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The part of the bony maxilla and mandible, the alveolar process, in which teeth are suspended in

alveoli (bony sockets)

Existence or presence of alveolar bone is totally dependent on the presence of dental roots; when
teeth do not develop and erupt, alveolar bone is resorbed

Formed during the development and eruption of teeth developing teeth, primary or permanent are
located in bony crypts in the bone of the maxilla or of the mandible

Has the same biophysical and chemical properties as other bone tissue in the body; has the same
basic components as other connective tissue

1. Cells-osteoblast, osteocystes, osteoclast


2. Fibrous matrix-collagen fibers are the dominant component; calcified by the calcium salt
hydroxyapatite into the matrix
3. Ground substance-proteoglycans

Gross anatomy of a mature bone socket

1. Each tooth is suspended in its own alveolaus (socket), with each alveolus having the same
structure and anatomy
a. Outer cortical (compact lamellar) plate of bone-faces the cheek and lips (buccal)
b. Inner cortical (compact lamellar) plate of bone-faces the tongue and palate (lingual)
c. Spongiosa-cancellous bone sandwiched between the cortical plates of bone
2. Alveolar bone proper-the part of the alveolus directly facing the root of the tooth; follows
the general outline of the root; sometimes referred to as the cribriform plate or lamina dura
a. Cribriform plate
Aa Contains numerous smaal openings; allows blood vessels and nerves in the periodontal
ligament and bone to communicate
Bb Consist of two layers of bone
1) Compact lamellar bone
2) Layer of bundle bone into which the periodontal fibers insert themselves; the
cores of the fibers remain uncalcified in the calcifies tissue of bone or cementum,
called Sharpeys fibers
b. Lamina dura is purely a radiographic term based on thi area appearing more radiopaque
on radiographs; it is not more calcified than the rest of the bone socket; rather, the
opacity is caused by the two-dimensional view of the compact bone in the area
c. Alveolar bone proper that forms sockets around multiple-rooted teeth consists of the
cribriform plates of both the roots and some spongy bone, called interradicular alveolar
bone
d. The alveolar bone proper between teeth consists of the cribriform plates of both the
teeth and some spongy bone, called interdental alveolar bone
e. Spongiosa is composed of small trabeculae of bone with large, narrow spaces between
the trabeculae
The alveolar bone proper (cribriform plate) is the only essential part of the bone socket;
spongiosa and outer and inner cortical plates of bone are not always present; spongiosa may
be absent, and outer and inner cortical plates may be fused together

Trabeculae of the spongiosa reflect functional forces or loading patterns imposed on teeth;
the pattern changes when the forces are altered; two proncipal directions of the trabeculae
are parallel and perpendicular to the direction of the imposed forces; trabecular bone
orientation can be observed on radiographs; the number of trabeculae increases with
increased function

Orthodontic movement of teeth always causes remodeling of the alveolar bone proper to
accommodate movement of teeth; it affects the insertion of periodontal ligament fibers in
the bundle bone but is a localized type of resorption; when the bundle bone is redeposited,
fibers become firmly attached again; with pressure, bone is resorbed; when tenion is
applied, bone formation occurs

Radiographs of teeth may be used to show the height or slope (or both) of the interdental
bone septum, which may reflect periodontal disease or other disease, the crest of the
alveolar bone is usually between 0,75 and 1,49 mm from the cemento-enamel junction

The periosteum is a dense connective tissue layer on the outer portion of bone and is active
in bone formation

The endosteum lines the inner aspect (medullary cavity) of bone

Alveolar bone is constantly remodeled by means of resorption and formation; this makes it
the least stable of periodontal tissues

1 Alveolar bone is affected by function, age related and disease-related changes,


hormones, and other systemic and host factors
2 Remodeling affects the height, contour, and density of alveolar bone
Gambar. Components of alveolar bone A. Mandibular arch of the skull with teeth
removed, B. Portion of the maxilla of a skull with teeth removed, C. Cross section of
mandible with teeth removed.