Sie sind auf Seite 1von 3

FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA


PULAU PINANG LABORATORY MANUAL

COURSE HIGHWAY ENGINEERING


COURSE CODE ECG354
LEVEL OF OPENNESS 1
CATEGORY PARTIALLY OPEN ENDED
DEGREE OF OPEN-ENDED (%) 33
PERIOD OF ACTIVITY 1 WEEK
EXPERIMENT SAND PATCH TEST

PREAMBLE
Introduction
Level 1 laboratory activity refers to condition where the problem and ways &
means are guided and given to the students. However the answers to the
assignment are left to the students to solve using the group creativity and
innovativeness. The activity is hoping to slowly introduce and inculcates
independent learning amongst students and prepare them for a much harder
task of open-ended laboratory activities.
In this laboratory activity the students are required to carry out a study to
determine the depth of surface texture at a particular location.

Objectives
The objective of the study is:
1. To measure the average macrotexture depth of the road surface.

Learning Outcomes
At the end of the laboratory activities, students would be able to:
1. Identify the right tools to carry out the appropriate sand patch test.
2. Analyze the test data and present the solution in proper technical
format.
3. Work in a group to undertake the task and produce the relevant
technical report.

©FKA, UiTM, PASIR GUDANG Dec2016-Apr2017


FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
PULAU PINANG LABORATORY MANUAL

Theoretical Background
The macrotexture of the road pavement surfaces may affect the riding quality
as well as skid resistance, in term of effective contact areas between tyres and
road surfaces and water dispersal during wet condition. In other words, the
macrotexture affects skid resistance and tyre-pavement noise.

Sample site should normally be selected by a random sampling technique.


Ensure that the pavement surface is clear of dirt and debris by sweeping the
surface with a small brush. The test area is to be clear of surface cracking. The
pavement surface must be dry to achieve satisfactory results.

The average texture depth may be calculated by dividing the volume of sand
by the area of the sand patch.
4V
Texture depth (mm) = x 103
π d2

where :
d = average diameter of sand patch circle (mm)
V = volume of sand used (usually 50 or 100 cm3)

Texture is a surface characteristic which has a very wide influence on


pavements functional quality. For new road surface, it is recommended that
PROBLEMS sand patch test for compliance checking should be carried out prior to opening
to traffic including construction traffic. Your group has been appointed to
conduct a highway assessment in order to measure the average depth of
surface texture and discuss on the result.
WAYS & MEANS
Apparatus
A set of sand patch box consists of :
 Heavy duty brush
 Fine haired brush
 Rubber pad
 Measuring cylinder
 Sand passing at 60μm sieve
 Ruler
Procedures
i. Make sure the pavement surface selected is dry and then clean it with
heavy duty brush from any debris, dust and fine granular particles.
ii. Measure 20ml of sand using a measuring cylinder.
iii. Pour it onto the pavement surface where texture depth is to be
examined in the form of heap shape.
iv. Flatten the heap of sand in a circular motion as thinner as possible
using a rubber pad. This step is done until the sand fills in all the voids
of the pavement surface.

©FKA, UiTM, PASIR GUDANG Dec2016-Apr2017


FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
PULAU PINANG LABORATORY MANUAL

v. Check for a centre point of the circular sand patch made and measure
its diameter at four different locations.
vi. Record all four diameters and compute for the average diameter.
vii. The average texture depth can be obtained using the average
diameter and the common volume formula.

Data Acquisition
All data must be tabulate in this format:

Location Volume of Diameters of Average Average


Description Sand (mm3) Circular Sand Diameters of Texture Depth
Patch,d (mm) Circular Sand of Circular
Patch,d (mm) Sand Patch,h
(mm)

Analysis, Discussion and Conclusion


The group is required to submit the technical report of the laboratory results
highlighting the apparatus used, the procedures undertaken for the test, data
ANSWERS
acquisition process, analysis carried out and the relevancy of the set-out
(Open)
output to address the given problem. The format of the technical report is left
to the creativity discretion of the group.
The report must be submitted 7 days after the completion of the test.

©FKA, UiTM, PASIR GUDANG Dec2016-Apr2017