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N

W L.S. (γ, m3

)

Body of volume, V

Fb

Principle of Archimedes: “ a body submerged in a liquid of specific weight γ is buoyed

up by a force equal to the weight of the displaced liquid,”

Fb V

where: V = volume of the submerged body

γ = specific weight of the liquid

Note: Fb is called the “ buoyant force” and its direction is vertically upward.

Actual Weight of a Body ( Weight in Air )

W VB b VB sB w

B specific weight of the body

sB specific gravity of the body

w specific weight of water

W’ = W - Fb

Flotation; Stability of Floating Bodies

W

G

O

Bo

Fb

W Fb V

G = Center of gravity of the body

Bo = Center of buoyancy ( centroid of the submerged

portion )

( b) The body is in Tilted

M (Metacenter)

Position

W

x

G A’

B O B’

A

B1 Bo

Fb

r

r = horizontal shifting of Bo

x = moment arm of W or Fb

(b) Tilted Position

M (Metacenter)

W

x

G A’

B O B’

A

B1 Bo

Couple, C r

_____

C W x W MG sin

below G. MG is known as the “metacentric height”.

M (Metacenter)

W

Fb

x

G O A’

B B’

A

B1 Bo

Fb

Fb

r

S

The shifting of the original upward buoyant force Fb in the wedge A’OB’ to

Fb in the wedge AOB causes a shift in Fb from Bo to B1, a horizontal distance r

Hence,

Fb r Fb S V r S r S

V

_____

Also, r MBo sin Note:

_____

r MBo sin and Fb

_____

Then, MBo sin S Where ν is the additional volume AOB.

V S is the distance between the centroids of AOB

_____

S and A’OB’.

MBo

V sin

For small angle θ,

_____

S

MBo (approximately )

V

where: ν = volume of the wedge A’OB’

V = volume of the submerged body

S = horizontal distance between the centroid

of A’OB’ and AOB

θ = angle of tilt

______

Metacentric Height, MG

_____ _____ _____

MG MBo GBo + if Bo is above G

- if Bo is below G

_____

NOTE: GBo is usuallya knownvalue

_____

If θ is negligible, MBo is given as

_____

Io

MBo

V

Where: I o is the moment of inertia of the waterline section relative

to a line through O.

_____

Io

Derivation of MBo M (Metacenter)

V W

Consider now a small prism of the wedge AOB, Fb

at a distance x from O, having a horizontal area dA. dA

For small angles the length of this prism = xθ x

(approximately). The buoyant force produced G O A’

By this immersed prism is xdA, and B B’

A

The moment of this force about O is x dA.

2

B1 Bo

The sum of all these moments for both wedges

Must be equal to γνS or Fb

x 2 dA S Vr

_____ Fb

But for small angles r MBo (approximately )

Hence

_____

x dA V MBo r

2

S

But x 2 dAis the moment of inertia,I o , of the water-line section about the longitu-

dinal axis through O (approximately constant for small angles of heel). Therefore

_____

Io _____ _____ _____

MBo , The metacentric height MG MBo GBo

V

SAMPLE CALCULATIONS

Position of weight on the mast

M

_____ _____

G (center of gravity)

MB GB

__

Yh _____

Y1 MB

__ O

Y h

2

h B

h

2

THE PONTOON:

Lb3 400mm200mm 0.40m 0.20m 2.67 x104 m4

3 3

Io

12 12 12

Displaced Volume

9.81N

2.52kg

W kg

V 2.52 x103 m3

g 1,000 kg 9.81 m

m3 s2

_____

I 2.67 x10 4 m 4

MB 3 3

0.1059m 106mm

V 2.52 x10 m

Depth of displaced water

V 2.52 x103 m 4

h 0.0315m

Lb 0.4m 0.20m

_____

The center of buoyancy force below the water surface and the distance OB will be

_____

h 0.0315m 0.01575m 15.75mm

OB

2 2

_____

The Metacenter is above the water surface and distance MOis

_____ _____ ____

MO MB OB 106 15.75 90.25mm

In the case when the height of the mast, Y1 100mm and the

__

height of the center of gravity ( by experiment) , Y 69mm

_____

Thus, the theoretical metacentric height MGth

_____ _____ _____

MGth MB GB Position of weight on the mast

M (Metacenter)

_____ _____

_____ _____

__ h

G (center of gravity) MB GB

MGth MB Y __

2 Yh _____

MB

31.5 Y1 _ _

O

106 69 Y h

2 h B 2

h

37.02mm 2

_____

BecauseMGth is positive, this shows that the pontoon is stable.

Determination of Metacentric Height by Experiment

M

G

x G

d

w

O w

B B1

θ

Fb

Fb W

_____

The metacentric height MG is determined experimentally as shown in the figure

above. When shifting the jockey weight w to the left side of the pontoon at a distance

x, the pontoon tilts to a small angle θ causing the metacentric height to rotate slightly

around the longitudinal axis of the pontoon . Likewise, the buoyancy force Fb shifted a

horizontal distance d from G. Hence, the moment produced by w must be equal to

moment of Fb , _____

w x

MG

w cos x d W W tan

_____ w x (For small angle of tilt)

MG sin W

W

METACENTRIC HEIGHT APPARATUS

Mast

Vertical scale

Vertical sliding

weight

Jockey weight

Balancing weight

Tilt angle

scale

Plumb bob

Pontoon

_____

DETERMINATION OF METACENTRIC HEIGHT, MGBY EXPERIMENT

Typical Data:

In the case of vertical sliding weight on the mast is at the height, Y1 100mm.

Distance of jockey weight w from center of pontoon , x = 80 mm

Angle of tilt, θ = 6.80˚

Convert angle of tilt into radian

6.80 6.80 0.11868radian

180

Then,

From equation (2), the experimental metacentric height is,

x 80mm

674.06mm

0.11868radian

_____

w x 0.20kg

MG exp 674.06mm 53.49mm

W 2.52kg

_____

MG exp is positve, this shows that the pontoon at that tilt angle is stable.

TEST PROCEDURES:

Data recording:

- Pontoon weight, W = 2.50 kg

- Jockey weight, w = 0.20 kg

- Adjustable vertical weight = 0.40 kg

- Pontoon width, D = 200 mm

- Pontoon length, L = 400 mm

Determining the Center of Gravity of the Pontoon

Adjustable vertical

Scale weight

Mast

Support

Procedures:

1. Tilt the pontoon as shown in figure.

2. Attach the plum bob on the angle scale.

3. Move or adjust the vertical weight to a

required distance and record that distance

from the scale on the mast.

4. Place knife edge support under the mast and

move it to a position of equilibrium and record

the height ( center of gravity) where the knife

edge is position on the scale.

Taking Readings with the Pontoon in a Water Tank

1. Initial Set Up

When placing the pontoon in the water ensure that the position of

the jockey weight horizontal adjustments is in the middle of the

pontoon and the pontoon is sitting level in the water. The pontoon

should be in a vertical position and have no angle of tilt ( zero

degrees in the tilt angle scale). If not, adjust the balancing weight

until the angle of tilt is “0”.

2. The jockey weight can change the position of the pontoon in the

water and in order to take some experimental readings we move

the jockey weight in steps from its central position horizontally and

record the tilt angle of the pontoon from the scale on the pontoon

in degrees.

3. Each time we move the jockey weight from its central position we

must record on the data sheets supplied the distance measured from

its central position and the angle of tilt.

and record its measurement along with the jockey weight distance

from its central position, the angle of tilt at different values and

record all the data on the sheets provided.

5. Step (3) and (4) can be repeated many times to obtain a satisfactory

conclusion.

SAMPLE DATA SHEET

METACENTRIC HEIGHT APPARATUS

Position of jockey weight in a horizontal position (cm.)

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18

Distance x of the jockey weight measured from the center of the pontoon (mm)

80 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 80

Height of

weight

on the Tilt Angle

mast, θ

____mm. (degrees)

x/θ

Height of (mm/rad.)

center of Metacentr

gravity, ic Height

____mm. (mm)

Example 1. An iceberg weighing 8.95 kN/m3 floats in sea water,

γ = 10.045 kN/m3, with a volume of 595 m3 above the surface. What is

The total volume of the iceberg?

Solution:

W kN kN

Vs 10.045 3 V 8.95 3

m m

but Vs V 595m3

W.S.

V 595m 10.045 kN

3

8.95

kN

xV

3 3

m m

kN

1.095V 3

5,976.775kN

m

V = total volume

(a) ∑Fv = 0,

Fb = W

Vsx γw = V x γi

where: γw = specific weight of sea water

γi = specific weight of iceberg

Example 2. A sphere 0.90 m in diameter floats half submerged in a tank

of oil ( s=0.80). (a) What is the total vertical pressure on the sphere?

(b) What is the minimum weight of an anchor weighing 24 kN/m3 that

will be required to submerge the sphere completely?

Solution:

O.S.

W W

0.45 m

0.45 m

O.S.

Fb

Wa

Figure (a) Figure (b)

Fb

(a) Consider Figure (a) Fba

Fv 0, 2 3 kN

W 0.45m 0.80 x9.81 3

Fv W 0 3 m

Fv W V W 1.498kN

O.S.

W

Va 0.093m3

0.45 m

therefore

Fb Wa Va a

Wa

Figure (b)

kN

Wa 0.093m3 24 3

m

Fba Wa 2.232kN

(b) Consider Figure (b),

Fv 0,

Fb Fba W Wa 0,

V Va 1.498kN Va a 0

4 3 kN kN kN

0.45m 0.80 x9.81 3 Va 0.80 x9.81 3 1.498kN Va 24 3 0

3 m m m

kN

16.152 3 Va 1.498kN

m

Example 3. A cylinder weighing 500 N and having a diameter of 0.90 m

floats in salt water ( s=1.03) with its axis vertical as shown in the figure.

The anchor consists of 0.30 m3 of concrete weighing 24 kN/m3. What

rise in tide r, will be required to lift the anchor off the bottom?

W

Solution:

new W.S. Fv 0,

r

Fb 0.30 m Fb Fba W Wa 0

Wa

V Va 500 N Va a 0

Fba

W

new W.S.

r

Fb 0.30 m

Wa

Fba

V Va 500 N Va a 0

0.90m2 0.30m r 9810 N

0.

3m 3

9810N

500 N 0.3m

3

24

,000

N

3

0

m m m

3 3

4

0.90m2 9810 N

3

r 2,884.744 N

4 m

r 0.462m

Example 4. Timber AC hinged at A having a length of 10 ft., cross sectional area of

3 in.2 and weighing 3 lbs. Block attached to the end C having a volume of 1 ft.3, and

weighing 67 lbs.

Required: Angle θ for equilibrium.

csc θ (2) Buoyant force on the block,

A

10 – csc θ

1’

10’

WT C

θ

5cosθ

F WB=67 lbs

bT

10 10 csc cos

1

2

10 csc

cos

2 FbB

10cosθ

Solution:

(1) Buoyant force on the timber,

FbT V w

3

10 csc 62.4

144

FbT 1.310 csc

csc θ

A csc2 6.15

10 – csc θ

1’

csc 2.48

WT sin 0.40

θ C

5cosθ

FbT WB=67 lbs 23.8

10 10 csc cos

1

2

10 csc

cos FbB

2

10cosθ

(3) ∑MA = 0,

10 csc

WT 5 cos WB 10 cos FbT cos FbB 10 cos 0

2

10 csc

35 6710 1.310 csc 62.410 0

2

15 670 0.65 100 csc2 624 0

Example 5. A vessel going from salt into fresh water sinks two inches, then after

burning 112,500 lb of coal, rises one inch. What is the original weight of the vessel?

W W W – 112,500 lb

d + 2/12

d d + 1/12

Fb Fb Fb

(a) Salt water ( γ = 64 lb/ft3) (b) Fresh water (γ = 62.4 lb/ft3) (c ) Fresh water after

losing 112,500 lb

Solution:

W W W – 112,500 lb

d + 2/12

d d + 1/12

Fb Fb Fb

(a) Salt water ( γ = 64 lb/ft3) (b) Fresh water (γ = 62.4 lb/ft3) (c ) Fresh water after

losing 112,500 lb

4. In salt water, W = Fb

W = Va ( 64 ) ( 1)

5. In fresh water, W = Fb

W = [Va + (2/12)(A)](62.4) (2)

W – 112,500 = [Va +(1/12)(A)](62.4) (3)

W 1

7. Substitute eq. 1 to eq. 2 and eq. 3, W A 62.4 0.975W 10.4 A

64 6

0.025W 10.4 A (4)

W 1

W 112,500 A 62.4 0.975W 5.2 A

64 12

W 9 x106 lb

Example 6. A ship of 4,000 tons displacement floats in sea water with

its axis of symmetry vertical when a weight of 50 tons is midship.

Moving the weight 10 feet towards one side of the deck causes a plumb

bob, suspended at the end of a string 12 feet long, to move 9 inches.

Find the metacentric height.

Solution: 9

1. Solve the angle of tilt, Arc tan 12 3.58

12

12’

2. Righting Moment = W (MG x sinθ)

θ

9”

MG 1.977 ft

Example 7. A ship with a horizontal sectional area at the waterline of 76,000 ft2 has a

draft of 40.5 ft. in sea water (γs =64 lb/ft3). In fresh water it drops 41.4 ft. Find the

weight of the ship. With an available depth of 41 ft. in a river above the sills of a lock,

how many long tons of the cargo must the ship be relieved off so that it will pass the

sills with a clearance of 0.60 ft.?

Solution:

W W’

W

original fresh W.S

sea W.S fresh W.S 1 ft ΔV2

ΔV1

0.90 ft 41.4 ft

40.5 ft 41 ft

41.4 ft

sills

Fbs 0.60 ft

Fb ' f

Fb f

(a) SEA WATER (b) FRESH WATER (c) SHIP IN THE LOCK

W’ – new weight of the ship when part of the cargo has been disposed

Fbs - buoyant force in sea water, Fb f - buoyant force in fresh water

W W’

W

original fresh W.S

sea W.S fresh W.S 1 ft ΔV2

ΔV1

0.90 ft

41.4 ft

40.5 ft 41 ft

41.4 ft

sills

Fbs 0.60 ft

Fb ' f

Fb f

Fb ' f W ' (a) SEA WATER

(b) FRESH WATER

(c) SHIP IN THE LOCK

ΔV2 = volume of the ship at the waterline which rose up when it was relieved off the cargo

= 1 (76,000) = 76,000 ft3

V = original volume submerged ( in sea water )

(1) Using position (a); (2) Using position (b)

Fbs W Fb f W

V s W V V1 f W

V 64 W (1) V 68,40062.4 W (2)

(3) Solve equations (1) and (2) simultaneously,

64V 62.4V 68,400

W’

Therefore, W 64V 1.70726 x10 lb 8

original fresh W.S

8 1 ft ΔV2

or

41 ft

sills

2,736,000 76,00062.4 1.65984 x10 lb

8

0.60 ft

Fb ' f

(5) Weight of disposed cargo = W – W’ (c) SHIP IN THE LOCK

W W ' 0.04742 x108 lb

4,742,000lb

4,742,000lbx

1LT

2,155.5 LONG TONS

2,200lb

Example 8.

W

Given: Rectangular scow 50’ x 30’ x 12’

4’ as shown with the given draft and center

W.S A G A of gravity.

Bo 9’ 8’

4’

Required: Righting or overturning moment

15’ 15’ When one side, as shown, is at the point

Fb Of submergence

Solution:

A

M C W MG sin

W.S A’ G A’

where: W V

O θ W 5030862.4

A 4”

Bo

W 748,800lb

4

Arc tan 14.93

15

MG MBo GBo

MG MBo 5

vS

MBo

V sin

1

15450 2 30

MBo

2 3

50308sin 14.93

MBo 9.7 ft

Therefore,

MG 9.7 ft 5 ft 4.7 ft

Then,

C 748,800(4.7 sin 14.93)

C 906,600 ft lb

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