You are on page 1of 39

HW410 Stress: Critical Issues in Management and

Prevention

Stress Management and


Prevention Program
Resource Guide

1
Stress Management and Prevention
Program Resource Guide

By

Marly Gaviria

HW410: Stress: Critical Issues in Management and Prevention

October 1, 2018
Table of Contents
UNI T 1 THE NATURE OF STRESS

Information to Remember ......................................................................................................


Self-Assessment Exercises .......................................................................................................
Journal Writing ..........................................................................................................................

UNI T 2 THE PHYSI OLOGY OF ST RESS

Information to Remember ......................................................................................................


Self-Assessment Exercises .......................................................................................................
Journal Writing ..........................................................................................................................

UNI T 3 PSYCHOLOGY OF STRESS

Information to Remember ......................................................................................................


Self-Assessment Exercises .......................................................................................................
Journal Writing ..........................................................................................................................

UNI T 4 PERSONALI TY TRAI TS A ND THE HUMAN SPI RITU ALI TY

Information to Remember ......................................................................................................


Self-Assessment Exercises .......................................................................................................
Journal Writing ..........................................................................................................................

UNI T 5 DEALI NG WI TH STRESS: COPI NG STRATEGI ES

Information to Remember ......................................................................................................


Journal Writing ..........................................................................................................................

UNI T 6 RELAXATION TECHI QU ES 1: BREATHI NG, MEDI TATI ON,

AND MENTAL I MAGERY

Information to Remember ......................................................................................................


Self-Assessment Exercises .......................................................................................................
Journal Writing ..........................................................................................................................

UNI T 7 NUTRI TI ON AND STRESS

Information to Remember ......................................................................................................


Self-Assessment Exercises .......................................................................................................
UNI T 8 PHYSI CAL EXERCI SE AN D ACTI VI TY

Information to Remember ......................................................................................................


Self-Assessment Exercises .......................................................................................................
Journal Writing ..........................................................................................................................

UNI T 9 APPLYI NG STRESS: CRI TICAL I SSUES FOR MANAGEMENT

AND PREVENTI ON TO YO UR PROFESSI ONAL LIFE

Information to Remember ......................................................................................................

ADDI TI ONAL I NFORMATI ON

REFERENCES PAGE 35-40

(This page intentionally left blank)


1
Unit

Unit 1: The Nature of Stress


Information to Remember:
 Key Learning Point: Stress is a normal response of any given experience either real or
imaginary, perceived by the mind to a treat. Today we live in a world of technology and high
demands, fast pace where all of us feel the tension due to high levels of responsibility on our lives.
 Seaward, B. (2015). Managing stress: Principles and strategies for health and well-being.
Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

 Key Learning Point: The term fight-or -flight response is given by 4 stages to stress response.
It is activated when there is a mental, emotional or spiritual treat. There are 3 types of stress; good,
neutral and bad. Two types of distress, acute and chronic.
 Seaward, B. (2015). Managing stress: Principles and strategies for health and well-being.
Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Key Learning Point: Stress management could be dealt by different approaches; one is the
mechanistic model, divides the body and the mind, and holistic approach which treats the causes
and the symptoms, looks at the whole, mental, physical, emotional and spiritual wellbeing.
 Seaward, B. (2015). Managing stress: Principles and strategies for health and well-being.
Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Self-Assessment Exercise:
The wellness practices efficacy for the quality of life that is optimal necessitates the balance in

mental, emotional, physical, and spiritual wellbeing dimensions an individual lives. Notably, wellness

is viewed as being dynamic that integrates and grounded in expanding awareness of the wellness

3
dimensions. Against this perspective, amalgamation of the lifestyle components plays a critical role in

the total well-beings of individuals that includes management of stress.

References:

Atkinson, K., & Hornby, T (2012). The Mental health handbooks. London: Routledge/Falmers

Grater.

Burks-Fitzhugh, B. (2015). Legacy of September 2001: Post Traumatic Stress. Pasadena, CA: Pacifics

Oak College.

Feltham, J. (2014). The gain of listening: Perspective on the counseling at work. Buckingham:

Opening University Press.

Seaward, B. (2015). Managing stress: Principles and strategies for health and well-being. Burlington,

MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Stahl, B., & Goldstein, E. (2010). A mindfulness-based stress reduction workbook. Oakland, CA: New

Harbinger Publications, Inc.

Journal Writing:
Journal 1 Mindfulness
Marly Gaviria
August 20, 2018

List situations you have experienced on the left in which you can think through your levels of stress

from the start, midway and end of the term. Use a rating scale of 1 through 10 for each column.

Provide at least 10 stressors; utilize all three types: eustress [good stress], neustress [neutral stress]

and distress [bad stress].

4
Rating 1-10
Start Midway End
Starting a New Job 8 5 2

Weight Lost Program 10 8 5

Dating Again 10 6 2

Planning my Wedding 10 5 1

Going Back to School 10 8 5

Starting a New Business 10 8 4

Sending Son to College 10 6 3

Buying a House 10 10 8

Expecting my grandchild 10 10 1

Planning Vacation 7 4 0

Reference:
Seaward, B. (2015). Managing stress: Principles and strategies for health and well-being. Burlington,

MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Stahl, B., & Goldstein, E. (2010). A mindfulness-based stress reduction workbook. Oakland, CA: New

Harbinger Publications, Inc.

5
2
Unit

Unit 2: The Physiology of Stress


Information to Remember:
Key Learning Point: Psychophysiology is a term to describe the body’s physiological reaction to
perceived stressors, suggesting that the stress response is a mind-body phenomenon. There are
three physiological systems that are directly involved in the stress response: the nervous system,
the endocrine system, and the immune system.
Seaward, B. (2015). Managing stress: Principles and strategies for health and well-being.
Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
 Key Learning Point: The body has several backup mechanisms to ensure physical survival. These
systems are classified as immediate, lasting seconds (sympathetic drive); intermediate, lasting
minutes (adrenal medulla); and prolonged, lasting hours if not weeks (neuroendocrine pathways).
Each system is involved in several metabolic pathways.
Seaward, B. (2015). Managing stress: Principles and strategies for health and well-being.
Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning
Key Learning Point: A decade of brain research reveals that humans are hard-wired for stress through
an intricate pattern of neural pathways designed for the fight-or-flight response. Research also
suggests that chronic stress appears to atrophy brain tissue, specifically the hippocampus.
Seaward, B. (2015). Managing stress: Principles and strategies for health and well-being.
Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Self-Assessment Exercise:
Neuroscience and neuroplasticity are of great importance to the brain and how it functions.

The study of neuroscience has led to the emergence of medications and preventive measures to

prevent health issues such as addiction, ADHD, schizophrenia and Down syndrome. This is achieved

by enabling a better comprehension of these conditions and gaining in-depth knowledge about them.

6
The study of neuroscience also allows us to optimize our intelligence. This is achieved by looking at

the patterns of brain growth (Nordquist, 2018). Neuroplasticity, on the other hand, is very useful in

treating brain damage through rehabilitation and therapeutic programs that help patients recover from

brain injury (Tolentino, 2011) as well as helping them overcome learning disabilities through brain

training.

Reference.

Dermarin, V. & Morovic’, S.(2014).” Neuroplasticity, Periodicum Biologorum,” 116(2), 209-

211.McLeod,S.(2010).”What Is The Stress Response.”

Kendal, Eric. R. (2012) Principles of Neural Science, Fifth Edition.

Najm.W.I., (2011).’’Peptic Ulcer Disease ‘’ .Primary care: Clinics in Office Practice.38

(3), 383-394

Sutter, E. N., Mattlage, A. E., Bland, M. D., Cherry-Allen, K. M., Harrison, E., Surkar, S.

M., ... & Lang, C. E. (2018). Remote Limb Ischemic Conditioning and Motor

Learning: Evaluation Factors Influencing Response in Older

Adults. Translational stroke research, 1-10.

Journal Writing:

Journal 2 Mindfulness
Marly Gaviria
August 20, 2018

How is stress or anxiety affecting your life?

People- Analysis our young generation’s behavior is very scary. When thinking in what the world has

become about with their way of being just gives me uncertainties, especially when I think about my

7
grandchildren then my anxiety increases.

Work- I am a Register Nurse and in a daily bases my stress and anxiety level is just manageable, but

when it involves administration and the new initiatives implementations it just gets unbearable.

World- Every day I pray, my experience of the world is also an scary sensation. I am all the time at

the edge of what else could be happening. Natural disasters are more common, countries having their

own people die of hunger, wars that never end like the middle east, vey sad to think of it.

Food- I am getting older and very concern about how easy I am getting weight, but also about the

crazy fact that we don’t even know now a days what is healthy to consume. W have tons of resources

yet what kind of living is it when you have to worry about the water you drink, or the foods we eat?

Sleep- Going to bed; sleeping is not a real body rest, that is all I have experienced in months.

Exercise- Knowing that with my busy life there is not much time for it, my fear increases due to

gained weight and now I am more tire than ever.

Stress and anxiety is greater now than before. I can acknowledge this way of living is just affecting

my life more than I thought. Great inside.

Reference:

Seaward, B. (2015). Managing stress: Principles and strategies for health and well-being. Burlington,

MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Stahl, B., & Goldstein, E. (2010). A mindfulness-based stress reduction workbook. Oakland, CA: New

Harbinger Publications, Inc.

8
3
Unit

Unit 3: Psychology of Stress


Information to Remember:
Key Learning Point: Many theories attempt to explain the psychological nature of stress or, more
specifically, how humans attempt to deal with the problems they face. These theories are based on
the many aspects of psychology, including personality, emotional responses, perceptions, and a
wide range of human behaviors. Seaward, B. (2015). Managing stress: Principles and strategies
for health and well-being. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning

Key Learning Point: All the theories have very much full strategies that can help protect the mind from
the threat of painful or dangerous events in our lives. No matter what approach one could use to
help the clients to get to their full potential. What is important is having the avenues and resources
that can be use as trial-and error on difficult cases. Seaward, B. (2015). Managing stress: Principles
and strategies for health and well-being. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning
Key Learning Point: Maslow began to identify with his theory of self-actualization. His theory indicates
that we all have the potential to move beyond the primitive defense mechanisms outlined by Freud,
which stunt our human potential. Seaward, B. (2015). Managing stress: Principles and strategies
for health and well-being. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning

Self-Assessment Exercise:
The Tibetan culture sees Stress as a state of feeling that result from extraordinary situations such as

uncertainty, work pressure or constraints. Coping with stress the Tibetan way is a practice of

mindfulness-stress reduction. Meditation was seen as an essential part of fostering health and well-

being. Tibetan medicines combined the spiritual and physical healing ("Tibetan Healing Meditation,"

2003)

Freud and the ego theorist believed that social tension arises from both internal and external

9
Sources. Kubler-ross theorists believed that stress is as a result of unmet expectations. Denial is

seen to be a common feature in both theorists. Denial state is when one ejects facts since they

consciously believe they have done nothing wrong. When people are not willing to accept the facts,

they reject or deny what is happening since they feel threatened. Fear is the most powerful emotions

in humans. There are different ways to cope with fear, first acknowledging then face it.

Ways to communicate better: Body language, eye contact, being assertive and enthusiast, being

audible and avoiding muttering, aligning words to actions, give direct statements or a direct answer

to questions.

Reference

James, T., & Cinelli, B. (2003). Exploring Gender-Based Communication Styles. Journal Of

School Health, 73(1), 41-42. doi: 10.1111/j.1746-1561.2003.tb06559.x

Managing Stress. (2003). Retrieved from https://www.chegg.com/homework-help/managing-

stress-8th-edition-chapter-5-solutions-9781449688455

Tibetan Healing Meditation. (2003). Retrieved from http://www.dharma-

haven.org/tibetan/meditation.htm

Journal Writing:
Journal 3 Mindfulness
Marly Gaviria
August 21, 2018

Bringing the eight attitudes of mindfulness into practice was a great experience, I get present to how

much I am not present to my present! It takes something for me to concentrate and meditate. The

monkey mind is always busy. The awesome thing is that after practicing and being aware of my

10
relationship with myself applying attitude of mindfulness I can be really compassionate with my own

being and become loving and respect who I am as a being by allowing myself to be and not

pretending or forcing anything……it just flows and there is peace. The exercise with food, I can only

say wow. I now understand why I eat more than what my body really needs, I don’t take the time to

really enjoy cooking because I am rushing through it, and not tasting it because I picked on it already.

The looking around my surroundings and being present of it, smell, sounds, colors etc was kind of

neat….got really quiet yet I could hear and smell everything. I am really glad in my busy day to be

able to take the time and ended with such a great inside.

Reference

Seaward, B. (2015). Managing stress: Principles and strategies for health and well-being. Burlington,

MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Stahl, B., & Goldstein, E. (2010). A mindfulness-based stress reduction workbook. Oakland, CA: New

Harbinger Publications, Inc.

11
4
Unit

Unit 4: Personality Traits and the Human


Spirituality
Information to Remember:
Key Learning Point: Personality has come to mean a conglomeration of several characteristics—
behaviors, expressions, moods, and feelings—that are perceived by others. The complexity of
one’s personality is thought to be shaped by genetic factors, family dynamics, social influences,
and a wealth of personal experiences. Seaward, B. (2015). Managing stress: Principles and
strategies for health and well-being. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning
Key Learning Point: Currently, a growing body of opinions suggests that the most likely components
of one’s personality to be alterable are behaviors and traits associated with these behaviors. By
changing various personality traits, one can change one’s personality. Seaward, B. (2015).
Managing stress: Principles and strategies for health and well-being. Burlington, MA: Jones &
Bartlett Learning
Key Learning Point: Human spirituality is defined as the maturation process of our higher
consciousness as developed through the integration of three facets: an insightful, nurturing
relationship with oneself and others. Seaward, B. (2015). Managing stress: Principles and
strategies for health and well-being. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning

Self-Assessment Exercise:
Self-esteem is a reflection of a person’s overall emotional evaluation of own worth. Generally, self-

esteem describes positive or negative evaluation of one self and feelings. Self-esteem plays a significant

role in promoting and resolving stress. A person with high-self-esteem is able to manage stress through

firmly believing in certain principles and values and is ready to stand by them even when there is

opposition (Jacoby, 2016). High self-esteem individuals are able to act as per what they believe is the

12
best choice, trusts own judgment and never feel guilty or intimidated even when others are not

impressed by the choices they make. Values are virtues that guide and take to account human element

as one interacts with other human beings. Values, attitude and beliefs are virtues that define a human

being. Relationship could be damage by negative stressful encounters that interfere with values,

believes.

Five distinct steps are applicable to behavior change in achieving positive and lasting life changes,

according to Prochaska’s are: pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparing for action, final, taking

action. Fallowing this model to bring a change in your bad habits or behaviors will be very successful.

Referece

Jacoby, M. (2016). Shame and the origins of self-esteem: A Jungian approach. Routledge.

Kelman, H. C. (2017). Processes of opinion change. In Attitude Change (pp. 205-233). Routledge.

Dupont, H. B., Candel, M. J., Lemmens, P., Kaplan, C. D., van de Mheen, D., & De Vries, N. K. (2017).

Stages of change model has limited value in explaining the change in use of cannabis among

adolescent participants in an efficacious motivational interviewing intervention. Journal of

psychoactive drugs, 49(5), 363-372.

Journal Writing:

FEAR: apprehension, anxiety, distress, edginess, jumpiness, nervousness, panic, tenseness,

uneasiness, worry, fright, feeling overwhelmed.

Feeling Overwhelmed is an emotion that I can feel through my whole body. It is

manifested by getting short temper when someone is requesting something of me when I have

a million other things to do or in a bad mood. The thoughts that crosses my mind are not very

13
positive. I become self- judgmental and start having doubts of my ability to accomplish my goals

or duties.

CONFUSION: bewildered, uncertain, puzzled, mystified, perplexed, chaotic, foggy, or unaware.

Uncertain is an emotion that shows up as a feeling on my face, manifested by deep

breathing and a sensation of heaviness on my forehead. I just have mix feelings and my

thoughts are of being lost and not knowing what to do or what to expect.

SHAME: guilt, embarrassment, humiliation, invalidation, regret, remorse, mortification.

Regret is a sensation that I feel in my chest, it is manifested with sadness and

repentance, emotions of disappointment for not fulfilling or keeping my word on my promises.

The thoughts that come to me are of judgment and punishment.

LOVE: affection, arousal, attraction, caring, compassion, desire, fondness, infatuation, kindness,

liking, longing, warmth, sympathy, sentimentality.


Affection is an emotion that I feel it in my heart and my whole body, is a sensation of

goodness, and it manifest itself by making me smile, my body feels happy and a sense of satisfaction.

The images that come to me are GOD, Angels, birds, roses, babies, and every single person whom

had made a difference in my life.

JOY: amusement, bliss, contentment, eagerness, enjoyment, enthusiasm, excitement, exhilaration,

hope, optimism, pleasure, satisfaction.

Excitement is an emotion that I feel in my feet, my stomach and my brain, it manifests itself as

a tickling sensation that crosses my hands and legs. My thoughts are fireworks, and a bright sun and

butterflies of many kinds and colors.

14
Summary

This was a great exercise which at the beginning of it I felt tense, at the completion just

became easier to be connected to my body and emotions. I love it. Will continue to practice.

Reference

Seaward, B. (2015). Managing stress: Principles and strategies for health and well-being. Burlington,

MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Stahl, B., & Goldstein, E. (2010). A mindfulness-based stress reduction workbook. Oakland, CA: New

Harbinger Publications, Inc.

15
5
Unit

Unit 5: Dealing with Stress: Coping Strategies


Information to Remember:
Key Learning Point: When we encounter a situation or event we perceive as a stressor, some part of us
feels very vulnerable and threatened. To survive the threat, whether minimal or colossal, some type
of coping strategy is created to deal with it. Each stressor necessitates its own coping strategy
Seaward, B. (2015). Managing stress: Principles and strategies for health and well-being.
Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning
Key Learning Point: Successful coping strategies to deal with the cause of perceived stressors involve
four basic components; Increased awareness + Information processing + Modified behavior +
Peaceful resolution. Seaward, B. (2015). Managing stress: Principles and strategies for health and
well-being. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning
Key Learning Point: Researchers agree there are literally hundreds of coping strategies. Each coping
strategy can be used alone, but quite often several are used together for a stronger defense against
the effects of perceived stress. And there is a host of positive coping techniques from which to
choose. Seaward, B. (2015). Managing stress: Principles and strategies for health and well-being.
Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning

16
Self-Assessment Exercise:
Psychology studies had proven; that the mind creates several strategies to deal with stressful stimuli.

Many of these strategies fall in the realm of defenses used to protect the mind from the threat of painful

or dangerous events in our lives. (Seaward 121) There are various theories, and all would agree; the

premise of psychotherapy is to put the client back on track through the process of self-awareness, as painful

as it may be. Moving from a stance of defensive thoughts and actions toward more positive coping styles

based on the strength of our inner resources is thought to be the most effective strategy to deal with stress

(Seaward, 2015) Freud and the Egg, Jung and the Iceberg, Elisabeth Kübler-Ross: The Death of Leo

Buscaglia: The Lessons of Self-Love, Abraham Maslow: The Art of Self-Actualization, Martin Seligman:

Optimism and the Art of Being Happy, A Tibetan Perspective of Mind and Stress. Great work from all.

Reference:

Seaward, B. (2015). Managing stress: Principles and strategies for health and well-being. Burlington, MA:
Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Journal Writing:
Unit Five Journal Writing Assignment

Choose from either formal practice: Walking Meditation or Mindful Self-Inquiry for Stress and

Anxiety. Directions are found on either pages 58 through 60 or 119 through 121 of the Mindfulness

workbook. Upon completion of either practice, take a moment to reflect on whatever came up for you

mentally, emotionally, and physically. This should be a minimum of two full pages

Take some time to write about whatever came up for you mentally, emotionally and physically when

doing this practice for the first time.

17
Walking Meditation was somewhat mentally stressful, my experience of noticing my body structure

and trying to relax and be conscious of my body movement took a lot. Especially every step I gave

was being premeditated by my brain and controlled by it as well. Feeling the connection of my body

to the floor was very well appreciated, couldn’t imaging not being supported by it, every step I made.

Emotionally I noticed fear by this feeling, I got distracted a few times by this. I notice my mind

wanting to have this negative experience about my body not able to function if it was not depended of

something else, in this case the floor. Sensations of cold and chills was felt a times, no sense of smell

noted, just clear air most of the time. The forced thoughts of this is an exercise and it is ok to allow

feeling, emotions, sensations be, couldn’t relax. Kept being present to the exercise lifting the right leg

while weight was in the left noticing my body’s ability to manage movement was really great, moving

my arms back and forth noticing the way is synchronized automatically, yet having the ability to

connect my brain to the sensations felt on the soles, heel and toes while feeling the ground make me

so grateful. The stress started to dissipate, and deep breaths started filling my lungs, emotions of love

and greatness was experience, my appreciation for every part of my body, not just the ability to walk,

but everything about my being, my presence with the air and my soul connected to the everything. It

was very emotional. Peaceful and infinite happiness.

Summary

Well this was a great exercise and awesome experience; my body feels relax when I allow it to be

without forcing the outcome. I am so grateful for my body and every part of it, for what every single

bone, cell, muscles, etc. My body is just perfect.

18
References

Seaward, B. (2015). Managing stress: Principles and strategies for health and well-being. Burlington,

MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Stahl, B., & Goldstein, E. (2010). A mindfulness-based stress reduction workbook. Oakland, CA: New

Harbinger Publications, Inc.

19
6
Unit

Unit 6: Relaxation Techniques 1: Breathing,


Meditation, and Mental Imagery
Information to Remember:
Key Learning Point: Diaphragmatic breathing is thought to be the easiest method of relaxation. When
the emphasis of breathing is centered in the lower abdomen rather than the thoracic cavity, a less
sympathetic neural activity is generated, causing a greater relaxation effect. Seaward, B. (2015).
Managing stress: Principles and strategies for health and well-being. Burlington, MA: Jones &
Bartlett Learning
Key Learning Point: In every age of humanity, the mind has always needed a respite from thoughts,
worries, and external stimuli. Meditation is the quintessential respite to calm the mind from sensory
overload. Seaward, B. (2015). Managing stress: Principles and strategies for health and well-
being. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning
Key Learning Point: Mental imagery describes the ability of the unconscious mind to generate images
that have a calming, healing effect on the body. Visualization is one aspect of mental imagery,
wherein there is conscious direction of self-generated images. Guided mental imagery is a variation
wherein images are suggested by another person (either live or on tape). Seaward, B. (2015).
Managing stress: Principles and strategies for health and well-being. Burlington, MA: Jones &
Bartlett Learning

Self-Assessment Exercise:
Diaphragmatic breathing is the natural and relaxed form of breathing in all mammals that involve the

diaphragm, a large dome-shaped muscle located at the base of the lungs. It is an important technique

for breathing when it comes to stress reduction and achieving relaxation. This is because it slows

down one’s breathing thus reducing anxiety. During exhalation, while using this method, any

20
unnecessary tension occurring in mind or body is relinquished,

Meditation affects the mind and body in the following ways. For the mind, meditation increases

mental strength, memory retention, and recall enhances better cognitive skills and creative thinking,

helps in better decision making and problem-solving as well as reducing depression, stress and

anxiety. For the body, it improves the immune system and energy levels, regulates breathing and

heart rates and at the same time reducing pain levels (Goyal, 2014).

Imagery and visualization, also referred to as guided imagery, are techniques that are used to enhance

stress management. Imagery and visualization use common links between the body and the mind to

its advantage by using the imagination of the mind to intentionally generate physiological states such

as relaxation and relief of pain. Involve an element of distraction which serves to redirect people’s

attention away from what might be stressing them at the moment. It is a sort of non-verbal instruction

or non-direct suggestion to the body and unconscious mind to act as if the peaceful and safe

environment was real thus causing relaxation.

Reference

Brook, R. D., Appel, L. J., Rubenfire, M., Ogedegbe, G., Bisognano, J. D., Elliott, W. J., ... &

Townsend, R. R. (2013). Beyond medications and diet: alternative approaches to lowering

blood pressure: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Hypertension,

61(6), 1360-1383.

Goyal, M., Singh, S., Sibinga, E. M., Gould, N. F., Rowland-Seymour, A., Sharma, R., ... &

Ranasinghe, P. D. (2014). Meditation programs for psychological stress and well-being: a

systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA internal medicine, 174(3), 357-368.

21
Martin, I. (2016). Guided Visualization: A Way to Relax, Reduce Stress, and More!. Psych Central.

Retrieved on September 7, 2018, from https://psychcentral.com/lib/guided-visualization-a-

way-to-relax-reduce-stress-and-more/

Mills, H., Reiss, N., & Dombeck, M. (2008). Visualization and Guided Imagery Techniques for Stress

Reduction. Article from mentalhelp. net.

Shaw, I., Shaw, B. S., & Brown, G. A. (2010). Role of diaphragmatic breathing and aerobic exercise

in improving pulmonary function and maximal oxygen consumption in asthmatics. Science &

Sports, 25(3), 139-145.

Journal Writing:

Unit Six Journal Writing Assignment

Complete the Journal Assignment entitled: Explore: Is Your Body-Mind Happy? Directions are found

on pages 151 through 153 of the Mindfulness workbook. Upon completion of this Assignment,

practice identifying unkind messages you send to yourself and turn it around with positive

affirmations. This should be a minimum of two full pages.

Mindful of how you interact with yourself?

It has been so obvious that all I say to myself is just negative words. I can’t remember when I did say

something positive, if I ever. Every morning I get up, look in the mirror and feel disappointment.

Look at my face and had a bitter feeling because all I see is imperfections. When I was 20 years old I

had bell’s palsy, the right side of my face has a noticeable droop. Then I just look at my whole body

and can’t find anything pretty about it, my breasts are two big, my belly is full of scars and full of

stretch marks everywhere. My hands have ugly finger, I bite my nails all the time. My toe nails are

too thick and look very gross, my butt is too fat. My teeth are two small and uneven. I am just ugly,

22
and not good enough. Having all those thoughts about me makes me feel down, very stressful and

hopeless. Just by writing about my anxiety increases, my neck hurt and my whole body feels so tire.

My mind and body feels overwhelmed, can’t believe I cause myself so much pain and suffering on a

daily bases.

Seeds of suffering?

If I was to stop watering the seeds of my own sufferings, I have no idea what would really be

possible. It is hard to assimilate, if I have accomplished certain goals in my life with the relationship I

have with myself; I wonder what else if I have real love for myself. I found these affirmations which I

will write them and keep them close. Life changing!!

I deserve a good life. I deny any need for suffering and misery.

I am competent, smart and able.

I am growing and changing for the better.

I love the person I am becoming.

I deserve to be happy and successful.

I acknowledge my own self-worth; my self-confidence is rising.

I am worthy of all the good things that happen in my life.

I am confident with my life plan and the way things are going.

I deserve the love I am given.

I let go of the negative feelings about myself and accept all that is good.

23
Day-to-day life feelings of resentment?

I have been married 5 years, this is my 3rd marriage. Obviously, this feeds into my “I am not

good enough”. I was very hesitant to do this for a third time. My conflict with my husband has to do

with finances. I had talked to him many times about the need for him to get a fulltime job with a

company due to his profession in construction has not been consistent and I am the one who ends

paying for most of our expenses. I am starting to resent him and not trust his promises any more. I am

a little challenged by this exercise, because in my mind I see him as just finding excuses for why is

not getting a fulltime job. Putting myself in his situation I may be able to see that this is behavior that

may be connected to a challenge he may be facing within himself, yet I can’t see or sense what it is.

He just doesn’t share much about his feelings or concerns in these regards. I love him, and I know he

is a good man, it is what keeps me here but I get lost at times and forget that in a marriage we promise

in the good and the bad. Unconditional love and that mean accepting who he is and who he is not.

Reflection on writing?

I gained great compassion for myself today. I am grateful that GOD has given me just a

perfect life, I accept that I am imperfectly perfect.

Reference

Seaward, B. (2015). Managing stress: Principles and strategies for health and well-being. Burlington,

MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Stahl, B., & Goldstein, E. (2010). A mindfulness-based stress reduction workbook. Oakland, CA: New

Harbinger Publications, Inc.

24
7
Unit

Unit 7: Nutrition and Stress


Information to Remember:
Key Learning Point: The primary purpose of food is as a source of nutrients; many people use food as
a means to fill an emotional void created by stress. Food affects not only the physical body, but the
mental, emotional, and spiritual aspects as well. Seaward, B. (2015). Managing stress: Principles
and strategies for health and well-being. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning
Key Learning Point: Research has shown that some foods actually induce a state of stress. Excess
amounts of sugar, caffeine, salt, and foods poor in vitamins and minerals weaken the body’s
resistance to the stress response and may ultimately make a person more vulnerable to disease and
illness Seaward, B. (2015). Managing stress: Principles and strategies for health and well-being.
Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning
Key Learning Point: Change various aspects of your diet, including reducing or eliminating the
consumption of caffeine, refined sugar, sodium, and fats, to reduce the risk of stress-related
problems. Seaward, B. (2015). Managing stress: Principles and strategies for health and well-
being. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning

Self-Assessment Exercise:
Stress management is important in achieving body, mind and soul relaxation to allow absorption of

life changes (Gordon, 2001). This requires a lot of input such as time management, positive thinking

and thought control. There are different ways of stress management, such as changing my life skills,

avoiding a stressful situation, or sharing with somebody my stress (Mesko, 2013). For this particular

exercise I got to practice Mindful Lying Yoga, at the end of the practice I was physically, mentally,

emotionally in a different state of mind. As Stahl and Goldstein expresses in their book, it is an

excellent way to bring mindfulness to the body movement which rejuvenates and have many health

25
benefits; healthy bones, joints, muscles, nerves and also supple and flexible.

References

Gordon, J. S. (2001). Stress management. Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers.

Mesko, S. (2013). Mudra therapy: Hand yoga for pain management and conquering illness.

Stahl, B., & Goldstein, E. (2010). A mindfulness-based stress reduction workbook. Oakland, CA: New

Harbinger Publications, Inc.

Journal Writing
There are so many things that we need to keep in mind after learning about the importance about

nutrition and stress. The beauty is knowing “the body adapts, either negatively or positively, to the

stress placed upon it. Proper physical exercise will cause many adaptations that in the long term are

thought to be effective in reducing the deleterious effects of stress by returning the body to a profound

state of homeostasis. Physical exercise allows the body to use stress hormones for their intended

purposes, detoxifying the body of stress hormones by utilizing them constructively. (Seaward 528)

The importance of having a balance nutrition and exercise will maintain the body to the optimal level

one can accomplish, being able to maintain it will keep the body free from stress. To get the benefits

of physical exercise, four criteria must be met: intensity, duration, frequency of training, and mode of

exercise. Together they are called the all-or-none principle, meaning that without meeting all four

requirements few if any benefits will be gained. It takes between 6 and 8 weeks to see significant

benefits in the body.(Seaward,2015)

Reference:

Seaward, B. (2015). Managing stress: Principles and strategies for health and well-

being. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

26
8
Unit 8: Physical Exercise and Activity
Information to Remember:
Key Learning Point: The body adapts, either negatively or positively, to the stress placed upon it. Proper
physical exercise will cause many adaptations that in the long term are thought to be effective in
reducing the deleterious effects of stress by returning the body to a profound state of homeostasis.
Physical exercise allows the body to use stress hormones for their intended purposes, detoxifying
the body of stress hormones by utilizing them constructively. Seaward, B. (2015). Managing stress:
Principles and strategies for health and well-being. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning
Key Learning Point: To get the benefits of physical exercise, four criteria must be met: intensity,
duration, frequency of training, and mode of exercise. Together they are called the all-or-none
principle, meaning that without meeting all four requirements few if any benefits will be gained. It
takes between 6 and 8 weeks to see significant benefits in the body. Seaward, B. (2015). Managing
stress: Principles and strategies for health and well-being. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett
Learning
Key Learning Point: The positive effects of physical exercise are lowering resting heart rate, resting
blood pressure, and muscle tension, and a host of other functions that help maintain or regain
physiological calmness. Seaward, B. (2015). Managing stress: Principles and strategies for health
and well-being. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning

Self-Assessment Exercises:

The purpose of this exercise was to focus on preparing a proposal for management on health and

wellness services through a teamwork initiative. The pairing with another student; each student

pitching their proposed ideas briefly to ask their partner for feedback was a great way to accomplish

this part of the course work. It made it great for ideas, input and corrections between both students.

Employers now a days are interested in keeping their organizations healthy and employees have

expressed an interest in mind/body exercises or practices at the worksite. Making these proposals a

27
reality for the workplace for any of the students who participated, would be a great accomplishment

on itself. Worthwhile!!

Reference:

Seaward, B. (2015). Managing stress: Principles and strategies for health and well-being. Burlington,

MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Stahl, B., & Goldstein, E. (2010). A mindfulness-based stress reduction workbook. Oakland, CA:

New Harbinger Publications, Inc.

Alligood, MR (2013). "Introduction to nursing theory". In Alligood, MR; Tomey, AM. Nursing

Theorists and their Work (7th ed.). Maryland Heights, MO: Mosby/Elsevier. pp. 5–6.

Roberts, Rashaun; Grubb, Paula L.; Grosch, James W. (25 June 2014). "Alleviating Job Stress in

Nurses". NIOSH: Workplace Safety and Health. Medscape and NIOSH.

Nardi, Deena A., and Charlene C. Gyurko. "The Global Nursing Faculty Shortage: Status and

Solutions for Change." (2013): 1-11.

Journal Writing:

Unit Eight Journal Writing Assignment

Complete the Journal Assignment entitled: Explore: Creating Connection. Directions are found on

pages 161 through 163 of the Mindfulness workbook. Upon completion of this Assignment, practice

developing these qualities in building stronger and healthier relationships.

This should be a minimum of one full page.

OPENNESS: I felt it was hard to be open to see someone whom you already know, with an open

perspective, fresh and new. It was and interesting practice. After doing it and acknowledging all

28
the judgments that were coming up to my mind, were minimizing while imagining filling the

entered pie with other perspectives holding equal value. It makes a huge difference knowing that

some else could bring so much to the plate when we are being open.

EMPATHY: While I was able to put myself while practice this exercise in someone’s shoes, lots of

mix emotions came back to me. Kept understanding that we are not perfect, no one is for that matter.

There is so much someone can contribute and at the same time my empathy for my own self for

whom I had been, also allowed me to be contributed and that made me realized how much being

accepting of others have me be very satisfied. It did open a different opportunity for the relationship.

COMPASSION: Can’t believe how much we are at fault to have others feel disappointed, when

judged, we close all the doors to any possibly to a great relationship. We never know why people act

or behave certain way. We don’t know their pains, sorrows, we don’t have a clue what are the fears

they face. We could use some compassion during this moment to support them on what they are

trying to accomplish. It will open a door for something new.

LOVING-KINDNESS: Things start becoming to make more sense. You can see emerging goodness

to be part of life, as we can compare them with mom, dad, sister, brother, son, husband. We just want

the best for them. The best outcome.

SYMPATHETIC JOY: Well, you can feel love and all kinds of satisfaction after they do get to

fulfill on their purpose, but mostly the happiness and delight to see who they really are as a person.

EQUANIMITY: This quality brings maturity to any relationship. This brings balance to our life and

change comes naturally and understands that all human beings have equal value and deserve same

respect.

Summary

The practice to creating connection is a really great tool in any levels of our life, I know this

29
amazing tool will make available great relationships in all areas of my life.

Reference

Seaward, B. (2015). Managing stress: Principles and strategies for health and well-being. Burlington,

MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Stahl, B., & Goldstein, E. (2010). A mindfulness-based stress reduction workbook. Oakland, CA:

New Harbinger Publications, Inc.

30
9
Unit

Unit 9: Applying Stress: Critical Issues for


Management and Prevention to your
Professional Life
Information to Remember:
Key Learning Point: Exposure to an array of coping strategies and relaxation techniques allows you to
pick and choose those that are most appropriate and will ensure the greatest returns. Seaward, B.
(2015). Managing stress: Principles and strategies for health and well-being. Burlington, MA:
Jones & Bartlett Learning
Key Learning Point: With awareness and the desire to growth, comes a greater consciousness of
yourself and the events and circumstances in your environment. Ultimately, these circumstances
contribute to your growth and maturation. Awareness and desire serve as catalysts for positive
change. Seaward, B. (2015). Managing stress: Principles and strategies for health and well-being.
Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning
Key Learning Point: Time management plays a huge role in putting stress-management strategies to
work, especially relaxation techniques. Seaward, B. (2015). Managing stress: Principles and
strategies for health and well-being. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning

Reference

Seaward, B. (2015). Managing stress: Principles and strategies for health and well-being. Burlington,

MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

31
Additional Information
Stress entails a body reaction and a strain within an individual. It manifests itself through

mental, emotional, and physical responses to a particular pressure in life. Among the critical issues

that cause stress includes arguments, financial challenges, workload, and time pressures. Too much

stress adversely affects a person’s health and can be fatal if not well managed. As such, stress can be

managed using four major ways. Firstly, you identify the underlying sources of stress and

categorizing them into those with a practical solution and those beyond your control. After

identification, you review your lifestyle and take a break from stressing factors within your range.

Thirdly, you engage in other physical activities such as exercise to adjust both your mind and body

from impacts of stress. Finally, you get social support from friends and community counselors to

further relieve your stress.

Furthermore, preventive measures must be undertaken to minimize future recurrence of stress.

According to psychologists, five actions are significant in preventing stress in your life. A person

should firstly maintain a positive attitude in daily life. Attitude change strengthens resistance to

stressful activities. Next is to eat healthily and create a period of hobbies on daily basis. This

minimizes instances that can create anxiety and tension. The person should also practice relaxation

techniques such as yoga and meditation when recovering from stressors in the society. Another

prevention mechanism is to avoid reliance on alcohol and drugs to relieve stress but instead get rests

and sleep to ease your brain from pressure. Lastly, engage with mental health professionals to provide

more preventive techniques in case of the persistence of stress. Eventually, stressful situations will be

altered permanently in your life.

32
Resources

Primary Sources (presentation and image)

SlideShare. (2013). Individual Preventive Stress Management. (Image). Retrieved from

https://www.slideshare.net/KapilChhabra1/stress-new

Fall. (2007). Stress Management. Presentation, TRiO Workshop.

Secondary Sources (books, article, and video)

Actualizied.org. (2014). Stress Management: Permanent solutions for Stress Reduction. [Video].

Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dSfZgygLjiw

Brainline. (2018) Stress Management: How to Reduce, Prevent, and Cope with Stress. BrainLine.

Retrieved from https://www.brainline.org/article/stress-management-how-reduce-prevent-and-

cope-stress

Healthline. (2018). How Do I Handle Stressful Situations? Healthline. Retrieved from

https://www.healthline.com/health/stress-prevention

Ivancevich, J. M., Matteson, M. T., Freedman, S. M., & Phillips, J. S. (1990). Worksite stress

management interventions. American Psychologist, 45(2), 252.

Jaremko, M., & Meichenbaum, D. (Eds.). (2013). Stress reduction and prevention. Springer Science

& Business Media.

33
References

Actualizied.org. (2014). Stress Management: Permanent solutions for Stress Reduction. [Video].

Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dSfZgygLjiw

Alligood, MR (2013). "Introduction to nursing theory". In Alligood, MR; Tomey, AM. Nursing

Theorists and their Work (7th ed.). Maryland Heights, MO: Mosby/Elsevier. pp. 5–6.

Atkinson, K., & Hornby, T (2012). The Mental health handbooks. London: Routledge/Falmers

Grater.

Brainline. (2018) Stress Management: How to Reduce, Prevent, and Cope with Stress. BrainLine.

Retrieved from https://www.brainline.org/article/stress-management-how-reduce-prevent-and-

cope-stress

Brook, R. D., Appel, L. J., Rubenfire, M., Ogedegbe, G., Bisognano, J. D., Elliott, W. J., ... &

Townsend, R. R. (2013). Beyond medications and diet: alternative approaches to lowering blood

pressure: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Hypertension, 61(6),

1360-1383.

Burks-Fitzhugh, B. (2015). Legacy of September 2001: Post Traumatic Stress. Pasadena, CA: Pacifics

Oak College.

Dermarin, V. & Morovic’, S.(2014).” Neuroplasticity, Periodicum Biologorum,” 116(2), 209-

211.McLeod,S.(2010).”What Is The Stress Response.”

Dupont, H. B., Candel, M. J., Lemmens, P., Kaplan, C. D., van de Mheen, D., & De Vries, N. K. (2017).

Stages of change model has limited value in explaining the change in use of cannabis among

adolescent participants in an efficacious motivational interviewing intervention. Journal of

psychoactive drugs, 49(5), 363-372

34
Fall. (2007). Stress Management. Presentation, TRiO Workshop.

Feltham, J. (2014). The gain of listening: Perspective on the counseling at work. Buckingham:

Opening University Press.

Gordon, J. S. (2001). Stress management. Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers.

Goyal, M., Singh, S., Sibinga, E. M., Gould, N. F., Rowland-Seymour, A., Sharma, R., ... &

Ranasinghe, P. D. (2014). Meditation programs for psychological stress and well-being: a

systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA internal medicine, 174(3), 357-368.

Healthline. (2018). How Do I Handle Stressful Situations? Healthline. Retrieved from

https://www.healthline.com/health/stress-prevention

Ivancevich, J. M., Matteson, M. T., Freedman, S. M., & Phillips, J. S. (1990). Worksite stress

management interventions. American Psychologist, 45(2), 252.

Jacoby, M. (2016). Shame and the origins of self-esteem: A Jungian approach. Routledge.

James, T., & Cinelli, B. (2003). Exploring Gender-Based Communication Styles. Journal Of

School Health, 73(1), 41-42. doi: 10.1111/j.1746-1561.2003.tb06559.x

Jaremko, M., & Meichenbaum, D. (Eds.). (2013). Stress reduction and prevention. Springer Science

& Business Media.

Kelman, H. C. (2017). Processes of opinion change. In Attitude Change (pp. 205-233). Routledge.

Kendal, Eric. R. (2012) Principles of Neural Science, Fifth Edition.

Managing Stress. (2003). Retrieved from https://www.chegg.com/homework-help/managing-

stress-8th-edition-chapter-5-solutions-9781449688455

35
Martin, I. (2016). Guided Visualization: A Way to Relax, Reduce Stress, and More!. Psych Central.

Retrieved on September 7, 2018, from https://psychcentral.com/lib/guided-visualization-a-

way-to-relax-reduce-stress-and-more/

Mesko, S. (2013). Mudra therapy: Hand yoga for pain management and conquering illness.

Mills, H., Reiss, N., & Dombeck, M. (2008). Visualization and Guided Imagery Techniques for Stress

Reduction. Article from mentalhelp. net.

Najm.W.I., (2011).’’Peptic Ulcer Disease ‘’ .Primary care: Clinics in Office Practice.38

(3), 383-394

Nardi, Deena A., and Charlene C. Gyurko. "The Global Nursing Faculty Shortage: Status and

Solutions for Change." (2013): 1-11.

Roberts, Rashaun; Grubb, Paula L.; Grosch, James W. (25 June 2014). "Alleviating Job Stress in

Nurses". NIOSH: Workplace Safety and Health. Medscape and NIOSH.

Seaward, B. (2015). Managing stress: Principles and strategies for health and well-being (8th ed.).

Boston, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Shaw, I., Shaw, B. S., & Brown, G. A. (2010). Role of diaphragmatic breathing and aerobic exercise

in improving pulmonary function and maximal oxygen consumption in asthmatics. Science &

Sports, 25(3), 139-145.

SlideShare. (2013). Individual Preventive Stress Management. (Image). Retrieved from

https://www.slideshare.net/KapilChhabra1/stress-new

Stahl, B. & Goldstein, E. (2010). A mindfulness-based stress reduction workbook. Oakland, CA: New

Harbinger Publications, Inc.

Sutter, E. N., Mattlage, A. E., Bland, M. D., Cherry-Allen, K. M., Harrison, E., Surkar, S.

M., ... & Lang, C. E. (2018). Remote Limb Ischemic Conditioning and Motor

36
Learning: Evaluation Factors Influencing Response in Older

Adults. Translational stroke research, 1-10.

Tibetan Healing Meditation. (2003). Retrieved from http://www.dharma-

haven.org/tibetan/meditation.htm

37