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# Technical Seminar Presentation 2004 CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS

## Technical Seminar Report On

“CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS”

Mr. Debasis Jena

submitted by

## SIGMA DASH EE200198046

Presented by – SIGMA DASH
CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS

INTRODUCTION
Technical Seminar Presentation 2004

##  Simulator that evaluates, provides and prioritizes the impacts

on an electric power system
 AC power flow method is expensive, computationally and time
taking.
 DC power flow equations and bus voltage equations

##  The algo in CA uses network parameters to model, calculate

& simulate the effects of removing equipment from the power
system.
Presented by – SIGMA DASH
CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS

## DC POWER FLOW METHOD

Technical Seminar Presentation 2004

N-1 in number, only the real power flow , all line resistances are
neglected

 * 
 i ∑ ij j 
Pi = Real V Y V  i = 2,........N
 j 
 

jθij jδ j
= Real 
 Vi e − jδi
Yij e Vi e 

 j 
 j(θ +δ −δ ) 
= Real  ∑Vi V j Yij e ij j i 
 i 

## Line resistance is neglected so

Y ij= Gij + jBij = jBij

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CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS

## Pi = ∑Vi V j Bij sin(δi −δ j )

Technical Seminar Presentation 2004

i -1 N

## Ultimately, Pi =∑K ijδj +K iiδi + ∑K ijδj

j =1 j =i +1

or in matrix form P = Kδ

## This provides the changes in the bus voltage angles

∆δ = - (K0)-1 ∆Kδs

## Presented by – SIGMA DASH

CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS

## To study single contingencies, we use

Technical Seminar Presentation 2004

∆ Kpp= Kpq
∆Kqq = Kpq
∆ Kpq = - Kpq
∆ K qp= - Kqp
Substituting these we get the matrix as
∆δpq = - (K0)-1 (δ ps∆K p+ δ ps∆Kq)

## Changes in line flows due to the loss of line pq given are

obtained by substituting the appropriate elements of ∆δpq

## Presented by – SIGMA DASH

CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS

Z MATRIX METHOD
Technical Seminar Presentation 2004

## Methods include inverting Y bus matrix and injecting a

fictitious current into the bus
2
S i*

 V1   Z1P 
 .   . 
   
 .  =  . 
   
 .   . 

VN  
Z NP 

## Presented by – SIGMA DASH

CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS

## Ipq can be calculated using the equation

Technical Seminar Presentation 2004

V p − Vq
I pq =
Z line pq

S
I pq

d=
I pq

## Due to the injection lp = d, the new current in other elements

d ( Z ip − Z jp )
Ipq =
Z line ij

## Presented by – SIGMA DASH

CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS

## The sought-after current flow changes due to removing line pq are

Technical Seminar Presentation 2004

~
∆ I ij = I ij − I ij for all ij

## Calculating the current flow pattern in the modified network,

in which line pq has been removed, requires only that we inject
current I p=d, as before, into the modified network.
The voltages are
~ ~ ~ ~ ~
 Vi   Z11 Z12 . . . Z1N  0   Z1 p d 
    .   
 .   .    =  . 
 . = .  d   . 
       
 .   .  .   . 
V~   Z~ ~ ~   ~
Z d 
 N   N1 Z N2 . . . Z NN  0 
  Np 

## Presented by – SIGMA DASH

CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS

## POST CONTINGENCY EQUILLIBRIUM

Technical Seminar Presentation 2004

## Methods to compute the equilibrium condition immediately

following a disturbance to an electric power system

 Analysis by Integration

 Analysis by Simultaneous
Iteration

## Presented by – SIGMA DASH

CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS

CONCLUSION
Technical Seminar Presentation 2004

## Presented by – SIGMA DASH

Technical Seminar Presentation 2004 CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS

THANK YOU !