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I.A.

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

I.A.1. PROBLEMS AND CONCERNS IN AGRICULTURE

Over the coming decades, the world has faced multiple complex challenges:
climate change, continuous growth of population, rapid urbanization and rising prices
of commodities has yield major and uncertain problems in the society including food
insecurity. Though Philippines is an agricultural country, with 47% of the total land
area considered as agricultural land, it still cannot accommodate the needs of the
people which makes the country still highly dependent on rice importation. Which at
the same time is a cause to the chonic crisis faced by local industries and could only
place the Filipino people’s food security in greater danger (Villanueva, 2018).
Despite the presence of technological advances, it is very clear that these problems
cannot be solved by simple solutions. Therefore, there is really a need for the
agricultural sector to engage in the use of scientific-based technology to address this
problem.

One of these technology is agrobiotechnology. According to Guzman et.al,


the application of biotechnology tools has had and is having significant contribution
in many facets of agriculture. Increased productivity and food availability; reduced
dependence on agricultural inputs; and greater stability in farm production are just
few of the essential advantages of biotechnology. With limited agricultural land, the
pressures of a rapidly growing population in the food equation could be addressed
more effectively through biotechnology. Scientific based technology can give
growers the chance to get along the challenges in farming and food security. Aside
from improved yield, Agrobiotechnology has been beneficial in terms of
environmental conditions and farmer’s through cutting down farming’s pesticide
footprint. Agrobiotechnology can be the key to the country’s food security problem
(Saguiguit, 2017).

I.A.2. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF BIOTECHNOLOGY IN THE PHILIPPINES

The Philippines was one of the first Asian countries to establish a


biotechnology research and development program. In 1980, the National Institutes of
Biotechnology and Applied Microbiology (BIOTECH) was organized at the University
of the Philippines in Los Baños. In 1997, the UP System formally organized three
other biotechnology research institutes to promote various biotechnology-based
research and development activities in UP campuses in Manila, Diliman, and Iloilo.
This initiative brought to the fore the biotechnology research and development
programs in medicine, fisheries, and industry (Padolina, 2001).

Until the early ‘90s, not much activity was undertaken in molecular biology
and genetic engineering. This shows that despite an early realization of the
importance of biotechnology in national agricultural development, there was little
political will to provide resources for these programs to move forward. Although
budget difficulties are always cited as the limitations to these endeavors, in this
particular case, the nonexistence of a critical mass of highly trained and updated
researchers, especially in molecular biology, seemed to be a major contributing
factor to the slow pace of development (Padolina 2001).

I.A.3. PROVINCE OF BUKIDNON (MAJOR ECONOMIC ACTIVITY)

Bukidnon has a total land area of 1,049,859 hectares. 669,529.25 hectares is


classified as Timberland and the remaining 380,332.75 hectares is classified as
Alienable and Disposable, 92% of which is utilized for agricultural production.

The 2000 Total Family Income reported by the NSO showed the Agriculture
Sector to have the highest family income – an indication that the sector is the most
dominant in the province’s economy during the period. Income derived from
agriculture is also the province’s main contributor to the regional economy. The
current provincial economy of the province has somewhat remained to be agriculture
based. (Bukidnon PDPFP).

One of the factors that may enhance competitiveness and efficiency of the
agriculture industry, as stated in the Provincial development and Physical
Framework plan, is the provision of support services which includes research and
development activities. Which at the same time it coincides with the strategies for
the development goals of the province which is to intensify agricultural production by
way of providing up-to-date technologies to farmers and growers employed through
dissemination of intensive information and education campaign on new and proven
technologies on agricultural production.
I.A.4. NECESSITY OF THE PROJECT

Studies have demonstrated that the investments in agricultural research,


infrastructure, and education generally rank first or second in terms of return to
growth and poverty reduction. Increased research and development
investments offer the possibilities to enhance the quantity and quality of agricultural
outputs, increased income source, greater food security, and better nutrition. In the
long term, investment in research and development in the agricultural sector will be
crucial in all countries, in order to move the technology frontier and sustain
productivity growth (Bishwajit, 2014). A critical mass of highly trained human
resources who will undertake the research and development activities in agricultural
biotechnology must be assured yet facilities for this type of activity still remains very
scarce.

I.A.5. ABOUT THE PROJECT


The Agrobiotechnological Research and Innovation complex aims to provide
a specialized research facility which performs innovative research, geared towards
applying results into practice (from identification to application through
technology),that will primarily be a catalyst in the development of Agricultural
biotechnology in the Philippines.

Therefore, this architectural proposal outlook as a facility for research,


tourism, convention and exhibition accompanied with auxiliary spaces (technology
exhibition, indoor and outdoor museum ). The facility will not only provide equipment
and facilities, but also training and support to local researchers who will engage in
the field of biotechnology. It also aims to build a network among local and
international researchers to sustain and continually advance biotechnology in the
Philippines.

I.A.6. ORGANIC ARCHITECTURE

Organic architecture strives to unify space, to blend interiors and exteriors,


and create a harmonic built environment not separate or dominant from nature but
as a unified whole. Organic architecture is an interpretation of nature’s principles
manifested in buildings that were in harmony with the world around them (Frank
Lloyd Wright).
Organic architecture is an intermarriage of nature and design. It is view that
the built environment that exists within a natural space should flow naturally and
synchronize with the natural environment or as Frank Lloyd Wright conceives it, “No
house should ever be on a hill or on anything. It should be of the hill. Belonging to it.
Hill and house should live together, each the happier for the other.”

Organic Architecture as the approach of this facility aims to embrace designs


shaped by the nature, in harmony of the surrounding landscapes. The spirituality of
the buildings and their harmonious relationships with their inhabitants, as an
important factors of organic architecture, stems from the needs of the immediate
environment and the lives of the people within it. Thus, the facility will serve as a
representation of an environment-friendly facility that bring people back in touch with
Nature.

Moreover, the facility will not just merely harmonize with nature by emulating
natural organisms through a representation of natural motif in structure and design
but it would also try to make things the way nature does. Using nature as a design
tool will create sustainability.In this way, the facility will achieve radical increase in
resource efficiency.
https://www.sunstar.com.ph/article/152073/Biotechnology-a-key-to-food-security

https://pinas.dlsu.edu.ph/gov/agriculture.html

https://www.philstar.com/headlines/2018/07/22/1835695/rice-import-dependence-compromising-
philippine-food-security

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ija/2014/589809/

https://www.nature.com/news/agriculture-engage-farmers-in-research-1.15108

http://www.bukidnon.gov.ph/home/index.php/itemlist/category/30-business-and-economy

https://www.thoughtco.com/organic-architecture-nature-as-a-tool-178199

https://www.guggenheim.org/arts-curriculum/topic/organic-architecture

https://www.google.com/search?source=hp&ei=HPuSW6TRD4L28AWF6ZPACg&q=green
+school+bali+permaculture&oq=bali+school+perma&gs_l=psy-
ab.3.0.0i22i30k1.1086.14475.0.16722.22.19.2.0.0.0.1204.3080.0j8j2j7-1.11.0....0...1.1.64.psy-
ab..9.13.3087.0..0j35i39k1j0i67k1j0i131i67k1j0i131k1j0i22i10i30k1j0i13k1.0.0wNRLaPWrkg
http://kulkulfarmbali.com/the-regenerative-design-institute/
Naa sa folder na theoretical framework

Problems and concerns

Biotechnology is a trailblazer in the Philippines and its applications are


used in a variety of fields of science such as agriculture. Though agricultural
biotechnology has already reached almost half of the population of our farmers,
it still remains enigma to most Filipinos these days. Aside from enhancing yield
and income, biotech has improved the health and environment conditions for
farmers, particularly in terms of pesticide applications. Lately, a paradigm shift
has occurred in all of agriculture, at least for those who are serious about the
farming business. Production agriculture has changed from hoping for good
yields as the only source of income, to integrating a system for creating yields
with biotechnology.

The world faces multiple complex challenges: continued population growth; scarcity
of land, water, and labor; rapid urbanization; and climate change. Despite exponential
technology advances and the continued evolution of the roles of the public and private
sectors, it is clear that such complex challenges will rarely be solved by simple solutions.
Globally, driven by rising demand for food, feed, and fuel, food price volatility,
climate change, diminishing resources for agricultural production, and increasing cost of the
inputs, agriculture research has once again began to gather momentum since the turn of the
century.
Climate change threatens a creaking food system in which harvests are already
lagging behind rising demand1, 2. A sustainable supply of food hinges on agricultural
innovation, but current investments neglect a key area for improving yields.
PROVINCE OF BUKIDON (MAJOR ECONOMIC ACTIVITY/ AGRICULTURE
SECTOR)

The current provincial economy of the province has somewhat remained to be


agriculture based. This can be partly indicated by the investments generated by select sectors
in the economy for the period 2008-2012 (see table 12). Given the trend of investments that
has been pouring into agriculture for the last 5 years where this has been steadily increasing,
one could discern from among other factors that the same sector has continued to dominate
the provincial economy. Although the regional economic structure seems to have already
shifted to the services sector which provides for nearly 42% share (Regional Development
Plan 2013-2016, NEDA-10) of the regional economy (by far, the largest), the agriculture
sector of Bukidnon still tends to dominate the economic structure as manifested by the huge
amount it contributed to the province’s economy. Investments include expansion of banana,
pineapple and carrot production and the acquisition of machineries related to the production
of these products. The services sector on the other hand places second in terms of investment
and have a somewhat fluctuating trend increasing in 2009-2010 and significantly dropping in
2011 but recovering a little in 2012. Investment on this sector is generally related to
acquisition of machineries and equipment for telecommunications, expansion of banking
facilities and construction and renovations of commercial buildings (Bukidnon PDPFP).

DEVELOPMENT GOALS, OBJECTIVES, TARGETS AND


PROGRAMS/PROJECTS/ACTIVITIES

Objectives Strategies Programs/Projects/Acti


vities

Increase productivity of Intensify agricultural Intensive


local agricultural production by way of Information and
products to encourage providing up-to-date education campaign on
surplus that can be technologies to farmers new and proven
utilized for agri-based and/or growers technologies on
processing agricultural production

CITY OF MALAYBALAY
Major Economic Activities
The City is still mainly an agricultural area, and its products include rice, corn,
sugarcane, vegetables, legumes, root crops, high value crops and commercial crops.
Malaybalay has always been strong in the agriculture sector, being able to provide sufficient
food for its constituents and then having plenty left for the market. Having enough land area
and irrigation facilities contribute to increasing productivity of the agriculture sector. The
agriculture sector is given more priority as the City through its SAFDZ and CLUP has
specifically identified NPAAD areas to ensure that prime agricultural lands are not converted
to other uses to secure its food supply not only for the current generation but for the future
as well.
And others still relies on traditional method.
South Asian countries are likely to face severe food crisis by 2050 and the issue of
food security is going to be a critical issue in the years to come. Though the growth of
nonfarm sectors has gained considerable momentum during the past few decades, agriculture
continues to be the life-blood of the economy. In terms of food insecurity and poverty, South
Asia has the distinction of being the worst affected region in the world. Increasing food
production in line with demand and ensuring food security for such a huge population is
undeniably a daunting task. This is going be hard especially if not accompanied by
improvement in other sectors as well , resources, rural empowerment, and creating
more income generation opportunities. This study reveals that South Asia has a lot to
improve in all these sectors. This study thus proposes that South Asian countries must focus
on increasing investments in agricultural R&D and implement efficient institutional reform
in order to contribute more effectively to tackling the emerging challenges in agriculture and
food security both at national and regional level (Figure 2). In the coming years, South Asian
countries will need to foster long-term productivity policies by investing heavily in
agricultural R&D, while introducing institutional reforms to create an environment so as to
facilitate the adoption of new technologies.

ECONOMIC SECTOR ISSUES & CONCERNS


AGRICULTURE SUB-SECTOR
Maximum crop productivity is - Very few farmers, including - Farmers will have no
not attained even in fully those who were already chance for an alleviated
irrigated rice areas trained, adopt the new economic status
technologies introduced to - Farmers will continue with
them through FFS and their traditional ways
technology demonstrations leading to stagnant
- Very few farmers respond to knowledge and continued
calls for trainings& seminars harm done to the
for crop production and are environment
insistent on their old ways of - Excessive and
farming inappropriate use of
- Very few farmers respond to fertilizers which leads to
the soil analysis program soil acidity, reduced soil
- High cost of agricultural fertility and productivity
inputs
- Incidence of pest and
diseases

High dependency of the provincial economy on the agriculture sector


The agriculture sector has been historically vulnerable to the impacts of natural hazards and
climate change. The devastation brought about by TS Sendong and Pablo for instance caused
millions of pesos of damaged related to the sector. Events like these caused the victims to lose a
great deal amount of income, others of their livelihood and employment. This particularly
strained the provincial coffers as farmers had to rely on government funds for rehabilitation.

Saguiguit, however, emphasized that biotechnology will never be a lone solution to the
problems but an essential tool to complement with the existing solutions. Hence, Searca's push
for “coexistence.”

If we could learn things and makethings the way nature does, maybe we could achieve
factor 100 in saving resource of energy. Radical increase in resource efficiency. Ideas in
biology can lead to increase in resource efficiency. There’s a world of beauty and efficiency to
explore using nature as a design tool. Linear to close loop. The waste from one organism
becomes the nutrient for something else in that system. Turning waste to somethig that is of
more value. Example: transform a space dominated by traffic into one that provides open space
for people, reconnects people with food and transforms waste into close loop opportunities.
Sajara forest project. Adaptation to resource constrained environment. ……. what can I add to
the system to create more value. …. studying how nature provides will provide a lot of solutions.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY