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Vibration

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n t

cos (!d t ). (2.25)

Undamped

ons as in• Figure 2.7, butSystemwith ⇣ = x =00.1. Comparing Equa-

ith Equation (2.25) with the aid of Figures 2.7 and 2.8 we

e↵ect of the x(t) = X cos(ω n t −ofφ )damping is twofold. Firstly, an

introduction

ecay term has been introduced causing the amplitude of the

decay exponentially

X = to zero. Secondly, the frequency of oscil-

anged from !n to !d , the damped natural frequency. In many

ations ⇣ is small so that !d is very close to !n . The period of

is now givenΦ by T = 2⇡/!d .

nsider the situation that exists if ⇣ = 1, i.e. c = 2m!n . Equa-

s = !n (twice) . (2.26)

= wnthe solution to Equation (2.16) is (Inman,

, x =1

y 2m

x(t) = (a0 + b0 t) e !n t

. (2.27)

• Under Damped System

c

< wn , x <1

2m

−ω nξ t

x(t) = Xe cos(ω d t − φ )

x(t) = c0 e ⇣!n t

cos (!d t ). (2.25)

• Undamped System

ons as in Figure 2.7, but with ⇣ = 0.1. Comparing Equa-

ith Equation (2.25) with the aid of Figures 2.7 and 2.8 we

e↵ect of xthe

=0 introduction

x(t) = X cos( t −φ)

ofω ndamping is twofold. Firstly, an

ecay term has been introduced causing the amplitude of the

decay exponentially to zero. Secondly, the frequency of oscil-

• Under Damped System

anged from !n to !d , the damped natural frequency. In many

c

< wn ,sox that

ations ⇣ is small <1 !d is very close to !n . The period of

2m

is now given by T = 2⇡/!d .

nsider thex(t)

situation

= Xe

−ω ξ t

n

that

cos(ωexists

d

t − φ ) if ⇣ = 1, i.e. c = 2m!n . Equa-

s= !n (twice) . (2.26)

= wnthe solution to Equation (2.16) is (Inman,

, x =1

y 2m

x(t) = (a0 + b0 t) e !n t

. (2.27)

Logarithmic Decrement

Measure of how quickly the initial vibrations decay

Log-dec Vs Damping Ratio

specialist would like to know and it is determined by

a free vibration / bump / rap test; just gently hammer

the structure and pick up the response as shown.

•Take any two consecutive peaks and find the ratio as

shown above.

•Take the natural logarithm of this called log-dec

•Log-dec is 6.28 times the damping ratio of the

system as given above.

•Vibration engineers use the log-dec values directly

to assess damping in the system

Logarithmic Decrement

Measure of how quickly the initial vibrations decay

Log-dec Vs Damping Ratio

the most important: Stable system

quantity, a vibration

specialist would like to know and it is determined by

-ve Log-dec: Unstable system

a free vibration / bump / rap test; just gently hammer

the structure and pick up the response as shown.

•Take any two consecutive peaks and find the ratio as

shown above.

x •Take the natural logarithm of this called log-dec

•Log-dec is 6.28 timesxthe damping ratio of the

system as given above.

•Vibration engineers use the log-dec values directly

to assess damping in the system

time time 23

Unstable system: Negative damping

m!!

x + cx! + kx = 0

24

https://goo.gl/images/BSwdlM

Varying Parameters

m!!

x + cx! + kx = f (t)

Gear Teeth Mesh Stiffness

k → k(t)

Practice problems

A lunar excursion module has a mass of 2000 kg and is supported by four

symmetrically located legs, each of which can be approximated as a spring-

damper system with negligible mass. Design the springs and dampers of the

system in order to have the damped period of vibration between 1 s and 2 s.

Hoisting Drum

Comment on the parameters of the system. Is the system nonlinear?

A daredevil motorcyclist jumps up and lands back on the ground from a

height of 4m. Assume that the mass of the rider and motorcycle is 300 kg

and the stiffness of the suspension is 5 kN/m and damping ratio of 0.5. Find

the subsequent oscillatory motion of the motorcycle and plot the motion for

5 sec. Assume that the system is modeled as SDOF system and both wheels

of the motorcycle touch the ground at the same time and the motorcycle

does not bounce back after landing.

https://goo.gl/images/ErLcRJ

Figure 5 shows a spacecraft with four solar panels. Each panel has the

dimensions 150cm × 90cm × 2cm. with a weight density of 3 gm/cm3 , and is

connected to body of the spacecraft by aluminum rods of length 30 cm and

diameter 2 cm.

Assuming that the body of the spacecraft is very large (rigid), determine the

natural frequency of vibrations of each panel.

How can this information be useful to the designer?

Equivalent Stiffness

Damping Model

• Viscous Damping

– System vibrates in viscous medium. Viscous dissipative force is

modeled as: Fd = cx! Fd = cx!

Source: http://www.myrepurposedlife.com/wp-

content/uploads/2014/02/storm-door-closer.jpg http://taylordevices.com/papers/history/design.htm

32

Damping Model

• Hysteretic /Material /Structural Damping

– Material is cyclically stressed; energy dissipated due to

intermolecular friction

– Valid for harmonic excitation.

Energy dissipation Wd =α X 2

α

c

ceq by comparing energies: e q =

πω

α

Combining damping & stiffness: FR = x! + Kx

πω

jω t

Fr = K(1+ jΓ)Xe β=

α

is structural damping factor or loss factor

πK

ΔW = πβ KX 2 34

Damping Model (contd..)

Dry Friction or Coulomb Damping !

Fd = µWsign( x)

Damping force is assumed constant and

oppose the direction of motion. x

exponential as seen in viscous damping.

4µW

Wd =4µ WX Ce =

πω X

Interface friction damping

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