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MELab

Experiment Title: DETERMINATION OF HEAT EXCHANGER EFFICIENCY

Objectives:

a. To determine the overall heat transfer coefficient of different types of Heat Exchangers
b. To compare the heat exchanger efficiency of parallel and counter flow.

Introduction:

A heat exchanger is a device in which energy is transferred from one fluid to another across a solid. Exchanger
analysis and design therefore involve both convection and conduction. Radiative transfer between the exchanger and
the environment can usually be neglected unless the exchanger is uninsulated and its external surfaces are very hot.

They are widely used in space heating, refrigeration, air conditioning, power plants, chemical plants,
petrochemical plants, petroleum refineries, and natural gas processing.

Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

Shell and tube heat exchangers are commonly used in liquid to liquid heating and cooling applications. It
consists of a bundle of tubes enclosed in a cylindrical shell. A simple shell and tube heat exchanger is shown in the figure.
To ensure that the shell-side fluid will flow across the tubes and thus induce higher heat transfer, baffles are placed in
the shell as shown in the figure. With baffles the flow within the shell is generally at right angles to the tubes.

Figure: One shell pass – two tube pass

Different arrangements for shell and tube heat exchangers are used in practice. One shell pass-one tube pass is
the heat exchanger installed in our experiment module.

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Flow Arrangements in Heat Exchanger

1. Parallel flow/ Co-current flow

It is one which two fluid streams enters at one end, flow through it in the same direction and leaves at the other
end.
2. Counter flow

It is the one in which two fluid streams flow in opposite directions.

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3. Cross flow

It is the one in which one fluid moves through a heat exchanger at right angles to the flow path of other fluid.

RELEVANT THEORIES:

Calculation of Heat Transfer:

𝑄𝐻 = 𝑄𝐶 = 𝑄

𝑄𝐶 = 𝑚̇𝐶𝑃 (𝑇𝐶𝑜𝑢𝑡 − 𝑇𝐶𝑖𝑛 )

𝑄𝐻 = 𝑚̇𝐶𝑃 (𝑇𝐻𝑜𝑢𝑡 − 𝑇𝐻𝑖𝑛 )

Overall heat transfer coefficient (Ui), based on inside surface of heat transfer area:

𝑄 = 𝑈𝑖 𝐴𝑖 ∆𝑇𝑚

Overall heat transfer coefficient (Uo), based on outside surface of heat transfer area:

𝑄 = 𝑈𝑜 𝐴𝑜 ∆𝑇𝑚

Ai and Ao = heat transfer area, 0.069498 m2 and 0.075438 m2, respectively.

Hence, the mean overall heat transfer coefficient (Um) based on mean surface heat transfer area:

𝑼𝑶 + 𝑼𝒊 𝑊
𝑼= , −𝐾
𝟐 𝑚2

Logarithmic mean temperature difference, ∆𝑇:

(𝑻𝑯𝒐𝒖𝒕 − 𝑻𝑪𝒐𝒖𝒕 ) − (𝑻𝑯𝒊𝒏 − 𝑻𝑪𝒊𝒏 )


∆𝑻𝒎 = = 𝑳𝑴𝑻𝑫
𝑻𝑯 − 𝑻𝑪𝒐𝒖𝒕
𝒍𝒏 [ 𝒐𝒖𝒕 ]
𝑻𝑯𝒊𝒏 − 𝑻𝑪𝒊𝒏

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MELab
Heat exchanger efficiency, 𝜖𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝐸𝑥𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒𝑟 :

𝑄𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙
𝜖𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝐸𝑥𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒𝑟 = ∗ 100%
𝑄𝑚𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚

𝑸𝒂𝒄𝒕𝒖𝒂𝒍
𝝐𝑯𝒆𝒂𝒕 𝑬𝒙𝒄𝒉𝒂𝒏𝒈𝒆𝒓 = ∗ 𝟏𝟎𝟎
(𝒎𝑪𝒑 ) (𝑻𝑯𝒊𝒏 − 𝑻𝑪𝒊𝒏 )
𝒎𝒊𝒏

The Multi Heat Exchanger Unit

The apparatus is used for studying three types of heat exchangers namely: Concentric, Shell and tube and plate
to plate heat exchanger, both on parallel and counter flow conditions.

The unit consist of three heat exchangers, a hot water tank with a transfer pump, instruments for monitoring
and control. Changing from parallel to counter flow or from one type of heat exchanger to another is simply done by
rearranging flexible hoses with quick release couplings. The unit requires an external water supply.

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Technical Data: A hot water pump

Stainless steel hot water tank with a level switch

3000-W heater

Temperature sensor

Flow meters for hot and cold

220V, 1Phase, 60 Hz power supply

Test Procedures:

1. Connect the cold water inlet (at the rear side of the apparatus) to the main water supply, you may use the
hydraulic bench.
2. Connect the cold water discharge outlet to the lab drainage via an appropriate hose.
3. Fill the cold water tank by opening the main water supply valve; when the tank is full, water wull stop running
due to a float mechanical switch inside the tank.
4. Fill the hot water tank (on the rear side) manually with water.

To run the experiment:

5. Open the main water supply valve (it must be kept open during the experiment)
6. Switch ON the ELCB & CB on the control box.
7. Switch ON the hot water pump.
8. Adjust the hot and cold water flow rate via valve to the desired value that can be read on the rotameter.
9. Wait until the temperature of the cold and hot water becomes steady.
10. Note down the temperatures at desired points of the Heat exchanger.
11. Repeat experiment with different hot and cold water temperatures and flow rates.

- After completing the experiment make sure to turn off the pump and the main switch.
- Drain all water from the reservoir if the unit is not to be operated/used for long period of time.

References:

[01] Heat Transfer SI Units 8th Edition by K.A. Gavhane © 2008 by Nirali Prakashan.

[02] Heat and Mass Transfer 2nd Edition by PK Nag © 2007, by Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited.

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DESIGN EXPERIMENT DATA SHEET:


Guide Questions:

1. Illustrate the difference between a counter flow and parallel flow in:
a. Shell and tube heat exchanger
b. Concentric tube heat exchanger
c. Plate to plate heat exchanger
2. Plot the temperature points in the heat exchanger over its length.
3. What is the effect of the volume flow rate of the fluid in the heat exchanger? Prove your answer by showing the
efficiency of the heat exchanger.
4. What is the difference of each heat exchanger from the other? Tabulate your answer.

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DATA SHEET

MULTI TYPE HEAT EXCHANGERS

Heat exchanger type: __Concentric tube __Shell & Tube __Plate

Hot water Temperature Cold water Temperature

Test No. Cold water flow rate, Qc Hot water flow rate, Qh Inlet Outlet ∆Th Inlet Outlet ∆Tc
Parallel flow 1
Qh varies, Qc constant 2
3

Parallel flow 4
Qc varies, Qh constant 5
6

Counterflow 7
Qh varies, Qc constant 8
9

Counterflow 10
Qc varies, Qh constant 11
12

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U= Qmax=

LMTD Qactual Efficiency,



Parallel Flow Qh varies, Qc constant
Parallel Flow Qc varies, Qh constant

Counterflow Qh varies, Qc constant


Counterflow Qc varies, Qh constant

Show a graphical representation for the relationship of LMTD and flow configuration and another for efficiency and flow configuration.

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Heat exchanger type: __Concentric tube __Shell & Tube __Plate

Hot water Temperature Cold water Temperature

Test No. Cold water flow rate, Qc Hot water flow rate, Qh Inlet Outlet ∆Th Inlet Outlet ∆Tc
Parallel flow 1
Qh varies, Qc constant 2
3

Parallel flow 4
Qc varies, Qh constant 5
6

Counterflow 7
Qh varies, Qc constant 8
9

Counterflow 10
Qc varies, Qh constant 11
12

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MELab

U= Qmax=

LMTD Qactual Efficiency,



Parallel Flow Qh varies, Qc constant
Parallel Flow Qc varies, Qh constant

Counterflow Qh varies, Qc constant


Counterflow Qc varies, Qh constant

Show a graphical representation for the relationship of LMTD and flow configuration and another for efficiency and flow configuration.

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MELab
DATA SHEET

MULTI TYPE HEAT EXCHANGERS

Heat exchanger type: __Concentric tube __Shell & Tube __Plate

Cold water Temperature


Hot water Temperature

Test No. Cold water flow rate, Qc Hot water flow rate, Qh Inlet Outlet ∆Th Inlet Outlet ∆Tc
Parallel flow 1
Qh varies, Qc constant 2
3

Parallel flow 4
Qc varies, Qh constant 5
6

U= Qmax=

LMTD Qactual Efficiency,



Cross flow
Qh varies, Qc constant
Cross flow
Qc varies, Qh constant

Show a graphical representation for the relationship of LMTD and flow configuration and another for efficiency and flow configuration.

11 DETERMINATION OF HEAT EXCHANGER EFFICIENCY