipal key
may be lollowed by a I'urther accessory subject, depends cliieUy on its character and the pass-
;

or derivative continuation, or other form of pro- age that led to it by modulation would be eitlier
longation, and so passes to the frequent repietition omitted altogether or so manipulated as not to
of the cadence of the complementary key, with conclude out of the principal key.
either brilliant passages, or occasionally a definite With this simple order of rejiroduction of the
fresh feature or suliject which constitutes the first two sections Mozart is generally contented,
Cadence episode of the first part. These two ami the little alterations which he does occasion-
sections —
constituting the first half of the move- ally make are of a straightforward nature, such

ment are usually repeated entire. as producing the second subject before the first
The second half of the movement commences (as in a Sonata in D major composed in 1778),
with a section which is frequently the longest or producing the second subject in the Dominant
of all it sometimes opens with a quotation of
; key first and repeating it in the principal key
the first subject, analogous to the old practice (as in a Sonata in C composed in 1779). The
common before Haydn, and proceeds to develop whole of the latter half of the movement is
freely the features of the subjects of the first part, frequently repeated, and in that case generally
like a discussion on theses. Here cadences are followed by a Coda —
as in the last movements
avoided, as also the complete statement of any of Quartets in G minor No. 1, and A, No. 5,
idea, or any obvious grouping of bars into fixed and D, No. 10 first movements of Quartets in
;

successions modulations are constant, and so


; Bb, No. 2, and D, No. 10 slow movement of
;

irregular that it would be no virtue to find the Quartet in F, No. 8 first movement of Sonata
;

succession alike in any two movements the ; in C minor and of Quintets in G minor, D,
;

whole object being obviously to produce a strong and Eb and last movement of the 'Jupiiter'
;

formal contrast to the regularity of the first half Symphony. The Coda is generally constructed
of the movement to lead the hearer through
; out of prominent features of the movement,
a maze of various keys, and by a certain artistic presented in some new light by fresh associations
confusionof subject-matter and rhythm to induce and fresh contrasts. It is seldom of any
a fresh appetite for regularity which the final great length, and contains no consjiicuous modu-
return of the original sulyects and sections will lation, as that would have been held to weaken
definitely satisfy. This section Mozart generally the impression of the priucijial key, wdiich at the
concludes by distinctly modulating back to his conclusion of the movement should be as strong
princijial key and cither pausing on its dominant,
, as possible. In a few instances there are codas
or passing (perhaps with a little artistically without the latter half of the movement having
devised hesitation), into the first subject of the been repeated. Of this there is at least one very
movement, which betokens the commencement beautiful instance in the short Coda of the slow
of the fourth section. This section is usually movement of the Quartet in Bb, which is con-
given witliout much disguise or change,^ and if structed out of ejaculatory fragments of the first
it concludes with a pause on the Dominant chord subject, never touching its first phrase, but
of the original key {i.e. the final chord of a half passing like a sweet broken reminiscence. It
close), will need no further manipulation, since must be borne in mind that this scheme is but
the second subject can follow as well in the a rough outline, since to deal with the suljject
original key as in that of the Dominant, as it completely would necessitate so much detail as
did in the first part. If, however, the section to preclude all piossibility of cleainess.
concludes on the Dominant of that Dominant It is commonly held that the influence of
key in the first half of the movement, a little Mozart upon Beethoven was paramount in his
more maniptulation will be necessary. Mozart's first pieriod but strong though the influence of
;

device is comnjonly to make some slight change so great a star must inevitably have been upon
in the order of things at the latter part of the the unfolding genius, his giant spiritsoon asserted
section, whereby the course of the stream is itself; especially in that which seems the very
turned aside into a Sub-dominant channel, which marrow of his works, and makes Form appear in
key standing in the same relation to the ])rincipal an entirely new phase, namely the element of
key that the principal key stands to the Domin- universally distributed intensity. To liim that
ant, it will only be necessary to repeat the latter byword brilliant passages was as hateful as
' '

part of the section in that key and pause again '


Cant'toGarlyle. To him bombast and gesticu-
on the Dominant of tlie original key, in which lation at a particular spot in a movement just —
the second section of the first half tlien follows because certain supposed laws of form point to
simply in the same order as at the first. the H that spiot as requiring bustle and noise were —
impossible. If there is excitement to be got up
1 In the first movement of the Jupiter
'
' Symphony so exact is the
repetition, that in one of the editions a passage of twenty-one bars is at any particular point there must be something
not reprinted, but a reference Da *
Capo ' is made to its occurrence
at the beginning of tlie Allegro. real in the bustle and vehemence something ;

VOL. II G
82 FORM FORM
intense enough to justify it, or else it mil be of Beethoven's later days should have been better
mere vanity the cleverness of the fingers dis-
; able to tell their whereabouts with much less
guising the emptiness of tl:e soul, a tit accom- — indication than were the auditors of Mozart.
paniment to the clatter of dishes at a princely
'
Hence there were two causes acting on the
table,' as Wagner saj's, but not Music. Such development of form. On the one hand, as the
is the vital germ from which spring the real system grew familiar, it was inevitable that
peculiarities and individualities of Beethoven's people should lose much of the satisfaction
instrumental compositions. It must now be which was derived from the form itself as
a Form of spirit as well as a Form in the frame- such and on the other hand their capacity for
;

work it is to become internal as well as external.


; realising their whereabouts at any time being
The day for stringing certain tunes together developed by practice, gave more scope to the
after a certain plan is past, and Form by itself composer to unify his composition by omitting
ceases to be a final and absolute good. A musical those hard lines of definition which had been
movement in Beethoven becomes a continuous previously necessary to assist the undeveloped
and complete poem or, as Mr. Dannreuther i ; musical faculty of the auditors. Thus Mozart
says, an organism which is gradually unfolded
'
' prepared the way for Beethoven in those very
before us, marred by none of the ugly gaps of things which at first sight seem most opposed
dead stuffing which were part of the 'form of his ' to his jiractice. "Without such education the
predecessors. Moreover Form itself must drop musical poems of Beethoven must have fallen
into the background and become a hidden presence upon deaf ears.
rather than an obvious and pressing feature. Beethoven then very soon abandoned the formal
As a basis Beethoven accepted the forms of Mozart, definition of the sections by cadences, and by
and continued to employ them as the outline of degrees seems rather to have aimed at obscuring
his scheme. He retained,' as the same writer
'
the obviousness of the system than at pointing it
has admirably said, the triune symmetry of '
out. The division of the movements becomes
exposition, illustration, and repetition,' which as more subtle, and the sections pass into one an-
far as we know at present is the most perfect other without stopping ostentatiously to indicate
system arrived at, either theoretically or empiri- the whereabouts and, last but not least, he
;

cally but he treated the details with the inde-


; soon breaks away from the old recognised
pendence and force of his essentially individual system, which ordained the Dominant or relative
nature. He absorbed the principle in such a major as the only admissible key for the com-
fashion that it became natural for him to speak plementary section of the first part. Thus as
after that manner and greatly as the form varies
; early as his second and third Sonatas the second
it is essentiallythe same in principle, whether sections begin in the Dominant minor key, and
in the Trio in E7, opus 1, No. 1, or the Quartet in the slow movement of the Sonata in Eb (op. 7)
in F, opus 13.5. the Dominant is discarded in favour of the key
In estimating the great difference between of the third below the tonic —
Afc> relative to the
Mozart and Beethoven in their manner of treat- principal key C. In the first movement of the
ing forms it must not be forgotten that Mozart, Sonata in G (op. 31, No. 1) he begins his second
as has been before observed, wrote at a time subject in the key of the major third, and that
when the idea of harmonic form was compara- major i.e. B, relative to G and the same key
;

tively new to the world of music, and to conform (relatively) is adopted in the "Waldstein Sonata
to it was in itself a good, and to say the merest and the Leonora Overture. The effect of such
trifles according to its system a source of satisfac- fresh and unexpected transitions must have been
tion to the hearer. It has been happily suggested immense on minds accustomed only to the formal
that ilozart lived in an era and in the very atmo- regularity of Slozart. Moreover, Beethoven early
sphere of court etiquette, and that this shows began the practice of taking one pirincipal key as
itself in the formality of his works but it is ; central and surrounding it with a jiosse of other
proliable that this is but half the cause of the keys both related and remote. Every one is
effect. For it must not be forgotten that the familiar with the opening passages of the "Wald-
very basis of the system was clear definition of stein and Appassionata Sonatas, in both of which
tonality that is to say, the key must be strongly
; a new key is introduced in less than half-a-dozen
marked at the beginning and end of a movement, bars, and then passes back to the principal key ;
and each section in a different key must l;)e clearly and this practice is not done in the vague way so
pointed out by the use of cadences to define the often met with in Jlozart and Haydn, where tlieir
whereabouts. It is in the very nature of things excessive use of rapid tran.sitions in the third sec-
that when the system was new the hearers of the tion of the movement has the effect of men beat-
music should be but little apt at seizing quickly ing about in the dark. True it is that there are
what the key was at any given moment of the instances of this in Beethoven's early works while
highest importance and equally in the nature
; he wrote under the same order of influences as
of things tliat this faculty should have been they did but in his maturer works these sub-
;

capable of development, and that the auditors sidiary modulations are conceived with large
' In MacviiUan's Magazine for July 1876. breadth of purpose founded on certain peculiari-
FORM FORM
ties in the affinities of the keys employed, which ferent circumstances or habits of thought niay
makes tlie music that is heard in them produce give them the most opposite feelings. As was
the most variedfeelingsintliemindof theauditor. pointed out with reference to Mozart, no system
It is most important for a young student to avoid is deducible from the order of this division of
the hasty conclusion from insulhcientobservation the movement, than which none shows more in-
that to modulate much is to be free and bold, for fallibly the calibre of the conq)Oser. As a rule
it is nothing of the sort. Irregular purposeless Beethoven avoids the complete statement of any
modulation is sheer weakness and vapidity. of his subjects, but breaks them up into their
Strength is shown in nothing more conspicuously constituent figures, and mixes them up in new-
than in the capacity to continue long in one situations, avoiding cadences and miiformity of
key without ceasing to be interesting and when ; groups of bars and rhythms. As far as possible
that is etfeeted a bold stroke of well-defined the return to the original key is marked in
modulation comes with its proper force. For some more refined w^ay than the matter-of-fai't
when ke3^s are rapidly interlaced the force of plan of baldly passing to its Dominant, pausing,
their mutual contrasts is weakened and even and re-commencing opierations. The reprise of
destroyed their vital energy is frittered aw-ay to
; the first subject is sufficient indication to the
gi'atifyan unwholesome taste for variety, and is hearer as to what part of the movement he has
no longer of any use for steady action. In Beet- arrived at, and the ajiproaches to it require to
hoven action is always steady, and the eli'ects of be so fined off, that it may burst upon him
the changing keys come ^vith their full force. A with the extra force of a surprise. Sometimes
new key is sought because it gives additional a similar ettect is obtained by the totally opposite
vitality to a subject or episode, or throws a new course of raising expectation by hints of what
light upon an idea from a strange and unexpected is to come, and then deferi'ing it in such a
quarter, as in the w^onderful stroke of genius at manner that the suspended anticipation of the
the outset of the Appassionata.''
As other in- mind may heighten the sense of pleasure in its
stances may be quoted the first movement of the gi-atification, as in the last movement of the
Sonata in 0, op. 31, No. 1 Scherzo of Quartet ; Waldstein Sonata. Again the return is not un-
inF, op. 59, No. 1 ; first movement
of Quartet in frequently made the climax of a grand culmina-
r minor, op. 95. tion of increasing force and fury, such as that
The Episode which concludes the first part of in the first movement of the Waldstein Sonata
the movement is almost invariably of some im- (where the return is pp) and the Fourth and
portance in Beethoven's works, ^'ery generally Eighth Symphonies, a device which is as moving
he reproduces figures of his first subject, as in to the hearer as either of the former ones, and
the Prometheus and Leonora Overtures, the first equally intense and original.
movements of the Quartets in F major (op. 59, In the recapitulation of his subjects, as might
No. l)and E^ (op. 127), the Symphonies in D, be anticipated from his intensity in all things,
Eroica, C minor, and A, the Sonata in E (op. there is a growing tendency to avoid the appa-
14, No. 1), and tlielast movement of the Appas- rent platitude of repeating them exactly as at
sionata. But more frequently he produces a first. Sometimes they appear with new features,
new subject, often of quite equal importance and or new orders of modulation, and sometimes
beauty to either the first or the second to quote — altogether as variations of the originals. As
but one instance out of many take the first instances of this may be taken the recapiitulation
movementoftheSonatain G (op. 14, No. 2) — and of the first subjects in the first movements of the
very often does so besides referring to his first Eroica Symphony, D minor Sonata (op. 31, No.
subject. The chief thing to notice from this is 2), the Waldstein, the Appassionata, and the
that the Episode in question has gro-nm into im- B^ Sonata, op. 106, the first movement of the
portant dimensions in his hands, and is so clear, Quartet in Et>, op. 127, and of the Kreutzer
and its distinction as a separate section from Sonata, the slow movements of the Violin Sonata
what precedes it so marked, that it is not in C minor, op. 30, No. 2, and of tlie great Bb
uncommon to hear it sjioken of as the Coda of Sonata just named, all which present the various
the first p>art. features above enumerated in great perfection.
In the part de^'oted to the development of No system can be defined of the way in which
the features of the subjects, which commonly Beethoven connects his first and second subject
commences the second half of the movement, in this part of the movement, as he particularly
Beethoven is especially gr-eat. No musician avoids sameness of procedure in such matters.
ever had such a capacity for throwing an infinite As a nde tlie second snbject is given more simply
variety of lights upon one central idea it is no ;
than the fir.st no doubt because of its being
;

'
business or pedantry, but an extraordinary
'
generally of less vital importance, and less
genius for transforming rhythms and melodies f>rominent in the mind of the hearer, and there-
so that though they be recognised by the hearer fore requiring to be more easily recognisable.
as the same which he has heard before, they With regard to the key in which it appears, he
seem to tell a totally different story just as the ;
occasionally varies, particularly wdieu ithas not
same ideas working in the minds of men of dif- appeared in the first part in the orthodox
84 FORM POEM
Dominant key. Thus in the firat movement of impetuous Coda of the last movement of the Ap-
tlie great Quartet in Bb, op. 130, the second passionata Sonata, which introduces quite a new
subject, which had appeared in tlie first pai't in feature, and the Coda to the last movement of
the key of the third below (Gi> relative to Bi>), the Waldstein Sonata. The two climacteric Codas
appears in the recapitulation in the key of the of all, however, are those to the first movements

minor third above Db. And in the Sonata of the Eroicaand the Ninth Symphony, which are
in G major, op. 31, No. 1, the second subject, sublime. The former chiefly by reason of its
which appeared in the key of the major third in outset, for there is hardly anything more amazing
the lirst part, ajtpears in the 'reprise in that of in nnisic than the drop from the ^;ia.Mo Tonic Eb
the minor third below. These and other analo- which concludes the preceding section, to et forte
gous instances seem to indicate that in the Db, and then to the chord of C md,joT fortissimo.
statement and restatement of his subjects, when But the whole Coda of the first movement of the
they did not follow the established order, he held Ninth Symphony is a perpetual climax and a
the balance to be between the third aljove and type of Beethoven's grandest conceptions, full of
the third below, major and minor. The reason varied modulation, and constant representation
for his not doing so in the Bb Sonata (op. 106) of the features of the subjects in various new
is no doubt because in the very elaborate repeat lights, and ending with a surging, giant-striding
of the first section he had modulated so far away specimen of 'Tonic and Dominant,' by way of
from the principal key. enforcing the key which is quite without rival
The last point to which we come in Beethoven's in the whole domain of music. —
treatment of the Sonata-forms is his use of the There can be no object in following the de-
Coda, which is, no doubt, the most remarkable velopment of the system of Form farther than
and individual of all. It has been before pointed Beethoven, for it can hardly be said that there
out that Mozart confines himself chiefly to Codas is anything further to trace. His works pjresent
after repetition of the second half of his move- it in its greatest variety and on the grandest
ments, and these are sometimes interesting and scale and his successors, great as many of them
;

forcible but Codas added for less obvious reasons


; have been, have not even approached him, far
are rare and as a rule both his Codas and
; less added to his final culmination. The main
Haydn's remain steadily in the princijial key tendencj' observable in later instrumental works
of the movement, and strengthen the Cadence is to develop still further the system above dis-

by repetition rather than by leading the mind cussed of taking one key as central in a group
away to another key, and then back again up to comprising many subsidiary transitions. Schu-
a fresh climax of key-definition. That is to say, mann's works present remarkable instances of
they were added for formal purposes and not for tills Mendelssohn adopts the same practice, but
;

the sake of fresh points of interest. Beethoven, with more moderation Brahms again is ex-
;

on the other hand, seemed to look upon the con- tremely free in the same direction as may be ;

clusion of the movement as a point where interest observed, for instance, in the first section of the
should be concentrated, and some most moving first movement of the pianoforte Quartet, op. 26,
effects produced. It nmst have seemed to him which is nominall)' in G minor. This is ap-
a pure absurdity to end the whole precisely as parently a recognition of the hypothesis above
the half, and to conclude with matter wdiich had proposed, that the mind is capable of being more
lost part of its zest from having been all heard and more educated to recognise the principal key
before. Hence from tpiite an early period {e.ij, in a chain of transitions which to the audiences
slow movement of D major Sonata, op. 10, No. of Mozart's day would have been quite unin-
3) he began to reproduce his subjects in new and telligible.
interesting phases in this part of the movement, It is now time to return to the consideration
indulging in free ami forcible modulation, which of the Rondo-form as found in the works of
seems even from tlie point of ]iure form to endow Haydn and IMozart, in which it was frequently
the final Cadence with fresh force when the affected by the more important and interesting
original key is regained. The form of the Coda First-movement-form. It will be obvious that
is evidently quite independent. He either com- itscombination Avith that form does not offer
mences it from an interrupted Cadence at the much difficulty. For that alternation of subject
end of the preceding section, or passes on from the and episode which is the very basis of the Rondo
final chord without stopjiing — in the latter case opens the wa}^ to the ado[)tion of a second sub-
generally with decisive modulation. In other ject in the complementary key as the fittest
cases he does not conclude the preceding section, antithesis to the first statement of the principal
but as it were grafts the Coda on to the old subject and the main point of distinction of the