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Liceo de Bay

Bay, Laguna
A.Y. 2018-2019

The Effects of Implementing different traffic scheme

by the LBTMO in Crossing, Los Baños, Laguna
as perceived by the selected GAS Students of
Liceo de Bay A.Y. 2018-2019

Pañe, Jo-Emmanuel P.
Abuan, Patricia Joy M.
Batac, Maria Elmira Grace C.
Remerata, Michelle Angela N.
Abstract C. Theoretical Framework

According to Talukdar (n.d.),

Traffic Congestion is one of many
Chapter I – The Problem and Its serious global problems in all great cities
Background resulted from rapid urbanization which
always exert negative externalities upon
A. Introduction society. It is not possible to suggest
Traffic congestion in urban road unique traffic congestion management
networks wastes a massive amount of time framework which could be absolutely
applied for every great cities. Equally, it
and fuel, and the overall cost due to traffic
is quite feasible to develop a framework
congestion is increasing every year. Traffic
which could be used with or without
congestion often occurs when traffic density
minor adjustment to deal with
becomes higher than the capacity of a road congestion problem. So, the main aim of
network. Efficient use of the existing road this paper is to prepare a traffic
networks by innovative intersection congestion mitigation framework which
management and control is a remaining will be useful for LBTMO who are
option for the cities where further directly or indirectly involved or willing
construction and expansion of roads are to involve in the task of traffic
difficult. In the traditional traffic control congestion management.
paradigm traffic flows at intersections are
regulated by traffic lights or signs that restrict D. Conceptual Framework
the maximum traffic handling capacity of the
intersections and increase inconveniences of This study aims to know about
frequent stops and idling. At busy the effects of traffic to commuters and
intersections, flows of vehicles on each riders.
approach are usually regulated by green and
Independent Dependent
red lights that eventually increase the stop

B. Background of the Study LBTMO in terms The effects of

of their implementing
Traffic is one of the biggest problem that our different traffic
country is facing nowadays especially in Los scheme
Baños where the business industry is immerging.
The traffic congestion now plaguing the main
road of Los Baños (particularly Crossing) is
wreaking havoc on workers' and students’
productivity due to the implementation of
different traffic scheme. Figure 1. Research Paradigm

We can view our traffic from different E. Statement of the Problem

perspectives: longer commute time, employee
absences, stress, wasted man-hours, and added The purpose of this study is to determine
fuel expenses are just some of them. Traffic is so the effects of implementing different traffic
prevalent in Los Baños, particularly during rush scheme in Crossing Los Baños, Laguna that
hours were there are many commuters especially affects different subject’s performance. It
employees of both public and private sector are seeks to answer specifically the following
affected but also for businesses as well. questions:
1. What are the possible solutions on research and also will gave them
how to avoid the traffic that information that they can also use.
encountered everyday by the H. Scope and Limitations
The study deals with some reasons what
2. What are the reasons of low are the effects of implementing different
performance of variables caused by traffic? traffic scheme by the LBTMO and these are
the usual situations we see along the road as
2.1 Traffic Constable
we commute. The traffic level by frequency
2.2 Commuters/Jaywalkers and severity of traffic jams, road quality, and
infrastructure, driver safety based on
2.3 Riders/Drivers accidents, road hazards and weather, drivers
services like access to gas stations including
F. Hypothesis
access to cars and impact of gas prices and
Alternative Hypothesis: that’s why traffic affects different subjects.

There is a significant effect between I. Definition of Terms

LBTMO in terms of their implementation and 1. Subject- variables/respondents
the effects of implementing different traffic 2. Frequency - is the number of
scheme. occurrences of a repeating event per
unit time.
Null Hypothesis:
3. Carpooling – option to lessen traffic
There is no significant effect between
LBTMO in terms of their implementation and Chapter II – Review of Related
the effects of implementing different traffic Literature and Studies
According to a research titled “Employer
G. Significance of the Study Views on Traffic Congestion” (Policy Brief 115
of the Reason Foundation, February 2014), traffic
1. Commuters – It will benefit the congestion is a problem not just for individual
commuters to know what increases commuters but for businesses as well. While
their social interaction, and can help commuters are greatly concerned over rush hour
them with their daily activity. traffic, businesses are also concerned with the off-
2. Students – It will benefit the peak hour (non-rush hour) delivery of goods. It
students in improving their learning was pointed out in the research that because
about the traffic that they can businesses are concerned with congestion during
encounter every day. And to gain a both time periods, their views on traffic
better understanding in the effect of congestion differ from those of commuters.
traffic. Solving rush hour and off-peak congestion is also
3. Drivers – It will benefit the drivers more challenging than merely solving rush hour
to improve their driving skills to congestion.
reduce the risks of accidents,
knowing how to avoid traffic The study stated that congestion affects
crashes, recognize potential employers in several ways. Primarily, it affects
hazards, reduce traffic jams and impacts corporate activities such as
parking hassles. shipping/receiving, logistics and distribution,
4. Future Researchers – It will benefit client meetings and other business activities. It
the future researchers who will also also limits worker availability and productivity by
tackle the same problem in their affecting employees’ commutes. In the
Philippines, the effects of congestion on workers
and employees are a sore issue. Congestion leads Kellypad Biasong, Nurse. Improve our
to workers arriving late; commuting hassles for train system and implement a “No parking, No
workers, frustration/stress, long work commutes, car” policy.
long travel time, and loss of personal time.

In the Philippines, street, traffic or Cristal Maramag, Digital Officer. There

system problems are major issues. These include should be more means of public transportation
construction activities, accidents/incidents, and the government needs to fix our roads
inconvenient roads for customers and other causes especially in flood-prone areas which worsen the
of traffic such as safety issues, poor road design, traffic.
traffic signals, and on specific roads.
Grace Bondad Nicolas, COO of a media
According to the Japan International and PR firm. Carpooling is another solution we
Cooperation Agency (JICA), traffic congestion can consider aside from improving of our railway
cost the Philippines P2.4 billion every day in systems.
2012. If remain unsolved, our country can lose
P6B daily by 2030. The National Center for
Transportation Studies (UP Diliman) explained Enzo Luna, Blogger/ Photographer. If
that the cost of traffic are based on several factors, only we have a train system that works on time
among them are: value of time lost due to delay; like in Japan then wasted time going to work or
fuel costs; vehicle operating costs; Impact on school will be eliminated. Adapting an effective
health; and Greenhouse gas emissions. system will help ease our public commuting.

John Michael Bueno, Computer Engineer. Use

Joey Tibayan-Bayan, a radio reporter waterways and additional layer of roads as options
laments that going to and from work is such a for more efficient public transportations. People
chore. She said, “You get all dressed up looking should see train ads in Singapore, it’s fun and
fresh and clean, when you get on the PUVs, you educational.
disembark sweaty tired and dejected. The day has
not even started yet!” Abdel Sabdani, Corporate
Communication and Marketing Manager.
The People Management Association of Companies should be mandated to have vehicles
the Philippines (PMAP), the premier organization that can pick-up and drop-off employees on
of HR practitioners and people managers in the designated points.
country with a membership of more than 1,800
corporate and individual members, conducted a
survey in one of their recent monthly meeting Jocelyn Alaraña Magbitang, Travel
attended by more than 200 members. The results Agency Owner. Open the gates of private villages
showed that 81% of the respondents are in favor even for a limited only.
of a 4-day work week scheme. The companies
also shared that they provide benefits to their David Ricardo Valencia Ferro, Network
employees to lessen the effect of traffic like Administrator. Old buses should be phased out.
flexible work schedule, free shuttle, work from
home option and gas allowance. Saj Kamid, Research and Extension
Specialist. Bus rapid transit should be considered
Ruth Dela Cruz, IT Consultant. Local as another mass transport mode. Re-educating the
companies should start implementing work from pedestrians on proper crossing, when to cross,
home option especially for positions which don’t how to use pedestrian facilities should also be
require physical reporting in the office. considered.
Agustin John Cabredo, Government Jiao, C. (2016, September 14) (Traffic is
employee. I moved near my office and I ride my main source of deadly air pollution in Southeast
bicycle to go to work every day. It’s environment- Asia - WHO)
friendly, cheap and good for the health.
Because of the gridlock, what is usually
a 15-minute drive may last up to two hours,
Mark Joshua Pineda, Social Media according to online financial platform
Officer. Mass transport system, proper jeepney A long commute due to traffic
stops. makes workers less productive. Studies have
shown that a strenuous commute increases the
likeliness of irritability and fatigue which
Peter Sumile, Publisher. Install decreases a person’s performance on the job,
walkways and flyovers in intersections, major MoneyMax added.
roads and national roads.
"Part of the problem is that people are so
impatient and people don't follow rules," said Ma.
Adrian Marco, Programming and Sheilah Napalang, director of the National Center
Production Manager. President Duterte should for Transportation Studies.
reprimand all “underperforming” local
government officials: mayors, vice mayors and According to Napalang, the government
governors. should prioritize improving the country's mass
public transport system, which includes railway
Jayson R. Biadog, Technical Support. and bus rapid transit. She added that the premium
Flexible work schedule for employees. P2P bus service is a good first step, as it gives
another option for commuters, and encourages
Gino Romano Santos Decipeda, Process private car owners to leave their cars at home.
Specialist. Phase out all vehicles 10 years old and
above. According to Gilbert Felongco in an
article posted on Gulf News, congestion appears
Leo Brisenio, Photographer. We need an to be worsening in the Philippines as wealthier
effective and efficient transport system which Filipinos buy more vehicles and enjoy their
should be run by the government. improved spending power.

Metro Manila (CNN Philippines) — Arsenio Balisacan, Director General of

Traffic can be deadly. A new study by the World the National Economic Development Authority,
Health Organization (WHO) reveals about 7 said that the Philippines loses P2.4 billion (Dh204
million people die every year due to air pollution. million) per day in potential income as a result of
In Southeast Asia, most of this air pollution comes traffic congestion problems and lost productivity.
from traffic in highly urbanized areas. Air Also, for a minute, suppose that 30,000 vehicles
pollution is an "invisible killer," WHO Director pass through each of main roads every day and
Maria Neira said. It accounts for a third of deaths each vehicle is able to save one liter of fuel per
from lung cancer and stroke, a quarter of deaths day due to congestion reduction. If fuel is priced
from heart disease, and as much as half of child an average of P45 /L, then this is easily equivalent
deaths from pneumonia. On top of that, she said, to savings of 1,425,000 P per day per road. For 12
air pollution can also give people chronic roads and assuming to include only travel on
illnesses, which can be expensive to treat and can weekdays, the total savings per year can be
decrease the quality of their lives for years. computed as P4.212 billion.
Chapter III – Methodology relevant information of this research study. The
questionnaires are structured by the researchers
A. Research Design itself. The items in the survey questionnaire
contained close-ended questions which helped in
The study is a quantitative research that determining the improvement of the product. The
utilized descriptive research as the design. close-ended questions are in the form of response
Quantitative research is used to express the scale – a four-point Likert scale, dichotomous
problem by way of making numerical data or data scale and a checklist. Table 2 shows the design of
that can be change into usable statistics (De the survey questionnaire.
Franzo, 2011).
Table 2. Detailed Specification of the Survey
B. Sampling and Technique Questionnaire for the Demographics,
Questionnaire Proper, and the
The sampling technique that has been Suggestions/Recommendations
used in the study is the random sampling
technique and it took place in Bay-Los Baños
Area; it is a basic sampling technique were the AREAS OF ITEMS NUMBER % OF
researcher chose a subject for the study from the CONCERN OF ITEMS
chosen population (Easton and McColl n.d.). The
data was collected with the help of survey ITEMS PER
questionnaire, specifically the four-point Likert AREA
scale, dichotomous scale and checklists preferred Demographic Part I 4 %
by the researchers. All the data has been gathered,
analyzed and presented for statistical analysis and
interpretation. The descriptive statistics of the Questionnaire Part II 3 %
statistical treatments was used to show the Proper
distribution of variables of the study and to
Recommendations Part III 5 %
describe it so that the reliable information has
been shown.
C. Procedures TOTAL 22 100

For this study to be possible, the

researchers gave letter to the authority/ies for A four-point Likert scale was used to
formality. The purpose of this letter is for the determine the perception of the respondents
approval for the researchers to conduct this study. toward the attributes or factors of the traffic
Certain letter is made for the Supervisor of scheme. Table 3 shows the rating scheme that was
LBTMO. After the approval from the principal, used.
the researchers distributed letter to the selected
respondents and informed them that they were Table 3. Rating Schemes for the Satisfaction
chosen to participate to answer the survey Level of the Respondents
questionnaire. The survey proper was conducted
in a span of time. After gathering all the raw data, DEGREE DESCRIPTION
the researchers used the frequency count and 3.01 ─ 4.00 Very Good
analyzed it.
2.01 ─ 3.00 Good
D. Instrument 1.01 ─ 2.00 Not so Good
0.00 ─ 1.00 Not Good
The researchers designed a survey
The indicated scale shown is the
questionnaire as one of the data collection
identification of the preference level of the
instrument for this study that aims at eliciting
respondents toward the important attributes or
factors of the topic. Dichotomous scales were also
used in the questions of the survey wherein there
are only two answers possible. Checkboxes are
also used in the survey questionnaire to allow the
respondents to have more options.

E. Treatment
To determine the distribution of the
variables (scores from the
questionnaires/instruments) used and to
answer the objectivity of the study, the
following was utilized:

Frequency distribution – the data gathered

were tallied and tabulated according to their
corresponding category for the required

Percentages – the frequencies of the data

converted into percentages to give
representation to the data, or information
derived from the distribution. The
presentation of the frequency distribution
was in a 2-way table showed the
corresponding percentages.

Statement of the Problem Sources Statistical Treatment

Survey Categorization
Questionnaire Summarization
Survey Frequency
Questionnaire Distribution
Survey Frequency
Questionnaire Distribution
Survey Frequency
Questionnaire Distribution
Means – commonly used average or measure of
central tendency.
Table 4. Statistical Treatment of the Study