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Technical Seminar Presentation 2004 CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS

Technical Seminar Report On

“CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS”

under the guidance of


Mr. Debasis Jena

submitted by

SIGMA DASH EE200198046


Presented by – SIGMA DASH
CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS

INTRODUCTION
Technical Seminar Presentation 2004

 Simulator that evaluates, provides and prioritizes the impacts


on an electric power system
 AC power flow method is expensive, computationally and time
taking.
 DC power flow equations and bus voltage equations

 Deterministic contingency analysis

 The algo in CA uses network parameters to model, calculate


& simulate the effects of removing equipment from the power
system.
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CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS

DC POWER FLOW METHOD


Technical Seminar Presentation 2004

N-1 in number, only the real power flow , all line resistances are
neglected

 * 
 i ∑ ij j 
Pi = Real V Y V  i = 2,........N
 j 
 

jθij jδ j
= Real 
 Vi e − jδi
Yij e Vi e 

 j 
 j(θ +δ −δ ) 
= Real  ∑Vi V j Yij e ij j i 
 i 

Line resistance is neglected so


Y ij= Gij + jBij = jBij

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CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS

Pi = ∑Vi V j Bij sin(δi −δ j )


Technical Seminar Presentation 2004

δi −δj must be sufficiently small


i -1 N

Ultimately, Pi =∑K ijδj +K iiδi + ∑K ijδj


j =1 j =i +1

or in matrix form P = Kδ

If P has to be constant, K & δ will change from base values

This provides the changes in the bus voltage angles


∆δ = - (K0)-1 ∆Kδs

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CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS

To study single contingencies, we use


Technical Seminar Presentation 2004

∆ Kpp= Kpq
∆Kqq = Kpq
∆ Kpq = - Kpq
∆ K qp= - Kqp
Substituting these we get the matrix as
∆δpq = - (K0)-1 (δ ps∆K p+ δ ps∆Kq)

Changes in line flows due to the loss of line pq given are


obtained by substituting the appropriate elements of ∆δpq

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CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS

Z MATRIX METHOD
Technical Seminar Presentation 2004

Methods include inverting Y bus matrix and injecting a


fictitious current into the bus
Converting the MVA loads to impedance loads using
2
Zload i = Vi
S i*

Injecting a unit current, into the bus p which has to be removed


 V1   Z1P 
 .   . 
   
 .  =  . 
   
 .   . 

VN  
Z NP 

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CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS

Ipq can be calculated using the equation


Technical Seminar Presentation 2004

V p − Vq
I pq =
Z line pq

An adjustment parameter, d, has to be used


S
I pq

d=
I pq

Due to the injection lp = d, the new current in other elements


d ( Z ip − Z jp )
Ipq =
Z line ij

where ij is not equal to mn

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CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS

The sought-after current flow changes due to removing line pq are


Technical Seminar Presentation 2004

~
∆ I ij = I ij − I ij for all ij

Calculating the current flow pattern in the modified network,


in which line pq has been removed, requires only that we inject
current I p=d, as before, into the modified network.
The voltages are
~ ~ ~ ~ ~
 Vi   Z11 Z12 . . . Z1N  0   Z1 p d 
    .   
 .   .    =  . 
 . = .  d   . 
       
 .   .  .   . 
V~   Z~ ~ ~   ~
Z d 
 N   N1 Z N2 . . . Z NN  0 
  Np 

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CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS

POST CONTINGENCY EQUILLIBRIUM


Technical Seminar Presentation 2004

Methods to compute the equilibrium condition immediately


following a disturbance to an electric power system

 Analysis by Integration

 Analysis by Simultaneous
Iteration

 Analysis by partitioned iteration

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CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS

CONCLUSION
Technical Seminar Presentation 2004

 Methods for evaluating both isolated and interconnected areas

 Used as an online decision support tool

 Faster approximate methods for locating potential trouble spots

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Technical Seminar Presentation 2004 CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS

THANK YOU !

Presented by – SIGMA DASH