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Steam Trap and Drain Trap

FUNCTION OF PIPING COMPONENT

A steam trap serves as an automatic valve, which removes the hot


condensate, a byproduct of the heat transfer between the steam and the
fluid to be heated in a steam system. The hot condensate is returned to
the boiler to conserve its available heat. Likewise, it is also important to
remove the condensate from the heat system because if left at the
bottom of a system, it reduces the efficiency of the heat transfer and it
can cause several types of water hammer and thus, damage the pipe
system. Steam traps also remove air and other non-condensable gases as
they reduce the efficiency of the heat transfer. Other gases like CO2 and
O2 have to be kept out of the system as well because they react to form
the corrosive carbonic acid. Steam traps open to release condensate, air
and CO2 but close to keep the steam in.

A drain trap serves as an automatic loss prevention valve. Water or


moisture may be carried with the air being used in machinery or some
tools. Presence of these elements is unwanted because it washes away
the lubricating oil within these machines, accelerating wear and tear. In
instrument air systems, water can collect dirt causing sensitive
instruments to fail. In compressed air systems, excess moisture and oil
tend to decrease the efficiency of the gaskets and hoses. Removing water,
moisture or oil may be done manually or using a drain trap. A drain trap
opens to discharge fluids and closes to prevent air and gas loss.

Spring Support

FUNCTION OF PIPING COMPONENT

A spring support is used to sustain the dead weight of pipelines, to restrict


the movement and to eliminate vibration cause by thermal expansion
including mechanical or fluid vibration, earthquakes and wind effects.

Spring support shall be provided with means to prevent misalignment,


buckling, and to prevent unintentional disengagement of the load.

Types of Spring Supports:

Variable Hangers or Spring Hangers – most frequently used as hangers for


high-temperature piping systems, which may be affected by thermal
elongation. It is recommended for relatively small displacement.

Constant Hangers – is used for cases like, the movement of a supporting


point is so large and piping stress result is over the allowable values. It is
called “constant hanger” because of their capability to support the pipes
with a constant load at any time regardless of vertical movement of the
supporting point.

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Spring –type Vibration Eliminators – also called Sway Braces, are identical
to spring hanger in their resistance against thermal expansion. It should
be installed at a location where the thermal displacement is as smaller as
possible.

3.1 Process Vent

Take out air remaining in piping systems before and while injecting
the testing fluid into the system for pressure testing. It also use to
suck out air remained in a pump before starting operation. (When
the pump suction line has air pockets)

3.2 Process Drain

Provided to discharge the fluid (liquid) existing in the piping system.


It also use for injecting pressure testing fluid into equipment/ piping.

3.3 Pressure Gauge

A pressure gauge measures the pressure in a pipe or vessel. The


result may be read at place or transferred to the control room.

3.4 Sampling Connection

A sampling Connection is a valve that allows the smooth extraction


of product samples along the pipeline or from equipment like tank
or reactor.

3.5 Sample Cooler

A sample cooler is a device that cools the process fluid before it is


released to the sampling point using water as a cooling medium.

3.6 Thermowell

Is unit for the protection of the temperature instrument bulb.

3.7 Gate Valve

Is the most common type that plants use. It is widely used for on &
off and not suitable for flow regulation (throttling).

3.8 Globe Valve

It is used for regulation (control flow).Tight shut off, one directional


valve and more pressure drop.

3.9 Ball Valve

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It is used for regulation (control flow) and on-off. Quick operation
(90°-Turn ) and available in reduced & full bore.

3.10 Check Valve

It let flow in one direction only.

3.11 Diaphragm Valve

It is used for on-off and throttling. Good for handling slurries,


corrosive fluids, sludges, food.

3.12 Plug Valve

It is used for shut-off at low pressures.

3.13 Butterfly Valve

It is used for on-off and throttling.

3.14 Steam Trap

A steam trap serves as an automatic valve, which removes the hot


condensate, air and other non-condensable gases as they reduce
the efficiency of the heat transfer from a steam header or steam
equipment. Steam traps open to release condensate, air and gases
but close to keep the steam in.

3.15 Drain Trap

A drain trap serves as an automatic loss prevention valve. Removing


water, moisture or oil may be done manually or using a drain trap. A
drain trap opens to discharge fluids and closes to prevent air and
gas loss.

3.16 Spring Support

A spring support is used to sustain the dead weight of pipelines, to


restrict the movement and to eliminate vibration cause by thermal
expansion including mechanical or fluid vibration, earthquakes and
wind effects. Spring support shall be provided with means to
prevent misalignment, buckling, and to prevent unintentional
disengagement of the load.

3.17 Spring Hanger

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Most frequently used as hangers for high-temperature piping systems,
which may be affected by thermal elongation. It is recommended for
relatively small displacement.

3.18 Spectacle Blinds, Spade & Spacers

A Spectacle blind is used to block the path of the fluid when it is intended
to block the path for a relatively longer time and to prevent any leakage.
Spade and Spacers are also used for the same purpose but for larger
sizes. The Spade blocks the path whereas the Spacer fill-in the space
when the Spade is removed.

Define or describe the following piping related design deliverables or documents


listed below.

1.1 Key Plan


It is a kind of drawing showing the location and match line of each plan drawing with
their corresponding drawing number.

1.2 Plot Plan


It is the key document produced during the engineering phase in any processing
facility. It is used to locate equipment and supporting infrastructure and to establish
the sequence of major engineering and construction activities.

1.3 Piping Arrangement or Layout


It is the whole layout of a plant which includes piping route, equipment, structures,
cable trays and instruments.

1.4 Piping Plan Drawing


It is the whole view of the plant including platforms, equipment, piping route,
instrument, etc. It serves as the final product of the piping layout.

1.5 Piping Isometric Drawing


It is a drawing extracted from piping plan drawing into detail single line drawing
which is drawn in a perspective manner.

1.6 Piping Information


These are engineering data prepared by piping department such as pipe rack
information, sleeper information, etc. This is to be given to other disciplines for their
reference in preparing their design.

1.7 Pipe Rack


A structure that is use to support a group of high elevated pipes situated along
process or utility areas.

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1.8 Pipe Sleeper
It is use to support a pipe or group of pipes situated along tankage areas and of low
elevation.

1.9 Tie-in List


It is the list of all piping connections to existing lines with their
corresponding line numbers and connection type.

1.10 BM (Bill of Material)


It is the list of all piping materials included for the whole project.

1.11 BQ (Bill of Quantities)


It is the quantity of materials such as painting, insulation and piping in
terms of surface area, linear meters, tonnage and inch-dia.

1.12 Material Take-Off


A process of determining all the piping materials in a certain isometric
drawing.

1.13 Requisition
It is the list of materials with their corresponding description and
quantities used in inquiries and purchased orders.

1.14 Piping Material Specification


A list of all the material class to be used in a certain project. This includes
pipes, fittings, flanges, gaskets, bolts & nuts and valves.

1.15 Piping Bulk Materials


Are all the materials considered as bulk which includes pipes, fittings,
gaskets, bolts & nuts, etc.

1.16 Piping General Specification


It refers to the standard design procedures and project requirements to be
used in the design of a certain project.

1.17 PFD (Process Flow Diagram)


It refers to schematic flow of process lines which is to be used in the early
stage of design engineering.

1.18 P&ID (Piping and Instrument Diagram)


It is a diagram produced by process department showing the flow from
one equipment to the other, different instruments and controls.

1.19 UFD (Utility Flow Diagram)


It refers to schematic flow of utility lines which is to be used in early stage
of design engineering.

1.20 Model Review


The model review consists of the following four (4) review steps:

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a. Equipment location review for Client’s comment.

b. 1st (30%) model review.

c. 2nd (60%) model review.

d. 3rd (90%) model review.

The “Equipment location review” and the “1st model review “ may be
combined and held at one time.

Spring Loaded Ball Valve

FUNCTION OF PIPING COMPONENT

A spring-loaded ball valve is a manual valve that closes or opens


automatically using a spring. Once operated, this valve remains in its
operating position only as long as the handle is held firmly by the person
operating the valve, by a cable or other similar means. As soon as the
handle is released from the operating position, it springs back to its
inoperative position. Most valve/handles are designed to spring-to-close. A
common application is in toxic service lines where it is important that
once an accident occurs, and the operator becomes unconscious, the
valve is closed immediately.
Insulation Joints

FUNCTION OF PIPING COMPONENT

An Insulation Joint is used to electrically isolate the Pipeline from the


Piping. The purpose is to protect the cathodic protection system of a
buried Pipeline by obstructing the flow of the current to the Piping
attached with the Pipeline. It is, normally, installed when a buried Pipeline
comes up on the ground.

The secondary purpose of an Insulation Joint is to endure the large


movements of a Pipeline, which an insulation flange cannot bear.

Expansion Joints

FUNCTION OF PIPING COMPONENT

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An expansion Joint is used to absorb the expansion or contraction of
piping due to temperature changes in the ambient air or fluid, movement
of piping cause by uneven settlement of ground, earthquakes and wind
pressure. To eliminate vibration and noise cause by the equipment such
as pumps, turbines and blowers etc.

A bellows is a flexible seal, which is the coiled portion of an expansion


joint. It is designed to flex when thermal movements occur in the piping
system. The number of convolutions depends upon the amount of the
force that must be used to accomplish this deflection. The convoluted
element must be strong enough circumferentially to withstand the line
pressure of the system, yet responsive enough longitudinally to flex. The
longitudinal load must then absorb by some other type of devices, such as
anchors, tie rods, hinges, or gimbal structures.

1 What is Piping Layout? (Purpose of Piping Layout)

To determine the following:


a. Equipment Layout
b. Construction & Structure (configuration & elevation)
c. Equipment (vessel) nozzle orientation, platform, lug & ladder (location
& configuration)
d. Piping Arrangement (line routing, location of piping component &
instrument)
e. Electrical/ Instrument cable layout, location local panel, junction boxer
lighting, etc.
f. Location of buried piping & drip funnels.

2 Related Work for Piping Layout


a. Plot Plan Preparation
b. Design Info Preparation
c. Piping Strength Analysis
d. Piping Material Take-off
e. Piping Drawing Preparation

3 Data Gathering & Verification


a. Collect necessary Documents
b. Verify Accuracy

4 Preparation of Basic Piping Layout Plan


a. Piping Conceptual Routing
b. Equipment Layout
c. Civil/Structure Formation
d. Valve & Instrument Assembly
e. Electrical/Instrument Cable Routing
f. Fire Escape Routes/ Maintenance Area

5 Preparation of Breakdown of Piping Layout


a. By Facilities
b. By Section of Facilities

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c. By Structure
d. By Unit

6 Determination of Area of Priority


a. Tight Schedule for Design Info. Issuance
b. Some connection with other company (Hook-Up)
c. Plot Plan to Fix Early
d. Complete Set of Documents
e. Having Lines w/ High Temperature: High Pressure (material to be use is
high Grade (special) material & Large Size)
f. Piping Material to be Ordered Early
Insulated Bolts and Gaskets

FUNCTION OF PIPING COMPONENT

An insulated bolt and gasket is used to protect the pipeline from


corrosion. When dissimilar flange materials are used in services with a
suitable electrolyte and a conductive bolt and gasket, a galvanic cell may
be set-up. Thus, the flange with the anodic metal (between the two) gets
corroded. Another use is isolate flange joints just before the pipe goes
underground by preventing the flow of electrostatic charge along the
pipelines. To prevent these situations, insulated bolts and gaskets are
used.
Choke Valve

Function of Piping Component

A choke valve is a valve that changes the flow rate of the fluid at very
high operating pressures with only a slight pressure drop. It is also used
when changing the conditions of a line from high pressure, high flow rate
to a lower pressure, lower flow rate. It is capable of handling erosive fluids
with sand and grit. This valve is typically used in wellheads before the
fluid is brought to the process area
Flame Arresters

FUNCTION OF PIPING COMPONENT

A flame arrester serves as a safety device installed to pipelines


transporting flammable or explosive gases or vapor. In an event of an
ignition of these materials, damage to lives and property can be
minimized by installing flame arrester in-line or at the end of a piping
system. The flame arrester puts off the flame as it enters thru it by
reducing the temperature of the flame below the auto-ignition point of the
gas.

Spray Nozzles
FUNCTION OF PIPING COMPONENT

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A spray nozzle is used for various applications, ideal for parts and other
cleaning applications, cooling and drying, moving of materials, water, and
oil cut-off, sludge removal, or other similar operations that depends on a
controlled blast of compressed air.

The unit can be fitted to standard piping, or flexible hosing.


DESUPER HEATER

FUNCTION OF PIPING COMPONENT

Desuper heater is a device fitted with one or more spray nozzles, in which
the quantity of spray nozzles depends upon the capacity. These injects a
fine spray of cooling water or feed water into a section of pipe where the
superheated steam passed through, absorbing the heat from the steam
and reduces the quantity of superheat. To achieve the maximum mixing
efficiency of steam and spray water, the direction of water injection is
parallel to the steam flow.
Car Seal

Function of Piping Component

A car seal is a mechanical means of securing a valve in a certain


operating position using a seal and a cable. After a special locking key
makes the seal, operation may be done only by means of cutting the
cable. Hence, it cannot be reused. This is used for valves designated in
the P&ID as “car-seal open” or “car-seal closed”.

ASME/ANSI B16 - Standards of Pipes and Fittings

The ASME B16 Standards covers pipes and fittings in cast iron, cast
bronze, wrought copper and steel

The ASME - American Society of Mechanical Engineers - ASME/ANSI


B16 Standards covers pipes and fittings in cast iron, cast bronze, wrought
copper and steel.

ASME/ANSI B16.1 - 1998 - Cast Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged


Fittings

This Standard for Classes 25, 125, and 250 Cast Iron Pipe Flanges and
Flanged Fittings covers:

(a) pressure-temperature ratings,

(b) Sizes and method of designating openings of reducing fittings,

(c) Marking,

(d) Minimum requirements for materials,

(e) Dimensions and tolerances,

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(f) Bolt, nut, and gasket dimensions and

(g) Tests.

ASME/ANSI B16.3 - 1998 - Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings

This Standard for threaded malleable iron fittings Classes 150, and 300
provides requirements for the following:

(a) pressure-temperature ratings

(b) Size and method of designating openings of reducing fittings

(c) Marking

(d) Materials

(e) Dimensions and tolerances

(f) Threading

(g) Coatings

ASME/ANSI B16.4 - 1998 - Cast Iron Threaded Fittings

This Standard for gray iron threaded fittings, Classes 125 and 250 covers:

(a) pressure-temperature ratings

(b) Size and method of designating openings of reducing fittings

(c) Marking

(d) Material

(e) Dimensions and tolerances

(f) Threading, and

(g) Coatings

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ASME/ANSI B16.5 - 1996 - Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings

The ASME B16.5 - 1996 Pipe Flanges and Flange Fittings standard covers
pressure-temperature ratings, materials, dimensions, tolerances,
marking, testing, and methods of designating openings for pipe flanges
and flanged fittings.

The standard includes flanges with rating class designations 150, 300,
400, 600, 900, 1500, and 2500 in sizes NPS 1/2 through NPS 24, with
requirements given in both metric and U.S units. The Standard is limited
to flanges and flanged fittings made from cast or forged materials, and
blind flanges and certain reducing flanges made from cast, forged, or
plate materials. Also included in this Standard are requirements and
recommendations regarding flange bolting, flange gaskets, and flange
joints.

ASME/ANSI B16.9 - 2001 - Factory-Made Wrought Steel


Buttwelding Fittings

This Standard covers overall dimensions, tolerances, ratings, testing, and


markings for wrought factory-made buttwelding fittings in sizes NPS 1/2
through 48 (DN 15 through 1200).

ASME/ANSI B16.10 - 2000 - Face-to-Face and End-to-End


Dimensions of Valves

This Standard covers face-to-face and end-to-end dimensions of


straightway valves, and center-to face and center-to-end dimensions of
angle valves. Its purpose is to assure installation interchangeability for
valves of a given material, type size, rating class, and end connection

ASME/ANSI B16.11 - 2001 - Forged Steel Fittings, Socket-Welding


and Threaded

This Standard covers ratings, dimensions, tolerances, marking and


material requirements for forged fittings, both socket-welding and
threaded.

ASME/ANSI B16.12 - 1998 - Cast Iron Threaded Drainage Fittings

This Standard for cast iron threaded drainage fittings covers:

(a) Size and method of designating openings in reducing fittings

(b) Marking

(c) Materials

(d) Dimensions and tolerances

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(e) Threading

(f) Ribs

(g) Coatings

(h) Face bevel discharge nozzles, input shafts, base plates, and
foundation bolt holes (see Tables 1 and 2).

ASME/ANSI B16.14 - 1991 - Ferrous Pipe Plugs, Bushings and


Locknuts with Pipe Threads

This Standard for Ferrous Pipe Plugs, Bushings, and Locknuts with Pipe
Threads covers:

(a) pressure-temperature ratings:

(b) Size;

(c) Marking;

(d) Materials;

(e) Dimensions and tolerances;

(f) Threading; and

(g) Pattern taper.

ASME/ANSI B16.15 - 1985 (R1994) - Cast Bronze Threaded


Fittings

This Standard pertains primarily to cast Class 125and Class 250 bronze
threaded pipe fittings. Certain requirements also pertain to wrought or
cast plugs, bushings, couplings, and caps. This Standard covers:

(a) pressure-temperature ratings;

(b) Size and method of designating openings of reducing pipe fittings;

(c) Marking;

(d) Minimum requirements for casting quality and materials;

(e) Dimensions and tolerances in U.S. customary and metric (SI) units;

(f) Threading.

ASME/ANSI B16.18 - 1984 (R1994) - Cast Copper Alloy Solder


Joint Pressure Fittings

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This Standard for cast copper alloy solder joint pressure fittings designed
for use with copper water tube, establishes requirements for:

(a) Pressure-temperature ratings;

(b) Abbreviations for end connections;

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(c) Sizes and method of designating openings of fittings;

(d) Marking;

(e) Material;

(f) Dimensions and tolerances; and

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(g) Tests.

ASME/ANSI B16.20 - 1998 - Metallic Gaskets for Pipe Flanges-


Ring-Joint, Spiral-Would, and Jacketed

This standard covers materials, dimensions, tolerances, and markings for


metal ring-joint gaskets, spiral-wound metal gaskets, and metal jacketed
gaskets and filler material. These gaskets are dimensionally suitable for
used with flanges described in the reference flange standards ASME/ANSI
B16.5, ASME B16.47, and API-6A. This standard covers spiral-wound
metal gaskets and metal jacketed gaskets for use with raised face and flat
face flanges. Replaces API-601 or API-601.

ASME/ANSI B16.21 - 1992 - Nonmetallic Flat Gaskets for Pipe


Flanges

This Standard for nonmetallic flat gaskets for bolted flanged joints in
piping includes:

(a) Types and sizes;

(b) Materials;

(c) Dimensions and allowable tolerances.

ASME/ANSI B16.22 - 1995 - Wrought Copper and Copper Alloy


Solder Joint Pressure Fittings

The Standard establishes specifications for wrought copper and wrought


copper alloy, solder-joint, seamless fittings, designed for use with
seamless copper tube conforming to ASTM B 88 (water and general
plumbing systems), B 280 (air conditioning and refrigeration service), and
B 819 (medical gas systems), as well as fittings intended to be assembled
with soldering materials conforming to ASTM B 32, brazing materials
conforming to AWS A5.8, or with tapered pipe thread conforming to ASME
B1.20.1. This Standard is allied with ASME B16.18, which covers cast
copper alloy pressure fittings. It provides requirements for fitting ends
suitable for soldering. This Standard covers:

(a) Pressure temperature ratings;

(b) Abbreviations for end connections;

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(c) Size and method of designating openings of fittings;

(d) Marking;

(e) Material;

(f) Dimension and tolerances; and

(g) Tests.

ASME/ANSI B16.23 - 1992 - Cast Copper Alloy Solder Joint


Drainage Fittings (DWV)

The Standard establishes specifications for cast copper alloy solder joint
drainage fittings, designed for use in drain, waste, and vent (DWV)
systems. These fittings are designed for use with seamless copper tube
conforming to ASTM B 306, Copper Drainage Tube (DWV), as well as
fittings intended to be assembled with soldering materials conforming to
ASTM B 32, or tapered pipe thread conforming to ASME B1.20.1. This
standard is allied with ASME B16.29, Wrought Copper and Wrought
Copper Alloy Solder Joint Drainage Fittings - DWV. It provides
requirements for fitting ends suitable for soldering. This standard covers:

(a) Description;

(b) Pitch (slope);

(c) Abbreviations for end connections;

(d) Sizes and methods for designing openings for reducing fittings;

(e) Marking;

(f) Material; and

(g) Dimensions and tolerances.

ASME/ANSI B16.24 - 1991 (R1998) - Cast Copper Alloy Pipe


Flanges and Flanged Fittings

This Standard for Classes 25, 125, 250, and 800 Cast Iron Pipe Flanges
and Flanged Fittings covers:

(a) Pressure temperature ratings,

(b) Sizes and methods of designating openings for reduced fittings,

(c) Marking,

(d) Minimum requirements for materials,

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(e) Dimensions and tolerances,

(f) Bolt, nut, and gasket dimensions, and

(g) Tests.

ASME/ANSI B16.25 - 1997 - Buttwelding Ends

The Standard covers the preparation of butt welding ends of piping


components to be joined into a piping system by welding. It includes

requirements for welding bevels, for external and internal shaping of


heavy-wall components, and for preparation of internal ends

(Including dimensions and tolerances). Coverage includes preparation for


joints with the following.

(a) No backing rings;

(b) Split or non continuous backing rings;

(c) Solid or continuous backing rings;

(d) Consumable insert rings;

(e) Gas tungsten are welding (GTAW) of the root pass. Details of
preparation for any backing ring must be specified in ordering the
component.

ASME/ANSI B16.26 - 1988 - Cast Copper Alloy Fittings for Flared


Copper Tubes

This standard for Cast Copper Alloy Fitting for Flared Copper Tubes
covers:

(a) Pressure rating;

(b) Material;

(c) Size;

(d) Threading;

(e) Marking.

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ASME/ANSI B16.28 - 1994 - Wrought Steel Buttwelding Short
Radius Elbows and Returns

This Standard covers ratings, overall dimensions, testing, tolerances, and


markings for wrought carbon and alloy steel buttwelding short radius
elbows and returns. The term wrought denotes fittings made of pipe,
tubing, plate, or forgings.

ASME/ANSI B16.29 - 1994 - Wrought Copper and Wrought Copper


Alloy Solder Joint Drainage Fittings (DWV)

The standard for wrought copper and wrought copper alloy solder joint
drainage fittings, designed for use with copper drainage tube, covers:

(a) Description,

(b) Pitch (slope),

(c) Abbreviations for End Connections,

(d) Sizes and Method of Designating Openings for Reducing Fittings,

(e) Marking,

(f) Material,

(g) Dimensions and Tolerances.

ASME/ANSI B16.33 - 1990 - Manually Operated Metallic Gas


Valves for Use in Gas Piping Systems Up to 125 psig

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General This Standard covers requirements for manually operated
metallic valves sizes NPS 1.2 through NPS 2, for outdoor installation as
gas shut-off valves at the end of the gas service line and before the gas
regulator and meter where the designated gauge pressure of the gas
piping system does not exceed 125 psi (8.6 bar). The Standard applies to
valves operated in a temperature environment between .20 degrees F and
150 degrees F (.29 degrees C and 66 degrees C). Design This Standard
sets forth the minimum capabilities, characteristics, and properties, which
a valve at the time of manufacture must possess, in order to be
considered suitable for use in gas piping systems.

ASME/ANSI B16.34 - 1996 - Valves - Flanged, Threaded, and


Welding End

This standard applies to new valve construction and covers pressure-


temperature ratings, dimensions, tolerances, materials, nondestructive
examination requirements, testing, and marking for cast, forged, and
fabricated flanged, threaded, and welding end, and wafer or flangeless
valves of steel, nickel-base alloys, and other alloys shown in Table 1.
Wafer or flangeless valves, bolted or through-bolt types, that are installed
between flanges or against a flange shall be treated as flanged end
valves.

ASME/ANSI B16.36 - 1996 - Orifice Flanges

This Standard covers flanges (similar to those covered in ASME B16.5)


that have orifice pressure differential connections. Coverage is limited to
the following:

(a) Welding neck flanges Classes 300, 400, 600, 900, 1500, and 2500

(b) Slip-on and threaded Class 300

Orifice, Nozzle and Venturi Flow Rate Meters

ASME/ANSI B16.38 - 1985 (R1994) - Large Metallic Valves for Gas


Distribution

The standard covers only manually operated metallic valves in nominal


pipe sizes 2 1/2 through 12 having the inlet and outlet on a common
center line, which are suitable for controlling the flow of gas from open to
fully closed, for use in distribution and service lines where the maximum
gage pressure at which such distribution piping systems may be operated
in accordance with the code of federal regulations (cfr), title 49, part 192,
transportation of natural and other gas by pipeline; minimum safety
standard, does not exceed 125 psi (8.6 bar). Valve seats, seals and stem
packing may be nonmetallic.

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ASME/ANSI B16.39 - 1986 (R1998) - Malleable Iron Threaded
Pipe Unions

This Standard for threaded malleable iron unions, classes 150, 250, and
300, provides requirements for the following:

(a) Design

(b) Pressure-temperature ratings

(c) Size

(d) Marking

(e) Materials

(f) Joints and seats

(g) Threads

(h) Hydrostatic strength

(i) Tensile strength

(j) Air pressure test

(k) Sampling

(l) Coatings

(m) Dimensions

ASME/ANSI B16.40 - 1985 (R1994) - Manually Operated


Thermoplastic Gas

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The Standard covers manually operated thermoplastic valves in nominal
sizes 1.2 through 6 (as shown in Table 5). These valves are suitable for
use below ground in thermoplastic distribution mains and service lines.
The maximum pressure at which such distribution piping systems may be
operated is in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) Title
49, Part 192, Transportation of Natural and Other Gas by Pipeline;
Minimum Safety Standards, for temperature ranges of .20 deg. F to 100
deg. F (.29 deg. C to 38 deg. C). This Standard sets qualification
requirements for each nominal valve size for each valve design as a
necessary condition for demonstrating conformance to this Standard. This
Standard sets requirements for newly manufactured valves for use in
below ground piping systems for natural gas [includes synthetic natural
gas (SNG)], and liquefied petroleum (LP) gases (distributed as a vapor,
with or without the admixture of air) or mixtures thereof.

ASME/ANSI B16.42 - 1998 - Ductile Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged


Fittings, Classes 150 and 300

The Standard covers minimum requirements for Class 150 and 300 cast
ductile iron pipe flanges and flanged fittings. The requirements covered
are as follows:

(a) pressure-temperature ratings

(b) Sizes and method of designating openings

(c) Marking

(d) Materials

(e) Dimensions and tolerances

(f) Blots, nuts, and gaskets

(g) Tests

ASME/ANSIB16.44 - 1995 - Manually Operated Metallic Gas Valves


for Use in House Piping Systems

This Standard applies to new valve construction and covers quarter turn
manually operated metallic valves in sizes NPS 1/2-2 which are intended
for indoor installation as gas shutoff valves when installed in indoor gas
piping between a gas meter outlet & the inlet connection to a gas
appliance.

ASME/ANSI B16.45 - 1998 - Cast Iron Fittings for Solvent


Drainage Systems

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The Standard for cast iron drainage fittings used on self-aerating, one-
pipe Solvent drainage systems, covers the following:

(a) Description

(b) Sizes and methods for designating openings for reducing fittings

(c) Marking

(d) Material

(e) Pitch

(f) Design

(g) Dimensions and tolerances

(h) Tests

ASME/ANSI B16.47 - 1996 - Large Diameter Steel Flanges: NPS 26


through NPS 60

This Standard covers pressure-temperature ratings, materials,


dimensions, tolerances, marking, and testing for pipe flanges in sizes NPS
26 through NPS 60 and in ratings Classes 75, 150,0300, 400, 600, and
900. Flanges may be cast, forged, or plate (for blind flanges only)
materials. Requirements and recommendations regarding bolting and
gaskets are also included.

ASME/ANSI B16.48 - 1997 - Steel Line Blanks

The Standard covers pressure-temperature ratings, materials,


dimensions, tolerances, marking, and testing for operating line blanks in
sizes NPS 1/2 through NPS 24 for installation between ASME B16. 5
flanges in the 150, 300, 600, 900, 1500, and 2500 pressure classes.

ASME/ANSI B16.49 - 2000 - Factory-Made Wrought Steel


Buttwelding Induction Bends for Transportation and Distribution
Systems

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This Standard covers design, material, manufacturing, testing, marking,
and inspection requirements for factory-made pipeline bends of carbon
steel materials having controlled chemistry and mechanical properties,
produced by the induction bending process, with or without tangents. This
Standard covers induction bends for transportation and distribution piping
applications (e.g., ASME B31.4, B31.8, and B31.11) Process and power
piping have differing requirements and materials that may not be
appropriate for the restrictions and examinations
Sample Coolers
A sample cooler is a device that cools the process fluid before it is
released to the sampling point using water as a cooling medium.
Flexible Metal Tube
A flexible metal tube is used for absorbing displacement of high-pressure
pipes, as well as for preventing vibration of pipes and other equipments.

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