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Wireless communication is the process of transferring of information in a distance without any

conducting physical medium. In this type of communication the information travels through the airs.
The distance may be short (a few meters as in television remote control) or long (satellite
communication). About different wireless range we will discuss in later section. Wireless
communication is generally considered to be a branch of telecommunications.

The various examples of the wireless communication are mobile communication. GPS
unit, Satellite television, wireless computer mice, cordless telephones, wireless keyboards,
headsets etc.

zigbee is a latest evolved technology with the commonly effort of Zigbee alliance and
IEEE 802.5.11 based on the demand of low power, low data transfer rate, low cost, low
complexity wireless network technology. Zigbee is ordinarily used in wireless sensor network
and control systems which connect and communicate among thousands of tiny sensors, these
sensors require very small amount of energy to send data from one sensor to another sensor
through radio waves in a relay way, and communication efficiency is very high.

Zigbee is a standard that defines a set of communications protocol for low data rate short
range wireless networking. Zigbee based wireless devices operate in 868 MHz, 915 MHz,
and 2.5 GHz frequency bands. Zigbee is a kind of short distance, low power, low data
transfer rate, low cost, low complexity wireless network technology. Zigbee connect and
communicate among thousands of sensors.
The maximum data rate is 250k bit per second. Zigbee is targeted mainly for battery
powered applications.
The ZigBee specifications is as follows:
 It is intended to be simpler protocol.
 It is cheaper than other WPANs, such as Bluetooth. It is a radio-frequency (RF)
application with a low data rate which require, secure networking and long battery life
In the market most wireless standards are available with fast data rate. Speed and
power consumption have direct relationship. The zigbee wireless networking
standards fit into the market that is simply not filled by the other wireless
technologies. While other wireless protocols add more and more features, zigbee aims
for a tiny stack that fits on 8-bit micro controller. ZigBee nodes are used for tying an
entire network, control, for security home or factory together, convenience and safety.
For a huge number of controls and sensors nodes can be incorporated and for
automation applications this nodes are built into big infrastructures like home
automation, industrial automation, remote metering, medical equipment, automotives,
security systems, temperature control systems, patient monitoring, lighting and, asset
tracking systems.

IEEE 802.15.4 operates in to the MAC and PHY

Figure 2: The overall ZigBee protocol stack

Figure 1: ZigBee stack architecture
From the open system interconnection ( OSI) reference model , zigbee protocol stack model
is structured in two first layer of OSI model physical and media access ( MAC layer).
It may be helpful to think of IEEE 802.15.4 as the physical radio and ZigBee as the logical
network and application software, as Figure 1 illustrates. The first two layers, physical (PHY)
and media access (MAC), are defined by the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. The layers above them
are defined by the ZigBee Alliance. The IEEE working group passed the first draft of PHY
and MAC in 2003. A final version of the network (NWK) layer is expected sometime this
ZigBee-compliant products operate in unlicensed bands worldwide, including 2.4GHz
(global), 902 to 928MHz (Americas), and 868MHz (Europe). Raw data throughput rates of
250Kbps can be achieved at 2.4GHz (16 channels), 40Kbps at 915MHz (10 channels), and
20Kbps at 868MHz (1 channel). The transmission distance is expected to range from 10 to
75m, depending on power output and environmental characteristics. Like Wi-Fi, Zigbee uses
direct-sequence spread spectrum in the 2.4GHz band, with offset-quadrature phase-shift
keying modulation. Channel width is 2MHz with 5MHz channel spacing. The 868 and
900MHz bands also use direct-sequence spread spectrum but with binary-phase-shift keying
Frame structure
Figure 2 illustrates the four basic frame types defined in 802.15.4: data, ACK, MAC
command, and beacon.

Figure 2: The four basic frame types defined in 802.15.4: Data, ACK, MAC
command, and beacon
The data frame provides a payload of up to 104 bytes. The frame is numbered to ensure
that all packets are tracked. A frame-check sequence ensures that packets are received
without error. This frame structure improves reliability in difficult conditions.
Another important structure for 802.15.4 is the acknowledgment (ACK) frame. It
provides feedback from the receiver to the sender confirming that the packet was
received without error. The device takes advantage of specified "quiet time" between
frames to send a short packet immediately after the data-packet transmission.
A MAC command frame provides the mechanism for remote control and configuration of
client nodes. A centralized network manager uses MAC to configure individual clients'
command frames no matter how large the network.
Finally, the beacon frame wakes up client devices, which listen for their address and go
back to sleep if they don't receive it. Beacons are important for mesh and cluster-tree
networks to keep all the nodes synchronized without requiring those nodes to consume
precious battery energy by listening for long periods of time.
Channel access, addressing
Two channel-access mechanisms are implemented in 802.15.4. For a non"beacon
network, a standard ALOHA CSMA-CA (carrier-sense medium-access with collision
avoidance) communicates with positive acknowledgement for successfully received
packets. In a beacon-enabled network, a superframe structure is used to control channel
access. The superframe is set up by the network coordinator to transmit beacons at
predetermined intervals (multiples of 15.38ms, up to 252s) and provides 16 equal-width
time slots between beacons for contention-free channel access in each time slot. The
structure guarantees dedicated bandwidth and low latency. Channel access in each time
slot is contention-based. However, the network coordinator can dedicate up to seven
guaranteed time slots per beacon interval for quality of service.
Device addresses employ 64-bit IEEE and optional 16-bit short addressing. The address
field within the MAC can contain both source and destination address information
(needed for peer-to-peer operation). This dual address information is used in mesh
networks to prevent a single point of failure within the network.
Device types
ZigBee networks use three device types:

 The network coordinator maintains overall network knowledge. It's the most
sophisticated of the three types and requires the most memory and computing power.
 The full function device (FFD) supports all 802.15.4 functions and features specified by
the standard. It can function as a network coordinator. Additional memory and
computing power make it ideal for network router functions or it could be used in
network-edge devices (where the network touches the real world).
 The reduced function device (RFD) carries limited (as specified by the standard)
functionality to lower cost and complexity. It's generally found in network-edge devices.

Power and beacons

Ultra-low power consumption is how ZigBee technology promotes a long lifetime for
devices with nonrechargeable batteries. ZigBee networks are designed to conserve the
power of the slave nodes. For most of the time, a slave device is in deep-sleep mode and
wakes up only for a fraction of a second to confirm its presence in the network. For
example, the transition from sleep mode to data transition is around 15ms and new
slave enumeration typically takes just 30ms.

ZigBee networks can use beacon or non-beacon environments. Beacons are used to
synchronize the network devices, identify the HAN, and describe the structure of the
superframe. The beacon intervals are set by the network coordinator and vary from
15ms to over 4 minutes. Sixteen equal time slots are allocated between beacons for
message delivery. The channel access in each time slot is contention-based. However,
the network coordinator can dedicate up to seven guaranteed time slots for
noncontention based or low-latency delivery.
The non-beacon mode is a simple, traditional multiple-access system used in simple peer
and near-peer networks. It operates like a two-way radio network, where each client is
autonomous and can initiate a conversation at will, but could interfere with others
unintentionally. The recipient may not hear the call or the channel might already be in
Beacon mode is a mechanism for controlling power consumption in extended networks
such as cluster tree or mesh. It enables all the clients to know when to communicate
with each other. Here, the two-way radio network has a central dispatcher that manages
the channel and arranges the calls. The primary value of beacon mode is that it reduces
the system's power consumption.
Non-beacon mode is typically used for security systems where client units, such as
intrusion sensors, motion detectors, and glass-break detectors, sleep 99.999% of the
time. Remote units wake up on a regular, yet random, basis to announce their continued
presence in the network. When an event occurs, the sensor wakes up instantly and
transmits the alert ("Somebody's on the front porch"). The network coordinator,
powered from the main source, has its receiver on all the time and can therefore wait to
hear from each of these stations. Since the network coordinator has an "infinite" source
of power it can allow clients to sleep for unlimited periods of time, enabling them to save
Beacon mode is more suitable when the network coordinator is battery-operated. Client
units listen for the network coordinator's beacon (broadcast at intervals between 0.015
and 252s). A client registers with the coordinator and looks for any messages directed to
it. If no messages are pending, the client returns to sleep, awaking on a schedule
specified by the coordinator. Once the client communications are completed, the
coordinator itself returns to sleep.
This timing requirement may have an impact on the cost of the timing circuit in each end
device. Longer intervals of sleep mean that the timer must be more accurate or turn on
earlier to make sure that the beacon is heard, both of which will increase receiver power
consumption. Longer sleep intervals also mean the timer must improve the quality of the
timing oscillator circuit (which increases cost) or control the maximum period of time
between beacons to not exceed 252s, keeping oscillator circuit costs low.
Security and data integrity are key benefits of the ZigBee technology. ZigBee leverages
the security model of the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC sublayer which specifies four security

 access control—the device maintains a list of trusted devices within the network
 data encryption, which uses symmetric key 128-bit advanced encryption standard
 frame integrity to protect data from being modified by parties without cryptographic
 sequential freshness to reject data frames that have been replayed—the network
controller compares the freshness value with the last known value from the device and
rejects it if the freshness value has not been updated to a new value

The actual security implementation is specified by the implementer using a standardized

toolbox of ZigBee security software.

Network layer
The NWK layer associates or dissociates devices using the network coordinator,
implements security, and routes frames to their intended destination. In addition, the
NWK layer of the network coordinator is responsible for starting a new network and
assigning an address to newly associated devices.
The NWK layer supports multiple network topologies including star, cluster tree, and
mesh, all of which are shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3: ZigBee network model

In a star topology, one of the FFD-type devices assumes the role of network coordinator
and is responsible for initiating and maintaining the devices on the network. All other
devices, known as end devices, directly communicate with the coordinator.
In a mesh topology, the ZigBee coordinator is responsible for starting the network and
for choosing key network parameters, but the network may be extended through the use
of ZigBee routers. The routing algorithm uses a request-response protocol to eliminate
sub-optimal routing. Ultimate network size can reach 264 nodes (more than we'll
probably need). Using local addressing, you can configure simple networks of more than
65,000 (216) nodes, thereby reducing address overhead.
The General Operation Framework (GOF) is a glue layer between applications and rest of
the protocol stack. The GOF currently covers various elements that are common for all
devices. It includes subaddressing and addressing modes and device descriptions, such
as type of device, power source, sleep modes, and coordinators. Using an object model,
the GOF specifies methods, events, and data formats that are used by application
profiles to construct set/get commands and their responses.
Actual application profiles are defined in the individual profiles of the IEEE's working
groups. Each ZigBee device can support up to 30 different profiles. Currently, only one
profile, Commercial and Residential Lighting, is defined. It includes switching and
dimming load controllers, corresponding remote-control devices, and occupancy and
light sensors.
The ZigBee stack is small in comparison to other wireless standards. For network-edge
devices with limited capabilities, the stack requires about 4Kb of the memory. Full
implementation of the protocol stack takes less than 32Kb of memory. The network
coordinator may require extra RAM for a node devices database and for transaction and
pairing tables. The 802.15.4 standard defines 26 primitives for the PHY and MAC layers;
probably another dozen will be added after finalizing the NWK layer specification. Those
numbers are still modest compared to 131 primitives defined for Bluetooth. Such a
compact footprint enables you to run Zigbee on a simple 8-bit microcontroller such as an
HC08- or 8051-based processor core.

Figure 4: A typical ZigBee-enabled device will consist of RF IC and 8-bit

microprocessor with peripherals connected to an application sensor or
As Figure 4 shows, a typical ZigBee-enabled device includes a radio frequency integrated
circuit (RF IC) with a partially implemented PHY layer connected to a low-power, low-
voltage 8-bit microcontroller with peripherals, connected to an application sensor or
actuators. The protocol stack and application firmware reside in on-chip flash memory.
The entire ZigBee device can be compact and cost efficient.
Motorola and Atmel already offer a set of RF ICs and microcontrollers for ZigBee.
Chipcon is sampling 802.15.4-compliant RF ICs for the 2.4GHz band. Currently, a ZigBee
chip set costs about $7, but that price should fall to $2 after market acceptance. Studies
suggest that it will happen in the new few years. It may take a year or more to
determine how much ZigBee will be accepted in the market

The comparison between most common wireless technologies is listed in below table
according to its wireless standard, power consumption, data rate, range of covering and
memory requirement. The In the context of sensor network which require only small data rate
and low power consumption all the wireless protocol seems to be infeasible except Zigbee.
Zigbee is ideal for low power consumption and low data rate required network sensor
Zigbee network falls under the Wireless personal area networks (WPANs), which is used for
short distance communication and cover the distance up to 10 m in all direction of this
periphery. The focus of WPANs is low-cost, low power, short range and very small size

Fig: ZigBee and Other Wireless Standards

The ZigBeestandard provides network,security, and applicationsupport s ervices

operating ontop ofthe IEEE 802.5.4 Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical
Layer (PHY) wireless standard. It employs asuite oftechnologies t o enablescalable,self-
organizing,self-healing networks t hat can manage various datatraffic patterns. The
network layersupports various t opologies s uchstar, clusteredtreetopology andself
healing meshtopology whichis essentialin Smartdust Apart from easy i nstallation and
easy implementation.

A wireless sensor network (WSN) is the collection of the autonomous sensors which are
spatially distributed for the purpose of monitoring physical or environmental condition, such
as temperature, sound, vibration, humidity, pressure, motion etc. Initially the wireless sensor
network was developed for the application of military such as battlefield surveillance to
increase the security and make reliable operation. The wired technology is so much
cumbersome in this task and not feasible as well. In present days WSN used in many
industrial and civilian application areas, including industrial process monitoring and control,
machine health monitoring, environment and habitat monitoring, healthcare applications,
home automation, and traffic control.

In the network there is one or more sensors node and in the node it is equipped with a
radio transceiver or other wireless communication device, a small microcontroller, and an
energy source usually a battery voltage since it requires a small amount of energy to operate.
As a radio transceiver for low data rate and low power consumption application zigbee
wireless protocol is used. And most of the sensor network they operate in low data rate and
try to consume minimum power so that a pair of battery operates a single year for reliability
of its application. Sensor nodes are in different size. The sizes vary from that of a shoebox
down to the size of a grain of dust. Size and cost constraints on sensor nodes result in
corresponding constraints on resources such as energy, memory, computational speed and
A sensor network normally works a s wireless ad-hoc network that means each sensor
follow a multi-hop routing algorithm where node forwards relays data packets to a base

Sensor node
Sensor nodes gather the information about its surrounding according to its particular
application. It processes the raw information and can communicate with other nodes in the
network. The typical block diagram of the sensor node is presented below.


As in the block diagram the main components of the sensor nodes are listed below,

 Microcontroller
 Transceiver
 External memory
 Power Source
 One or more sensors

As the name suggest controller is the controls the overall operation of the node. It includes
processing of data, controlling the functionality of other different component that is used in
the sensor node. There are various types of controller for this purpose but the most common
used controller is Microcontroller unit of different series. Other alternative controllers are
desktop microprocessor, digital signal processors ASICs, and FPGAs. A microcontroller
gain popularity in the embedded system sensor node due to its low cost, flexibility to connect
to other devices, ease of programming and low power consumption.

Other general purpose microprocessors are not considered for this purpose due to the
higher power consumption than microcontroller since wireless sensor network totally
based on the power saving mechanism. A general purpose microprocessor generally has
higher power consumption than a microcontroller; therefore it is often not considered a
suitable choice for a sensor node. In the broadband wireless communication system,
digital signal processor may be implemented but in the case of wireless sensor network
the communication process is so much simpler, easy process of modulation and the
signal processing tasks of actual sensing of data is less complicated. Therefore it is not
seen more advantages of DSP to the wireless sensor node. In the other hand FGPAs can
utilized for this processing by reprogramming and reconfiguring it according to our
need, but the time consumption and effort is more than requirement.


Sensor node often operates to the ISM band which is a free radio, spectrum allocation and
global availability However apart from radio frequency for transmission other media includes
optical communication (Laser) and Infrared. Now talking about these options laser is the
line-of-sight communication with the less energy requirement and it is more sensitive towards
the atmospheric environment. Though the infrared communication does not need any antenna
for communication like laser but it has limited broadcasting capacity. So that, the relevant fit
for WSN applications is Radio frequency based communication with more flexibility. WSN
generally tend to operate in license-free communication frequencies: 173, 433, 868, and 915
MHz; and 2.4 MHz. The device which contains both the function of transmitter and receiver
is known as the transceivers. Transceivers often lack unique identifiers. The different
operational stage of the transceivers is transmitting, receive, idle, and sleep.
The most of transceivers operating in idle mode consume same amount of power as in the
receive mode. Thus, for the power consumption process it is better to completely off the
transceiver, not allowing it to idle mode when it is not transmitting or receiving data.
Transceiver consumes more power when changing the state from sleep mode to transmit
mode in order to transmit the packet of data.

External memory

Generally there are two types of memory; User memory and Program memory. User
memory is used to store application related or personal data and program memory contain
space for programming the device and identification data of the device. Microcontroller
contain on chip memory itself. Flash memories are most relevant from the view of energy
perspective as well there cost is relatively low and storage capacity is high. Off-chip RAM is
used according to the application requirement. Memory requirement is totally application

Power source

The power is required for sensor node for sensing, communicating and data processing.
Sensor node needs relatively low power so that Power requirement is fulfilled either the use
of batteries or capacitors. Batteries with rechargeable or non-rechargeable option are the main
source of power supply for sensor nodes. They are also classified according to
electrochemical material used for the electrodes such as NiCd (nickel-cadmium), NiZn
(nickel-zinc), NimHh (nickel-metal hydride), and lithium-ion. Current sensors are able to
renew their energy from solar sources, temperature differences, or vibration. Two power
saving policies used are Dynamic power management (DPM) and Dynamic voltage
Scaling.(DVS). DPM conserves power by shutting down parts of the sensor node which are
not currently used or active. A DVS scheme varies the power levels within the sensor node
depending on the non-deterministic workload. By varying the voltage along with the
frequency, it is possible to obtain quadratic reduction in power consumption.

A sensor; is a physical which is used for measuring a physical condition which produce a
measurable response according to the change in physical condition like temperature , pressure
or humidity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an
instrument. Sensors measure physical data of the parameter to be monitored.

The initially generated signal by the sensor is continual analog in signal the nature which
should be digitized by an Analog to Digital converter (ADC) for further processing by the
controller. For the proper design consideration in terms of size, power consumption and
speed and to increase intelligence in the system a sensor node should be small in size,
consume extremely low energy, operate in high volumetric densities, be autonomous and
operate unattended, and be adaptive to the environment. So that wireless sensor nodes are
typically very small electronic devices, they can only be equipped with a limited power
source of less than 0.5-2 ampere-hour and 1.2-3.7 volts.

The sensors are divided into further three categories they are listed below

 Passive sensors
 Omni-directional sensors
 Passive narrow beam sensors

Passive sensors are self powered sensors which sense the data without actually manipulating
the environment by active probing. External power is needed only for the amplification of the
analog signal.

An active sensor requires continuous energy from the power source to operate and it actively
examines the environment, for example, a sonar or radar sensor.
Narrow-beam sensors have a well-defined notion of direction of measurement, similar to a
camera. Omni-directional sensors have no notion of direction involved in their

For the theoretical work on the WSN network, passive and Omni-directional sensors are
used. For each sensors node certain area of coverage will be determined at which it can fully
monitor that area. The power is required during the different work on the sensor node; signal
sampling and conversion of physical signals to electrical ones, signal conditioning, and
analog-to-digital conversion.

Why is it called Zigbee?

It has been suggested that the name evokes the haphazard paths that bees follow as
they harvest pollen, similar to the way packets would move through a mesh network.
Using communication system, whereby the bee dances in a zig-zag pattern, the worker
also able to share information such as the location, distance, And direction of a newly
discovered food source to her fellow colony members. Instinctively implementing the ZigBee
Principle, bees around the world actively sustain productive itchiness and promote future
generations of Colony members. The various sensors fitted to the car engine.

1.4 Network Topologies

The given below figure shows the different topologies that the zigbee supports: Star topology,
Tree topology and Mesh topology.

2.4.1 Star Topology

Node can be placed in the form of Star, tree and mesh topology. Among these three the
simplest topology is the star topology. This type of network contains one coordinator, no
routers and a number of end devices as shown in the figure. All the end devices are directly
connected with the coordinator.

(a) Star topology (b) Tree topology (c) Mesh topology

Figure 5The Zigbee network topologies

2.4.2 Tree Topology

Tree topology contains one single route to communicate between devices. We can see in the
figure that end devices either communicate directly with the coordinator or one of the routers.

2.4.3 Mesh Topology

Like in the tree topology, end devices in a mesh communicate either directly with the
coordinator or with a router. But the different is that there may be several routes between
different routers providing redundant routing in a mesh topology. This type of transparent
routing to the end devices can introduces some reliability in the network but the network
become more complex. An example of a mesh network can be seen in Figure 5(c). As may be
noticed, the star topology is a subset of the tree topology, which again is a subset of the mesh


1) Development kits
2) sensors
3) Transceivers
4) modules

Wires versus wireless :

Wireless is inherently unreliable. Does this sound strange coming from a proponent of
zigbee? It’s true. There are so many factors that affect wireless; RF noise coming from
machinery, changes in the physical environment, even the vagaries of the atmosphere. In the
2.4 GHz spectrum, which is the ISM band used by Zigbee, there is even more interference.
Water, people, concrete, metal, foliage can all change the wireless characteristics, causing
packet delivery to fail. Now granted, zigbee, with its mesh networking and per hop and end to
end retries and acknowledgments, turns what is an essentially unreliable medium into a very
reliable network, but zigbee is not the only solution to network devices.
A wired network doesn’t have any of the above problems. But wires do have problems of
their own. Wires have connectors, and connectors get broken over time, especially if they are
plugged in frequently. The wires themselves get caught on things and get cut. A wireless
system can test and inspect the washing machines, dryers and refrigerators coming down the
line without any of the drawbacks of wires.


It offers a unique in wireless applications, including low-cost radios; mesh

networking, a basis in standards, and low Power consumption. But with this technology, this
realizing a successful ZigBee implementation requires understanding its architecture and
operation, assessing design options at the chip and module level, and weighing practical
considerations relative to specific application needs.


1. IEEE 802.15.4 with OQPS and DSSS

2. CSMA – CA
3. 16 bit CRC’S
4. Acknowledgement at each hop
5. Mesh networking to find reliable route
6. End to end acknowledgement to verify data made it to the destination.

ZigBee is the product of the ZigBee Alliance, an organization of manufacturers

dedicated to developing a new networking technology for small, ISM-band radios that could
welcome even the simplest industrial and home end devices into wireless connectivity. The
ZigBee specification was finalized in December 2004, and products that which supports the
ZigBee standard are just now beginning to enter the market. Designing the zigbee are taken
into considerations as it is a low-cost, low-power, low-data rate wireless mesh technology.
Three kinds the ZigBee specification that incorporate ZigBee radios identifies of
devices, in a typical ZigBee network with all three found:
 A coordinator the network which organizes and routing tables which maintains.
 Routers, which can communicate to the coordinator, to other routers, and end
devices also to reduce the function.
 Reduced function end devices, to routers and the coordinator which can talk, but
not to each other.

To power consumption minimize and long battery life promote in battery powered
devices, most of their can spend time asleep end devices, only when need to communicate
they waking up and back to sleep then going immediately. ZigBee envisions that routers and
the coordinator will be mains powered and will not go to sleep.

To Illustrate How The Components Inter - relate:

Consider ZigBee networking in office lighting. Several manufacturers are currently
developed in expense sensors (A sensor is a device that measures a physical quantity and
converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an instrument. For example,
a mercury-in-glass thermometer converts the measured temperature into expansion and
contraction of a liquid which can be read on a calibrated glass tube. A thermocouple converts
temperature to an output voltage which can be read by a voltmeter. For accuracy, most
sensors are calibrated against known standards.) For fluorescent tubes that let lights be turned
on and off by battery-powered wall switches, with no wires between switch and fixture. The
light switch is the end device, powered by a button cell battery that will last for years; the
switch wakes up and uses battery power only when flipped on or off to transmit the new state
to the fluorescent tubes routers which, as they are already connected to the mains, are not
concerned with battery conservation. Any one of the fluorescent tubes can contain the
coordinator. The implications are enormous for new office construction no more electrical
runs for lighting, and the ability to reconfigure lighting controls at almost zero cost.
ZigBee extends similar benefits to a wide range of industrial automation and control

Characteristics that are highly beneficial and they are as follows:
Zigbee is highly reliable:
Wireless communication is inherently unreliable. Prove this to yourself by walking
around with your cell phones, then step into an elevator. Anyone who has used the cell
phonehas experienced dropped calls or poor reception. It’s all because radio waves are just
that: waves. They run into interference pattern, can be blocked by the metal, water or a lot of
concrete and vary depend on many complex factors including anteena design, power
amplification and even weather condition.
• Low Cost
The typical ZigBee radio is extremely cost-effective. This pricing to simplify the
devices for economic explanation and for extending wireless networking.

• Range and Obstruction Issues Avoidance:

As input devices and repeaters the zigbee routers doubles to create a form of mesh
networks. A clear path to the data’s destination from the blocked node the transmission is
dynamically routed to a router if two or more network points are can not communicate as
designed. This happens automatically, so even when a link fails unexpectedly in the networks
the communication continues. When the distance between the remote node and base station
outpace the device range the use of low-cost routers can also be elongate the network’s
effective reach, an intermediate node can relay transmission, dispensing the need for the
isolated repeaters.

• Multi-Source Products
ZigBee provides customers in open standard, with the ability to choose among
vendors. In ZigBee Alliance working groups define that the interoperability profiles is to
which ZigBee certified devices must adhere, and with any other ZigBee certified radio
minding to the same profile the assured radio will interperate, promoting compatibility and
the associated competition that acquiesce the end users to selet the best device for each and
every network node, regardless of manufacturer.

Low Power Consumption

The ZigBee radios operate at 1 m WRF power, and it can sleep when not involved in
transmission. More practical than ever as this also makes battery powered radio, in addition
wireless devices are free to be placed to eliminating data cable runs without power cable runs.

 Zigbee is low data rate. :

In order to achieve low cost and low power, and considering the applications space
and markets zigbee is aiming for, the zigbee alliance decided to keep the protocol designed
for a low data rate environment.

 Zigbee is higly secure :

For securing the network, zigbee uses the national institute of standard and
technology (nist) advanced encryption standard (aes). This standard is a block cipherthat
encrypts and decrypts packets in manner that is very difficult to crack. Its one of the best
known and well-respected standards.the reason it was adopted by zigbee was for the
following key reasons:
 It’s an international recognized and trusted standard.
 It’s free of patent infringements
 It’s implementable on an 8 bit processor.

Zigbee provides both encryption, which means that packets cannot be understand by
listening nodes that are not aware of the key, and authentication. Which means a malicious
node cannot inject false packets into the network and expect the zigbee nodes to do anything
with them other than throw them away? Zigbee has been very careful to ensure the security

 Zigbee more benefits are as follows:

 For securing the network zigbee uses the National Institute Of Standard And
Technology (NIST), Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) :
 It is a internationally recognized and trusted standard
 Its free of patent infringements
 Its implementable on an 8 bit processor
 Zigbee is an open global standard.

 Components used in ZIGBEE MODULE

1. Zigbee module
2. Transistor - LM117-3.3
3. Capacitors – 10uf – 2no
Power supply – 5v