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1. Do not use dictionary
2. Read the following passages and answer the questions by choosing (X) the correct answer!
Questions 1-6
For each paragraph, choose the best heading from the list A-I in the box below, and write the letter in the space
provided. There are more headings than you need.

A. Insufficient access to education

B. Rural poverty
C. Rural populations of developing countries
D. Realistics aims
E. Education in developing countries
F. Rural primary education for the few
G. Educational Ideals
H. Financing education
I. A view of the future

1. Paragraph 1 __________
2. Paragraph 2 __________
3. Paragraph 3 __________
4. Paragraph 4 __________
5. Paragraph 5 __________
6. Paragraph 6 __________

Education for the rural disadvantaged

1. The vast majority of people in the developing countries live in rural areas, on farms, in villages or in
rural market towns. In some countries, such as Rwanda, Burkina Faso and Malawi more than 90
percent of the total population lives in the rural areas.
2. The projections are that the rural populations of the less-developed countries will increase
substantially in the decades to come. The UN predicts these will increase from 1.9 billion in 1970 to
2.6 billion by 1990. Thailand's rural population alone will increase from 30.6 million in 1970 to 570
million by the year 2000. Furthermore, because of high birth rates and declining infant mortality
rates, more than half of the rural population of developing countries is under 20 years of age. This
raises serious implications for education.
3. The main purpose of education is to provide everybody (not only those in urban areas) with relevant
knowledge, skills, attitudes and ideas which will enable them to lead more fulfilling, productive and
satisfying lives. To assert that everyone has a 'right' to education has little practical meaning unless
this'right' is translated into terms of some 'minimum package' of attitudes, knowledge and skills for
all people in a given society. To do otherwise is to create a privileged class at the expense of
everyone else. Vague objectives such as 'giving every child a good basic education' (often defined as
four to six or more years of formal schooling) are meaningless when huge sections of the population
are getting little or no education at all.
4. People in rural areas suffer from inadequate educational facilities and opportunities. In most rural
areas in developing countries the out-of-school group constitutes a vast majority of the whole
population from, say, 10 to 20 years old. For all practical purposes, they are beyond the reach of
formal education. But no section of the community should be shortchanged by its educational system
5. Where there are rural primary schools they benefit far fewer rural young people than educational
statistics often imply. Primary schools, instead of being the great equalisers of educational
opportunity they were meant to be, are the great discriminators. In the rural areas they equip only a
small minority of the young for effective and satisfying adulthood. The great majority of rural
youngsters are destined to live out the all-too¬familiar grind of ignorance and poverty.
6. This vicious circle has to be broken; the goal must be to provide everybody with basic knowledge
and skills. Rather than attempt to enrol every child for a seven or-eight-year cycle of primary
schooling, which is not financially feasible anyway for many countries for many years to come, the
strategy should be a shorter four to five-year primary cycle to provide every child with the minimum
educational needs — literacy, numeracy, health education and those technical and entrepreneurial
skills needed to make a decent living. This primary education should be geared for the large majority
who will not continue their studies beyond this stage, who will enter straight into productive life.

Questions 7 - 10
The invention of the incandescent light bulb by Thomas A. Edison in 1879 created a demand for
a cheap, readily available fuel with which to generate large amounts of electric power. Coal seemed to
fit the bill, and it fueled the earliest power stations(which were set up at the end Of the nineteenth
century by Edison himself). As more power plants were constructed throughout the country, the
reliance on coal increased. Since the First World War, coal-fired power plants have accounted for
about half of the electricity produced in the United States each year. In 1986 such plants had a
combined generating capacity of 289,000 megawatts and consumed 33 percent of the nearly 900
million tons of coal mined in the country that year. Given the uncertainty in the future growth of
nuclear power and in the supply of oil and natural gas, coal-fired power plants could well provide up
to 70 percent of the electric power in the United States by the end of the century.
Yet, in spite of the fact that coal has long been a source of electricity and may remain one for
many years (coal represents about 80 percent of United States fossil-fuel reserves), it has actually
never been the most desirable fossil fuel for power plants. Coal contains less energy per unit of weight
than natural gas or oil; it is difficult to transport, and it is associated with a host of environmental
issues, among them acid rain. Since the late 1960's problems of emission control and waste disposal
have sharply reduced the appeal of coal-fired power plants. The cost of ameliorating these
environmental problems, along with the rising cost of building a facility as large and complex as a
coal-fired power plant, has also made such plants less attractive from a purely economic perspective.
Changes in the technological base of coal fired power plants could restore their attractiveness,
however. Whereas some of these changes are evolutionary and are intended mainly to increase the
productivity of existing plants, completely new technologies for burning coal cleanly are also being
7. What is the main idea of the passage?
(A) Coal-fired plants are an important source of electricity in the United States and are likely to remain so.
(B) Generating electricity from coal is comparatively recent in the United States.
(C) Coal is a more economical fuel than either oil or nuclear power.
(D) Coal is a safer and more dependable fossil fuel than oil or gas.
8. Edison's electric light bulb is mentioned in the passage because it
(A) replaced gas as a light source
(B) increased the need for electrical power
(C) was safer than any other method of lighting
(D) could work only with electricity generated from coal
9.It can be inferred from the passage that coal became the principal source of electricity in the United States,
because it
(A) required no complicated machinery
(B) was comparatively plentiful and inexpensive
(C) was easy to transport
(D) burned efficiently
10.According to the passage, which of the following is one of the goals of the new technology in coal-fired
(A) To adapt the plants to other kinds of fuel
(B) To reduce the cost of building more plants
(C) To lengthen the lives of plants already in use
(D) To make the plants already in use more productive

Questions 11 – 15
Choose A, B, C, D, E to complete the paragraphs below
A. When the mechanical age entered full swing, thousands of workers were forced out of work in favour
of machines which were quicker at their jobs and didn't bother managers with pesky requests for a
lunch break.
B. It has also become one of the most widely studied and widely available college courses, with millions
of students worldwide choosing to study it upon leaving high school.
C. Former factory workers were retrained as mechanical engineers and put to work repairing the
machines which took their jobs and forced them into poverty.
D. It is also safe for one to assume that it is going to continue to produce work; until machines are
employed to fix other machines.
E. A mechanical engineering course, however, is not simply learning how things work.

Mechanical engineering is one of the most rapidly growing industries in the world today. (11) …………
However, many mechanical engineering students drop out of college before the end of their first year.
Because they don't really know what mechanical engineering is when they apply to study it.
Mechanical engineering is one of the most crucial industries if we are to continue living in the fashion in
which we live. (12) ……... For some time, those who once earned a living in the factories were unemployed
and destitute; but then one day, a machine broke down. It was soon realized that each organization with
mechanical workers would suffer financially if the powerful machines had to take sick days; and so, work
was created. (13) …..….. It was not long before a guy could make a very healthy living as a mechanical
engineer - especially if he was smart enough to not repair each machine.
As a subject, mechanical engineering is concerned with the workings of mechanical objects and teaches
students thousands of valuable lessons when it comes to entering the field. (14) …..…. It covers a wide
range of subjects, including mathematics. Many students find themselves once again face to face with
calculus, their old enemy from high school and decide that the course is not for them. Despite this,
mechanical engineering courses continue produce millions of graduates each year. Those who have
graduated from mechanical engineering courses have gone on to work on a variety of projects ranging from
design to destruction. Many have even developed their own ideas into fully functioning mechanical objects
and become millionaires in the process.
Mechanical engineering is the fastest growing industry in the modern world. (15) …..….
Questions 16 – 27
Do Literate Women Make Better Mothers?
Children in developing countries are healthier and more likely to survive past the age of five when their
mothers can read and write. Experts in public health accepted this idea decades ago, but until now no one has
been able to show that a woman’s ability to read in itself improves her children’s chances of survival.
Most literate women learnt to read in primary school, and the fact that a woman has had a education may
simply indicate her family’s wealth or that it values its children more highly. Now a long-term study carried
out in Nicaragua has eliminated these factors by showing that teaching reading to poor adult women, who
would otherwise have remained illiterate, has a direct effect on their children’s health and survival.
In 1979, the government of Nicaragua established a number of social programmes, including a National
Literacy Crusade. By 1985, about 300,000 illiterate adults from all over the country, many of whom had
never attended primary school, had learnt how to read, write, and use numbers.
During this period, researchers from the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, the Central American
Institute of Health in Nicaragua, the National Autonomous University of Nicaragua and the Costa Rican
Institute of Health interviewed nearly 3,000 women, some of whom had learnt to read as children, some
during the literacy crusade and some who had never learnt at all. The women were asked how many children
they had given birth to and how many of them had died in infancy. The research teams also examined the
surviving children to find out how well-nourished they were.
The investigators’ findings were striking. In the late 1970s, the infant mortality rate for the children of
illiterate mothers was around 110 deaths per thousand live births. At this point in their lives, those mothers
who later went on to learn to read had a similar level of child mortality (105/1000). For women educated in
primary school, however, the infant mortality rate was significantly lower, at 80 per thousand.
In 1985, after the National Literacy Crusade had ended, the infant mortality figures for those who remained
illiterate and for those educated in primary school remained more or less unchanged. For those women who
learnt to read through the campaign, the infant mortality rate was 84 per thousand, an impressive 21 points
lower than for those women who were still illiterate. The children of the newly-literate mothers were also
better nourished than those of who could not read.
Why are the children of literate mothers better off? According to Peter Sandiford of the Liverpool School of
Tropical Medicine, no one knows for certain. Child health was not on the curriculum during the women’s
lessons, so he and his colleagues are looking at other factors. They are working with the same group of 3,000
women, to try ti find out whether reading mothers make better use of hospitals and clinics, opt for smaller
families, exert more control at home, learn modern childcare techniques more quickly, or whether they
merely have more respect for themselves and their children.
The Nicaraguan study may have important implications for governments and aid agencies that need to know
where to direct their resources. Sandiford says that there is increasing evidence that female education, at any
age, is ‘an important health intervention in its own right’. The results of the study lend supports to the World
Bank’s recommendation that education budgets in developing countries should be increased, not just to help
their economies, but also to improve child health.
‘We’ve known for a long time that maternal education is important,’ says John Cleland of the London
School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. ‘But we thought that even if we started educating girls today,
we’d have to wait a generation for the pay-off. The Nicaraguan study suggests we may be able to bypass
Cleland warns that the Nicaraguan crusade was special in many ways, and similar campaigns elsewhere
might not work as well. It is notoriously difficult to teach adults skills that do not have an immediate impact
on their everyday lives, and many literacy campaigns in other countries have been much less successful.
‘The crusade was part of a larger effort to bring a better life to the people,’ says Cleland. Replicating these
conditions in other countries will be a major challenge for development workers.
Questions 16 - 19
Complete the summary using the list of words, A-J, below. Write the correct letter, A-G, on your answer
sheet. You may use one letter once.
The Nicaraguan National Literacy Crusade aimed to teach large numbers of illiterate 16) read and
write. Public health experts have known for many years that there is a connection between child health and
17)..........However, it has not previously been known whether these two factors were directly linked or not.
This question has been investigated by 18) Nicaragua. The study showed that mothers who can
read and write can itself improve infant health and 19)...........
A. maternal literacy and women G. family wealth
B. mothers E. an international research team
C. survival F. nicaraguan government

Questions 20 - 27
Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage above?
YES if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer

NO if the statement contradicts with the claims of the writer

20. To make women who live in poverty literate will positively affect their children’s wellness.
21. Before the National Literacy Crusade, illiterate women had approximately the same levels of infant
mortality as those who had learnt to read in primary school.
22. Before and after the National Literacy Crusade, the child mortality rate for the illiterate women
stayed at about 110 deaths for each thousand live births.
23. The women who had learnt to read through the National Literacy Crusade showed the greatest
change in infant mortality levels.
24. The women who had learnt to read through the National Literacy Crusade had the lowest rates of
child mortality.
25. After the National Literacy Crusade, the children of the women who remained illiterate were found
to be less nourished than the newly-literate women.
26. The study indicated that the effects of maternal literacy programmes may be seen quickly.
27. Similar campaigns in other countries would be equally successful.

Questions 28 -34
Complete this following paragraph using the appropriate words
Many people assume that democracy is a naturally developing system, and still more assume that (28) _____
has always existed in the United States. This (29) ________ is wrong because as the excerpt below indicates,
developing democracy in the United States has been a decidedly difficult and sometimes very contentious
matter. The (30) ________ of democracy is an argumentative process, one that requires both time and
patience. (31) ________ who assumed that the newly emerging nations growing out of the breakup of the
Soviet Union in 1990-1991 would turn to democracy would need to re-examine the history of the United
States, or England, or France (or any of the democratic nations today). A (32)____ would show that the
move to democratize Eastern Europe and Central Asia is just starting and that (33) ________ a movement
will require nurturing and encouragement from all sources. (34) _____ is a difficult system both to institute
and to maintain.
A. Democracy E. Assumption
B. Those F. Development
C. Such G. Re-examination
D. ItH. History

Questions 35 – 40
Realism in Drawing
A good illustration of this spirit of realism in drawing involves “form and proportion,” “perspective,” and
“tone.” The word “tone” in the context of drawing refers to the realist focus on “shape,” in that shading is the
technique of varying the tonal values on the paper to represent the shade of the material as well as the
placement of the shadows. Careful attention to reflected light, shadows and highlights can result in a very
realistic rendition of the image. For instance, shading with “blending” can use an implement to soften or
spread the original drawing strokes. Blending is most easily done with a medium that does not immediately
fix itself, such as graphite, chalk, or charcoal, although freshly applied ink can be smudged, wet or dry, for
some effects. For shading and blending, the artist can use a blending stump, tissue, a kneaded eraser, a
fingertip, or any combination of them. A piece of chamois is useful for creating smooth textures, and for
removing material to lighten the tone. Continuous tone can be achieved with graphite on a smooth surface
without blending, but the technique is laborious, involving small circular or oval strokes with a somewhat
blunt point.”
In addition, the spirit of realism in “shaping” is to introduce “texture” to the drawing which includes
hatching and stippling. There are a number of other methods for producing texture in the picture: in addition
to choosing a suitable paper, the type of drawing material and the drawing technique will result in different
textures. Texture can be made to appear more realistic when it is drawn next to a contrasting texture; a coarse
texture will be more obvious when placed next to a smoothly blended area. A similar effect can be achieved
by drawing different tones close together; a light edge next to a dark background will stand out to the eye,
and almost appear to float above the surface.

Below is the summary of the above text. Please fill in the blanks in the summary text with the appropriate
words provided in the box below.

A unlike E different I latter

B next F to draw J last
C relies on G next K replaced by
D given to H needed by L to identify

Tone in realism-based drawing is focused on creating both shape and texture. Creating shape 35)
__________ the drawing techniques called shading, which includes hatching and stippling. Shading can
create 36) _______ tonal values to represent the shade of the material and the placement of the shadows.
Careful attention must be 37) _______ reflected light, shadows and highlights in creating a very realistic
rendition of the image. 38) _______ creating shape, creating different textures in the picture can be done by
various methods. For instance, 39) _______ a more realistic texture can be done by placing one texture next
to a contrasting texture, while creating a more obvious texture can be done by placing a coarse texture next
to a smoothly blended area. The 40) ________ can also be done by placing different tones close together.