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LIGHTI NG

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TP- 106

I ARGE LAMP DEPARTIV]ENT

GENERAI ETECTRIC
PUSLISHED BY GENERAL ELEC]RIC COMIPANY / LARGE LAIY] P DEPAR]NIENT / NELA PARK / CLEVELAND. OHIO

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Drarnatic, eJfect ve ghting in this srnz I gilt shop nc udes over all effect of
luminous cer ing combrfed lvitl accents fron i uorescent larnps if va ance,
beneathw3l counter and ufder g ass table bases, p us ncandescent downlights.
STORE LIGHTING
Successful retail store lighting is best measured by
how effectively it helps sell merchandise. Buying deci-
sions are usually the result of seeing. The other senses
are involved in many purchases, but seeing is conceded
to be the most important. For instance, an expensive
perfume - for all its aroma - must be seen in a grace-
fully styled container to complete the sensation of ro'
mance. A suit that feels comfortable is also appraised
by its color, cut, styling, and tailoring detail. Most hi-fi
systems are purchased as much for th eir decorative value
as for aural quality. Even the finest gourmet dinner, to
be truly successful, requires a proper visual environment.
The importance of quick, accurate seeing in making
buying decisions is clear. And lighting is a major factor
in seeing. However, other factors are important in see'
ing, too. Shoppers must be attracted to the store in the
first place by reputation for service, store location,
exterior design, parking facilities, etc. Advertising and
attractive window displays will help bring customers
inside. Once inside, the displays and general store lay'
out should be arranged to encourage shoppers to make
impulse purchases on their way to make planned pur'
chases. Personnel should be trained to direct the shop'
pers' attention toward higher priced merchandise or to
items that supplement goods already purchased.
THE FUNCTIONS OF LIGHTING
Store lighting performs four functions which directly
contribute to the seeing of merchandise. These functions
of good lighting are:
!; Assure good visibility of merchandise.
2 Make colors of merchandise look appealing.
3 Vary the brightness pattern to focus attention and
add inte rest.
4 lVinimize distracting b rightnesses
These factors are closely related and must be studied
carefully in store Pla n n ing.
Perhaps the key function of lighting is to assure
good visibility of merchandise. Seeing certain detarls in
many items can be quite difficult. For example, examina'
tion of stitching or weave patterns in dark fabrics is an
exacting job. lt is similarly difficult to see the large print
on a box in a self-service operation when viewed at an
angle 3 to 10 feet away in a background clutter of other
items and sho ppe rs.
Lighting can provide brightness Ievels and direc.
tional distributions of light which will enable shoppers
to see each item quickly and accurately. ln fact, the
purpose of lighting is to make it impossible for the
shopper not to see a great variety o{ items, since repeat
business is based on the shoppers' memory of a broad
selection of merchandise whether each item was ex-
amined in detail or not.
Evaluating colors is important, too, in buying deci-
sions. Color is a consideration both in the merchandise
itself and its packaging. Also, color appearance of skin
tones of shoppers plays a role in purchasing satisfac-
tion. Lighting systems should use light sources which
produce {avorable results on all of these colors without
exaggeration or d istortion.
Variations in brrghtness are useful to suit the light-
ing to the store's merchandising operations. Sometimes,
>-1-. this requires the abandonment of uniform general illu.
m inatio n in favor of va riatio ns of light patterns to se pa rate
traffic areas from merchandising areas and cash-and-
wrap functions, with emphasis placed on sales areai.
Within each of these areas, dramatic display lighting can
bring into focus featured displays high.margin goods,
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seasonal items, or regular departmental displays. Fi-
nally, varying the brightness pattern can add life to an
oth e rwise visually dull environment.

Attractrng attention to merchandise is no more


important than minimizing conditions which may distract
shoppers or make them feel uncomfortable. Bright,
glaring lighting, whether caused by misaimed spo ights
or exposed fluorescent lamps on the ceiling creates
distractions which hinder the seeing of merchandise.
Better design of the lighting will keep the shoppers'
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attention on the merchandise, not the ceiling, and also
create a more pleasant shopping environment.
AII of these functions of lighting warrant high priority
when planning new stores or remodeling older ones.
With increasing sales competition, merchants are tak-
ing full advantage of all merchandising aids to assure
not only sales at a profit, but also survival. Thus, today,
These three slores i lustrate how the iour basic functions good lighting in successful stores is no longer a concept
of lightlng discussed on Pages 3 and 4 can be met in new
and renodeled sto.es. Various mo!nting methods and light - it is a discipline.
distributions are emp oyed; bolh fluorescent and incafdes,
cent lighting are !sed welllor decorative and display lighting.
GENERAL LIGHTING

Nlethods o{ lighting
sLore interiors are sometimes over. it hinders the appraisal o{ mercharrdise. In gen'
categorized in three grouPs: l. Ceneral lighLing, wbich eral, light source," should be shielcied Irom direct view
is concerned with lighting of large areas.2. Dispia-v by usilg equipmelt nith sitle paneis, louvers, diffusers,
lighting, vhich covers the techniques oI featurirtg or- some other- brightness-controJling medium. Maoy
speci{ic item-".3. Perimete| lighting. *hich deals rtith fonns o{ shielding also clirect light to the merchandise
the cilispla,vs ancl architectural surface-q on or near zore nrore e{Iicientl-v, improving bolh visual comfort
the rralls. ancl visibilitv of gt,c,ds.

General lighting. usualil located on the store ceil- A rriile raogcof comntercial lighting equiprnent is
ing, lights traffic areas and provides nuch of the light availabie. 'fhe particular choice for anr cstablishment
for appraisirtg nrerchandise. Fluotescent lamps, incan- is jnfluencocl bl'a number of {aclors. Economics is"
de,qcent iamps. or both, mal be usecl in genelal light-
o{ course, a principal Jacto.. Store atmosphere is an_
ing. With incandescent d,rrtnlights. the genelal lighting olher'. In large storcs there nargins arc lon' :rnd a
svstem occupies onl-v a small poltion of thc cciling "lorr overhead" atmosphcre is desirable. vcry simple,
A completelv luminous ceiling is the other er inexpensive shieltilin.q media nat'be in older. In {act,
area.
treme.
exposecl liuorescent tubes are used rl'idely in such
stores: but lhere is a trend tol'ard thc use of shielded
equipmerrt in supermarkets and cliscounl deparlment
Inconspicuous lighting equipment in thc
store is store-s. In stores \rhere margins are higher. thc design

quite impoltant. The lighting slstem should perrnit objective usuallv i.q to cleatc a more refined atmos_
maliimum concenlratiorl on thc rnerchanclise. l,ighting phele. Lighting equiltnent shoultl ordinarih be sclectecl
equipment that is e\trernelY bright tencls to distract for- a nrininurn of conspicuousncss arcl dislraction
attention Jrom the merchandise to the cciling Nlore' power-.

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Fluorescent "downlighting" is the


visual effect when 40-watt Deluxe
Cool White lamps are shield€d with
parabolic-wedge louvers. Down-
light cans are louvered, with 75-
watt Cool-Beam floods. /!lost of
the merchandise is lighted with
ehouf 100 fc.
LIGHT DISTRIBUTION illumination in stimulating sales, reducing returns, and
The distribution oi light from the lighting equip- building repeat sales.
ment plays a major role in store atmosphere and in Table I shows current recommended illumination
the visibility of merchandise. For example, incandes- levels for various merchandising areas. In some areas,
cent dorvnlights distribute their light in a relatively such as many self-service stores or a mass-display {ur_
narrow cone. This tends to make the fixtures low in niture department, merchandise occupies most of the
brightness, and create a relatively dramatic atmosphere selling area, and the general lighting should be rela_
in the space. However, the ceiling seems relativeiy dark tively uniform, with variations in the brightness pat-
and lorvered. Unless floors and other appointments are tern supplied by display lighting on featured items,
in relatively light colors, the effect can be oppressive. or special treatment o{ display backgrounds. In many
Illumination on horizontal sur{aces is good, but not on stores, hotvever, a large part o{ the floor space is
vertical surfaces, where many items are appraised. open for circulation o{ trafiic. Care{ul layout o{ the
Shadows tend to be deep and harsh. general lighting system can raise levels on the mer-
Fluorescent lighting systems generally have much
wider light distribution. As a result of this and the
typical arrangement of fixtures in a space, vertical TABLE I
surfaces as rvell as horizontal surfaces receive good RECOM]IIEIIDED LEVELS OF ILLUMII{ATIOI{* FOR STORES
illumination. The room spems more cpacious: dlmos- * These recommendations are for maintained
illumination in the store.
Consideration should be given to the plane in which merchandiie is
phere less dramatic. Shadows and contrasts are less app.raised in designing installations. lliumination may be made non_
uniform to tie in with the store layout.
harsh. There may even be a tendency to*'ard monotony
in the appearance oI mer.handi-e.

A combination of fluorescent and incandescent lamps Circulation atear


is recommended for most stores. The eflects of each Aroas whsrc morchandise is aplrais.d

can be combined to balance the ceiling appearancej Clerk-served sto.es . 100

slore atmosphere and ef{ects on merchandise. Or,


Self-service stores . 200
Showcaser and wall casos
where either type of light distribution is used alone Clerk-seryed stores 0) . 200
for general lighting, its effects can be modified by the Seltservice stores (1) . 500

display and perimeter lighting. Foatuae Dilplays


Clerk,served stores . 500
LEVELS OF ILLUMINATION
Self"service stores . 1000
nc$ rooms (2) .30
A store lighting system should be based on sound Fitling rooms (3) . 200
engineering recommendations. However, personal ex- Special aplraisal areas to. dark morchandire . 500
perience and competitive practices influence designs, Fashior Shof,s
too. The basis {or recommended levels of illumination General room lighting 30
Stage and.u.ways .
is that brightness of details is the key {actor in their 200
Slocl roons .
visibility. Increasing brightness oJ merchandise makes 30

it easier Jor the shopper to appraise dehils that in-


Shov, wi ows
Ceneral ljghtjrg on vertical surfaces . 200
fluence the buying decision. Fast, accurate appraisal Featured displays (4) . 1000
of details reduces the chance for errors or wrong im-
pressions. This helps reduce returned merchandise and
promotes greater satisfaction with purchases. Progres-
sive merchants recognize the value of higher levels ol
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ln lh s arge discount deparlment stor€, the conctete vaulted ceiling structure effectively shields
the lghtirg system, except for direct lengthwise view Two-larnp chznnels, with Delure Cool White
Power Grooveit lamps provide about 150 footcardles.

chandise appraisal trreas higher thtur those in Lhe traf- shoppcr perceives color is infiuenced by the brightncss
fic zolc. This results in cost savinlis: as rvell as in- of the object, presence of surrounding colors, and by
creased emphasis on merchanclise. rvhat the shopper expects to see.

o NtL-'st
design
calculation systems {or general lighting give
data Jor illumilration on a horizontal plane.
I{ illumination
levels are acceptable and there are
no extremell large areas o{ strong background color.
the shopper's impression of colors is iniluenced mostly
This is an ef{ective guide to clesign, but i{ merchandise
by the light source arrd the object. For erample, manv
is applaised prirnarih- on vertical surfaccs, the level
o{ illumination and distribuLiol crf li€iht should lake l.ellow objects reflecl red, lcllon', and green iight
stronglv, Snrl absorL blue. A light soulce that is rleak
account o{ this.
in its red output. but strong irr lellow anil green. gives
a greenish ca-st to the color'. A more oranlie appealance
The appeararrcc of colors enters into manl bu,ving resultsif thc source js rich in recl, but weak in green.
clecisions. Food. clothirrg, hon,e furnishings- paint antl RcaListic appcarancc o{ all colors of merchantlise is

t automobiles
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to lame a fe$ classes of items
purchased lith color in mind. lhe Jighting system
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are

should render thc appear-ance of colorcd ol-rjects in a


{amiliar and reali-qtic rnanner. Lighting that {ails in
this purposc is often responsible {or customer dissatis-
achieved when the lighting svstem has a goc,d color
balance. Light sclurces that arc parliculall,v I'eak in
one color u.ill tend to ilull the appealance of objects
of that color'. Light sourccs that are abnormally stron€i
in one c,olor heighten or even exaggerate the appear-

faction. and tlle return o{ goocls. Color characteristics ance of that cxrlor in merchandise.
oi Lhe lightilg s,vslem also a{lect the appearance o{ The choice of light source color-s for store lighting
customer-s and clerks, as n'ell as the character- o{ stc}re usualll_ invoives thrce Jactors: color"rendering proper-
decor. ties of thc liilht source; efficienc,l- oI the sourcct the
general atmosphere or "whitene-"s" produced by the
The color appear-ance of an object depends on the
soul-ce.
light source. the object. ftnd the observer. Whjte light
is a mixture of severai colors Various \t'hite ligbt Pcoplc are lamiliar tith t$'o general kinds of atmos-
sources include di{fcrent arnounts of each o{ the colors. phere: the "l.arm" feeling produced br- incandescent
A colored object selcctively re{lects colors and absorbs lamps o{ flame sources, and the "cool" atmosphere of
oLhers. giving it its char:lcleristic hue. The rva,v the natural daylight.
Natural dallight. o{ course, varies greatlv in color,
TABLE 2
CHABACTEBISTICS OF TYPICAL depcnding on iatitude. season of the year. time o{
WHITE LIGHT SOUBCES USED IN STOBES day, neather. and direction oJ exposure. Incandescent
Source Semarks
lamps produce the Jamiliar rarm atmosphere; their
col.rr charactetistics are familiar to everyone.
lncandescenl Warrn atrnosphere.
Excellent. farniliar color rendition that emphasizes
Fluorescent lamps that produce either a lr.arm,
vr'arm colors- Tends to du lthe appearaice of greens ,vellowish-r'hite atmosphere or a cool" bluish-white
and blues.
Efficiency about 40% that of Deluxe f uorescent colors.
atmosphere are available. Deluxe Warm S'hite and
Deluxe Cool White fluorescent lamps create those re-
Fluoresconl: Cool ,tmosphere; simu ates natural day ight. spective atmospheres nith reasonable ef{iciency and
Ixce]lent color rendition; best over all res! ts on all
De ure
Cool White !o'0 . for plp^ or lores rpro"r"o d!o ab r. Ft prd exccllent over-all color rendition. 'fhe Deluxe S'arm
(cwx) s zes al ro or5 itearly equal y. Srhite coior cLosely. simulatcs the color characteristics
Frf iel'y ,boll l0% o^" l'.r Cool Wflt. and atmosphere of incandescent lighting. Deluxe Cool
Usually prefeffed at higher levels of il !rninrtiof, or
rn stores where crisp, actlve mood is desired. White has color characteristics close to those of a rnix-
ture of sunlight and skvlight. The standard Warm
Deluxe Warm atmosphere; simulates incandescent.
Exce lent co or rendltion. Like inczfdescent, empha-
\Ihite and Cool White color-q. on the other hand. are
s zes \i/arm colors. terds to d! blues. Complerion weaker in lcd output and stronger in yellorv-green. As
tofes zppear ruddy or tarned.
II rprrr ,iboJl 0Z o/.e ll Coo'Wl r'.. a result, thet' are rnore e{fiejent but somerrhat less
llsually preferred at low levels of il urnination, or sali,.IacLor), than the dcluxe colo)s in o\.er'all color
where inlimate. re axing mood is desfed.
rendition. Table 2 shorvs lamp color e{{ects.
Cool White Cool atmosphere; srmulates natural daylight on The {luorescent Jan4r colors recoinmended for selling
(cw) neutral-colored su rf 6ces.

Reasonable color rendltion tmphasizes b ue, green.


areils of rrrosl stores are Deluxe Cool \\rhitc and Dcluxe (
)" lo^.o a1g". du l.
"d. conp ",,0n dppor'd1.o is \d'arm White. At lower levels oI illumination iless
reasofabe, but paler than wth Deluxe Cool White.
than 50 {c {rom fluorescent). thc usual preference is
Eflic efcy h glr.

Cool White s most populrr color for active work for l)eluxe \Varn White because of the natural associa-
areas, and vr'here co or rs not critical. Preferred ai tion of low-level en\rilonments $ith warm sources. such
hreher levels oJ ilum nation.
as fireplaces or ircandcscent lighting. Above J00 {c
Warm atmosphere; slmulates ncandescent on neutral- oJ fluorescent. mo-qt people pre{er Deluxe Cool White,
colored surfsces.
since its cooler \vhiteness relates bctter to the more
Fair color reidit on. Imphasizes ye low orange, brown;
dulls red, green and bJue. Tends to emphasrze szl- stimulating atmosphere providecl hr, thc illurnination

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lowress rn complexron tones.
Eliiciency ofly s ight y higher than that of CooL White.
level. Betrreen these levels" pr-efer-errces var), and the
Wa.m Wh te is sometlrnes used in work areas for lts
high eff ciency, b!t \4arm atmosphere is usually not
preferred at 50 footcand es or more. Comparison of spectral radiation curves illustrates betler color balance
oi Deluxe fiuorescent colors. Note difference particularly in red band.

+ ++ l- -r- I + +t + +

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most appropriate choice is to pick the source whose


whiteness is most like that oI the source under which
the merchandise will be used, For example, choose
Deluxe Warm White i{ the merchandise is for the

c incandescent.lighted home.

When incandescent, rrhich is rich in red, is uniformly


mixed r,ith the fluorescent lighting, Warm White or
Cool White colors may be satisfactory. A 70:30 ratio
is

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of fluorescent to incanclescent footcandles suitable.
However, rememher that rnost store lighting systens
cmplor in, and.seenl an,l flur,reseent snurce- in erluip
ments that have rvidel,v differcnt light distributions. .'\s
a result, the light {rom the two sources may be appro-
priatel-l- mixed on horizontal sur{aces, lvhile vertical
surfaces are lighted almost entirely bv the {luorescertt
alone. Because o{ the difficult,v in getting appropriate
spatial distribution o{ the mix, the Deluxe fluoresct'nt
colors are to lre preferred. d&
t'
]n a {elr. types o{ store-s, color appraisal is not
critical. and one of the standard colors might be ac-
ceptable. The higher efficiency o{ the stanclard colors
resuits in either lou'er cost of light or more light for ,16;
the same co-qt. In service areas. such as stockrooms
and general oJfices. the higher efficienc,v and reason-
able color rerrdition of the standard color'. may be
preferred. In departrnentalized stores, there may be
logical reasons to prefer Deluxe Cool White in some
areas and Deluxe Warm White in others.

Sihen more than one color is used in a store,


mainlenance personnel should be arvare of the cc,rrect
colors Jor each area. to avoid sharp contrast in white_
ness r.hen cool and rcarm lamps are placed side-b1-
side, and to prevent the loss o{ good color appearance
in selling areas.

IOP-With about 100 footcandles of general lighting in this shoe


store, appraisal ol details is easy. colors and polish are complement€d
by lhe combination of i,'rcandescent and Deluxe Warm White fluorescert
lamps. The sides of the shallow surface mounted lluorescent units are
painted to match lhe .eiling. MIDDLE Deluxe Cool White fluorescent
lamps in recessed iixtures and behind cornice provide base ilumination
of 125 fc, while fixed incandescent downliShts and adjustable spois add
accents of as much as 150 fc. Decorative chande iers add sparkle to
cosmetics department, complement carpeted lloor BOTTOM 9ff-
center row of four-lamp fixtures and lwo rows of lamps behind corrice
provide 100 footcandles of appraisal areas in this candy shop. Larnps ate
Deluxe cool White.
DISPLAY LIGHTING
$t
ln e\er\ storc, sa)ule items ale ol greater- inll)ortance
than olhers. 'l'he1 rrtlt hare higl'er gl()ss rllal-gins:
thel rrrar Jre seasonel itcnls: ()r ihe\ nla\ bc Icaturerl
'fo acbiele a signi{ir:ant tl:glet: oI r'isual irnpact. the
li:-hled (iispla\ shoukl hrre a lrr-ightlcss ill ieast trvice
ils sullounilirrgs. As tlre signiIit'arrce of the displal in'
c(
itenrs ftom lhe regultr sto(rk lrl :ln\ case. Lhcsc ilenls clea!es. lhe Llightrrcss cliffererlcc shoultl tlso incrcase:

nrLrst Jre hlought ilrlrr the shopper''s rior liLh impact ko displals sh,,uld be 5 to l(l tinres ls blight. For
l'he objectirc o{ rlislrlar Iig}rtirrg is to nrekc it irrtpo-s- eranrplc. irr a slole lith l0{) tc {or' lrrost nlercbarrdisc
sil-rlc {ol lhe shol)l)cl n(t to see thr: kcr mr:r'r:hanclis'.:' applaisal- displar lighLing oi 2(10 lo 1000 tr: shoultl be
rrstd to adrl illunrirralion t1) lllrjol l)itrls ,rl sur{accs o{
0oc,d displar liglrting proriclts tlre var-iatiorrs in lhe ieaturctl itcnrs. lrr rlrcrr-llorll itt)lc-s" llrc Sorelning
Jrrightness l)attclns thal gir,-' lhe visual elnPhasis neces-
lar:tol in clisplar li3htilg is n,rt tlre sullounding illumi
silr'\' ir) attr{ct atlenti{)rr to l:atumrl itenrs '\lso the nation. bul thc rcflcrrtions srln in the uirrclorl glass;
additjonal iighling inr:rcases ri-'ibiliti lol r';rpid" ac- irclc- rlispl:rr higlrlights shoultl lre iIr Llrc lany.c o{ 500 lo
.urate eppraisal lhlrru3h highcl Jrrigblnes.'' and fa\or'- 2(l{X) {c- hecaust'thcv ale- in e{fcct- in the show tinilort.
able lighL ciistlibutions. In acLlition. good displar light-
'l'he Iolnr rlisplar lighting takcs is cliclatc'd b.r' the
ing emphasizcs tlrose chalactelistics o{ thc nrerchandisc
uhich arc cspeciali-r appealing - polish glitter' tex- ratLr-e oI lhe rneltrharrtlrse antl the ua\ it is Irresentecl

lrr'- {olrn. transluccnc\'. ek. liinailr. clispla-r' lighting in the storu. Thc nrosl r:otnmorr irrrn ,r{ displav lightilrg
arlrls intelest to l'hat might olhenvise be a {lat" clull is the spotlight. r'h,,se h,,anr of tlilectiorral liqhl raries
(
atnlospller.e.
l-,oth tho bli3-htnt)ss Patlcrn and tlre {rrrm revcaling

lFFf !nder diffuse gen


eral lighting on y, th€ man-
nequii lacks lorm.,4/Grf
Adding d rectiora iglrt from
a 500-watt PAR-64, narlow
spot anp on the 18'foot ce l-
ing increrses over a i br ght
ness, brings out lorm and
lext!re rr the fabr c-sparkle in
the accessores. Colored R-40
amps concealed in lhe base of
the d sp ay background create
an interest ng color pattern
behind the expanded melal.
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FAR LEFT Diltuse gereral ighting tai s to reveal form,


texture oi surface frnish, and other detai s broughl out by
added accent lighting. IFFI
This l5'irch-high sculplure
is ighted by a 25 wrtt PAR 36 d splay spot lamp about 6
feel away;mannequin on Page 10 s lghted by 500 watt spot.

qualities o{ gcneral lighting. FluorescenL larnps are


alst, of value in r':rlances and cornices. tuckerl into
illurnilir[etl shches ancl iightecl shotcases. and fittccl
in cavities behind tralslucent panels to ploducc a back-
grouncJ glow Ior rnt'rchanclisc' that trarsmits liihi.

The tables on Page l3 show lhe rvattage ancl spacinli


lelalionships appropriale for manl tlpes oI incandes
cent accent lighting. \\ihile these clatir are helplul in thc
nechani,.:s o{ lighting rlesign and in the choice o{ lig}rL
sources. they clo not encornpa-.s sonc oI the most im-
podant considelations in spotiighting displavs.
'fhe choice of lamps antl spotlighting cquipnent is
based partl_l' on itlumination neecls. but also on thc
lature of the tlisplnl ancl its place in the stole. \\'hen
a fixed location is eslablishccl i-rl fcalLrrecl clisplals
slrch as a ;loDclola end- a marrncquilr pedcstal oI a I t'
i.
I
l

back-bar localiol it is dcsirabie to plan fol the it


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lighLing in ternr-. of its localion {or best risual effcct.
Tn genelal. if thc plincipal sulfaces of the displals rrill
bc vertical. -spotlighls should be loctted so theil bcanr
axes strike thc inlportant palts o{ the ciisplar at an
angle of 25 to 30 degrees fronr thc rertical. lhis assurcs
acrcents lhdt lrc' risuallr; e{{cctile on the leltical. r'iLlt
natulal highlight shadolr patterns. -\1so. this aiming
angle precludes thc possibiliLr o{ exlternc glare br-rther-
ingl a shopper approaching {rom the far -"ide o{ the
di,11a1. S'here possible. spotlighting fronr bc|rrt
shoultl Lc avoidccl. since it sometirnes pr-oduces har-shl1'
unnaturai e{fects. Genera illurnrnation in the traffic area ol this store is moderate, but
powedul accents ir this high-rnarg n accessories departrnert stimulzie
\\,hilc verticall,r. airncd spotlights are un-.uitable {or rmp use buying. The recessed spotlights are airnab e and contain 300
lighting the important surfaccs oI rertical displavs. watt PAR 56 medium flood lamps.
the) are qLlitc usclul for highlighting courrlcr-lop tlis'
plars. ealpcting. anrl olltcr' clisplals uhosc top surfaces
carr be seerr leadilt lrr the sbopper'. ln dorrnlightittg
t:ourrlcrs, it is particular'11 inToltarll to be concerned
Jbout I:flccli,:rrrs fl.om courrlelloPs that nigbt arlno) (
thc shopper' ,,r ,bscur'-. the mclchandise. l or this lea-
tl
sorr" slrol case 11r-,1lliglrts alc usuallt best localed
rlilectly aLove tLc haif o{ the shorrcase ncar-est the N

These i
ustrat ons d€monstrate the effect ol
placem.nt ol shoppcr'. Sonretimes, dolrtlights *.ilh slighth' tilted
spot rghts. ,4BOyF Pr nc ta Lglrt soLllcr s ocated on tre
sockets ele uscrl t,-, lotrat,:' the equiPmellt rtell oulsicle
f oor n frort oi the figure creat f!
ufnttract \,e s laaows lhat
distori tlre ieirtLres. BELOW Ilte same fg!re s I uml lhc rtllecti,rl zolc. lhile clirectirg thc ccntel oJ the
nated fronr above. Note the fiorc natLra piltteirls ol I gll' lightirrg prllelll rrI the ccrtel ol the countcr.
lrghls af d sirado|].
'lhe most corrtrtion tools for- irttetior sPotiii,ilting are
l)AR and ll l.rmps. Thcir'plincipal aclvanlages are the
folIrrr ing:

l. \\'irle vrrrict,v o{ equiprttcrrl- lo house thern, nuch


''t r.l i,rr i- relalir,lr irert,nr'- re.
2. \\ ide choicc oI sizes ancl ltattagcs to nreet most
.: rlisplar necds fol arrourrls oI iight a-" rlcll as

. '1 i'
llels o{ t rrr erlge.
lntetnrl r-e{lcclols oI these larrrps ner,et need arl.
I
I

\i i
jushrrcnt or- clealrilrg.
.t1
, .1. Iielatirel-r lc,n3 lanrp li{e nrilinrizes the need {,,r
e
tt

,\s a rulc. iL is rlcsilable lo use fi:ietl display light-


irr: cquipnrenl lhelerer possiblc, to assur-e that the
lighting rr:nains 1;r'opcr-li locused on tLe displal rlith-
out (lcdling 'hot spots._ dar-k ar-cas. or glare {or shop'
pers thrt s()nletilrlcs atlends nris_ainled equipllrerl ln
cilscs rrhere Lhc riispla-rs nal r'alr siig-hll1 jn sizc and
shape. a',,1 especiallr in cas,:s lhere the gerrelal loca_
tiorr oi the rlispl:rr.'. nrar dralrle flequentlt. greater
IleribiliLr is rrecrletl. Acljustahle spotiights. eithel re-
r ('s:erl 1rr sul iilcc(l-n]()ullle(]. .illl Le airrrctl al in4-ro[tant

prrts t,I thc clispl:rr. Irr iact" tlli: point is too o{ten
reglectc(I. rrith the lcsult that tLe sfots ar-e nol r-e-8inled
rrith rlisplr-r chtnge-"" alrcl rrtuch rlisplar ittrpact is lost
lr
I,ol ralvin3 clisplar locatiolrs. somc o{ the ncl\' s\slems
r,{ clectlilierl dur:l or tlack shoulcl be rronsidclecl. They

ln the sketch at left, the fixture s located over the pelmit the atlachnlert of spotlights {ol mechanical
front edge of the showcase. Bright ref ections are d rected supl)()rt and r:let:tlical conncctjon at an\ pojnti itith
away lrom the shopper. With the firture farther back,
(right) br ght rel ections obscute tlre merchand se in
carelul pianninu ther can adtl gre{t fle\ibilit-v and
the cas€. uscfuircss to display lightilg s,rstems

t2
TABLE 3_SPOTLIGHTING VERTICAL DISPLAYS WITH PAR AND R LAMPS

Height Space To Obtain These


Lamp Type (f0 (ft. in.) Average Max. Footcandles*
B 19 50
50-watt R-20 10 211 2A

B 19 155
75 watt R 30 spot 10 2 11 55
a 19 624
150 watt R 40 spot 10 2 11 220
I2 40 115

8 rg 760
150 watt PAR-38 10 2 1l 270
spot t2 40 t40
14 52 fi5
I This table shows aPProPri.te sPac
2 11 1080
1o
ing relationships and resultant
12 4 0 550
200 watt PAR.46
I highlight illuminatiof for spot- narrow spot t4 5 2 335
lighting vertical displays. Data are i6 4 225
based or aiming each lamP with ro 325
the beam axis striking the disPlaY 200'watt PAR 46 12 160
ahoul 5 feet above the iloor, trom med um f ood 14 95
16 65
a 30'degree angle. Highlight illu-
mination values are those obtaiied I2 1070
over a small area in the cenler of 300 watt PAR 56 14 650
na rrow spot 16 435
the llght beam or a surface Per- 310
18
pendicular to the beam axis
12 40 370
300"watt PAR-56 l4 52 220
med;um flood 16 64 150
tn 76 105
. e*O -*.t, unsh elded lanrps Louvers or balfles rrav reduce ihese values sl ghtly

TABLE 4_DOWNLIGHTING HORIZONTAL DISPLAYS WITH PAR AND R LAItjIPS

Height Lamp Spacing O.C. to Obtain


Lamp Type iil (fD 50 fc 10o Ic 200 fc
,
50-watt 4 2ft 3in 1ft 2in 0ft 7in
A R-20 b 16 09 o4
75-watt R 30 4 2 2 1t o7
flood 1 09 04
4 2A 10
75-watt PA R-38 6 3 0 16 09
f ood B 2 0 10 06
5 43 23 l2
1so.watt R 40 34 1l 0 10
t 10 23 12 o7
.'. 20
When uniformly spaced PAR and 5
l 30 16
R lamps are used in counter dowf'
t0 40 20 10
lighting, the table at right shows 14 30 t6 o9
the approximate cefter to_center ] 27
lamp spacing to achleve 50, 100,
15o-watt R 40 10 0 14
or 200 fooicandles direcllY under s pot 14 42 0 10
the row. 20 30 4 0a
7 35
150-watt PAR-38 10 3 6
s pot l4 4a 2 4 I2
I 20 36 I a 09
7 5 0
I 3OO-watt PAR-56 10 l 6 3
wlde flood T4 0 0 5 0 2
!r-'
20 7 3 1 9

4 3 2 3
300 watt R 40 7 6 3 4 1 7
t0 2 3 2
trl 4 1
14 3 1 7 0 9

lamps lll!mination wri decrease sl ghtly wiih agc Louvers, bafJles a.d
.il Dala ior new, unsh elded
reflectors w chanCe requ red spzc ngs
.!' Exceeds this leve d reclly beneath lamp at th s heicht
!: Or enled with wide segmeni of beam paral el to row.
Cool-Beam fiood lamps produce 1i3 the
tr5f1; heat in the light beam and reduce s!rface
r.H discoloration of cuis of fresh meats.
r i-€ FAR LEFT 311-watt Cool Beam floods
on 4-foot ceiters (175 fc>. NEAB LEFT
150'watt Cool Bearn floods on 2-foot
centers (200 fc) (

Ilcandesccnl acccll lighting js sonletinros limitrd b\ C E Coo -Beam PAR lantp projects
the heaLirr.q eflect-c of infrareci lldiatiol frorn the latrps. mosi of ts light out the front but
trafsmits aboLt 2 3 of the lila
-iornetinres. the hcut itself h:rs detlinrcrrtll eflccts on ment s infrared efergy out
thr: nrercharrdi,.e. as in the case o{ fr-esh rneats alcl the back.

cqtairr IdLLic clies. 1t other'linres" the .qener-al heat-


irrg effect ol displal s, shorrceses. etc.. i,r 1o produce
discornforl {,,r- shoppels ilnrl sales pelsonneL. In nranr
case-r. il is rot prircticai t() .rp|l-\ r]'hrral coolinq to
rnininrizc ht eting effects. rrrrl cLisplar illrrrninaliorr ltust
Lc lccluced.
I
I'he intloduction of thc Cool-Br:urr J'.\R larnps hns
ruadc pos-.ibie a lelv nleiurs of contlol ol ladiarrt heat
flonr incanclcscenl lirhtir3. 0oo1-lSearn liunps lle nruch
iike t-,r'riilalr P.\R lan4rs. e\repl that the reflecting
surfiL.r is not alunrinunr. thich rr:Ilt'ts both inlralecl
antl light. lnstearl. the lc'Ilc'ctor is corrlroscrl of 20
allernatirs latcrs of trro llansl)iueli nttrtr:rials. tith
the orer'-all ciitct oI a surlace rlith hi-r-h leflcctance of
light anrL high tlansnrittan.r' of irrflarcri. Re-sult: XIost
of Lhc inllllecl thut rronnallr loultl be in the iight
Le:rrn is llansnitterl through the lrulh irrto tht. {irtur.c
I
ol sulroulding air. i1n.l tlre t()taJ radianl lrLrat eIIert
l'ithin the bearr is reduted hr 2 ii. Thu.. for thc sanrc
hr:alin3- cI[r:ct- spotli;.htirrg lerc]s cen he tliplrcl: or..
heatin3-. c{fects can be qr'eatlr reduc.(l tlithout r.(1uc
ing lisihilitr'.

ABOVE RIGHT High ighted chocolates on d sp ay do nol dtscolor


or meli as read ly wilh these 150 vratt Cool-Bearn amps as with ordinary
PAR lamps for accent lighiifg RIcHT \Nhen h gh rgrting vrlfdow
disp ays to 2000 Ic, use ol Coo.Berrn 300-watt spots lowcrs surface
lernperatures of displays, thus somewlrat reductIg lading aId d€leriora.
I
lion of rnerchrndise af d props. red!ctIg drscomfort Jor disp ay personne.
Lighteil valancc's. and similar dn'ices such as cor-
nices. arc an ellective rleans o{ liShtilg displays *'ith
{luorescenl lamps, lhere there is a sizable alea to be
T covercd rathcL- than a single featured item. \alance
lighting is most Ir.equetrtlv usecl along rvalls to light
garment racks and shelvingr but variations are also
c{{ectir.e irt central-stor-e areas to light gonclolas or ,480YE Accenting fine finishes
and patterns in the chlna is the
similal displals of high-margin items. iunction of this sysiem which
consists of lluorescent la mPs
r0 Higher blightness on ket rrterchatrdisc is the objec- shielded by the vaiance board

tire of valance lightin.< itr storcs Valance lightirrg also and PAR-38 flood lamps recessed
in the soffit. RIGHT Lilhled
cornperrsates fol reduction-. in illunination {rotlr gcn_
niches form dramatic settings for
eral lighting slstelns that usuallv occul neal the !talls' smal groupings of metchandise.
'fhe altr-action porver o{ the valance is usualh nuch less Concealed fluorescent lamps high-
ight both the dispaY and its
drarnatic than that of ,.potlighting; instead, the light' background; R 20 ref ector lamPs
ing attr-acts atlention fr'om a dislancc to the entirc cou d be added to prov de sParkle.

lightetl area. Hig.hlights and shadorr'-" arc also solter-


then \\,ith spotlighting. becausc the size of the light of primary imPortance. I{ the vaiance is too close to
sourcc is lar-ger antl its bri;Lhtness is lower-. thc lighled surJaces. lhe appearance is a bright streak
Some clesiglr guides {or vnlance lighting are illu-"- along thc upper part of the displa,v. rather than a
tratecl irr the sketch and lable shown bclor'. i\'Iounting completelr' ligbte.l displal. A1-'o. if the lamps in the
Jamps fal enough arrral_ {rom the vertical -qul{ace to ralance are loo cloie to parts ol the merchandise. sorne
proiluce a lL'asolrable distributio" n{ illrrminerion i' tlpes of merchandise ma1- fade ercessivel-v (see p 20).

MAINTAINED FOOTCANDLES ON Cool White or Deluxe Warm White 4o-watt or


VERTICAI- SURFACES OF DISPLAY l-I2 slimline fluorescenl ldmps. Interior su''
The table and diagram show the maintained faces of the valance are painted flat white. A
illumination on vertical surfaces from a con- maintenance factor of75% is assumed. Nearthe
tinuous lighted valance equipped with Deluxe ends of long runs, illumination values decrease.

Distance Lamp-to-Vertical-Surf ace Distance


Below Lalnp
Centerline 6in. I g in. I rzin. I rein.
3 in. 150 fc 100 fc 77 lc 50 fc

9 60 65 62 48

15 22 32 37 37

2T 10 17 22 26

7 10 13 18
27
4 7 9 12

4 6 9

2 3 5 7
45

NOTES:
l. Values shown are for Oeluxe colors in both F40 illumination on upper walls simply bv invertine them.
or T12 slimine lamps. For hieh_output lamps 3. Well-desisned concentrating reflectors sjenifi_
muttlply ilLumination value bv 1.4; ior Power Groove cantly increase average illumlnation and uniformitv
lamps muliiPly bY 2 5 of illumination. They usuallv should be almecl near
2. These diaerams can aLso be used for estimatine ihe lower part ot the lighted suriace
NEAR LEFT-Wallcase light-
ing with lighted she,ves pro-
duces dom'nant horizontal
emphasis. FAR LEFT fluo.
rescent display,ighting con-
cealed in false mullions shiJts
the theme to dominant ver" (
ticals.

',*

Fluorescent shelf lighting of{ers another $ay to vary rninitr'tize interference $.ith light distribution. Shor,r'case
brightness and increase the attraction porrer of clis- re{lectors usuaily use small-diameter fluorescent lamps.
pla1s. LighLing built into shorvca-"es and le{r'igerated such as the 42T6 and 64T6 slimline iamps. This re-
supermarket lnerchandiser-s falls ilto this caiegorr, as duces the total thickncss required {or the shelf.
r'\ell as lighting added to irdir,iclual -"heh'es in conven-
Conventionai lamps and channels also can be at,
tional or special tlisplals.
tached conveoientlt to some shelr.ing. The lamps should
Sevelal rnethods {or builcling iighting into shelving be rrcli shieliled so the1.do not distract attention {rorn
ale available. Conrmercial shoucase re{lectols can I)e the rnelchaldise. Custom-rnade ec{uipment ma,v also be
attached to sheh'es. rlith bailasts loctrted remotcly to plactical and desiraLle in so[lc irrstances. for exarnple,
thc larnps mav bc located near the forl,ard erilge o{
the shch'es. and the ballasts ncar the t'all. This urethod
reduces the strcrrgth requirecl to attach thc shelving
to the wall supports.
ot
Conventiooal shelf lightirg tends to cr-eate a pro-
n(runced ho1-izontal emphasis. rvith its regular repeti-
tiorr of relativelv thick horizontal planes. This em-
phasis can be shiftetl to a vertical modularity by usinpl
thin glass -"helr,es with {luorescent lanps attached to
lertical mullions bctleen displal' cornpartments. For-
rnaximum effectiveness with this scherne. the lamps
should be lor:ated aL least one-eighth as far in Jr.ont
o{ the displtrr surfaces as the spacirg betrleen lamps;
thus. Jor nrullions,l{J inches aptlt, the lamp," 516u14 6"
mor-e than 6 inches in {ront of the {orlr.ard srrr{aces
I
L. o{ thc displays.
\:

I c I
\id AEOVE LEFT Display cases at the rear of this g Jt shop are backed
with diff!sirg plastic. lvlounted or the wal behind the case are channels
qns containing Deluxe Warm Whtte fluorescents. The uminous surJace adds
appeal to the translucent merchardise, and the wal is clearly vislble
49# ir the window glass in the daytime.lEFl Pendant
throLrgh reflectiors
housings with 150-watt, R 40 amps direct 150 footcafdles on featured
display surfaces at the rear oJ this store. Deluxe Cool White power
Groove amps produce 85 fc oj comfortable general ilumination. F uores
tDt
\ cent lamps burlt into card racks iight cards to over 100 fc and brightly
identify departments through stgns on trars ucent faceboards.
In many stores, fluorescent lighting can be conven" in such a panel would not be tlistracting. The spotlight
iently built into display units. Valances light both is attachcd to porver tr-flck that permits relocating the
upper l.alls and merchandise. Individually lighted rnit readil,v to accelt the pallicular iLem being
shelves and sho!r'cases are more localized accenls. feat u rerl.

Luminous background panels produce striking ef{ects


l'ith transparent and translucent merchandise. The right'hand illustration shor's a simple means
o{ introducing color into mercltandise backgrounds,
ln both applications shottn belorv. valance iighting
rhilc retaining favorabie color rendering on displays.
uses Power GrooveiD lamps mounted on channels of A shel{ support of the kind s}rorvn could be produced
small cross-section. wiLh remole ballasts. Designs of tith minor variations o{ standard shelving and light-
valanr:es have also been made with the bailast chanlel
irg equipment.
attached directL,v to shehing hard*'are, antl *ith "arms"
supporting the lan4rholdcrs at an apptopriatc riistance Heat flom -.hor,case lightirtg and shel{ lighting can
fronr the wall. Both o{ tbese approache-" minimjze the sornetinres be a prt,lrlem. Remote ]ocation of ballasts
extent to nhich thc balla-.t channel obstrllcls the distri- mav bc helpiul. for erarnple, in reclucing loads on
bution of liglt from the lamps: also, they rnake for lefligeration equipment in cooled displays * although
more lighth' scaled shielding media. the ballast heat rrra\' be necessar! to help the lamps
The le{t illustration belorv shorvs a sirnple luminous tu \irrm ,rp ir fr."zer-. \hcr hPal.:cnsilire ilr'm: rre
panel design thaL js rtcll suitecl to installation in exist- place,l on lightecl shelves. the locations oI highest tern-
ing displays. It i-" also considerablt les'" costlv than peratur-e at encls o{ lamps antl above baliasts
- -
sorne custom-clesigned panels, although it
retains much rnat'be hot enough to dantage some products. Aerosol
oJ the visual effectir,eness of mole complcx units. For cans" in patticular, shoulil not be displayed in these
mass merchandising, the non-unifolrnity of brightness locations.

-...llq!

rr.
\-,
bl'

ry-
r0
::=a !{:
PERIMETER LIGHTING

Store atmosphere is related to the appearance o{ increased attention given to the textures or {orms in
vertical surfaces around the pedmeter of the store, the lighted sur{aces. (
arrd of vertical surfaces within the store. The sense ol
Colored light for use on display backgrounds and
spaciousness in the store and the appearance o{ store
r'r'all surfaces can be conveniently achieved with lluores-
decor are io{luenced by perimeter lighting. Careful
cent or incandescenl lamps. Nlost sizes of {luorescent
planning helps to crcate brightness patterns that com-
lamps are available in several tints of white and a
plement store desig;n and layout, giving the shopper
number of saturated colors. Colored fluorescent lamps
a {avorable impression of the store.
are much more ef{icient than colored. incartdescent
In open-{ront stores. the upper surfaces o{ the store lamps.
interior are an important part of the field of view Coloretl incandescent lamps include conventional
through the rvindorv glass. Light-colored walls, lighted
bulb designs in rattages ranpling {rom l0 to 150, and
e{{ectively to raise their brightness, help to mask out
in PAR-and R-shape bulbs {or beams of colored light.
reflections in the glass, so shoppers can see ioto the
Additional color variety can be achievcd by mixing
store during thc day. In {act, the interior walls ol light lrom tlro or more lamp colors. A few merchants
the store constitute the rear oJ the shorv llindow. They
have employed motorized dimming systems to achieve
should be bright enough so people can see into the
a graduai, subtle change in perimeter surface tone
slore easily. lhis calls {or illumination oI 100 to 20t) over a cvcle of several minutes.
footcandles on llalls oJ high reflectance.

Part o{ the ef{ect on appearancc of room surfaces


is produced by the general lighting and display iight-
ing in the store. I{ the general lighting uses {luorescent
lamps in equipnent rvith a broad tlistribution o{ light,
there is more light on the walls than if incande'"cent
dou'nlights of concentrating distrjbution are used.
Spotlighting displals" lighted njches and shelves, and
luminous panels also contrilrute to the appearance of
the store's \,ertical sur-{aces {rom a distance; they
should also be considercd as a feature of perimetcr
lighting.

Uniform lighting of perimeter sur{aces is easy to


I
accomplish with fluorescent lamps. The uprvard light
from valances can be e{fective in this regard. Fre'
quently, however, a separate system Jor lr.all lighting
can add the llexibilitv of different tones or colors to
the walls, creating a more interesting environment.
Non-uni{orm brightness around the perimeter of the
store can be quite interesting, add individuality to
appearance, and aocent a particular design {eature or
depatment. Incandescent lamps, located close to the
surfaces they light, are use{ul for this purpose. The
I
varying illumination pattern is further accented by

18
.4BoyF Down ights if this je\4elry store are
equipped with PAR'38 spot lamps which concentrate
about 200 iootcandles on showcase tops with con-
siderably lower illuminatiof if
clrculation areas.
Light-colored carpeting scatters lighl to ceillngs and
walls to relieve contaasls. The chande iers serve as
"perimeter" lighting as they interrupl the space with
tiny, bright accents reminiscent of iewels.

,g/GHl Downlishtins in this jewelry siore is


much the same as store above. The undulating wood ii*;
screen (;n center of left wall) takes on a different
appea.ance as lhe shoppet moves through the store.
This change is the r€sult of shadows from the
counter downlights and wail highlights from lamps
concealed behind the screen. Techniques !sed in this
store and the one above add interest and indivtduality.

LEFT Colotful chairs and a marked variation in


perineter lighting help set off the cosmetics depart-
ment from ihe rest of thjs drug store. Pendanl, lou-
vered downlights with 75-watt R'30 lamps assure
appropriate color quality and sparkle. Facial shadows
are softened by lighi from the luminous valance and
the luminous "Beauty Bar" panel; these permeter
lightingelements improve the appraisal characteristics
of the installation. A colorful feminine note is added
by a band of pink light on the ceiling from fluores
cent lamps concealed in the cove behind the
downlights.
Effects of genera and dlsplay lightine alone and rn combiratton
are llustrated. fOP-The flLrorescent geferal lighting supplled
by recessed frxtures with plaslic diffusers, tends io create 6 flat.
shadowless env rorment, though the ayout of ftxtures terds to
concentrate illumifation in the appraisa arca. M/DDLE D1s-
play lighting alone produces harsh highlights and shadows while
accenting items on the display panes ellecltwly. BOTTOM
The combirrtion of the two yields good v sibi ity oi detai s in an
atmosphere punctuated by lnteresting brightness variations and
LIGHT and FADING
soft, forrn revealing shadows.

Some t,vpes of coiored merchandise will Jade


upoo erposure to light. In most cases. the fad- (
ilg is the result of chemical oxiclation of dles
anrl pigrnents; light acts as a catall'st that
speed-. up the rcaction. (An important e\cep-
tion is the tliscoloration of Jresh meats in scl{-
-"ervice clispla,vs. -Space does not permit a de-
tailecl tliscussion here. but research Las sho*n
that light has little or no effect on the rate at
rrhich fresh meat-" discolor. but that cliscolola-
tion results {rom the grorrth of sullace bacleria. I

Thc number of Iactors involved in each fading


situation i-q so large that no gerreralization about

fadin.q rales seems ju-.ti{ied. lhc grcat number


c,f fLrblics ancl thcir dr.es" as tell rs thc concli-
tions in lhe ch'eing ]rrt,cess. nake the pleclictiotr
:. J
o{ fading in textiies atonc alrnost irnpossible.

:*
;
Sonc iterns are rernarkabir, light-{asti others
have relativelt "fugiLive" colors that nav change
easiiy. Rcsearch recentll conilucted at Nela Park
I
.; indicates clearll that thele have lteen considcr.-
+
.l
'': ahle irnprovernents in the light-{a,.tness ol com-
t. I
mercial fabrics in lecent r'ears, as a r-e-"ult of

i ;i
F

the availability oI impror,ed libcrs ancl clles.


;lt F1
t
t.,, r-E I
I The general method oJ elaluating the condi-
li
ti,,r- urrd'r rrlrinh frrdirr- tale- prare i. ln eonr-
Ii:
f1 pute Lhe "cxposure" to light. Exposure is the
cornbirred product of the illumination on the
product iurtl the tinre the product is lighred.
Thus, a producL clisplaved uncler 100 footcandles
for 300 hours has haci an exposure of 30,000
I
footcandieJrours l{c-hrl; sirnilarly, a 30,hour
II period under' 1000 footcandles also r.epresents
30.000 {ootcandlc-hours of exposure. Recent re-
I search has indicated that equai erposures may
(
rot have thc same Iading effect if they take
\1 place at di{fercnt illuminatiou levcls. That is,
fir,e tirncs as much illumination rvill probably
nol produce the same clegree of {ading in one-
I
I lifth the tinre. irlthoug.h it is almost oerlrin
specrl u1r f.,rding to sL,rrrc e{tPrlt. II,-,ltrrer-. tltele
has not becrr erloush rcsearch,rn enouglr rliiler'_
' r.r rrr..lcr i;rl- t,' .,. ilr tlre ll, r,ir" lr"r'
to

\Fr-u--
r.ir,lcl fr'om lrcxlelrr {lurrlcsccnt rrhite
rro nrrasurable cffeet on facling later- \\ hen
tLele is a substarrlialll hirher plopolliorr ol
<roLrls has

long rrale ol mirlclle ultlalioleL lharr ocr:ur':

a linrc relalionship nruc:h nrotc full1 tltan h:rs Lr:crr


sietc(l hele. ln tcsls oi ntr)re thilll l(l{) rronlmcr
rr'ith inr'ardesr:ent ol fluor-cscent {or r:xamplc,
urdcr rralulal dll ii3ht lrrlirrg $ ill ocr:ur'
cial hirlir: siLnrples itn(lcr cighl dj{fclent lightinS. fastel rvith marrr faLlics. l'he p,rpular lllusion
conditil)ns. llltn\ sar)tplcs rritllst,,orl nlole lhan that fluolts.rent Lamp," alc pallilular[1 selllc
{c-hl nithout detcctill)lc fatlirrS- uhile
1.1-100.01)0 r:auscs oI furlirrg is ofterr tlaceahle to erperi-

I se\criil had Iaclld noticeablr \\ith.;().1)(X) [(ihr'

Ore,-'f lhe prilcipal r:auses oI iadirrg is the


arrilngemcnt of clisplar'. anc[ their lighting in a
marlner tllat exaggeletes erposule on palt o{
ence-! r\ith s,rurces of Ioor lolol lcrrrlition. De-
lure c<,i,rls flcrluenlll tller,iate tlrese problents.
Ir olhcr siluulions. rnis-applir:tl disyrl.rl li3hting
clescliberi aLole is lhe ceuset lluorcs(crts aIc
oitcrr irrrlir trtl sirrrplr lrcr iruse tht r rrle uris-
the iterrr. l ol trarr4rle. nt:rnr valancc_lighterl appiietl mole olten.
gallrcnt rack,. a|e clesignecl so that lhr: {luore';
'l'hr: hrndling o{ itcnrs tith iugitire coiols is
cenl lanlp is orrlv a fcrv intircs ,111,16111 ;rllove
the girrmert shoulcict-.. At thi-. rlistarrle. illutrri- often a rrallcr of c()rcerl. Ilerluring illumint-
lation mr\ bc sevettl hurrchecl {r: on thr: shoul' tion h1 not operalin: shorrcase lightirrg. for'
tlcls" ald sotne itonrs rritlr fu.gitirc <olors <aIr c\alll)le ma\ l)e a partial solutior- Anothr:r'
-
reasonabil Le crpccled t,r {:rrie rrith lcss th:rn ciicclire rloilc is to dispiar the product so that
20(l houls oI rlisprlal. fhe plerelrtion of this tLe f:rtlirg that docs occur lili takt pll.c Lrni-
sitLratir-,n is lalgclr a maltel oi Soori lirhting ft,r'rllr orcl thc surface irrstta<l o{ Leing crrl
{ entrate.l in a slnall ar-{re: this i" onc o{ the
clesigr. '1'o li.ght thc veltii:al surla,:e-" ,,{ the gar
ments e{fccLirely. tltc lamp should be aL lea-'t secorrdi1rr ild\!nlagcs lhat has accruerl $ith lltc
q florn LIte lertical sul{acc: this Ie-
inr:he.c oLlt shift of nren's neckties froln shoucases tith
iocation naluralll reduccs thc highlight illumi onlr the irltls e\poscd to counlertops. lrlrer-e
-
nation i)n thc shoulcler', thus clcc rr:lsiltg the lhc thole tie is illurninated unilornrh'. In sornc
lrl, lih'.",1 I l"lin; srrile cl lrr, -a'rre lirn" ir"- cascs. pacl ging rna\ pr'otect rnosl of the stl)ck

pr',-'ving display effectiveness. Similrt e-ramples florn light. Tn alv evcrt" it sLoukl he remem.
o{ poor- clesign tte to Le founcl in rnant instal_ Lcred that an\ itcnr thill farles rluling the lorrnaj

latioos o{ spotlights and LighLed shelr'es. tulnorer periorl in lhe store is rlmo-.t certain
to facle iI it is erposcd to nruch davlight. either
Electlic lighL sourcc-. differ in spectlal dis ()utcloors or rear a r\irclo\,: thus iL r11av latcr
tribLrtiol]s and in tbeir effect,. oo the tppearancc bc a sourc-e of custoner complaint even if it
of colors. bul tests have shr-rrtn that lher'c is no hes not {adecl orr dispLav.
signi{ic:rnt differcrice amotrg rc'asonabll rvhite
sources jn theil lading e{{ects. l'hat is lol the In sornc cast's thLr lequircmenls of efJectile
-,rrr, i 'u rrir'.rri, n. i",rir I i- liL"l' l,' , ., ur irr ,li-pl"'- .-pe' i"ll1 in slr',l' rvir,d,'115- ,;rrlur,nli-
th{r sanlc time (or equalll likelv nol to occur) cilll) resulls ir erposures to dalli3ht and electlic
under either incandesccnt lighting or Iluorcscelt. lighting that cause uni.\'oidtblc fading. In thcse
fltrirliolet rurtliation frorr fluorescent lamps is cascs- lo.sses thal rnal occur- are usuali\' \\rilten
ahoul thc sarne in quanlitl as that {r'om incalr_ o{f as a palt of lhe aihertising or displav
.lescents. Tests :horv that filLering out the uitrd- e\Perse.
STORE LIGHTING added cost. moclern store lighting ollers the {oliorving
advartages:
EGONOMIGS 1. Highcr illurnination males possible {asler, more
accurale buling decisions about evcry item in
It costs more to lighl a stole with a system of gen. the store. through increased visibility of details.
erai lighting, display lighting and pcrirneter lighting,
2. Shielded lightirr;q reduces annoying overhead
that meeLs the objectives sel Jorth in this booklet, than
Lrrightless, and keeps the shopper's attentiorr
to apply a sinple patteln o{ bare-tube general lighting
on ntelchanclise. It also creates ir more finished
equiprnelt, with a mirrirlurn oI dispLay and perimeLer
appeara ce in the store.
li-ehting. One reason for the enistence o{ manl medi-
3. Displav spotlighting ancl backlighting attracts
ocre lighting irtstallaliorts is that the higher cost of
attention to featurecl items. acccnling lhcir {orm
better lighting seems prohibitir,e. 1he perspective
anal te\lure, and aclding sparkle lo store atrnos-
gained by an aralrsis of lighting costs in relalion to
phcre.
sales oJten justifies good Lighting at the planning stage.
It is possibie to accuratel\ esLimiLte the costs of two ''1. Pelimeter lighting rnakes the store seen more
lighting s1'stems. and compare them in tertrs of store spacious aotJ enhances the siore decor.

pro{its. X'Ian1 melcharrts havc attlibutecl sigrrificantly higher


sales gairs to improved lightins than ar-e lequired to
'fhe incleased cost of better lighting nould have
pa1' for such improvemttts. While stalistic-q cannot
to bc rnade up bl incrcasccl gross pro{it. This addcd
accurateil Ptctlict resuits for a specilic slore, the
dernorrstrablc benefits of hetler li:rhtirg ancl the modest
sales acllievenrents Iequiled to pay for it argue stl.ongl\.
for thc careful considelation of li:hting in planning
for rel stores or remodeling.
o(
Gross Salas
l"or a simplified graphieal method oI estimating
break'eren sales neeclecl to pa\ Ior g.ootl lighting. see
Gross Protil al 35% Gross Maruin 14.00
Lulletir 'l P(l-111. ar.ailable {r'onr anv of the C-E Large
Presonl inorpensivs lighling, comprising only erposgd lluora3 Lamp Sales of{ices listcd on the Lrack cover of this
conl lamps lurnishin0 50 loolcandl.s:
brxrkL:t.
Amortrzed owning cosl* $0.07
0perating cost, rnclude electric energy, lamp, labor for
cleaning 0.22
Total Annual Cost $0.29

Rocommended liqhling, including 100 loolcandlos ol fluores.


06nl gonoral lighling, spolliqhliiq lor loalured disFlays, good
porineler lighling:
Amortized owring cost* $0.19
0perating cost. 0.79
Tota Annual Cost $0.98

lncreasod Cosl of Bocommondod Lighling $0.69

* Part ol rent in leased establishments (

cost represents only :r small Jraction of gross profit:


691 1s \.9n of $1,1.00. Thus. a ,1.9,,;l increase in sales.
and consequent gross pro{it. is sufficient to pay {or
the cost of better lighting. An irrerease o{ l0!,i in sales
yields a 100j:i pro{it on the added lighting investmenr.
Caref!lly gathered data from many stores show thal good display lighling
To achieve the sales increases that will pay {or its results in sales increases ranging from I0 to 20%.

22
II OTHER G.E PUBLICATIONS
RELATED TO STORE LIGHTING

TP":18i
Contains basic information about the lumen
method ot general lighting design. Booklet
includes tables for footcandle levels, room ra-
rios, coefficrenls of ulrlr/al'on on lLmindires, as
wellas lighting comfort design data. (16 pages)

Tir- iil:i, i'i

Covers the many benetits ot planned lighting


maintenance programs. Gives detaiJed infor-
mation on group re lamping, spot replacement
of lamps and costs, lt explains cleaning tech-
niques and shows a variety of lighting mainte'
nance equipment. (16 pages)

ittr.llf . - j

Descritles in introduction evolution of today's


incandescent lamps from Edison's Jirst elec_
tric filament source. Basic lamp parts, how
lamps are made, types of filaments, bulbs,
bases, and filling gas are thoroughly discussed.
General classes oI lamps and operating char_
acteristics are descrlbed. (32 pages)

t!:-t.j:, : ,'
Explains that fluorescent lamps are popular
and widely used because of their high effi-
cie.rcy, long lfe, low brrgl_t1ess. minlmum
heat, and wide choice of sizes, shapes, and
colors. There is a thorough but concise coverage
of lamp parts and operation, phosphor mate_
rials and spectral data, classes of lamps,
basic lamp systems, ballasts, and other lamp
characteristics. (24 paCes)

o 'I P- t: -'
Basic design tactors are detailed followed by
a description of three types of general !ighting
systems Jor drug stores using suspended,
on-surface, and recessed lighting Jixtures.
Good l'ehling prdctice is also given for perim
eter and display lighting as well as lighting for
specilic depa rtments. (12 Pages)
GENERAL ELECTRIC LARGE LAMP SALES AND SERVICE DISTRICT OFFICES
SERVtCE DtSTBtCiS
SALES DISTNICTS (To 0rds Lanps and to 0btain Shippin! lniormat on.
(To 0blain sa es and Technical lniori'ai on) Lo.al Warehouse Stocks mainla ned at tlrese Po nh)

CITY ZLP No. Telephone No. ZIP No. Telephoie No.

ALBAIIY, N. Y. 8/9 t'ladison Ave 12208 482.3345 Bufia o Serv. Din , 98 Hydmu c St, Butfalo, N.Y. 14210 856-0800
ATLANTA, GA. 120 0ltley Dr ve 30324 875.0921 120 oliley Drlve P.0. Box 13917 30324 8/5.0921
IAITIMOEE, MD. 1401 Parker Rd. P 0. Box i427 ?t221 242.5104 l40l Parker Rd. P.0. Box 7427 2t227 242.5t00
tosToN, MAss. 50lidustria! Pl, Newtod Upper Falls lvlass. , 02164 332 6200 50 lnduslr al P ace, Newton Upper Fa s, lMass. 0?164 332.6200
lurFAto, t|. Y. 625 Delaware Ave t4242 883 7381 98 Hydra!lic si. . 14210 856 0800
GHAf,I.OTTE, N. C. . 1001 Iuckaseegee Rd. P.0. Box 2144 28241 376 6585 t00l Tu.kaseegee Rd.- P.0. Box 2144 . 2820\ 376.6585
cHlcAGo, tLL. 550 west iackson Blvd. 60606 332 471? 4201So. P!laski Rd. . 60632 254 616t
ctitctNtiATt. oHto 990 Na$au Sl. 45206 96t 4343 49 CentralAve. . 45242 421 6810
CLEVELANO, OHIO. 12910 Iatl Ave. P.0. Box 2494 44]]2 266 4264 129i0 Talt Ave. P.0. Box 2422 . 44t12 266 4404
DALLAS, TEXAS 6500 Cedar Spr ngs Rd. 7 5735 351 3725 6500 Cedar Springs Rd P.0. Box 35425 351 3725
0ENVEB, COLO.. 6501 E.44th Ave. 802t6 388 46tl 6501 E 44ih Ave. . 80216 388 4611
DETFOIT, MICH. 15135 H3n lion Ave 48203 883.0200 15135 Ham lton Ave. 48203
HOUSTOI{. TEXAS 4219 RLrhnoid Ave P.0. Box 22286 1t027 66i /595 5534 Armour Dr.- P.0. Box 18265 71A23 923.?549
lltDtAtiAPoLtS.lltD. 25u E. 46 St. 46205 54i 55ll C nc nnai serv. Dist.,49 Cenha Ave , Cinc nnat , 0. 45202 4?1.68\A
lr. KtNsAs ctTY, Mo. . 200 tan l6th Ave. 64116 471 3568 200 Easl l6ih Ave . 64116 471 3568
LOS ANGEL€S, CAIIF. 27,1/ South lMa I Ave. 123 2541 2747 South lvlalt Ave. . 90022 123 254\
MEMFHIS, TqNT. 2011 So Laiham St. 38109 948.2642 2021 So. Lalha0 Sl. 38109 948 2642
MIAMI, FLA. i3L0 N W. 74th Sl
P.0 Box 47 796 33r4i i57.8481 1340 J! W. 74tlrS1..- P.0. Box 47 796 . 33147 757 848t
MILWAUXEE, WIS. , 5300 N. Sherman Blvd. P.0. Box 299 53201 462 3860 5300N ShennanBvd P0 Bor79C 53201 462.3860
rtNilEAPOLtS, llt t n. 500 St dson Blvd 55413 331 4050 500 Si nson B vd. 55413 33r.4050
I{EWANK, N. J. 26 waslringlon st., tasl0nnce, N.l- . 0701/ 824 5200 133 Boyd Sl. 0/103 824 5200
EW HAVEN. CON . 135 Collese St 065t0 562 9828 I Y. Serv. Drsl.,75 lt W0odhaven B vd., G eida e, N.Y. I1227 89G6000
EW ONLEANS, LA. 4800 River nd.-P.0. Box 10236 70121 835 6421 4800 ver
R Rd.- P.0. 80x 10236. 74121 835 6421
NEW YOBK, N. Y. 219 Easi 42 Sneet 10017 75t- l3t I /5.i1 Woodhaven Blvd., G endale, N Y. . t1227
OAKLAND, CtrLIF. 999 98th Ave 946!3 569-3422 999 98th Ave. . 94603 569-3422
PHILADELPHIA, PA. R1.202 at Etpressway, P.0. Bor 299
(
19406 688 5900 Rl.202 al Expre$way, P.0.8ox 299 . 19406 688.5900
dg ol Prrssia, Pa. l<roq ol Pru$ a, Pa.
PITTSBURGH, PA. 238 W. Carson Sl. 152i9 471.9050 238 W. CaEon St. 15219 471 9050
PONTLAIID, ONE, 2800 N.W. Nela 51. st2ta 223-2ta\ 2800 N W. Ne a Sl. 97210 223 2lAI
RtcHMO O. VA. 1510 Wi ow Lawn orive, P.0. 8ox 8627 232?6 ?82 7614 Ba t rnore Serv. D st., P.0. Box /42/ Ballihore, Md.21221 242.51A0
80cK tslAt{tr, tLL. l0l.3Ln Ave. P.0. Box 66 61202 788 3405 lvlilwaukee Serv. Disi.. 5300 N. Shernan Blvd, 53201 462.3860
Nliw,rkeeWs P0 Bor799
SEATTLE, WASH. 2400 S rth Ave South . 2400 Sirlh Ave South 98134 622.8081
3T. LOU|S, MO.. 1530 Fairview Ave. 63132 429.6930 1530 Fa rvicw Ave. 63132 4?9-€930
TAHPA, FLA. 815 Norlh 26th St P 0 8ox 5147 33605 248.1171 815 No.rlr ?6lh Sl. P 0. Box 5147 33605 248-4114

ln add t on to lhe Sa es Dislr cl Headquarlets cilies sled above, G E Lamo sa esmen are res denl
ii 93 olher c ties. Consu I your telephoie d reclory und Ceneral Elecl. c Comtany Lamp Division.

General Offices: Nela Park, Cleveland, Ohio 44112

Decernber 1964
TP I 06