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Internet/World Wide Web-2 Prof.

M Mazhar Shahid

Prof. M Mazhar Shahid

Lecture 5+6
Advance Computer Applications
Learning Outcomes
Internet/World Wide Web Use-2

Internet/World Wide Web-2

 Explain the differences between a web page, home page, website, and domain name

 Locate resources for virus protection

 Download files from a website

 Identify public domain sites

 Identify and evaluate reliable Internet resources for research

 Explore copyright issues and understand "fair use"

Advnace Computer Applications(CF-217)

Internet/World Wide Web-2 Prof.M Mazhar Shahid

Definition of Web page

A web page can be defined as a solitary page of a website. When a user wants to access a webpage,
it can be accessed by using a single URL, and that page can be copied and shared.

Viewing a webpage doesn’t require any navigation, unlike a website. It can contain text, graphics,
audio, video, downloadable hyperlink to other pages, etc. Web browsers are used to display the
contents of the webpage through connecting to the server so that the remote files can be displayed.
These are created by using a programming language such as HTML, PHP, Python and Perl etc. The
HTML pages have a simple appearance and are not that interactive but consume less time to load and

There are two types of web page –

Static web page and dynamic webpage.

static web page

when a product acquires any change in information, the change must reflect on the website. At that
time, a person must incorporate the change on every web page manually, and this is time consuming
and tiresome process.

dynamic web page

a central database is used to store the product information.

Definition of Website
A website is the group of web pages which are placed in a location on the internet under a domain.

For example, a company website can have various web pages such as home, about us, contact us,
products, services and other. It is accessible through a web address. The website can be designed
using static web pages or dynamic web pages. Contents on a website are globally viewed, remains
same for the different individuals.

A website can be industry-specific, product specific or services specific etc.; these websites are
intended to educate their site visitors about their industry, products or services information. A
website must be hosted on a server at first so that it can be accessed on the internet.

A website is navigated from one webpage to another.

Advnace Computer Applications(CF-217)

Internet/World Wide Web-2 Prof.M Mazhar Shahid

Key Differences Between Web page and Website

1. A webpage is an independent part of a website that contains the links to other web pages on
the website. On the other hand, a website is a collection of relevant web pages that is
addressed to a Uniform Resource Locator.
2. Each website must have a unique URL whereas multiple web pages can have the same name
until they reside in different documents.
3. Website is a location used to display the content. In contrast, a webpage is a content that is to
be displayed on the website.
4. A web page URL has an extension like html, htm, php, etc. As against, website URL doesn’t
has any extension.
5. Web page address has an integral part of the domain name in it, and it depends upon a website.
On the contrary, a website does not have any relation to web page address.
6. Designing and Development of the webpage takes less time as compared to a website as a
website contain a lot of web pages.
A website represents all the contents that have placed online and involved each type of file. The web
page is a part of a website which drives a website and holds it together.

Domain name

 A domain name is your website name.

 A domain name is the address where Internet users can access your website. A domain name is
used for finding and identifying computers on the Internet. Computers use IP addresses, which
are a series of number. However, it is difficult for humans to remember strings of numbers.
Because of this, domain names were developed and used to identify entities on the Internet
rather than using IP addresses.

A domain name can be any combination of letters and numbers, and it can be used in
combination of the various domain name extensions, such as .com, .pk .org and more.

The domain name must be registered before you can use it. Every domain name is unique. No
two websites can have the same domain name. If someone types in, it
will go to your website and no one else's.
Domain names are managed under a hierarchy headed by the Internet Assigned Numbers
Authority (IANA), which manages the top of the DNS tree by administrating the data in the root

Web server
A computer that hosts a website on the Internet.

Advnace Computer Applications(CF-217)

Internet/World Wide Web-2 Prof.M Mazhar Shahid

Search Engine
A website that helps you find other web pages, such as Google, Bing, or Yahoo.

Let's look at a simple analogy — a public library. This is what you would generally do when
visiting a library:

Let's compare the library with a web server:

 The library is like a web server. It has several sections, which is similar to a web server hosting
multiple websites.
 The different sections (science, math, history, etc.) in the library are like websites. Each section is
like a unique website (two sections do not contain same books).
 The books in the sections are like webpages. One website may have several webpages, e.g., the
Science section (the website) will have books on heat, sound, thermodynamics, statics, etc. (the
 Similarly, webpages also have unique addresses. These unique addresses are used to retrieve a
webpage from a web server by typing the address in the address bar of a web browser (Mozilla
Firefox, Safari, Google chrome, etc).

Download files from the web

There are several types of files you can download from the web—documents, pictures, videos, apps,
extensions and toolbars for your browser, among others. When you select a file to download,
Internet Explorer will ask what you want to do with the file. Here are some things you can do,
depending on the type of file you're downloading:

 Open the file to view it, but don't save it to your PC.
 Save the file on your PC in the default download location. After Internet Explorer runs a
security scan and finishes downloading the file, you can choose to open the file, the folder it's
stored in, or view it in Download Manager.
 Save as a different file name, type, or download location on your PC.
 Run the app, extension, or other file type. After Internet Explorer runs a security scan, the file
will open and run on your PC.
 Cancel the download and go back to browsing the web.
You can also save smaller files—like single pictures—to your PC. Right-select the picture, link, or
file you want to save, and then choose Save picture or Save target as.

Advnace Computer Applications(CF-217)

Internet/World Wide Web-2 Prof.M Mazhar Shahid

Resources For Virus Protection.

A computer virus is a type of malicious software that, when executed, replicates itself by modifying
other computer programs and inserting its own code. When this replication succeeds, the affected areas
are then said to be "infected" with a computer virus.

Application Software that restrict and kill malicious process and Trojan from entering the system is called

Windows Defender comes part of windows 10 which should protect your PC against malware, viruses, spyware,
and other potentially unwanted programs.Its designed to stop malicious software from getting on your computer.

Till 13 Nov 2018 following are the best of all

 Bitdefender Antivirus Plus 2019.

 Norton AntiVirus Basic 2018.
 ESET NOD32 Antivirus.
 Webroot SecureAnywhere AntiVirus.
 Kaspersky Antivirus 2018.
 Panda Antivirus Pro.
 Trend Micro Antivirus+ Security.
 AVG AntiVirus Free

Antivirus with low resource and CPU usage on Windows 10



This antivirus security software is good for slow computers and compatible with the Windows
OS. It is a low resource antivirus.

Smadav uses only a small part of your computer’s resources. This software offers additional
Protection for your PC and compatible with other antivirus products.


 It detects and cleans viruses, thereby improving security in your PC.

 It offers protection for USB Flashdisk

 It also helps to clean USB Flashdisk and restore infected files in the USB
Advnace Computer Applications(CF-217)
Internet/World Wide Web-2 Prof.M Mazhar Shahid


 Password protection is disabled in free version.

 Free version does not have auto update.

 Genuine files are eliminated sometimes.

 In free version, exception list is disabled.


2.F-Secure Safe

This security software is the best for browser protection and

also has one of the best antiviruses for Windows. F-Secure is utilizes only a small part of
your computer’s resources.

In addition, F-Secure can protect your devices from ransomware, Trojans and viruses and
keeps all your banking connection secured.


 Instant notification immediately viruses are detected.

 Device finder to locate, lock or erase missing device.

 It effectively manages users and devices.

Advnace Computer Applications(CF-217)

Internet/World Wide Web-2 Prof.M Mazhar Shahid


 Unable to scan USB-connected devices or drives.

 In the F-Secure portal there is no remote configuration control.

 The components of Windows suite have an uneven quality.

3.Avast Free Antivirus software

Another antivirus with low resource

utilization. This antivirus software is very good for your PC and other devices. In
addition, it is a free antivirus software. It offers great protection against online threats and
is very good for slow computers.


 It is very light on the system.

 Modern and neat GUI.

 It has a customizable installer: features can be selected for installation.

 It includes SafeZone, Avast’s Chromium-based safe browser that’s specifically

designed to be hard to hijack.

 Avast also has a password manager, which allows you to synchronize credentials
on multiple devices, as long as they’re all connected to your Avast account.


Advnace Computer Applications(CF-217)

Internet/World Wide Web-2 Prof.M Mazhar Shahid

 It does not usually run quietly in the background. Too many ad’s and pop-up’s.

 Signatures for real world protect are not good enough.

 Improvement is needed in HIPS module and UI settings.

How to Find and Evaluate Reliable research resources.

What is a scholarly source?

Scholarly sources (also referred to as academic, peer-reviewed, or refereed sources) are written by experts in a
particular field and serve to keep others interested in that field up to date on the most recent research, findings,
and news. These resources will provide the most substantial information for your research and papers.

What is peer-review?
When a source has been peer-reviewed, it has undergone the review and scrutiny of a review board of
colleagues in the author’s field. They evaluate this source as part of the body of research for a particular
discipline and make recommendations regarding its publication in a journal, revisions prior to publication, or,
in some cases, reject its publication.

Why use scholarly sources?

Scholarly sources’ authority and credibility improve the quality of your own paper or research project.

How can I tell if a source is scholarly?

The following characteristics can help you differentiate scholarly sources from those that are not. Be sure to
look at the criteria in each category when making your determination, rather than basing your decision on only
one piece of information.

 Are author names provided?
 Are the authors’ credentials provided?
 Are the credentials relevant to the information provided?

 Who is the publisher of the information?
 Is the publisher an academic institution, scholarly, or professional organization?
 Is their purpose for publishing this information evident?

Advnace Computer Applications(CF-217)

Internet/World Wide Web-2 Prof.M Mazhar Shahid

 Who is the intended audience of this source?
 Is the language geared toward those with knowledge of a specific discipline rather than the general

 Why is the information being provided?
 Are sources cited?
 Are there charts, graphs, tables, and bibliographies included?
 Are research claims documented?
 Are conclusions based on evidence provided?
 How long is the source?

 Is the date of publication evident?

Additional Tips for Specific Scholarly Source Types

Each resource type below will also have unique criteria that can be applied to it to determine if it is scholarly.

 Publishers
o Books published by a University Press are likely to be scholarly.
o Professional organizations and the U.S. Government Printing Office can also be indicators
that a book is scholarly.
 Book Reviews
o Book reviews can provide clues as to if a source is scholarly and highlight the intended
audience. See our Find Reviewsguide to locate reviews on titles of interest.

 Are the author’s professional affiliations provided?
 Who is the publisher?
 How frequently is the periodical published?
 How many and what kinds of advertisements are present? For example, is the advertising clearly
geared towards readers in a specific discipline or occupation?
 For more information about different periodical types, see our Selecting Sources guide.

Web Pages
 What is the domain of the page (for example: .gov, .edu, etc.)?
 Who is publishing or sponsoring the page?
 Is contact information for the author/publisher provided?
 How recently was the page updated?

Advnace Computer Applications(CF-217)

Internet/World Wide Web-2 Prof.M Mazhar Shahid

 Is the information biased? Scholarly materials published online should not have any evidence of bias.

Public domain
consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may
have expired,been forfeited,expressly waived, or may be inapplicable.
Public domain by medium

 Public domain books

 Public domain films

Site on which copyright policy is not applicable,or has been expired, thus providing free resources for
commercial use are called Public Domain Site.
Some of them are listed below.


Wikimedia Commons

Copyright and Fair use policy

What Is Fair Use?

In its most general sense, a fair use is any copying of copyrighted material done for a
limited and “transformative” purpose, such as to comment upon, criticize, or parody a
copyrighted work. Such uses can be done without permission from the copyright owner.
In other words, fair use is a defense against a claim of copyright infringement. If your use
qualifies as a fair use, then it would not be considered an infringement.

So what is a “transformative” use?

be aware that millions of dollars in legal fees have been spent attempting to define what
qualifies as a fair use. There are no hard-and-fast rules, only general guidelines and
varied court decisions, because the judges and lawmakers who created the fair use
exception did not want to limit its definition. Like free speech, they wanted it to have an
expansive meaning that could be open to interpretation.

Most fair use analysis falls into two categories:

Advnace Computer Applications(CF-217)

Internet/World Wide Web-2 Prof.M Mazhar Shahid

(1) commentary and criticism

(2) parody.

1.Commentary and Criticism

If you are commenting upon or critiquing a copyrighted work—for instance, writing a

book review—fair use principles allow you to reproduce some of the work to achieve
your purposes. Some examples of commentary and criticism include:

 quoting a few lines from a song in a music review

 summarizing and quoting from a medical article on prostate cancer in a news
 copying a few paragraphs from a news article for use by a teacher or student in a
lesson, or
 copying a portion of a Sports Illustrated magazine article for use in a related court

The underlying rationale of this rule is that the public reaps benefits from your review,
which is enhanced by including some of the copyrighted material. Additional examples
of commentary or criticism are provided in the examples of fair use cases.


A parody is a work that ridicules another, usually well-known work, by imitating it in a

comic way. Judges understand that, by its nature, parody demands some taking from the
original work being parodied. Unlike other forms of fair use, a fairly extensive use of the
original work is permitted in a parody in order to “conjure up” the original

Advnace Computer Applications(CF-217)