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x(t) = c0 e ⇣!

n t
cos (!d t ). (2.25)

ows a plot of the solution of Equation (2.16) with the same


Undamped
ons as in• Figure 2.7, butSystemwith ⇣ = x =00.1. Comparing Equa-
ith Equation (2.25) with the aid of Figures 2.7 and 2.8 we
e↵ect of the x(t) = X cos(ω n t −ofφ )damping is twofold. Firstly, an
introduction
ecay term has been introduced causing the amplitude of the
decay exponentially
X = to zero. Secondly, the frequency of oscil-
anged from !n to !d , the damped natural frequency. In many
ations ⇣ is small so that !d is very close to !n . The period of
is now givenΦ by T = 2⇡/!d .
nsider the situation that exists if ⇣ = 1, i.e. c = 2m!n . Equa-

• Critically Damped System


s = !n (twice) . (2.26)

only one rootc and


= wnthe solution to Equation (2.16) is (Inman,
, x =1
y 2m

x(t) = (a0 + b0 t) e !n t
. (2.27)

ows a plot of the solution of Equation (2.16) with ⇣ = 1 and


• Under Damped System

c
< wn , x <1
2m

−ω nξ t
x(t) = Xe cos(ω d t − φ )
x(t) = c0 e ⇣!n t
cos (!d t ). (2.25)

ows a plot of the solution of Equation (2.16) with the same


• Undamped System
ons as in Figure 2.7, but with ⇣ = 0.1. Comparing Equa-
ith Equation (2.25) with the aid of Figures 2.7 and 2.8 we
e↵ect of xthe
=0 introduction
x(t) = X cos( t −φ)
ofω ndamping is twofold. Firstly, an
ecay term has been introduced causing the amplitude of the
decay exponentially to zero. Secondly, the frequency of oscil-
• Under Damped System
anged from !n to !d , the damped natural frequency. In many
c
< wn ,sox that
ations ⇣ is small <1 !d is very close to !n . The period of
2m
is now given by T = 2⇡/!d .
nsider thex(t)
situation
= Xe
−ω ξ t
n
that
cos(ωexists
d
t − φ ) if ⇣ = 1, i.e. c = 2m!n . Equa-

• Critical Damped System


s= !n (twice) . (2.26)

only one rootc and


= wnthe solution to Equation (2.16) is (Inman,
, x =1
y 2m

x(t) = (a0 + b0 t) e !n t
. (2.27)

ows a plot of the solution of Equation (2.16) with ⇣ = 1 and


Logarithmic Decrement
Measure of how quickly the initial vibrations decay
Log-dec Vs Damping Ratio

•Damping is the most important quantity, a vibration


specialist would like to know and it is determined by
a free vibration / bump / rap test; just gently hammer
the structure and pick up the response as shown.
•Take any two consecutive peaks and find the ratio as
shown above.
•Take the natural logarithm of this called log-dec
•Log-dec is 6.28 times the damping ratio of the
system as given above.
•Vibration engineers use the log-dec values directly
to assess damping in the system
Logarithmic Decrement
Measure of how quickly the initial vibrations decay
Log-dec Vs Damping Ratio

•Damping is +ve Log-dec


the most important: Stable system
quantity, a vibration
specialist would like to know and it is determined by
-ve Log-dec: Unstable system
a free vibration / bump / rap test; just gently hammer
the structure and pick up the response as shown.
•Take any two consecutive peaks and find the ratio as
shown above.
x •Take the natural logarithm of this called log-dec
•Log-dec is 6.28 timesxthe damping ratio of the
system as given above.
•Vibration engineers use the log-dec values directly
to assess damping in the system

time time 23
Unstable system: Negative damping
m!!
x + cx! + kx = 0

Cx – vertical force coeff.

24
https://goo.gl/images/BSwdlM
Varying Parameters
m!!
x + cx! + kx = f (t)
Gear Teeth Mesh Stiffness
k → k(t)
Practice problems
A lunar excursion module has a mass of 2000 kg and is supported by four
symmetrically located legs, each of which can be approximated as a spring-
damper system with negligible mass. Design the springs and dampers of the
system in order to have the damped period of vibration between 1 s and 2 s.
Hoisting Drum

Find the natural frequency of the system.


Comment on the parameters of the system. Is the system nonlinear?
A daredevil motorcyclist jumps up and lands back on the ground from a
height of 4m. Assume that the mass of the rider and motorcycle is 300 kg
and the stiffness of the suspension is 5 kN/m and damping ratio of 0.5. Find
the subsequent oscillatory motion of the motorcycle and plot the motion for
5 sec. Assume that the system is modeled as SDOF system and both wheels
of the motorcycle touch the ground at the same time and the motorcycle
does not bounce back after landing.

https://goo.gl/images/ErLcRJ
Figure 5 shows a spacecraft with four solar panels. Each panel has the
dimensions 150cm × 90cm × 2cm. with a weight density of 3 gm/cm3 , and is
connected to body of the spacecraft by aluminum rods of length 30 cm and
diameter 2 cm.
Assuming that the body of the spacecraft is very large (rigid), determine the
natural frequency of vibrations of each panel.
How can this information be useful to the designer?
Equivalent Stiffness
Damping Model
• Viscous Damping
– System vibrates in viscous medium. Viscous dissipative force is
modeled as: Fd = cx! Fd = cx!

Cyclic Energy dissipation: Wd =π cω X 2 x

Source: http://www.myrepurposedlife.com/wp-
content/uploads/2014/02/storm-door-closer.jpg http://taylordevices.com/papers/history/design.htm
32
Damping Model
• Hysteretic /Material /Structural Damping
– Material is cyclically stressed; energy dissipated due to
intermolecular friction
– Valid for harmonic excitation.

Energy dissipation Wd =α X 2
α
c
ceq by comparing energies: e q =
πω
α
Combining damping & stiffness: FR = x! + Kx
πω

K(1+ j β ) is Complex Stiffness and


jω t
Fr = K(1+ jΓ)Xe β=
α
is structural damping factor or loss factor
πK

ΔW = πβ KX 2 34
Damping Model (contd..)
Dry Friction or Coulomb Damping !
Fd = µWsign( x)
Damping force is assumed constant and
oppose the direction of motion. x

The decay of free vibration is linear rather than


exponential as seen in viscous damping.

4µW
Wd =4µ WX Ce =
πω X
Interface friction damping