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IS1608:1995

(Superseding IS 1521 : 1972, IS 1663 : 1972,


IS 1816 : 1979, IS 1894 : 1972, IS 2078 : 1979,
IS 2654 : 1977, IS 2655 : 1964, IS 2656 : 1964,
IS 2657 : 1964, IS 2658 : 1964, IS 4713 : 1988,
and IS 8285 : 1976 )

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Indian Standard
MECHANICAL TESTING ‘OF METALS -
TENSILE TESTING
(Second Revision)

First Reprint DECEMBER 1996

UDC 669 : 620.172

0 BIS 1995
BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS
MANAK BHAVAN, 9 BAHADUR SHAH ZAFARMARG
NEW DELHI 110002
August 1995 Price Group 8
Mechanical Testing of Metals Sectional Committee, MTD 3

FOREWORD

This Indian Standard ( Second Revision ) was adopted by the Bureau of Indian Standards, after the
draft finalized by the Mechanical Testing of Metals Sectional Committee had bien approved by the
Metallurgical Engineering Division Council.
This standard was first published in 1960 and subsequently revised in 1972. In this revision, this

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standard has been aligned with EN 10002 : 1991 ‘Tensile testing of metallic materials - Method of
test at ambient temperature’. Assistance has also been derived from IS0 783 : 1989 ‘Metallic
materials - Tensile testing at elevated temperature’ and IS0 6892 : 1984 ‘Metallic materials - Tensile
testing’.
This revised standard supersedes the following Indian Standards:
IS 1521 : 1972 Method for tensile testing of steel wire (first revision )
IS 1663 : 1972 Method for tensile testing of steel sheet and strip of thickness 0.5 mm to 3 mm
( first revision )
IS 1816 : 1979 Method for tensile test for light metals and their alloys (first revision )
IS 1894 : 1972 Method for tensile testing of steel tubes (first revision )’
IS 2078 : 1979 Method for tensile testing of grey cast iron (3~~1 revision )
IS 2654 : 1977 Method for tensile testing oc cbpper and copper alloys (first revision )
IS 2655 : 1964 Method for tensile testing of copper and copper alloy tubts
IS 2656 : 1964 Method for tensile testing of copper and copper alloy wires
IS 2657 : 1964 Method for tensile testing of aluminium and aluminium alloy tube
IS 2658 : 1964 Method for tensile testing for aluminium and aluminium alloy wire
IS 47!3 : 1988 Method of determination of lower yield stress, proof stress and proof test for steel
at elevated temperature
IS 8285 : 1976 Method for tensile test of copper and copper alloy rolled flat product
In reporting the results of a test or analysis made in accordance with this standard, if final value,
observed or calculated, is to be rounded off, it shall be done in accordance with IS 2 : 1960 &Rules for
rounding off numerical values ( revised )‘.
IS 1608 : 1995

Indian Standard
MECHANICAL TESTING OF METALS -
TENSILE TESTING
(Second Revision)
1 SCOPE 4.1 Elongation
1.1 This standard specifies the method of Increase in the original gauge length (Lo) at the
tensile testing for metallic materials other than end of the test.
foils.
4.2 Extension

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1.2 The method of tensile tesiing of metallic
foils is covered in IS 13237 : 1991 ‘Metallic Increase in the extensometer gauge length (Le)
foils - Tension testing’. at a given moment of the test.
2 REFERENCES 4.3 Gauge Length

The following Indian Standards are necessary Length of the cylindrical or prismatic portion
adjuncts to this standard: of the test piece on which elongation is measu.r-
ed at any moment during the test.
IS No. Title
4.3.1 Original Gauge Length (L,)
1828 Metallic materials - Verifi-
(Part 1 ) : 1991 cations of static uniaxial Gauge length before application of force.
testing machines: Part 1 4.3.2 Extensometer Gauge Length (L,)
Tensile testing machines
( second revision ) Length of the parallel portion of the test piece
3803 Steel - Conversion of used for the measurement of extension by
( Part 1 ) : 1989 elongation values: Part 1 means of an extensometer. This length may
Carbon and low ‘alloy steels differ from L, and shall be of any value greater
( second revision ) than b, d, or D ( see Table 1 ) but less than L,.
3803 Steel -- Conversion of 4.3.3 Final Gauge Length (15”)
( Part 2 ) : 1989 elongation values: Part 2
Austenitic steels ( second Gauge length after rupture, the two pieces
revision ) having been carefully fitted back together so
that their axes lie in a straight line.
12872: 1990 Metallic materials - Veri-
fication of extensometers 4.4 Maximum Force (F,,,)
used in uniaxial testing
The greatest force which the test piece with-
3 PRINCIPLE stands during the test ( see Annex H ).
3.1 The test consists of straining a test piece 4.5 Parallel Length (~5~)
by tensile force, generally to fracture, for the Length of the reduced section parallel portion
purpose of determining one OT more of the of the test piece.
mechanical properties defined in 4.
NOTE - The concept of parallel length is replaced
3.2 Unless otherwise specified, the test is by the concept of distance between grips for non-
carried out at ambient temperature between machined test piece.
10°C and 35°C. Tests carried out under .cont-
4.6 Pereeotage Elongation
rolled conditions shall be made at a tempera-
ture of 23 f 5°C. Elongation expressed as a percentage of the
original gauge length (L,).
3.3 If the test is to be carried out at elevated
temperature same should be specified in product 4.6.1 Percentage Permanent Elongation
standard along with permissible variations.
Increase in the original gauge length of a test.
4 TERMINOLOGY piece after removal of a specified stress (aiIl&
4.0 For the purpose of this standard following expressed as a percentage of the original gauge
definitions shall apply. length (Lo).

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IS 1608 : 1995

4.6.2 Percentage Permanent Extension moment of fracture, expressed as a percentage


of the original gauge length (L,).
Wrease in the extensometer gauge length (LO)
after the removal from the test piece of a 4.6.5 Percentage Elongation at Maximum Force
specified stress (4.8) expressed as a percentage
of the extensometer gauge length (f,,). Increase in the gauge length of the test piece
at maximum -force, expressed as a percentage
4.6.3 Percentage Eloltgation After Fracture (A) of the original gauge length (L,). A distinction
is made between the percentage total elonga-
Permanent elongation of the gauge length after tion at maximum force (ARt) and the percent-
fracture ( L,, - L, ), expressed as a percentage age non-proportional elongation at maximum
of the original gauge length ( L, ). force (A,) ( see Fig. 1 ).
NOTES 4.6.6 Percerrtage Yield Point Extension (Ae)
1 In the case of proportional test pieces, only if the
original gauge length is other than 5’65 4 %, where Extension between the start of yielding giving
S,, is the original cross-sectional area of the parallel localized deformation and the commencement
length, the simbol A is to be supplemented- by an of homogeneous deformation giving smooth
index indicating the coefficient of proportionality

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used, for example:
work hardening. It is expressed as a percentage
of the extensometer gauge length (L,).
All.8 = percentage elongation on a gauge length (Lo)
of 11’3iSo. 4.7 Percentage Reduction of Area (2)
2 In the case of non-proportional test pieces. the
symbol A is to be supplemented by an index, indi-
Maximum change in cross-sectional area which
cating the original gauge length used, expressed in has occurred during the test ( S, - S, ) ex-
millimetres, for example: pressed as a percentage of the original cross-
sectional area (SO).
.&,,nrm = percentage elongation on gauge length (Lo)
of 80 mm. 4.8 Stress
4.6.4 Percentage Total Elongation at Fracture (At) Force at any moment during the test divided by
Total elongation ( elastic elongation plus the origmal cross-sectional area (So) of the test
plastic elongation ) of gauge length at the piece.

-
PERCENTAGE
ELONGATION

c
-I
NOTE - S>,e Table 1 for explanation of refcrcnce numbers.
FIG. 1 &FIN1 TIoNS OF ELONGATIOK

2
IS 1608 : 1995

4.8.1 Tensile Strength (R,,,) 4.8.2.3 Apparent yield stress (R,)


Stress corresponding to the maximum force (F,) The value of stress determined from the load at
( see Fig. 8 ). which a hesitation or drop of pointer is first
observed. The load taken is the maximum
4.8.2 Yield Stress usually recorded by the slave pointer during
yield extension.
When the metallic material exhibits a yield
phenomenon, a point is reached during the test NOTE - If a material which ~P.5’.~llyexhibits a yield
at which plastic deformation occurs without phenomenon is in either cold-worked or heat
any increase in the force. treated condition. The yield phenomenon may not
exist. In such cases proof stress ( 4.8.3.1 and
4.8 3.2 ) should SC specified.
4.8.2.1 Upper yield stress (R,,[)
4.8.3 Proof Stress
Value of stress at the moment when first
decrease in‘force is observed ( see Fig. 2 ). 4.8.3.1 Proof stress of non-pr )portional exten-
sion (RF)

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4.8.2.2 Lower yie!d stress (R,,)
Stress at which a non-proportionai extension is
Lowest value of stress during plastic yielding, equal to a specified percentage of the extenso-
ignoring any transient effects ( see Fig. 2 ). meter, gauge length (15,) (see Fig. 3 ). The

INITIAL TRANSIENT
EFFECT
EFFECT

0 PERCENTAGE ELONGATION 0 PERCENTAGE EL~~~GATION


38) II(b)

0 PE RC EN TAGE E LONGA’IION 0 PECENTAGE ELONGATION


Z(c) Z!(d)
NOTE - See Table I for explanation of reference n~~n~b~‘rs.
FIG. 2 DBFINITIONS OF UPPER AND LOWER YIELD STRBSSFOR DIFFERENT TYPES OF CUR\E

3
IS 1608 t 1995

symbol used shall be followed by a subscript 4.8.4 Permanent Set Stress (R,)
giving the prescribed percentage of the exten-
someter gauge length, for example: ( RPO., ). Stress at which, after removal of force, a
specified permanent elongation, expressed as a
percentage of the original gauge length (W,
occurs ( see Fig. 5 ). The symbol used shall be
followed by a suffix giving the specified percent-
age of the original length, for example:
( &,.z ).

26

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[

numbers.

4.8.3.2
0

9 t
PERCENTAGE
EXTENSION

NOTE - See Table 1 for explanation of reference

FIG. 3 PROOF STRESSNON-PROPORTIONAL


EXTBNSILN ( R, )

Proof stress, total extension (Rt)


Stress at which total extension ( elastic exten-
sion plus plastic extension
specified percentage
) is equal to
of the original gauge
a
E27

numbers.
?

PERCENTAGE
EXTENSION

NOTE - See Table 1 for explanation of reference

length (L,) ( see Fig. 4 ). The symbol used shall FIG. 5 PERMANENT SBT STRBSS( R, )
be followed by a suffix giving the prescribed 5 SYMBOL AND DESIGNATIONS
percentage of the original gauge length, for
example: ( Rt0.5 ). Symbols and corresponding designations are
given in Table 1.
6 APPARATUS
6.1 Testing Machine
The testing machine shall be calibrated in
accordance with IS 1828 ( Part 1 ) : 1991 and
shall be of grade 1.0 unless otherwise specified
in the product standard.
6.2 Extensometer
The extensometer shall be of class 1 ( see
IS 12872 : 1990 ) for the upper and lower yield
stresses and the proof stress for non-propor-
tional elongation for the other characteristics
( having higher elongations ) an extensometer
of class 2 ( see IS 12872 : 1990 ) may be used.
The extensometer gauge length shall be not
less than 10 mm and shall be centrally located
0 PERCENJAGE in the mid-region of the parallel gauge length.
EXTENSION The extensometer should be preferably of the
NOTE - See Table 1 for explanation of reference type that is capable of measuring extension on
numbers. both sides of a test piece and allowing the two
FIG. 4 PROOF STRESS,TOTAL EXTJZNSION( Rt ) readings to be averaged.

4
IS 1608:19%

Table 1 Symbols and Designations


( Clause 5 )

Reference Symbol Unit Designation


Number’)
(1) (2) (3) (4)
Test piece
1 a mm Thickness of a flat test piece or wail thickness of a tube
2 b mm Width of the parallel length of a flat test piece or
average width of the !ongitudinal strip taken from a
tube or width of Rat wire
3 d Diameter of the parallel length of a circular test piece
or diameter of round wire or internal diameter of a
tube
4 D mm External diameter of a tube

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5 Lo mm Original gauge length
6 LE mm Parallel length
Le mm Extensometer gauge length
7 Lt mm Total length of test piece
8 LU mm Final gauge length after fracture
9 so mm% Original cross-sectional area of the parallel length
10 SU mm’ Minimum cross-sectional area after fracture
11 Z % Percentage reduction of area:
Sk!-2E x 100
so
12 - Gripped ends
Elungnlinn
13 mm Elongation aLfter_fgcture:
” 0

14 A’) % Percentage elongation after fracture:

15 Ae % Percentage yield point extension


16 Aa % Percentage non-proportional elongation at maximum
force, Fm
17 Agt % Percentage total elongation at fracture at maximum
force. Fm
18 At % Pelccntage total elongation at fracture
19 - % Specified percentage non-proportional extension
20 - % Percentage total extension
21 - 9/o Specified percentage permanent set, extension or
elongation
FCVCZ
22 Fm N Maximum force
Yield stress; Proof
stress; Tensile
strength
23 ReH N/mm* ‘) Upper yield stress
24 RCL IQ/mm’ Lower yield stress
25 Rm N/mm’ Tensile strength
26 R,) N/mm2 Proof stress ( non-proportional extension )
27 Rr N/mm’ Permanent set stress
28 Rt N/mm’ Proof stress, total extension
E N/mm, Modulus of elasticity
1) See Fig. 1 to 13.
2) See 4.6.3.
3) 1 N/mm* = 1 MPa.

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E3 1608 : 1995

Any parts of the extensometer projecting be- verified over the working temperature range at
yond the furnace shall be designed or protected intervals not exceeding one year, the errors
from draughts so that fluctuations in the shall be recorded in the certification report.
ambient temperature have only a minimal Verification of the temperature-measuring sys-
effect on the readings. It is advisable to main- tem shall be carried out by a method traceable
tain reasonable stability of the temperature and to the international unit ( SI unit ) of
speed of the air surrounding the testing temperature.
machine.
7 TEST PIECE
6.3 Heating Device 7.1 Shape and Dimensions
6.3.1 Permitted Deviations c>f
Temperature
7.1.1 General
The heating device for the test piece shall be
The shape and dimensions of the test pieces
such that the test piece can be heated to the
depend on the shape and dimensions of the
specified temperature, 8.
metallic products, the mechanical properties of

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The permitted deviations between the specified which are to be determined.
temperature, 8, and the indicated tempera-
The test piece is usually obtained by machining
ture, 0 are the following:
a sample from the product or a pressed blank or
*3”C for 600°C casting. However, products of constant
cross-section ( sections, bars, wires, etc ) and
&4”C for 600°C <8> 800°C
also cast test bars ( that’is malleable cast iron,
f 5°C for 800°C < 6> I 000”c white cast iron, non ferrous alloys ) may be
For specified temperatures higher than 1 OOO’C, subjected to test without being machined.
the permitted deviations shall be defined by a
parties The cross-section of the test pieces may be
previous agreement between the
circular, square, rectangular, annular or, in
concerned.
special cases, of some other shape. Test pieces,
The indicated temperatures, 6, are the tempe- the original gauge length of which is related to
ratures which are measured at the surface of the original cross-sectional area by the equa-
the parallel length of the test piece. The per- tion L, = k.dS!? are called proportional test
mitted deviations in temperatures shall be pieces. The internationally adopted value for k
complied with on the original gauge length, Lo, is 5.65. The original gauge length shall not be
at least until the point corresponding to the less than 25 mm. When the cross-sectional area
ploof stress for non-proportional extension is of the test piece is too small for this require-
reached. ment to be met with the coefficient k value
of 5.65, a higher value ( for example 1 I.3 ), for
6.3.2 Measurement of Temperature
coefficient k or a non-proportional test piece
The temperature measuring equipment shall may be used.
have a resolution of at least 1°C and an In the case of non-proportional test pieces, the
accuracy of &2”C. original gauge length (L,) is taken indepen-
Three thermocouples which are arranged at dently of the original cross-sectional area (S,).
identical intervals along the parallel length of
The extensometer gauge length shall not be less
the test piece, are generally sufficient to
than 10 mm and shall be centrally located in
guarantee uniformity of the temperature of the the mid-region of the parallel gauge length.
test piece. This number may be reduced if the
general arrangement of the furnace and the 7.1.2 Machined Test Pieces
test piece is such that, from experience, it is
known that the variation in temperature of the Machined test pieces shall incorporate a transi-
test piece does not exceed the permitted tion curve between the gripped ends and the
deviations specified in 6.3.1. parallel length if these have different dimen-
sions. The dimensions of this transition radius
Thermocouple junctions shall make good may be important and it is recommended that
thermal contact with the surface.of the test they be defined in the material specification if
piece and be suitably screened from direct they are not given in the appropriate Annex
radiation from the furnace well. ( see 7.2 ).
6.3.3 Verifca tion of the Temperature-Measuring The gripped ends may be of any shape to suit
System the grips of the testing machine.
The temperature-measuring system, comprising The parallel length (L,) or, in the case where
sensors and read-out equipment, shall be the test piece has no transition curve, the free

6
IS 1608 : 1995

length between the grips, is dependent on the of rectangular cross-section. The original gauge
original gauge length (L,). length shall be marked to an accuracy
of f 1 percent.
7.1.3 Xon-machined Tezt Pieces
If the parallel length (L,) is much in excess of
If the test piece consists of an unmachined the original gauge length, as, for instance, with
length of the product or of an as-cast test bar, unmachined test pieces, a series of overlapping
the free length between the grips shall be gauge lengths shall be drawn, some of these
sufficient for one set of gauge marks to be at a ltngths may extend up to the grips.,
reasonable distance from these grips.
In some cases, it may be helpful to draw, on
7.2 Types the surface of the test piece, a line parallel to
the longitudinal axis, along which the marks
The main types of test piece are defined in
Annexes A to D according to the shape and are drawn.
type of product, as shown in Table 2. Other 8.3 Gripping of Test Pieces
types of test piece can be specified in product

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standards. The test pieces shall be held by suitable means
such as wedges, screwed holders, shouldered
Table 2 Product Types
holders and pin holders, etc.
( Clause 7.2 )
Every endeavour shall be made to ensure that
test pieces arc held in such a way that the
Flat Products with Wire, Bars and Annex force is applied as axially as possible. This is
a Thickness in Sections with a
mm Diameter or
of particular importance when testing brittle
Side in materials or when determining proof stress
“1m ( non-proportional elongation ) or proof stress
0’1 -: thickness < 3 - A ( total elongation ) or yield stress.
- <4 B
8.4 Heating of Test Piece
>3 >4 C
The test piece shall be heated to the specified
Tu brs D temperature, 19,and shall be maintained at that
temperature for at least 10 min before loading.
7.3 Preparation of Test Pieces
The loading shall only be started after the
7he selection of samples and preparation of indications of the elongation measuring
test pieces shall be done in accordance with the apparatus have been stabilized.
requirements specified in relevant product During the heating, the temperature of the
standards. test piece shall not, at any moment, exceed the
8 PROCEDURE specified temperature with its tolerances, except
by special agreement between the parties
8.1 Determination of Original Cross-Sectional concerned.
Area (S,)
When the test piece has reached the specified
The original cross-sectional area shall be cal- temperature, the extensometer shall be reset to
culated from the measurements of the appro- zero.
priate dimensions. The accuracy of this calcu-
lal‘irrfidepends on the nature and typ: of the 8.5 Loading of the Test Piece
test piece. It is indicated in Annexes A to D Force shall be applied so as to strain the test
for the different types of test pieces. piece in a non-decreasing manner, without
8.2 Marking the Original Gauge Length (i,,) shock or sudden vibration. The force shall be
applied along the specimen axls so as IO
Each end of the original gauge length shall be produce minimum bending or torsion in the
matked by means of fine marks or scribed specimen gauge length.
lines, but not by notches which could result in
premature fracture. 8.6 Determination of Yield Stresses

For proportional test pieces, the calculated 8.6.1 Upper Yield.Stress (RBli )
value of the original gauge length may be 8.6.1.1 The upper yield stress shall be determin-
rounded off to the nearest multiple of 5 mm, ed as per definition given in 4.8.2.1.
provided that the difference between the
calculated and marked gauge length is less 8.6.1.2 The rate of stressing shall be within the
than 10 percent of Lo. Annex E gives a scale !imits given in Table 3. It shall be fixed by
for determination of the original gauge length regulating the rate of stressing in the elastic
corresponding to the dimensions of test pieces range and by maintaining the controls of the

7
IS 1608 : 1995

machine at this setting untii the upper yield 8.7 Determination of Proof Stress
stress is achieved.
8.7.1 Proof Stress ( Non-proportional Extension )
8.6.2 Lower Yield Stress (R,I,) (R,)
8.6.2.1 The lower yield stress shall be determin- 8.7.1.1 The proof stress ( non-proportional
ed as per definitions given in 4.8.2.2. extension ) shall be determined as per defini-
tion given in 4.8.3.1. The rate of stressing shall
8.6.2.2 If only the lower yield stress in being be within the limits given in Table 3. The
determined, the rate of straining during yield straining rate shall not exceed 0.002 5/s.
of the parallel length of the test piece shall be
between O*OOO25/s and 0.002 5/s. The straining 8.7.1.2 The proof stress ( non-proportional
rate with the parallel length shall be kept as extension ) is determined from the force/exten-
constant as possible. If this rate cannot be sion by drawing a line parallel to the straight
regulated directly, it shall be fixed by regulat- portion of the curve and at a distance from this
ing the rate of stressing just before yield begins, equivalent to the prescribed non-proportional
the controls of the machine not being further percentage, for example 0.2 percent. The

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adjusted until completion of yield. point at which this line intersects the curve
gives the force corresponding to the desired
In no case shall the rate of stressing in the proof stress ( non-proportional extension ).
elastic range exceed the maximum rates given This is obtained by dividing this force by the
in Table 3. original cross-sectional area of the test
piece (S,) ( see Fig. 3 ). The straining rate shall
Table 3 Rate of Stressing not exceed 0.002 5/s.
( Clauses 8.6.1.2, 8.6.2.2, 8.6.4,8.7.2.1 and 8.9 )
Accuracy in drawing the force/extension dia-
gram is essential. The curve may be drawn by
Modulus of Elasticity
of the Material
an automatic recording or manual method.
N ‘mm%
If the straight portion of the force/extension
diagram is not clearly defined, thereby prevent-
< 150 000
ing drawing the parallel line with sufficient
> lSOOc4
precision, the following procedure is recom-
mended ( see Fig. 6 ).
8.6.3 Upper and Lower Yield Stresses ( X,1,
and &I. ) When the presumed proof stress has been
exceeded, the force is reduced to a value equal
If the two yield stresses are determined during to about 10 percent of the force obtained. The
the same test, the conditions for determining force is increased again until it exceeds the
the lower yield stress shail be complied with value obtained originally. To determine the
( see 8.6.2.2 ).
8.6.4 Apparent Yield Stress (Ra)
The apparent yield stress shall be determined
as per definition given in 4.8.2.3. The rate of
stressing shall be within limits given in Table 3.
8.6.5 Rate of Loading at Elevated Temperatures
8.6.5.1 Determination of yield stress ( upper and
lower yield stresses, proof stress for non-
proportional extension )
The strain rate of the parallel-sided length of
the test piece, from the beginning of the test to
the yield stress to be determiiled, shall be
between O*OOl min-1 and 0.005 min-1.
In the case of machines unable to achieve the
required strain rate, the stress rate shall be set
so that the requirement that the strain rate be
smaller than 0.003 min-1 is coniplied with over +/-SPECIFIED NON-PROPoR-
the elastic range. In no case shall the stress TIONAL EXTENSION
rate in the elastic range exceed 300 N/ FIG. 6 PROOF STRESS,NON-PROPORTIONAL
( mm*.min ).
EXTENSION ( Rt )

8
IS X608:-lP!6

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0 PERCENTAGE
EXTENSION

NOTE - See Table I for explanation of reference numbers.


FIG. 7 LOWER YIELD STRESS( ReL )

ELONGATION

NOTE - See Table 1 for explanation of reference numbers.


FIG. 8 MAXIHUM FORCE( &, )

desired proof stress, a line is drawn.through 8.7.1.3 The property may be obtained without
the hysteresis loop. A line is then drawn plotting the force/extension curve by using
parallel to this line, at a distance from the automatic device ( microprocessor, etc ).
origin of the curve, measured along the
abscissa, equal to the prescribed value of the 8.7.1.4 See 8.6.5.
non-proportional percentage. The intersection 8.7.2 Proof Stress, Total Extension (Rt)
of this parallel !ine and the force/extension
curve gives the force corresponding to the proof 8.7.2.1 The proof stress ( total extension ) shall
stress. This is obtained by dividing this force be determined as per definition given in 4.8.3.2.
by the original cross-sectional area of the test The rate of stressing shall be within the limits
piece S,, ( see Fig. 6 ). given in Table 3.

9
8.7.2.2 The proof stress ( total extension ) is Special precaution shall be take! to ensure
determined on the force/extension diagram by proper contact between the broken parts of the
draning a line parallel to the ordinate axis test piece when measuring the final gauge
( force axis ) and at a distance from this length. This is particularly important in the
equivalent to the prescribed total percentage case of test pieces of small cross-section and
extension. The point at which this line inter- test pieces having low elongation values.
sects the curve gives the force corresponding
to the desired proof stress. This is obtained by Elongation after fracture ( L, - L, ) shall be
dividing this force by the original cross- determined to the nearest 0.25 mm with a
sectional area of the test piece (S,) measuring device with 0, I mm resolution and
( see Fig. 4 ). the value of percentage elongation after fracture
shall be rounded to the nearest 0.5 percent. If
8.7.2.3 The property may be obtained without the specified minimum percentage elongation
plotting the force/extension curve by using is less than 5 percent, it is recommended that
automatic device ( microprocessor, etc ). special precautions be taken when determining

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elongation.
8.8 Determination of Teas& Strength (R,)

8.8.1 The tensile strength shall be determined This measurement is, in principle, valid only if
$s per definition given in 4.8.1. the distance between the fracture and the
nearest gauge mark is not less than one-third
8.8.2 In the plastic range, the straining rate of of the original gauge length (L,,). However, the
parallel length shall not exceed OGISls. In the measurement is valid, irrespective of the
elastic range, if the test does not include the position of the fracture, if the percentage
determination of a yield stress ( or proof elongatton after fracture reaches at least the
stress ), the speed of the machine may reach specified value and this shall be stated in the
the maximum permitted in the plastic range. test report ( see Annex F ).
8.8.3 In the special case of zinc, the straining
8.10.2 For machine capable of measuring ex-
rate shall be within ON)l/s to 0.003/s. tension at fracture using an extensometer, it is
8.8.4 Rate of Loading at Elevated Temperature not necessary to mark the gauge lengths. The
elongation is measured as the total extension at
If only the tensile strength is to be determined, fracture, and it is therefore necessary to deduct
the strain rate of the test piece shall be the eiastic extension in order to obtain percent-
between O-02 min-1 and 0.20 min-1. age elongation after fracture.
If a yield stress is also determined on the same
In principle, this measurement is only valid if
piece, the change of the stress rate required fracture occurs within the extensometer gauge
in 8.6.5.1 to the rate defined in the paragraph length (~5~). The measurement is valid regard-
above shall be monotonic. less of the position of the fracture cross section
The above rate shall also be valid for tensile if the percentage elongation after fracture at
testing of lead at ambient temperature. least reaches the specified value and this shall
be stated in the test report.
89 Method of Verification of Pemmncat Set
stress (R,) NOTE - If the product standard specifies the
determination of percentage elongation after rupture
for a given length, the extensometer gauge length
Unless otherwise specified, the test piece is shall be taken as equal to this length.
subjected for IO to 12 seconds to a force corres-
ponding to the specified stress at the rate not 8.10.3 If so permitted by the product standard,
exceeding that given in Table 3. After remov- elongation may be measured over a given fixed
ing the force, that the permanent set elongation length and converted to proportional gauge
is not more than the percentage specified. length using conversion formulae or tables as
8.10 Determination of Percentage Elongation agreed before the commencement of testing
after Fracture (A) [for example as in IS 3803 ( Part I ) and
IS 3803 ( Part 2 )I.
8.10.1 Percentage elongation after fracture’
shall be determined in accordance with the NOTE - Comparison of percentage elongation are
definition given in 4.6.3. possible only when the gauge length or extenso-
meter gauge length, the shape and area of the cross
section are the same or when the coefficient of
For this purpose, the two broken pieces of the proportionality (k) is the same.
test piece are carefully fitted back together so
that their axes lie in a straigiit line. 8.10.4 In order to avoid having to reject test

10
zs 1688 : 199s

pieces in which fracture may occur outside the 8.11 Determinatierr of Percentage Reduction of
limits specified in 8.10.1, the method based on Area (Z)
the subdivision of Lo into n equal parts may The percentage reduction of area shah be deter-
be used, as described in Annex G. mined as per the definition given in 4.7.

ANNEX A
( Clausts 7.2, 8.1 and Table 2 )

TYPES OF TEST PIECE TO BE USED FOR THIN PRODUCTS f SHEETS. STRIPS AND
FIATS BETWEEN O-1 aAND 3 mm THICK ) ’

A-0 For products of less than 0.5 mm thickness, A-Z DIMENSIONS OF THE TEST PIECE

FOR INTERNAL USE AT THIS LOCATION ONLY, SUPPLIED BY BOOK SUPPLY BUREAU.
LICENSED TO ESSAR STEEL LIMITED, HAZIRA
special precautions may be necessary. The parallel length shall not be less
b
AI SHAPE OF THE TEST PIECE than L, + 2. In case of dispute, the
Generally, the test piece has gripped ends length h + 2b shall always be used unless
which are wider than the parallel length. The there is insufficient material.
parallel length (La) shall be connected to the In the case of parallel-sided test pieces less
ends by means of transition curves with a radius than 20 mm wide, and unless otherwise specified
of at least 20 mm ( see Fig. 9 ). The width of in the product standard, the original gauge
these ends shall be at least 20 mm and not length (L,) shall be equal to 50 mm. For this
more than 40 mm. type of test piece, the free length between the
grips shall be equal to Lo + 36.
By agreement, the test piece may also consist
of a strip with parallel sides. For products of The preferable dimensions of non-proportional
width equal to or less than 20 mm, the width of test piece are given in Table 4. However, if
the test piece may be the same as that of the required in the product specification, any
product. other type of test piece may also be used.

NOTE - See Table 1 for explanation of reference numbers.


FIG. 9 MACHINBDTEST PIBOBSOF RECTANGWLARCROSS-SECIION
Table 4 Dimensions of Teat Pieces
( Clause A-2 )
All dimensions in millimcires.

Test Piece Width Orig~;h~tchpuge PamUele~engtb, Pree Length Betweea th


Tppe b Grips for Parallel Side
lo J.c Test Piece, Min
1 12’5 _I 0’1 50 +_ 0’1 75 87’5
2 20 + 0-J 80 f 0’1 90 140
3 25 f 0.1 100 f 0’1 115 150
4 40 rf: 0’1 160 f 0’1 180 240

FOR INTERNAL USE AT THIS LOCATION ONLY, SUPPLIED BY BOOK SUPPLY BUREAU.
LICENSED TO ESSAR STEEL LIMITED, HAZIRA
A-3 PREPARATION OF TEST PIECES A-4 DETERMlNATION OF THE ORIGINAL
The test pieces are prepared so as not to affect CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA (So)
the properties of the metal. Any area which
have been hardened by shearing or pressing shall The original cross-sectional area shall be
be removed by machining. calculated from measurements of the dimensions
of the test piece.
For very thin material, it is recommended that
strips of identical widths should be cut and
assembled into a bundle with intermediate The error in determining the original cross-
layers of a paper which is resistant to the sectional area shall not exceed f 2 percent.
cutting oil. It is recommended that each small As the greatest part of this error normally
bundle of strips be assembled with a thicker results from the measurement of the thickness
strip on each side, before machining to the of the test piece, the error in measurement of
final dimensions of the test piece. the width shall not exceed f 0.2 percent.

ANNEX B
( Clauses7.2, 8.1 and Table 2 )
TYPES OF TEST PIECE TO BE GSED IN THE CASE OF WIRE, BARS AND SECTIONS
WITH A DIAMETER OR THICKNESS OF LESS THAN 4 mm

B-l SHAPE OF THE TEST PIECE NOTE - In cases where fhe percentage elongation
after fracture is not to be determined, a distance
The test piece generally consists of an un- between the grips of at least 50 mm may be used.
machined portion of the product ( see Fig. 10 ). B-3 PREPARATION OF TEST PIECES
B-2 DIMENSIONS OF THE TEST PIhCE If the product is delivered coiled, care shall be
The original gauge length (Lo) shall bt taken taken in straightening it.
as 200 f 2 mm or 100 f 1 mm. The distance B-4 DETERMINATION OF THE ORIGINAL
between the grips of the machine shall be equal CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA (So)
to at least Lo + 50 mm, that is, 250 mm and
150 mm respectively, except in the case of The original cross-sectional area (S,,) shall be
small diameter wires where this distance can be determined to an accuracy of fl percent.
taken as equal to Lo. For products of circular -cross-section, the

12
IS 1608:1995

original cross-sectional area may be calculated The original cross-sectional area may be
from the arithmetic mean of two measurements determined from the mass of a known length
carried out in two perpendicular directions. and its density.

r-
_.
I I 1
;. .-_i

.-
r-
:. I I ..A
1

FOR INTERNAL USE AT THIS LOCATION ONLY, SUPPLIED BY BOOK SUPPLY BUREAU.
LICENSED TO ESSAR STEEL LIMITED, HAZIRA
r-•
..
*-. I I 1
..-:
5
e
0

NOTES
1 The shape of the test piece heads is given only as a guide.
2 Ste Tab!e 1 for explanation of reference numbers.
FIG. 10 Tss-r PIECESCOMPRISING A NON-MACHINEDPORTION OF IHB PRODUCT

ANNEX C
( Clauses 7.2, 8.1 and Table 2 )

TYPES OF TEST PIECE TO BE USED IN THE CASE OF SHEETS AND FLAT


THICKNESS EQUAL TO OR GREATER THAN 3 mm, AND WIRE, BARS AND
SECTIONS OF DIAMETER OR THICKNESS EQUAL TO OR GREATER THAN 4 mm

C-l SHAPE OF THE TEST PIECE In general, the diameter of the parallel length
of machined cylindrical test ‘pieces shall be not
In general, the test piece is machined and the less than 4 mm.
parallel length shall be connected by means of
transition curves to the gripped ends which C-2 DIMENSIONS OF THE TEST PIECE
may be of any suitable shape for the grips of
C-2.1 Parallel Length of Machined Test Piece
the test machine ( see Fig. 11 ),
The parallel lengtli (~5,) shall be at least equal
Sections, bars, etc, may be tested unmachined to:
if required.
d .
a) L + T m the case of test pieces with
The cross-section of the test piece may be
circular, square, rectangular or, in special cases, circular cross-section; and
of another shape. b) L, + 1*5/S, in the case of prismatic test
For test pieces with a rectangular cross-section, pieces.
it is recommended not to exceed a ratio of 8 : 1 Depending on the type test piece, the length
between the width and thickness of the test Lo + 2d or L, + 2/S, shall be used in cases of
piece. dispute, unless there is insufficient material.

13
1s 1608 : 1995

C-2.2 Length of Unmachined Test Piece where k is equal to 5.65 which gives Lo = 5d in
the case of test piece? of circular cross-section.
The free length between the grips of the
machine shall be adequate for the gauge marks Test pieces of circular cross-section should
to be a reasonable distance from these grips. preferably have the dimensions given in Table 5.
C-2.3.2 Non-proportional Test Pieces
C-2.3 Original Gauge Length (L,)
Non-proportional test pieces may be used if
C-2.3.1 Proportional Test Pieces specified by the product standard.
As a general rule, proportional test pieces are C-3 DETERMINATION OF THE CROSS-
used where the original gauge length (L,) is SECTIONAL AREA (S,)
related to the original cross-sectional area (S,) The original cross-sectional area shall be
by the equation calculated from measurements of this appro-
priate dimensions, with an error not exceed-
L,=kd/ ing + 0.5 percent on each dimension.
Table 5 Circular Cross-Section Test Pieces

FOR INTERNAL USE AT THIS LOCATION ONLY, SUPPLIED BY BOOK SUPPLY BUREAU.
LICENSED TO ESSAR STEEL LIMITED, HAZIRA
( Clause C-2.3.1 )
Diameter Original Cross- Original Gauge Minimum Parallel Total Length (Lt)
(4 Sectional Area (so) Length (lo) Leogth (lc)
mm mma mm mm mm
22’5 2 0’25 400 117’5 & 1’1 124 Depends on the method of
20 + 0’20 314 100 ‘I 1’0 110 fixing the test piece in the
16 f 0’15 200 8C I_ 0’8 88 machine grip. In principle
14 & 0’15 150 70 i_ 0’70 77 Lt > LC + 2d or 4d
10 f 0’10 78’5 50 f 0’5 55
5 t 0’05 19’6 25 + 0’25 27’5
4 * 0’05 12 5 20 I 0’2 22

I-‘
i.

4 b

NOTE - The shape of the test piece beads is given only as a guide.
FIQ. 11 PROPORTIONAL TEST PIECH
14
IS 1608: 1995

ANNEX D
( Claws 7.2, 8.1 and Table 2 )

TYPES OF TEST PIECE TO BE USED IN THE CASE OF TUBES

D-l SHAPE OF THE TEST PIECE D-3 DETERMINATION OF THE ORIGINAL


CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA, S,
The test piece shall consist either of a length
of tube or a longitudinal or transverse strip cut The original cross-sectional area of the test
from the tube and having the full thickness of piece shall be determined to the nearest
the tube wall ( see Fig. 12 and 13 ), or of a * 1 percent.
test piece of circular cross-section machined
from the wall of the tube.
The original cross-sectional area of the length

FOR INTERNAL USE AT THIS LOCATION ONLY, SUPPLIED BY BOOK SUPPLY BUREAU.
LICENSED TO ESSAR STEEL LIMITED, HAZIRA
Machined transverse, longitudinal and circular of tube or longitudinal or transverse strip may
cross-section test pieces are described in be determined from the mass, length and
Annex A for tube wall thickness less than 3 mm density of the test piece.
and in Annex C for thickness equal to or
greater than 3 mm. The longitudinal strip is The original cross-sectional area, S,, of a test
generally only used for tubes with a wall thick- piece consisting of a longitudinal strip shall be
ness of more than O-5 mm. calculated using the following equation:
D-2 DIMENSIONS OF THE TEST PlECE
D-2.1 Length of Tube
The length of tube may be plugged at both
ends. The free length between each plug and
the nearest gauge marks shall exceed D/4. In
cases of dispute, the value D shall be used as
long as there is sufficient material.
The length of the plug projecting beyond the where
grips of the machine in the direction of the
gauge marks shall not exceed the external a is the thickness of the tube wall;
diameter of the tube, and its shape shall be b is the average width of the strips;
such that it does not impair the gauge length
elongation. D is the external diameter.
D-2.2 Longitudinal or Transverse Strip The following simplified equations can be used
The parallel-sided portion of the longitudinal for longiiudinal test pieces:
strips shall not be flattened but the gripped
ends may be flattened for gripping in the testing
machine.
So = ab l + (jD ( D”‘__
)j when
2a

Transverse or longitudinal test piece dimen- -;- < 0.25


sions other than those given in Annexes B and
C can be as specified in the product standard.
Special precautions shall be taken when S, = ab when + < 0.17
straightening the transverse test pieces.
D-2.3 Machined Circular Cross-Section of Tube In the case of a length of tube, the original
Wall cross-sectional area, So, shall be calculated as
follows:
The sampling of the test pieces shall be as
specified in the product standard. &=mz(D--a)

IS
NOTE - See Table 1 for explanation of reference numbers.
FIG. 12 TEST PIECBCOMPRISINGA LENGTH OF TUBE

FOR INTERNAL USE AT THIS LOCATION ONLY, SUPPLIED BY BOOK SUPPLY BUREAU.
LICENSED TO ESSAR STEEL LIMITED, HAZIRA
NOTES
1 The shape of the test piece heads is given only as a guide.
2 See Table 1 for explanation of reference numbers.
FIG. 13 TEST PIECECUT FROM A TUBE

16
Is1608:19!M

ANNEX E
( Clause 8.2 )

NOMOGRAM FOR CALCULATJNG THE GAUGE LENGTHS OF TEST PIECES OF


RECTANGULAR CROSS-SECTION

This nomogram ( see Fig. 14 ) has been cons- E-2 CONSTRUCTION OF THE
tructed using the alignment method. NOMOGRAM
E-l METHOD OF USE
Carry out the following steps: Draw three parallel equidistant lines which will
be the axes for the logarithmic scales. These
a) On the outer scales, select points a and b shall be graduated logarithmically such that
representing the thickness and the width loglo 10 is represented by 25Omm; the three
of the rectangular test piece; scales increase towards the top of the page.

FOR INTERNAL USE AT THIS LOCATION ONLY, SUPPLIED BY BOOK SUPPLY BUREAU.
LICENSED TO ESSAR STEEL LIMITED, HAZIRA
b) Join these two points with a line ( length Place points 20 and 10 approximately at half
of thread or edge of a ruler ); height on the outer scales. Join the two
points 10 on each of the outer scales.
c) Read off the corresponding gauge length
from the left-hand of the two centre
scales, at the intersection of this line The intersection of this line and the central
with the central scale axis. scale axis gives the point 56 5 on the gauge
Example of use length (Lo) scale along the left-hand side of the
b = 21 mm a= 15.5mm L, = 102mm central axis.
NOTES
1 The error in reading Lo. which is less than The cross-sectional area (S,) scale is on the
f 1 percent, means that this nomogram can be used right-hand side of the central axis. The
in all cases without further calculation.
point 56.5 corresponds to the point 100 on this
2 The error in reading Lo may be greater than scale, which is graduated such that loglo 10 is
1 percent, meaning that in some cases the desired
accuracy is not obtained; it is then preferable to represented by 125 mm, that is, half the distance
calculate the product of a and b directly. used for the other scales.

17
IS 1608:.3995

WIDTH “RIG~EANL&UGE ORIGNAL CROSS THICKNESS


SECTIONAL AREA
b mm ~~=5.65fi mm s,=abmm* amm

60

FOR INTERNAL USE AT THIS LOCATION ONLY, SUPPLIED BY BOOK SUPPLY BUREAU.
LICENSED TO ESSAR STEEL LIMITED, HAZIRA
200 I_ to

LB

100 -7
90
80
70
60

10 50

9 40

8
30

7
i
20
6 4

FIG. 14 THB NOMOGRAM

18
IS 1608 : 1995

ANNEX F
( Clause 8.10.1 )

PRECAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN WKEN MEASURING THE PERCENTAGE ELONGATION


AFTER FRACTURE IF THE SPECIFIED VALUE IS LESS THAN 5 PERCENT

Prior to the test a very small mark shall be made together firmly during measurement. A second
near one of the ends of the parallel length. arc of the same radius shall then be described
Using a pair of needle-pointed dividers set at from the original centre, and the distance be-
the gauge length, an arc is described with the tween the two scratches measured by means of
mark as the centre. After fracture. the broken a measur.ing microscoDe or other suitable
test piece shall be placed in a fix&e and axial instrument. ‘in order to iender the fine scratches
compressive force applied, preferably by means more easily visible, a suitable dye film may be
of a screw, just sufficient to hold the pieces applied to the test piece before testing.

FOR INTERNAL USE AT THIS LOCATION ONLY, SUPPLIED BY BOOK SUPPLY BUREAU.
LICENSED TO ESSAR STEEL LIMITED, HAZIRA
ANNEX G
( Clause8.10.4 )

MEASUREMENT OF PERCENTAGE ELONGATION AFTER FRACTURE BASED ON


SUB-DIVISION OF THE ORIGINAL GAUGE LENGTH

To avoid having to reject test pieces when the intervals beyond Y;


position of the fracture does not comply with
the conditions of 8.10.1 the following method calculate the percentage elongation after
may be used, by agreement: fracture using the equation
a) Before the test: sub-divide the original XY + 2YZ - Lo x *oo
A
gauge length, LO, into N equal parts: - -----Lo
b) After rhe rest: use the symbol X to denote 2) if N--n is an odd number [ see
the gauge mark on the shorter piece and Fig. 15 ( b ) ], measure the distance bet-
the symbol Y to denote the division mark ween X and Y and the distance from Y to
on the longer piece which is nearest to the graduation marks Z’ and Z’ located
being the same distance from the fracture respectively
point as the gauge mark X (see Fig. 15 ).
If n is the number of intervals between Xand Y, N--n-l and N----n+1
the elongation after fracture is determined as 2 2
follows:
1) if N -n is an even number [ see intervals beyond Y;
Fig. 15 ( a ) 1, measure the distance bet-
ween X and Y and the distance from Y to calculate the percentage elongation after
fracture using the equation
the graduation mark 2 located
N-n XY+ YZ'+Yz'-LL, x
A-
1oo

2 LO
N N

.- - I- 1
!
I-_
?fF--Qq -!

X Y 2

NOTE - The shape of the test piece heads is given for information oniy.
FIG. 15 EXAMPLB OF ELONGATION MBASUREMENT AFTBR FRACTURB

19
IS 1608: 1995

ANNEX H
( ClausG4.4 )
PRECAUTIONS RECOMMENDED WHEN MEASURING THE TENSILE STRENGTH
OF MATERIALS SHOWING A SPECIAL YIELD PHENOMENON

For materials showing a special yield phenome- select one of the two maximum values for the
non the stress corresponding to the upper yield calculation of the tensile strength.
point, Rew, may be higher than any value of the The chosen maximum should be that specified
stress after that point ( second maximum; in the product standard or by agreement be-
see Fig. 16 ). In those cases, it is necessary to tween the parties concerned.

FOR INTERNAL USE AT THIS LOCATION ONLY, SUPPLIED BY BOOK SUPPLY BUREAU.
LICENSED TO ESSAR STEEL LIMITED, HAZIRA
FIG. 16

20
Bureau of Indian Standards

BIS is a statutory institution established under the Bureau oflndian StandardsAct, 1986 to promote harmonious
development of the activities of standardization, marking and quality certification of goods and attending to
connected matters in the country.

Copyright

BIS has the copyright of all its publications. No part of these publications may be reproduced in any form without
the prior permission in writing of BIS. This does not preclude the free use, in the course of implementing the
standard, of necessary details, such as symbols and sizes, type or grade designations. Enquiries relating to
copyright be addressed to the Director (Publications). BIS.

Review of Indian Standards

Amendments are issued to standards as the need arises on the basis of comments. Standards are also reviewed
periodically; a standard along with amendments is reaffirmed when such review indicates that no changes are

FOR INTERNAL USE AT THIS LOCATION ONLY, SUPPLIED BY BOOK SUPPLY BUREAU.
LICENSED TO ESSAR STEEL LIMITED, HAZIRA
needed; if the revie;: indicates that changes are needed, it is taken up-for revision. Users of Indian Standards
should ascertain that they are in possession of the latest amendments or edition by referring to the latest issue
of ‘BIS Handbook’ and ‘Standards : Monthly Additions’.

This Indian Standard has been developed from Dot No: MTD 3 ( 3870 ).

Amendments Issued Since Publication

Amend No. Date of Issue Text Affected

BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS


Headquarters:
Manak Bhavan. 9 Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg, New Delhi 110002 Telegrams: Manaksanstha
Telephones : 323 01 31, 323 94 02, 323 83 75 ( Common to
all offices )

Regional Offices:. Telephone


Central : Manak Bhavan. 9 Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg I 323 76 17
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JAIPUR. KANPUR. LUCKNOW. PATNA. THIRUVANANTHAPURAM.
,., ,

AMENDMENT NO. 1 MAY 2002


TO
IS 1608:1995 MECHANICAL TESTING OF
METALS — TENSILE TESTING

FOR INTERNAL USE AT THIS LOCATION ONLY, SUPPLIED BY BOOK SUPPLY BUREAU.
LICENSED TO ESSAR STEEL LIMITED, HAZIRA
( Second Revision)
(Page 14, Table 5 ) — Substitute the following for the existing table:

Table 5 Circular Cross-Section Test Pkces


( Clause C-2.3.1)

Diameter Or~mal Original Minimum Total Length Minimum


(d) Cross- Gauge Parallel (L,) Transition
Length (L) Length (L) Radius (r)
Area (.%)

mm m’ MM MM mm mm
22.5?0.25 397.8 112.5t 1.1 124 Depends on the 23.5
20 f 0.20 314 100i 1.0 110 method of 15
fixing the test
16 f0.15 201.1 80 k 0.8 88 13
piece in the
1410,15 154.0 7(3* 0.70 77 machine grip. 10
Ioto,lo 78.5 513i ().5 55 In principle 8
~> L+2da4d
5 f 0.05 19.6 25* 0.25 27.5 5
4 i 0,05 12.5 20 k ().2 22 4

(MTD3)

Reprography Unit, BIS, New Delhi, India