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Fracture Mechanics

■ Factors of Fracture occurrence :

1-Nature of applied stress ( axial – biaxial – triaxial ) ( static or dynamic loading ) ( low or high strain rate )
2- Geometry of component ( sharp edges → stress raiser )
3- internal or residual stresses
4- effect of temperature ( high ( creep ) or low ( cryogenic ) below trasition Temp DBTT
5- corrosive environment

■ The process of fracture can, in most cases, be subdivided into the following categories:
1. Damage accumulation. → 2. Nucleation of one or more cracks or voids. → 3. Growth of cracks or voids. (This
may involve a coalescence of the cracks or voids.)
Brittle fracture Ductile fracture
 Failing Stress < Yield Strength  Failing Stress > Yield Strength
 Low Elongation  Medium to High Elongation
 Low Reduction in Area  Medium to Large Reduction in Area
 No Necking, Shiny, Crystalline, Granular  Necked, Fibrous, Woody
 Cleavage or Intergranular  Microvoid Coalescence

■ “Goofy duck” analog for three modes of crack loading. (a) Crack/beak closed. (b) Opening mode. (c) Sliding mode. (d)
Tearing mode

Stress Concentration Factor

The value of the stress at the leading edge of the

cavity becomes extremely large as the ellipse is
flattened. In the case of an extremely flat ellipse or
a very narrow crack of length 2a and having a
radius of curvature ρ = b2/a,

# We note that as ρ becomes very small, σ max becomes very large, and in the limit, as ρ → 0, σ max
→ ∞. We define the term √𝑎/𝜌 as the stress concentration factor Kt (i.e., Kt = σmax/σ ). Kt simply
describes the geometric effect of the crack on the local stress (i.e., at the tip of the crack). Note that
Kt depends more on the form of the cavity than on its size.
■ In addition to producing a stress concentration, a notch produces a local situation of biaxial or
triaxial stress.
Two flat plates are being pulled in tension. (See Figure ) The flow stress of the materials
is 150 MPa.
(a) Calculate the maximum stresses in the plate. (b) Will the material flow plastically?
(c) For which configuration is the stress higher?