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6-8-2016 Akiva Came

Teacher : Clara Zarza

engineering in biotechnology

 Hernández Bello Noelia Nenetzin


 Kempis Calanis Adriana Pabieda
 Rincón León Abril
Índice
INTRODUCCTION ................................................................................................................................................................ 2
JUSTIFICATION ................................................................................................................................................................ 3
HYPOTHESIS .................................................................................................................................................................. 4
PROBLEM STATEMENT ............................................................................................................................................... 4
MATERIALES AND EQUIPMENT .......................................................................................................................................... 4
METHODOLOGY .................................................................................................................................................................. 6
RESULTS,CALCULATIONS AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS .................................................................................. 8
CONCLUSIONS ............................................................................................................................................................... 9
BIBLIOGRAFHY............................................................................................................................................................. 10
INTRODUCCTION

It is known that the main process by which the grape must is transformed into wine is alcoholic
fermentation, which consists of the transformation of the sugars contained in the grape, in ethyl
alcohol and carbon dioxide Wine is a beverage obtained from the grape by the alcoholic fermentation
of its must or juice. The fermentation is produced by the metabolic action of yeasts, which transform
the sugars in the fruit into ethanol and the gas in the form of carbon dioxide. The sugar and the acids
that the fruit possesses, Vitis vinífera, are sufficient for the development of the fermentation.
However, wine is a sum of environmental factors: climate, latitude, altitude, hours of light and
temperature, among several others. Approximately 66% of the world grape harvest is dedicated to
wine production; the rest is for consumption as fruit. Despite this, vine cultivation covers only 0.5%
of the arable land in the world. The cultivation of the vine has been associated with places with a
Mediterranean climate. The name "wine" is given only to the liquid resulting from the total or partial
alcoholic fermentation of the grape juice, without the addition of any substance. In many legislations
it is considered only as wine to the fermented beverage obtained from Vitis vinifera, despite the fact
that similar beverages are obtained from other species such as Vitis labrusca, Vitis rupestris, etc.
Knowledge of the particular science of winemaking is called oenology (without considering the
processes of vine cultivation). The science that deals only with the biology of the vine, as well as its
cultivation, is called ampelology.

MEASUREMENT OF WINE ACIDITY


The acidity of the wines in general is important because of the flavor characteristics imparted to them,
but it is much more significant because of the conditions that can be established for the growth of
the yeast and therefore for a good fermentation.
When making fruit wine it is essential to bring the must acidity to optimum fermentation values, for
which we must know its initial value and thus be able to calculate the amount of acid that we must
add or the dilution that we must make.
When determining the acidity of a pulp, the calculation is different depending on the acid that
predominates in it. We must then know the predominant acid before making the respective
determination

Each of the natural substances that are characterized by their sweet taste. Basic components of the
must or grape juice. The most abundant in the grape are glucose and levulose or fructose. During
the fermentation, and by the action of the yeasts, they are transformed into ethyl alcohol, carbon
dioxide and many other substances that characterize the wine. When this transformation is practically
total it is said that the wine is dry, but the normal thing is that in all wine there is a certain amount of
unfermented sugars, called reducing sugars. In young wines there is a relationship between the
presence of residual sugars and the aromatic intensity. The must is rich in sugars such as glucose
and fructose, from whose natural fermentation by yeast will come ethyl alcohol, carbon dioxide, etc.
It is necessary to know the acidity of the must and the acidity of the wine after fermentation since it
is an important factor for the subsequent conservation and stability of the wine over time. A low
acidity will imply a greater possibility of microbial alterations and, therefore, a greater possibility that
the wine has defects and loses quality, even spoiling definitively. In addition, the acidity of the wine
plays a very important role in the balance and roundness of the wine in the mouth. The wine should
have an adequate value of total acidity in line with the other components to achieve a good balance.
This value is usually between 3 and 7 g / l.

Apart from this, you must know the value of volatile acidity, which is given by the amount of acetic
acid that the wine has, at all times throughout the vinification and aging process, and before going
on the market. If the volatile acidity increases, it is a sign that the wine is being chopped, it is suffering
from some undesirable microbial alteration, and it must act properly to prevent the wine from being
permanently spoiled. A wine with an acetic acid content higher than 1 g / l is considered defective
and should not be marketed, even with slightly lower values can be rejected in tasting. There are two
methods for determining the acidity of wine:

• Determination of the total acidity, in which we will determine the concentration of all the valuable
acids of the wine when it is brought to a pH of 7.

• Determination of the volatile acidity, where we will find those acids belonging to the acetic series of
the wine, either in free state or in the form of salt. Wines, generally have a pH that ranges between
2.7 and 4.2 The lower the pH value, the more acidic it is and, therefore, the more longevity it will
have. When wine exceeds 4 pH, evolves too fast and, therefore, lasts less in our cellar. On the other
hand, we have the total acidity of the wine, which is not more than the sum of all the acids that make
up the wine: fixed acidity + volatile acidity.
REDUCING SUGARS

Sugar, a crystalline carbohydrate, edible and soluble in water, is essential for the production of
energy in all living beings. Although it is most commonly associated with the sucrose found in sweet-
tasting foods, sugar is also found in most fruits (fructose) and in almost all snacks, processed foods
or flavored beverages such as corn syrup. high fructose At a chemical level, a sugar is considered
"reductive" if it reduces an oxidizing agent within a chemical reaction, while those that do not reduce
oxidation are called "non-reducing".

JUSTIFICATION
History of wine
The history of wine has run parallel to the history of humanity. Wine, as it is known today, is an
alcoholic beverage derived from the fermentation of grape juice, which is produced thanks to the
action of the yeasts present in the skins of the grapes. The name came from the Latin vinum, which
is believed to come from the Greek oinos and even from Sanskrit vêna.

The origins of wine

Although there are indications that the cultivation of the vine (at the beginning wild, called vitis vinifera
sylvestris) and the production of beverages from grapes (in the form of juices with added sugars)
were already made around the 6,000 years and 5,000 BC, it is not until the Bronze Age (3,000 BC)
when it is estimated that the true birth of the wine occurred (before, perhaps, it had been achieved
accidentally). Archaeologists have found indications that establish the origin of the first wine harvest
in Sumer, in the fertile lands watered by the Tigris and the Euphrates in the Near East, in ancient
Mesopotamia. From Sumer he arrived in Egypt, where he would rival the beer that was made in
Ancient Egypt (3,000 BC). The banks of the Nile were cultivated land of the vine and around these
plants (increasingly domesticated), a whole labor and industrial activity was developed. The
Egyptians fermented the must in large clay pots, and produced red wine. The wine became a symbol
of social status and was used in religious rites and pagan festivities. The pharaohs were buried with
earthen vessels containing wine and engravings have been found in the pyramids that symbolize the
cultivation of the vine, the collection, elaboration and enjoyment of wine at parties and religious
events. It is curious to note that already at this time the wine was stored in the amphoras for several
years, having more value old wine than the new. The potters recorded in the amphoras destined to
the guard of the wine who had cultivated the grapes, the date of elaboration and the quality of the
must (it could be said that it was the anteroom of the modern label).

The adaptability of the vine (vitis vinifera) favored its expansion through Western Europe through
trade routes, reaching China. It is believed that the vine arrived in the Iberian Peninsula before the
Phoenicians, around 3,000 BC.

In 700 a.C., the wine arrives in its expansive process to classical Greece. The Greeks took the watery
wine, it was used in religious rites, funerary and popular festivals, in addition, they assigned to the
wine a divinity: Dyonisos, who always appears represented with a glass in his hand. The Greeks
created containers of different sizes for the storage and service of wine: large amphoras, which were
sealed with pine resin; medium-sized craters; and small aoinojé and ritones. At this time, wines with
their own characteristics were produced in different regions of Greece, such as Rhodes, Icaria,
Chios, Lesvos, Eritrea, Naxos, Taasos, Corinto or Mende. There is even documentation that
indicates that they came to import wines from exotic countries, such as Lebanon or Palestine, usually
destined for the tables of the noble classes. The adaptability of the vine (vitis vinifera) favored its
expansion through Western Europe through trade routes, reaching China. It is believed that the vine
arrived in the Iberian Peninsula before the Phoenicians, around 3,000 BC.

In 700 a.C., the wine arrives in its expansive process to classical Greece. The Greeks took the watery
wine, it was used in religious rites, funerary and popular festivals, in addition, they assigned to the
wine a divinity: Dyonisos, who always appears represented with a glass in his hand. The Greeks
created containers of different sizes for the storage and service of wine: large amphoras, which were
sealed with pine resin; medium-sized craters; and small aoinojé and ritones. At this time, wines with
their own characteristics were produced in different regions of Greece, such as Rhodes, Icaria,
Chios, Lesvos, Eritrea, Naxos, Taasos, Corinto or Mende. There is even documentation that
indicates that they came to import wines from exotic countries, such as Lebanon or Palestine, usually
destined for the tables of the noble classes.

HYPOTHESIS
Our wine is expected to meet the international specifications for wines

PROBLEM STATEMENT
Analyze and determine a series of parameters through the use of quantitative methods for the identification of
components of interest contained in wine.

MATERIALES AND EQUIPMENT


Quantity Material Specifications
4 Erlenmeyer flasks 100ml
2 5ml
Graduated pipettes
2 10ml
Graduated pipettes
1 Burette 50ml
1 Universal support -
2 Tweezers for burette -
2 Beaker 100ml
4 Test tubes Con tapón
1 Beaker 500ml
1 Security knob
1 Erlenmeyer flasks 500 mL

EQUIPOS REQUERIDOS

Quantity Name Specifications

1 -
Heating grill

Name S I R O
NaOH 0.1N 3 0 1 -
Phenolphthalein 1 0 0 -
R.Fehling A y B

OTROS MATERIALES REQUERIDOS

Name Specifications
Quantity
- -
Nitrile gloves
- -
Flannel
- Sanitas -
- Waste bottle -
METHODOLOGY
Wine making
• Obtaining the Crushed or
must liquid pressed
• Wash strawberries
and raspberries
and crush them

Alcoholic
In a glass pot add 450 grams fermentation
of sugar per pound 450 grams
of fruit you are using.

Mix the strawberries and


raspberries together with
7.05 liters of water.

Prepare the water Bulgarians in a


container, then add them to the mixture of
strawberries and raspberries. Leave the
preparation in a cool place for three to four
days. Occasionally stir the mixture.

The wine is separated from


the sediment containing Wine separation
yeasts and organic and clarification
precipitates

Bottling
Determination of acidity.

10ml of water

10ml of come
3 drops of
Phenolphthalein

Holder with
NaOH 0.1N

White Pink

Determination of reducing sugars

Add 0.5 mL of Fehling A and then


add 0.5 mL of Fehling B

500 mL the
come

Place the Erlenmeyer flask in the


water bath and wait for it to turn
red brick for a limit of 5 min. And
write down your results
RESULTS,CALCULATIONS AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS

Grado de acidez (Ácido cítrico)

Flask Millions of NaOH 0.66 mL


spent Millions of NaOH
1 0.9 spent
2 0.6 Normality of the base 0.1N
3 0.5
Milliliters of the sample 10 mL
AVERAGE 0.66

Formula for acidity


% Acidity = (9 * mL of NaOH spent * N of NaOH / mL of sample) * 100
%A=((9*0.66*0.1)/10)*100

%A= 0.066*100

%A=6.6

Reducing sugars present to determine the level of sweetness of the wine


Data:

clean filter paper weight 1.6997 gr


1.7681 gr
but of the filter paper with the precipitate
Milliliters of the sample 0.002 L

Calculations:

1.7681 gr
- 1.6997 gr.
0.2681 gramos

AE=0.0684g / 0.002 L = 34.2 g/L


Determination of the alcoholic strength

Data:
• Sample volume used: 50ml
• Volume of alcohol obtained in the distillation: 5ml
Formula:
𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑙𝑐𝑜ℎ𝑜𝑙
% 𝐴𝐿𝐶𝑂𝐻𝑂𝐿 = ∗ 100
𝑠𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒

Calculations:
5𝑚𝑙
% 𝐴𝐿𝐶𝑂𝐻𝑂𝐿 = ∗ 100 = 10%
50𝑚𝑙

ANALYSIS OF RESULTS

Analysis:
 According to the NOM for rosé wine: "Wine is considered sweet, when its content in
reducing substances expressed in inverted sugar is greater than 30 g / l"
 This indicates that our wine meets the characteristics of a sweet wine as it has 34.2 g
/ l.

Analysis:
 "According to the NOM, the alcoholic strength of a wine must be between 8.5 at least
14 maximum"
 Therefore, our wine has an acceptable alcohol content between the range proposed
by the NOM as it has 10% alcohol.

Analysis:
 "According to the NOM, the degree of acidity allowed is between 4.5 and 10"
 Our wine presents a degree of acidity of 6.6 which indicates that it is in an acceptable
range.

CONCLUSIONS

It is thanks to the quantitative analysis that the compositions of a myriad of problem substances can
be studied and it is precisely the knowledge of these compositions that allows us to determine if our
analyte of interest meets the proposed standards (in the case of food) as these Analysis methods
allow us to know the amount of certain substance contained in a certain analyte of interest. In this
case, we were interested in knowing the quantitative characteristics of the wine such as the alcoholic
strength, the acidity and the amount of sugar contained in it. It is very important to know how to carry
out this type of analysis since nowadays all the chemical and food industries need to analyze their
products because it is thanks to quantitative chemical analysis that the industries can maintain the
quality of the products and it is even thanks to these analyzes for example in the case of
pharmaceutical industries that the medicines contain sufficient and safe amount of the active
ingredient. The wine industry is not left behind in this type of issues because it also needs to make
use of quantitative analysis methods to verify that its products comply with international
specifications.

BIBLIOGRAFHY

 S. Jackson, Ronald (2008). Wine Science (Principles and applications) (en inglés) (3ª
edición). California: Elsevier Inc.
 Standage, Tom. La historia del mundo en seis tragos, pp. 56-58. Random House
Mondadori, Barcelona, 2006
 Tesis doctoral "Estudio analítico de compuestos volátiles en vino" Mª Trinidad Cedrón
 José Peñín, Vides del mundo, Madrid, 1977. Proporciona una buena información con
fotografías de las más conocidas
 Alexis Lichine, Enciclopedia de vinos y alcoholes de todos los países, con la colaboración
de W. Fifield y con la asistencia de J. Bartlett, J. Stockwood y K. Philson, copyright 1976,
ediciones Omega, S. S. Barcelona, 1987, p. 129, ad v. “Ampelografía”.