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How is critical thinking used in the classrooms?

Critical thinking is the ability to think clearly and rationally about what to do or what to believe. It also
comprises of the ability to engage in reflective and independent thinking. Someone with a sound critical
thinking skill can understand logical thinking connections between ideas, identify, construct and
evaluate arguments and solve problems in a systematic manner. The beauty of critical thinking is that
somebody with a good memory does not necessarily mean that he/she will also be good at critical
thinking. After explaining the basis of critical thinking and its advantages, I think its vital that we enforce
activities in primary schools amongst students which promotes the use of critical thinking as it is a very
important skill set which is crucial in surviving in the world of today.
Critical thinking can be promoted in primary schools by the following methods as stated by Abdur
re(As’ari, 2014)in his research paper:
(1) keep asking students to thinks reasons and implications, strengths and weaknesses of any claim or
(2) Asking the students consider alternative ideas.
(3) Use problem-based and/or project-based learning in the fourth week of each theme.
(4) Modeling the critical thinker behavior by the teacher.
Having discussed the importance of critical thinking and the definition of critical thinking, let’s discuss
the various methods in which critical thinking can be taught to students. First and foremost, critical
thinking should be improvised and practiced into the curriculum. This means that when various theories
are discussed in the class room then the students should be taught as to how that respective theory will
be applied in real life situations. Students should be dealt with questions which do not necessarily have
a right or wrong answer but that question is solved based on assumptions and valid reasoning. As far as
Pakistani Primary schools are concerned, critical thinking is not majorly used and students are somewhat
‘forced’ to ‘learn’ facts and not truly understand them.
I think that when it comes to teaching critical thinking in primary schools , teachers should be bought
under the spotlight as well. An ample amount of research has been done on teacher cognition and their
practices in the classroom. Researchers often classify teachers beliefs either behaviorist or
constructivist. In other words, this means that teachers often consider teaching as a route of
transmitting knowledge or as a process of developing social relationships. Also it should also be noted
that our teachers were themselves part of a control-oriented teaching system. As they were themselves
taught in this system, so it’s pretty obvious that they also enforce good discipline and try to maintain
order in the class.Inhibiting this sort of behavior means that teachers now fail to develop constructive
ideas or simply teach students to think out of the box for instance.

As’ari, A. R. (2014, April). Ideas for Developing Critical Thinking at Primary School Level. In International
Seminar on Addressing Higher Order Thinking: University of Muhammadiyah Makasar.
L. Wehiling, W. Charters Dimensions of teacher beliefs about the teaching process
American Educational Research Journal, 6 (1) (1969), pp. 7-29