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MECHANISM OF THE

MAIN ROTOR SYSTEM OF BELL 206

SUBMITTED BY:
Bedonia, Princess Ericka C.
Cunanan, Jose Lorenzo
Magadia, Sean Andrew
Valenzuela, KC Lyn
TABLE OF CONTENTS

I. Introduction

II. Definition of Terms

III. Discussion
 Classification of the Main Rotor
 Powerplant
 Control System
 Transmission System
 Main Rotor Transmission
 Swash Plate Assembly

IV. Parts and Components of the Main Rotor System of a Bell 206

V. Function of Each Parts

VI. Mechanism of a Main Rotor System

VII. How It Works

VIII. Representation of the Model

IX. Documentation
I. INTRODUCTION

There are a lot of aspects and subject matters that may be attributed to the aviation
industry. There are the theories, principles, laws, discoveries and inventions, and most especially
aircrafts. One of the many types of aircraft is the helicopter. The latter is an aircraft that derives
both lift and propulsion from one or more sets of horizontally revolving overhead rotors. A
helicopter is an aircraft that is lifted and propelled by one or more horizontal rotors, each rotor
consisting of two or more rotor blades. Helicopters are classified as rotorcraft or rotary-wing
aircraft to distinguish them from fixed-wing aircraft because the helicopter derives its source of
lift from the rotor blades rotating around a mast. The word “helicopter” is adapted from the
French hélicoptère, coined by Gustave de Ponton d’Amécourt in 1861. It is linked to the Greek
words helix/helikos (“spiral” or “turning”) and pteron (“wing”).It is capable of moving vertically
and horizontally, the direction of motion being controlled by the pitch of the rotor blades. In this
project, we have chosen a particular model of helicopter to represent our main topic which is the
mechanism of one of its components. The main rotor system of a Bell 206 is what we have
chosen to discuss. But first, what is this we call main rotor system?

A helicopter main rotor or rotor system is the combination of several rotary


wings (rotor blades) and a control system that generates the aerodynamic lift force that supports
the weight of the helicopter, and the thrust that counteracts aerodynamic drag in forward flight.
Each main rotor is mounted on a vertical mast over the top of the helicopter, as opposed to a
helicopter tail rotor, which connects through a combination of drive shaft(s) and gearboxes along
the tail boom. The blade pitch is typically controlled by a swashplate connected to the helicopter
flight controls. Helicopters are one example of rotary-wing aircraft (rotorcraft). The name is
derived from the Greek words helix, helik-, meaning spiral; and pteron meaning wing.
Main rotor systems are classified according to how the main rotor blades are
attached and move relative to the main rotor hub. There are three basic classifications: semirigid,
rigid, or fully articulated. Some modern rotor systems, such as the bearingless rotor system, use
an engineered combination of these types. The main rotor system of a helicopter, or of a Bell 206
to be particular, is a semi-rigid type. In here, we will discuss the mechanism of the main rotor
system of the said helicopter along with the demonstration of the model we made to further
explain how the main rotor system works.
DESIGN OVERVIEW
The helicopter rotor is powered by the engine, through the transmission, to the rotating mast. The
mast is a cylindrical metal shaft that extends upward from—and is driven by—the transmission.
At the top of the mast is the attachment point for the rotor blades called the hub. The rotor blades
are then attached to the hub, and the hub can have 10-20 times the drag of the blade. Main rotor
systems are classified according to how the main rotor blades are attached and move relative to
the main rotor hub. There are three basic classifications: hingeless, teetering, and fully
articulated, although some modern rotor systems use a combination of these classifications. A
rotor is a finely tuned rotating mass, and different subtle adjustments reduce vibrations at
different airspeeds.] The rotors are designed to operate at a fixed RPM (within a narrow range of
a few percent), but a few experimental aircraft used variable speed rotors.
Unlike the small diameter fans used in turbofan jet engines, the main rotor on a helicopter has a
large diameter that lets it accelerate a large volume of air. This permits a lower downwash
velocity for a given amount of thrust. As it is more efficient at low speeds to accelerate a large
amount of air by a small degree than a small amount of air by a large degree, a low disc
loading (thrust per disc area) greatly increases the aircraft's energy efficiency, and this reduces
the fuel use and permits reasonable range. The hover efficiency ("figure of merit") of a typical
helicopter is around 60%. The inner third length of a rotor blade contributes very little to lift due
to its low airspeed.
II. DEFINITION OF TERMS

LIFT
 to move or bring (something) upward from the ground or other support to a higher
position; hoist.
 to raise or direct upward

DRAG
 Drag is the aerodynamic force that opposes an aircraft's motion through the air. Drag is
generated by every part of the airplane (even the engines!).

THRUST
 Thrust is the force which moves an aircraft through the air. Thrust is used to overcome
the drag of an airplane, and to overcome the weight of a rocket.Thrust is generated by the
engines of the aircraft through some kind of propulsion system.

ROTATION
 rotation refers to the action of applying back pressure to a control device, such as a yoke,
side-stick or centre stick, to lift the nose wheel off the ground during the takeoff roll. ... If
too much rotation is added for takeoff, the airplane can face a tailstrike, or, in the worst
case, will stall and crash.

PITCH
 Rotation around the side-to-side axis is called pitch.

ANGLE OF ATTACK
 Angle of attack (AOA) is the angle between the oncoming air or relative wind and a
reference line on the airplane or wing. Sometimes, the reference line is a line connect- ing
the leading edge and trailing edge at some average point on the wing.
WEIGHT
 The aircraft gross weight (also known as the all-up weight (AUW)) is the total aircraft
weight at any moment during the flight or ground operation. An aircraft's gross weight
will decrease during a flight due to fuel and oil consumption.

FLUTTER
 Flutter is a phenomenon that can occur when a structure is subjected to aerodynamic
forces. It occurs not only in aircraft but also for example in buildings, power lines, road
signs and bridges. Flutter is an oscillation caused by interaction of aerodynamic forces,
structural elasticity and inertial effects.

RPM
 Revolutions per minute
 This allows the use of small displacement internal combustion automotive engines to
turn aircraft propellers within an efficient speed range.

Payload
 The term used for passengers,baggage, and cargo.

Torque
 In helicopters with a single, main rotor system, the tendency of the helicopter to turn in
the opposite direction of the main rotor rotation.

Blade Flap
 The upward or downward movement of the rotor blades during rotation.

Blade Feather or Feathering


 The rotation of the blade around the spanwise (pitch change) axis.

Blade Lead or Lag


 The fore and aft movement of the blade in the plane of rotation. It is sometimes
called hunting or dragging.
III. Discussion

CLASSIFICATION OF THE MAIN ROTOR SYSTEM OF A HELICOPTER

POWERPLANT

A typical small helicopter has a reciprocating engine, which is mounted on the airframe.
The engine can be mounted horizontally or vertically with the transmission supplying the power
to the vertical main rotor shaft. Another engine type is the gas turbine. This engine is used in
most medium to heavy lift helicopters due to its large horsepower output. The engine drives the
main transmission, which then transfers power directly to the main rotor system, as well as the
tail rotor.

FLIGHT CONTROLS

There are four basic controls used during flight. They are the collective pitch control, the
throttle, the cyclic pitch control, and the antitorque pedals.

COLLECTIVE PITCH CONTROL


The collective pitch control, located on the left side of the pilot’s seat, changes the pitch
angle of all main rotor blades simultaneously, or collectively, as the name implies. As the
collective pitch control is raised, there is a simultaneous and equal increase in pitch angle of all
main rotor blades; as it is lowered, there is a simultaneous and equal decrease in pitch angle. This
is done through a series of mechanical linkages and the amount of movement in the collective
lever determines the amount of blade pitch change. An adjustable friction control helps prevent
inadvertent collective pitch movement. Changing the pitch angle on the blades changes the angle
of attack on each blade. With a change in angle of attack comes a change in drag, which affects
the speed or r.p.m. of the main rotor. As the pitch angle increases, angle of attack increases, drag
increases, and rotor r.p.m. decreases. Decreasing pitch angle decreases both angle of attack and
drag, while rotor r.p.m. increases. In order to maintain a constant rotor r.p.m., which is essential
in helicopter operations, a proportionate change in power is required to compensate for the
change in drag. This is accomplished with the throttle control or a correlator and/or governor,
which automatically adjusts engine power.

CYCLIC PITCH CONTROL


The cyclic pitch control tilts the main rotor disc by changing the pitch angle of the rotor
blades in their cycle of rotation. When the main rotor disc is tilted, the horizontal component of
lift moves the helicopter in the direction of tilt. The rotor disc tilts in the direction that pressure is
applied to the cyclic pitch control. If the cyclic is moved forward, the rotor disc tilts forward; if
the cyclic is moved aft, the disc tilts aft, and so on. Because the rotor disc acts like a gyro, the
mechanical linkages for the cyclic control rods are rigged in such a way that they decrease the
pitch angle of the rotor blade approximately 90° before it reaches the direction of cyclic
displacement, and increase the pitch angle of the rotor blade approximately 90° after it passes the
direction of displacement. An increase in pitch angle increases angle of attack; a decrease in
pitch angle decreases angle of attack. For example, if the cyclic is moved forward, the angle of
attack decreases as the rotor blade passes the right side of the helicopter and increases on the left
side. This results in maximum downward deflection of the rotor blade in front of the helicopter
and maximum upward deflection behind it, causing the rotor disc to tilt forward.

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM
The transmission system transfers power from the engine to the main rotor, tail rotor, and
other accessories. The main components of the transmission system are the main rotor
transmission, tail rotor drive system, clutch, and freewheeling unit. Helicopter transmissions are
normally lubricated and cooled with their own oil supply. A sight gauge is provided to check the
oil level. Some transmissions have chip detectors located in the sump. These detectors are wired
to warning lights located on the pilot’s instrument panel that illuminate in the event of an internal
problem.

MAIN ROTOR TRANSMISSION


The primary purpose of the main rotor transmission is to reduce engine output r.p.m. to
optimum rotor r.p.m. This reduction is different for the various helicopters, but as an example,
suppose the engine r.p.m. of a specific helicopter is 2,700. To achieve a rotor speed of 450 r.p.m.
would require a 6 to 1 reduction. A 9 to 1 reduction would mean the rotor would turn at 300
r.p.m. Most helicopters use a dual-needle tachometer to show both engine and rotor r.p.m. or a
percentage of engine and rotor r.p.m. The rotor r.p.m. needle normally is used only during clutch
engagement to monitor rotor acceleration, and in autorotation to maintain r.p.m. within
prescribed limits. In helicopters with horizontally mounted engines, another purpose of the main
rotor transmission is to change the axis of rotation from the horizontal axis of the engine to the
vertical axis of the rotor shaft.
SWASH PLATE ASSEMBLY
The purpose of the swash plate is to transmit control inputs from the collective and cyclic
controls to the main rotor blades. It consists of two main parts: the stationary swash plate and the
rotating swash plate. The stationary swash plate is mounted around the main rotor mast and
connected to the cyclic and collective controls by a series of pushrods. It is restrained from
rotating but is able to tilt in all directions and move vertically. The rotating swash plate is
mounted to the stationary swash plate by means of a bearing and is allowed to rotate with the
main rotor mast. Both swash plates tilt and slide up and down as one unit. The rotating swash
plate is connected to the pitch horns by the pitch links.

IV. PARTS AND COMPONENTS OF A MAIN ROTOR SYSTEM


The design of the Bell 206 rotor head is not that different from that of the Robinson. Note that in
this picture, there are no light blue arrows, because the 206 head does not include coning hinges.
Instead, the rotor head is designed with a pre-cone angle to the blade retention system, and other
coning forces are simply dealt with by bending of the blades (which must be built stronger to
deal with the extra stress).

V. FUNCTIONS OF EACH PARTS

Swashplate

A swashplate is a device that translates input via the helicopter flight controls into motion of the
main rotor blades. Because the main rotor blades are spinning, theswashplate is used to transmit
three of the pilot's commands from the non-rotating fuselage to the rotating rotor hub and
mainblades.

Blade Grips

The light red arrows point to the blade grips. The design is slightly different than the Robinson.
The inside of the grips is filled with a light grease, rather than a fluid. Also, note on the right
hand blade that there is a vertical bolt attaching the blade to the grip. The blade can be set with
some fixed lead or lag as part of the rotor system rigging, compared to the Robinson where the
lead/lag position of the blade is fixed by the design of the rotor head, and can not be adjusted,
even at the factory.

Pitch Horn

The dark red arrow points to the left hand blade pitch horn. The pitch horn on the right blade is
behind the head in this photograph can cannot be seen, but does exist. The purpose of the pitch
horn is to give the feathering pitch change mechanism (cyclic/swashplate) a place to attach to the
blade. By sticking out from the blade, the pitch horn works as a lever, decreasing the force it
takes to change the angle of the blade. Note that it also has the effect of changing the location on
the swashplate where the pitch mechanism attaches. Rather than attaching to the swashplate
directly under the blade, it attaches to the swashplate almost 90 degrees earlier in rotation. This is
how the control system corrects for the almost-90 degree lag in rotor response due to Gyroscopic
Precession.

Pitch Link

The pitch connects the pitch horn to the swashplate. These length of these pitch links can be
adjusted to set the angle of incidence of the blade during track and balance of the rotor system.

Teeter Hinge

The dark blue arrow is pointing to the teeter hinge. This central hinge allows the entire rotor head
to tilt left and right in order to allow the blades to flap. When one blade flaps up, the other flaps
down. The entire mechanical arrangement works like a child's see-saw (teeter-totter) toy.

The mast is a hollow cylindrical metal shaft which extends upwards from and is driven and
sometimes supported by the transmission
VI. MECHANISM OF THE MAIN ROTOR SYSTEM

Here are the main bits that make it work:

1. The blades are shaped like airfoils (airplane wings with a curved profile) so they generate
lift as they spin.
2. Each blade can swivel about a feathering hinge as it spins.
3. Vertical pitch links push the blades up and down, making them swivel as they rotate. The
pitch links move up and down according to the angle of the swash plates.
4. The rotor mast (a central axle connected to the engine by the transmission) makes the
entire blade assembly rotate.
5. The rotor hub cap (above the rotors) helps to reduce aerodynamic drag.
6. There are two turbo-shaft jet engines, one on either side of the rotors. If one engine fails,
there should still be enough power from the other engine to land the helicopter safely.
VIII. REPRESENTATION OF THE MODEL

A. Materials

1. Fiber Mat
2. Resin
3. Chipboard
4. Ruler
5. Vernier Caliper
6. Cutter
7. Glue Gun
8. Mechanical Pencil
9. Tape
10. Spray Paint